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Sample records for pbwo4 electromagnetic calorimeter

  1. Radiation hardness qualification of PbWO4 scintillation crystals for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Group; Adzic, P.; Almeida, N.; Andelin, D.; Anicin, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M. W.; Auffray, E.; Argiro, S.; Askew, A.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Balazs, M.; Bandurin, D.; Barney, D.; Barone, L. M.; Bartoloni, A.; Baty, C.; Beauceron, S.; Bell, K. W.; Bernet, C.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Beuselinck, R.; Biino, C.; Blaha, J.; Bloch, P.; Borisevitch, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bourotte, J.; Brown, R. M.; Buehler, M.; Busson, P.; Camanzi, B.; Camporesi, T.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Cecilia, A.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Charlot, C.; Chen, E. A.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, Z.; Chipaux, R.; Choudhary, B. C.; Choudhury, R. K.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Conetti, S.; Cooper, S.; Cossutti, F.; Cox, B.; Cussans, D. G.; Dafinei, I.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D. R.; Daskalakis, G.; David, A.; Deiters, K.; Dejardin, M.; De Benedetti, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Del Re, D.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Descamps, J.; Diemoz, M.; Di Marco, E.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Djordjevic, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Drndarevic, S.; Drobychev, G.; Dutta, D.; Dzelalija, M.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Evangelou, I.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Franci, D.; Franzoni, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gataullin, M.; Gentit, F. X.; Ghezzi, A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Go, A.; Gobbo, B.; Godinovic, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Grant, N.; Gras, P.; Haguenauer, M.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Haupt, J.; Heath, H. F.; Heltsley, B.; Hintz, W.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P. R.; Honma, A.; Hou, G. W. S.; Hsiung, Y.; Huhtinen, M.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Inyakin, A.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kaadze, K.; Kachanov, V.; Kailas, S.; Kataria, S. K.; Kennedy, B. W.; Kokkas, P.; Kolberg, T.; Korjik, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Krpic, D.; Kubota, Y.; Kuo, C. M.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lethuillier, M.; Lin, S. W.; Lin, W.; Litvine, V.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Luckey, P. D.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, Y.; Malberti, M.; Malclès, J.; Maletic, D.; Manthos, N.; Maravin, Y.; Marchica, C.; Marinelli, N.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Marone, M.; Matveev, V.; Mavrommatis, C.; Meridiani, P.; Milenovic, P.; Miné, P.; Missevitch, O.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moortgat, F.; Musella, P.; Musienko, Y.; Nardulli, A.; Nash, J.; Nedelec, P.; Negri, P.; Newman, H. B.; Nikitenko, A.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Obertino, M. M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganoni, M.; Paganini, P.; Palma, A.; Pant, L.; Papadakis, A.; Papadakis, I.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Pauss, F.; Peigneux, J.-P.; Petrakou, E.; Phillips, D. G., II; Piroué, P.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Pullia, A.; Punz, T.; Puzovic, J.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Razis, P. A.; Redaelli, N.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Ribeiro, P.; Rogan, C.; Ronquest, M.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rumerio, P.; Rusack, R.; Rusakov, S. V.; Ryan, M. J.; Sala, L.; Salerno, R.; Schneegans, M.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Shiu, J. G.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shukla, P.; Siamitros, C.; Sillou, D.; Silva, J.; Silva, P.; Singovsky, A.; Sirois, Y.; Sirunyan, A.; Smith, V. J.; Stöckli, F.; Swain, J.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Takahashi, M.; Tancini, V.; Teller, O.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiebaux, C.; Timciuc, V.; Timlin, C.; Titov, M.; Topkar, A.; Triantis, F. A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Ueno, K.; Uzunian, A.; Varela, J.; Verrecchia, P.; Veverka, J.; Virdee, T.; Wang, M.; Wardrope, D.; Weber, M.; Weng, J.; Williams, J. H.; Yang, Y.; Yaselli, I.; Yohay, R.; Zabi, A.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zhang, J.; Y Zhang, L.; Zhu, K.; Y Zhu, R.

    2010-03-01

    Ensuring the radiation hardness of PbWO4 crystals was one of the main priorities during the construction of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at CERN. The production on an industrial scale of radiation hard crystals and their certification over a period of several years represented a difficult challenge both for CMS and for the crystal suppliers. The present article reviews the related scientific and technological problems encountered.

  2. Beam test evaluation of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made from proton-damaged PbWO4 crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, T.; Adzic, P.; Ahuja, S.; Anderson, D.; Andrews, M. B.; Antropov, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M. W.; Argirò, S.; et al

    2016-04-11

    The performance of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made of proton-irradiated PbWO4 crystals has been studied in beam tests. The modules, similar to those used in the Endcaps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), were formed from 5×5 matrices of PbWO4 crystals, which had previously been exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between 2.1 × 1013 and 1.3 × 1014 cm–2. These correspond to the predicted charged-hadron fluences in the ECAL Endcaps at pseudorapidity η = 2.6 after about 500 fb–1 and 3000 fb–1 respectively, corresponding to the end of the LHC and High Luminosity LHC operation periods. Themore » irradiated crystals have a lower light transmission for wavelengths corresponding to the scintillation light, and a correspondingly reduced light output. A comparison with four crystals irradiated in situ in CMS showed no significant rate dependence of hadron-induced damage. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The latter is interpreted, through comparison with simulation, as a side-effect of the degradation in light transmission. In conclusion, the experimental results obtained can be used to estimate the long term performance of the CMS ECAL.« less

  3. Beam test evaluation of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made from proton-damaged PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Adzic, P.; Ahuja, S.; Anderson, D.; Andrews, M. B.; Antropov, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M. W.; Argirò, S.; Askew, A.; Attikis, A.; Auffray, E.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Bailleux, D.; Baillon, P.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Bartosik, N.; Becheva, E.; Bein, S.; Silva, C. Beirāo Da Cruz E.; Bell, K. W.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Berry, D.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Bialas, W.; Bianchini, L.; Biino, C.; Bitioukov, S.; Bornheim, A.; Brianza, L.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Brown, R. M.; Brummitt, A.; Busson, P.; Candelise, V.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Chang, Y. W.; Chen, K. F.; Chevenier, G.; Chipaux, R.; Clement, E.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Corpe, L.; Couderc, F.; Courbon, B.; Cox, B.; Cucciati, G.; Cussans, D.; D'imperio, G.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D. R.; Dafinei, I.; Daguin, J.; Daskalakis, G.; Tinoco Mendes, A. D.; De Guio, F.; Degano, A.; Dejardin, M.; Del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Dev, N.; Deyrail, D.; Di Marco, E.; Diamond, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Doan, T. H.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Donegà, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dröge, M.; Durkin, T.; Dutta, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Elmalis, E.; Fabbro, B.; Fasanella, G.; Faure, J.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Francis, B.; Frank, N.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gastal, M.; Geerebaert, Y.; Gelli, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Godinovic, N.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Gras, P.; Guilloux, F.; Haller, C.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Heath, H. F.; Hill, J.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P. R.; Holme, O.; Honma, A.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Iiyama, Y.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Jain, S.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, K. Y.; Kellams, N.; Kesisoglou, S.; Khatiwada, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Korzhik, M.; Kovac, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kucher, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Kuo, C.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Latyshev, G.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lei, Y. J.; Lelas, D.; Lethuillier, M.; Li, H.; Lin, W.; Liu, Y. F.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchini, M. T.; Lustermann, W.; Mackay, C. K.; Magniette, F.; Malcles, J.; Malhotra, S.; Mandjavidze, I.; Maravin, Y.; Margaroli, F.; Marinelli, N.; Marini, A. C.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Massironi, A.; Matveev, V.; Mechinsky, V.; Meng, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Milosevic, J.; Mousa, J.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Neu, C.; Newman, H.; Nicolaou, C.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Obertino, M. M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganini, P.; Paganis, E.; Paganoni, M.; Pandolfi, F.; Panov, V.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Paulini, M.; Pauss, F.; Pauwels, K.; Pellegrino, F.; Pena, C.; Perniè, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrakou, E.; Petyt, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Piroué, P.; Planer, M.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Prosper, H.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Quittnat, M.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Ranjan, K.; Rasteiro Da Silva, J.; Razis, P. A.; Romanteau, T.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rusack, R.; Salerno, R.; Santanastasio, F.; Santra, A.; Schönenberger, M.; Seez, C.; Sharma, V.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Shiu, J. G.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Singovsky, A.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sirois, Y.; Smiljkovic, N.; Soffi, L.; Sun, M.; Symonds, P.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tambe, N.; Tarasov, I.; Taroni, S.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiant, F.; Titov, M.; Torbet, M.; Trapani, P. P.; Tropea, P.; Tsai, J. f.; Tsirou, A.; Turkewitz, J.; Tyurin, N.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Uzunian, A.; Valls, N.; Varela, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Verdini, P. G.; Vichoudis, P.; Vlassov, E.; Wang, J.; Wang, T.; Weinberg, M.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Zabi, A.; Zahid, S.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made of proton-irradiated PbWO4 crystals has been studied in beam tests. The modules, similar to those used in the Endcaps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), were formed from 5×5 matrices of PbWO4 crystals, which had previously been exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between 2.1× 1013 and 1.3× 1014 cm-2. These correspond to the predicted charged-hadron fluences in the ECAL Endcaps at pseudorapidity η = 2.6 after about 500 fb-1 and 3000 fb-1 respectively, corresponding to the end of the LHC and High Luminosity LHC operation periods. The irradiated crystals have a lower light transmission for wavelengths corresponding to the scintillation light, and a correspondingly reduced light output. A comparison with four crystals irradiated in situ in CMS showed no significant rate dependence of hadron-induced damage. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The latter is interpreted, through comparison with simulation, as a side-effect of the degradation in light transmission. The experimental results obtained can be used to estimate the long term performance of the CMS ECAL.

  4. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  5. CMS electromagnetic calorimeter readout

    SciTech Connect

    Denes, P.; Wixted, R.

    1997-12-31

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter will consist of 109,008 crystals of Lead Tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}) arranged in a barrel (92880 crystals) and 2 endcaps (8064 crystals each). The crystals will be 25 radiation lengths long and cut in tapered shapes to make a hermetic calorimeter. The scintillation light from the crystals is captured by a photodetector, amplified and digitized. The properties of PbWO4, which is a new crystal still very much under development.

  6. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the future PANDA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Rainer

    2006-10-27

    Experiments with a cooled antiproton beam at the future accelerator facility FAIR at GSI, Darmstadt, will be performed with the 4{pi} detector PANDA comprising a high resolution, compact and fast homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter to detect photons between 10MeV and 10GeV energy inside a superconducting solenoid (2T). The target calorimeter comprises more than 20,000 PbWO4 crystals of significantly enhanced quality read-out with large area avalanche photodiodes at an operating temperature of -25 degree sign C. The paper describes the quality of PWO-II and illustrates the future performance based on response measurements with high-energy photons.

  7. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M.

    2008-06-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider has placed great emphasis on precise calorimetry. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) contains 75000 scintillating lead tungstate crystals that are read out using sophisticated electronics; this paper describes these technologies and how they were implemented in the calorimeter. The results of pre-calibration measurements for the detector modules are detailed. Installation of the ECAL into the underground cavern has commenced and the commissioning process and its status are discussed. The experiment is scheduled to start in 2008 and prospects for the first year of operation and running are given.

  8. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry C; ALICE, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ALICE is the general purpose experiment at the LHC dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a late addition to the ALICE suite of detectors with first modules installed in ALICE this year. The EMCal is designed to trigger on high energy gamma-rays and jets, and to enhance the capabilities of ALICE for these measurements. The EMCal is a Pb/scintillator sampling shish-kebab type calorimeter. The EMCal construction, readout, and performance in beam tests at the CERN SPS and PS are described.

  9. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry C; ALICE, Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is the general purpose experiment at the LHC dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a late addition to the ALICE suite of detectors with first modules installed in ALICE this year. The EMCal is designed to trigger on high energy gamma-rays and jets, and to enhance the capabilities of ALICE for these measurements. The EMCal is a Pb/scintillator sampling shish-kebab type calorimeter. The EMCal construction, readout, and performance in beam tests at the CERN SPS and PS are described.

  10. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gadrat, S.

    2010-06-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the only LHC experiment at CERN fully dedicated to the study of the quark and gluon plasma. Driven by the RHIC results on jet quenching, the ALICE collaboration has proposed to extend the capabilities of the ALICE detector for the study of high momentum photons and jets by adding a large acceptance calorimeter. This EMCal (ElectroMagnetic Calorimeter) is designed to provide an unbiased fast high-p{sub T} trigger and to measure the neutral energy of jets and photons up to 200 GeV. Four over ten supermodules of the calorimeter have been installed and commissioned at CERN in 2009 which represents 40% of the full acceptance.

  11. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  12. The PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kistenev, E.; White, S.; Belikov, S.; Kochetkov, V.

    1993-12-31

    The main features of the Phenix EM calorimeter are presented. This a Pb/scintillator calorimeter with ``shish-kebab`` fiber readout, designed for low energy electron and photon measurements. Prototype calorimeters have been built with longitudinal segmentation, {approximately} 100 psec time of flight resolution and 8% energy resolution at 1GeV/c. The laser based monitoring system which has been incorporated into large scale prototypes is described. The dependence of light yield on fiber choice and scintillator surface preparation has been studied.

  13. The VENUS barrel electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Hayashi, K.; Iwai, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Teramoto, Y.; Uehara, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Kusomoto, H.; Yoshida, H.

    1986-02-01

    The VENUS barrel electromagnetic calorimeter for the TRISTAN electron-positron colliding experiment now under construction is described. It is composed of 5160 lead glass counters pointing to interaction point. It covers polar angles of 37°-143° and whole azimuthal angles. The energy resolution of this calorimeter is measured to be typically σ/E = 0.7% + 5.2%/√E.

  14. The Forward Endcap of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the PANDA Detector at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Malte; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The versatile 4π-detector PANDA will be built at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), an accelerator complex, currently under construction near Darmstadt, Germany. A cooled antiproton beam in a momentum range of 1.5 - 15GeV/c will be provided by the High Energy Storage Ring (HESR). All measurements at PANDA rely on an excellent performance of the detector with respect to tracking, particle identification and energy measurement. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) of the PANDA detector will be equipped with 15744 PbWO4 crystals (PWO-II), which will be operated at a temperature of - 25° C in order to increase the light output. The design of the forward endcap of the EMC has been finalized. The crystals will be read out with Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs) in the outer regions and with Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTTs) in the innermost part. Production of photosensor units utilizing charge integrating preamplifiers has begun. A prototype comprised of 216 PbWO4 crystals has been built and tested at various accelerators (CERN SPS, ELSA/Bonn, MAMI/Mainz), where the crystals have been exposed to electron and photon beams of 25MeV up to 15GeV. The results of these test measurements regarding the energy and position resolution are presented.

  15. Testing and Calibration of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhart, Mathieu; HPS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment at Jefferson Laboratory will search for hypothetical massive vector boson, called ``heavy photon.'' The experiment is expected to run in Hall B in the fall of 2014. In this first phase of the measurements, it will search for a heavy photon in the mass range of 20 to 200 MeV/c2. In this mass range the heavy photon will decay into e+e- pair. An electromagnetic calorimeter (Ecal) will be used to identify electrons and for triggering the readout. The Ecal is made of 442 lead-tungstate (PbWO4) crystals with avalanche photodiode (APD) readout. I will present results from the calibration of cosmic ray testing.

  16. Heavy Photon Search Commissioning Run and Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumila-Vance, Holly; Heavy Photon Search Collaboration Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment at Jefferson Lab will search for a possible new heavy vector boson that couples weakly to electric charge and can decay to e+e- pairs. HPS utilizes an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal) for fast triggering and complementary energy information in the reconstruction of the e+e- invariant mass. The ECal is composed of 442 PbWO4 crystals readout through large area avalanche photo-diodes and digitized using flash ADCs. The initial testing and calibration of the ECal began in the fall of 2014 using a light monitoring system, cosmic muons, and 2 GeV beam electrons. Proper performance of the ECal is crucial for optimizing the trigger selection for potential Heavy Photon events and eliminating background from accidentals. This talk covers the design, calibration, and performance of the HPS ECal during the commissioning run.

  17. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  18. Thermal effects on the STAR electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fornek, T.; Guarino, V.; Spinka, H.; Underwood, D.

    1994-07-19

    The STAR detector for the RHIC colliding beam accelerator is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This detector will consist of a number of subsystems. These include a silicon vertex detector (SVT) for charged particle tracks near the interaction region, a time projection chamber (TPC) for charged particle tracking, an array of plastic scintillation counters (CTB) in a layer around the TPC for triggering on charged particles, a conventional solenoidal magnet, and some additional small triggering detectors along the beam-line. An electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) is an upgrade to the ``baseline`` detector configuration above. The conventional magnet and numerous electronic channels for the SVT and TPC subsystems will generate a considerable amount of heat during the operation of STAR. However, it is possible that a chiller for the magnet cooling water will not be available during some of the early STAR runs. As a result, the average magnet temperature may vary considerably between winter and summer. This note summarizes calculations and measurements performed to evaluate the effects of an elevated magnet temperature on the performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter.

  19. The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M.

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider has placed great emphasis on precise calorimetry for electrons and photons. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) contains about 75 000 scintillating lead tungstate crystals that are read out using sophisticated electronics. This paper will describe the ECAL and the experimental factors that influenced the choice of the technologies used in the detector design. The barrel ECAL has been installed into the experiment and installation of the endcaps will commence in early 2008. The pre-calibration and commissioning of these detectors will be described and the current status of the ECAL reviewed. The prospects for the initial operation period in 2008, when beams are first collided in the LHC, will be discussed.

  20. Poly(methacrylic acid)-mediated morphosynthesis of PbWO4 micro-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. G.; Zhao, X. F.; Liu, S. W.; Li, M.; Mann, S.; Ng, D. H. L.

    2007-04-01

    PbWO4 crystals with various morphologies were fabricated via a facile poly(methacrylic acid)-mediated hydrothermal route. Novel microsized PbWO4 single crystals with a needle-like shape as well as other morphologies, such as a fishbone, dendrite, sphere, spindle, ellipsoid, rod, and dumbbell with two dandelion-like heads, could be produced. The presence of PMAA, [Pb2+]/[WO4 2-] molar ratio (R), and aging temperature played key roles in the formation of the PbWO4 needle-like structures. Between temperatures of 60 to 150 °C, the length and photoluminescence intensities of the PbWO4 micro needles significantly increased with aging temperature, while the diameter did not change remarkably. Time-dependent experiments revealed that the formation of PbWO4 microneedles involved an unusual growth process, involving nucleation, oriented assembly and controlled mesoscale restructuring of nanoparticle building blocks.

  1. A fine grained electromagnetic lead-liquid scintillator calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachman, L.; Bonesini, M.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Fischer, J.; Fluri, L.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Mandelli, L.; Martin, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mermod, R.; Pensotti-Rancoita, S.; Perrin, D.; Rosselet, L.; Rutschmann, J.; Tamborini, M.; Vuilleumier, J. M.; Werlen, M.

    1983-02-01

    A new technique using liquid scintillator contained in teflon tubes to build a low cost high spatial resolution electromagnetic sampling calorimeter is described. Test results and comparison with a Monte Carlo simulation are presented.

  2. Characterization of PbWO4 crystals for high-energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. J.; Park, H.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy physics (HEP) experiments have employed many new types of scintillators. Specifically, bismuth germanate, thallium-doped cesium iodide, and lead tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) have been used for the L3 experiment; CLEO II, Belle and BES-III; and CMS, respectively. PWO has particularly beneficial properties, such as high density, fast decay time, short radiation length and radiation hardness. In this study, we tested the PWO crystals at low temperatures to determine their applicability in future calorimeters. Various crystals from the Proton Antiproton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment in Giessen, the Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant (BTCP) in Russia and by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS) in China were investigated. We studied the scintillation properties of PWO crystals, such as their X-ray luminescence, relative light yields, absolute light yields, energy resolutions, decay times and longitudinal uniformities of their light yields. In addition, we measured the temperature dependences of the light yields and decay times by using a 137Cs γ-ray source. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals consisted of a broad band from 350 nm to 700 nm, and the peak emission wavelength in each spectrum was 420 nm. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals from SICCAS were slightly shifted to longer wavelengths compared with those of the crystals from the other institutions.

  3. The aleph pictorial electromagnetic calorimeter - A high granularity gaseous calorimeter operated in a high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videau, Henri

    1984-09-01

    We outline briefly the general structure of the Aleph detector, to place in context conceptually and physically the electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter is then described, emphasizing the read-out mechanical and electronic structure, which allows adequate granularity; three layers of towers 3×3 cm 2, approximately 210 000 pieces of analog information. We discuss the basic properties of such apparatus with the results of tests performed on a prototype. We emphasize the peculiarities of operating such a wire gas calorimeter in a strong magnetic field parallel to the wires.

  4. A 1152 channel timing system for an electromagnetic calorimeter readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.; Bonvin, E.; Booth, P. S. L.; Carroll, L. J.; Cass, A. J.; Cavalli, D.; Cecchet, G.; Costa, G.; Donnat, M.; Dorsaz, P. A.; Edwards, D. N.; Fischer, J. R.; Fluri, L.; Frame, D.; Gianotti, F.; Jack, S.; Jackson, J. N.; Kelly, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Lucock, R.; Lynch, J. G.; Mandelli, L.; Martin, M.; Mathys, L.; Maxwell, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Myerscough, J. J.; Negus, P. J.; Pensotti-Rancoita, S.; Perini, L.; Perrin, D.; Range, W. H.; Rosselet, L.; Rutschmann, J.; Snow, S. W.; Tamborini, M.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Wells, J.; Werlen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A 1152 channel timing system used with a large electromagnetic calorimeter is described. Analysis of the timing information from the vertical and horizontal elements of the calorimeter yielded values for the position coordinates of the showers. This information was used to resolve ambiguities in the pattern recognition arising from multiple showers. A resolution of better than 0.25 ns for all channels was achieved. The calibration methods employed to maintain this resolution over several years are discussed.

  5. Performance and operation of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    The operation and general performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter using cosmic-ray muons are described. These muons were recorded after the closure of the CMS detector in late 2008. The calorimeter is made of lead tungstate crystals and the overall status of the 75 848 channels corresponding to the barrel and endcap detectors is reported. The stability of crucial operational parameters, such as high voltage, temperature and electronic noise, is summarised and the performance of the light monitoring system is presented.

  6. The BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Status and Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Johannes M.; /SLAC

    2006-01-20

    The electromagnetic calorimeter at the BABAR detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with high resolution. The current status of the calorimeter, now in its seventh year of operation, is being presented, as well as details on improvements made to the analysis code during the last years.

  7. Current Status and Performance of the BESIII Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbauer, Florian; BESIII Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The BESIII experiment is located at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) in China. Its electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) consists of 6240 CsI(TI) crystals, each read out by two Photodiodes (PD) at the end of the crystal. Changes in the response of the calorimeter due to radiation damage in the crystals or changes in the photo detector output are monitored with a light pulser system.

  8. Temperature Dependence of the Luminescence Decay Time of a PbWO4 Scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao-shu; Deng, Jie; Han, Zheng-fu; Xie, Zhi-jian; Liao, Jing-ying; G, Zimmerer; J, Beker; M, Kamada; M, Runne; A, Schröder

    1998-06-01

    Experimental results are given for the temperature dependence of the decay time of the emission at 430 nm from PbWO4 crystal under vacuum-ultraviolet (82 nm) photon excitation in the temperature range of 80-300 K. The structures in the curve are interpreted for the first time by studying the thermoluminescence of PbWO4, which originates from the traps in the crystal.

  9. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  10. Some studies of data using the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2009-02-24

    A series of studies was performed using data from the STAR detector at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's RHIC accelerator from collisions of protons at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Many of these involved the shower maximum detector (SMD) of the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter (EEMC). Detailed studies of photon candidates from {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay, and of {gamma} + Jet inclusive data and simulated events were performed.

  11. A Study on Thermal Design of the BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengyi; Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chang, Jin

    The BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BGO ECAL) is one of the most important payload of the Chinese DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which can precisely measure the incident energy of cosmic ray. However, thermal control of the BGO ECAL plays a key role on its running in the space. In this paper, the thermal design of the BGO ECAL and the thermal FEM modal created by hyper-mesh & NASTRAN FEM software will be introduced. Then the temperature distribution of the BGO calorimeter with the given on orbit conditions is performed. In the end, we depicts the thermal test which has been carried out in February. By the comparisons between the experiment results and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective.

  12. Determination of the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Lebanowski, Logan; Lin, Guey-Lin; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-08-01

    A physically motivated function was developed to accurately determine the total absorption peak in an electromagnetic calorimeter and to overcome biases present in many commonly used methods. The function is the convolution of a detector resolution function with the sum of a delta function, which represents the complete absorption of energy, and a tail function, which describes the partial absorption of energy and depends on the detector materials and structures. Its performance was tested with the simulation of three typical cases. The accuracy of the extracted peak value, resolution, and peak area was improved by an order of magnitude on average, relative to the Crystal Ball function.

  13. Light nuclear charge measurement with Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basara, Laurent; Choutko, Vitaly; Li, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high energy particle detector installed and operating on board of the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011. So far more than 70 billion cosmic ray events have been recorded by AMS. In the present paper the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) detector of AMS is used to measure cosmic ray nuclear charge magnitudes up to Z=10. The obtained charge magnitude resolution is about 0.1 and 0.3 charge unit for Helium and Carbon, respectively. These measurements are important for an accurate determination of the interaction probabilities of various nuclei with the AMS materials. The ECAL charge calibration and measurement procedures are presented.

  14. The BABAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter in its Third Year of Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Eschrich, Ivo G.

    2003-09-18

    The BABAR experiment at the SLAC B-Factory has recorded more than 80 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity since 1999. Its electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI(Tl) crystals has to detect both photons below 20 MeV as well as electrons in the 0.5-9 GeV range with a few percent resolution. Status and performance of the readout electronics including reliability issues and operational experience after the first three years of operation are presented.

  15. The Babar Electromagnetic Calorimeter in its Third Year of Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough

    2002-01-01

    The BABAR experiment at the SLAC B-Factory has recorded more than 80 fb-1 of integrated luminosity since 1999. Its electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI(Tl) crystals has to detect both photons below 20 MeV as well as electrons in the 0.5-9 GeV range with a few percent resolution. Status and performance of the readout electronics including reliability issues and operational experience after the first three years of operation are presented.

  16. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC. A Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.; Bielick, E.; Dawson, J.W.; The STAR EMC Collaboration

    1993-09-22

    This report discusses the following on the electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC: conceptual design; the physics of electromagnetic calorimetry in STAR; trigger capability; integration into STAR; and cost, schedule, manpower, and funding.

  17. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.

  18. Doping PbWO 4 with different ions to increase the light yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Nikl, M.

    2002-06-01

    To search for a possibility to utilize PbWO 4-based scintillators in inexpensive positron emission computed tomography, we have studied the effects of doping PbWO 4 with different ions on the light yield (LY). The LY in PbWO 4, which is undoped except a small concentration of rare-earth 3+ ions to improve the radiation hardness, decay time, mechanical quality, etc., is 25-35 photoelectrons/MeV (pe/MeV) (about 3-4% of LY in BGO) with bialkali photomultiplier for a fixed condition of the crsytal size of 10×10×(20-30) mm 3 and the gate width of 1 μs. For doping with single dopant, the maximum LY obtained was about 49 pe/MeV for Mo 6+. For co-doping with two dopants, the maximum LY of 58 pe/MeV was obtained for Mo 6++Nb 5+. For co-doping with three dopants, we have recently obtained 77 pe/MeV for Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+,3+. The dependence of LY on the gate width indicates creation of medium-speed component in μs range in the samples doped with Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+,3+ or Mo 6++Nb 5+. Their radioluminescence spectra are similar in shape to PWO:Mo 6+.

  19. Photosensor test station for the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzullo, G.; Mu2e Calorimeter Group

    2015-03-01

    The Mu2e experiment searches for coherent, neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus. The Mu2e measurement will have a sensitivity of fews parts in 10^{-17} , with an improvement of a factor of 10^3{-}10^4 with respect to the existing limits. The Mu2e apparatus takes advantage of the high intensity muon beam which hits muon stopping targets, and uses a detector composed of a low-mass straw tubes tracker and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The calorimeter is made of 1860 hexagonal crystals read out by two large area photosensors, for a total of 3720 channels. Two options of photosensors are currently under study: large-area Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) and Silicon Photo Multipliers (SiPMs). A photosensor test station has been developed in Pisa, in collaboration with the LNF Mu2e group, in order to validate the photosensors performance. In particular the following characteristics are carefully studied: gain vs. bias voltage, gain vs. temperature, gain vs. light source position and dark current characterization.

  20. GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and

  1. Investigation of the avalanche photodiodes for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter operated at high gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deiters, K.; Diemoz, M.; Godinovic, N.; Ingram, Q.; Longo, E.; Montecchi, M.; Musienko, Y.; Nicol, S.; Patel, B.; Renker, D.; Reucroft, S.; Rusack, R.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Singovski, A.; Soric, I.; Swain, J.; Vikas, P.

    2001-04-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) with improved characteristics were developed by Hamamatsu Photonics for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment. This report presents measurements of the latest generation of APDs, which are capable to operate at high gains (˜2000).

  2. Properties of Dy 3+-doped PbWO 4 single crystal grown by modified Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanlin; Zhu, Wenliang; Feng, Xiqi; Duan, Yong; Man, Zhenyong

    2003-01-01

    Undoped and Dy 3+-doped PbWO 4 single crystals were grown in the same condition by modified Bridgman method. Optical transmittance, X-ray excited luminescence, excitation and emission under UV light, thermoluminescence glow curves and X-ray pulsed excited decays were investigated on Dy 3+:PWO for the first time. Dy 3+-doping has a positive effect similar to that of rare-earth ions La 3+ and Gd 3+, such as improvement of transmittance in the wavelength region of scintillation emission (350-450 nm), compensation of trapping centers that is reflected in the thermoluminescence characteristics and suppression of slow decay component in luminescence kinetics. Analysis of luminescence spectra indicates that energy transfer could take place from the PbWO 4 host to the Dy 3+ ions, followed by characteristic emission line assigned to transition from 4F 9/2 of Dy 3+ ion to lower lying states on basis of the energy level scheme. A tentative concept of energy transfer mechanism is proposed in this paper.

  3. Commissioning of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and operational experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumerio, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    The barrel part of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 61,200 lead-tungstate crystals optically coupled to twice as many avalanche photodiodes. The on-detector read-out electronics comprises about 20,000 printed circuit boards and 5000 optical links. The integration and commissioning phase of the 36 supermodules, 1700 crystals each, is flowing steadily at CERN in compliance with the experiment installation schedule. Given the high complexity of the apparatus, each integration step is validated by specific quality controls. It follows a week of pedestal, test-pulse and laser light monitoring runs, and 10 days of cosmic ray calibration. An automatic analysis of the data provides immediate feedback for possible intervention and verifies the stability and performance of the detector. In addition, a subset of supermodules is undergoing an electron beam calibration while two supermodules are being operated, within a segment of the CMS detector, in a CMS-like environment during the magnet test. The strategy and procedure aimed to ensure a zero-fault tolerance in the commissioning of such a highly sophisticated and performing apparatus will be described, along with the operational experience accumulated so far.

  4. SiPM based readout system for PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonfanti, S.; Bonvicini, V.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) consist of a matrix of small passively quenched silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in limited Geiger-mode (GM-APDs) and read out in parallel from a common output node. Each pixel (with a typical size in the 20-100 μm range) gives the same current response when hit by a photon; the SiPM output signal is the sum of the signals of all the pixels, which depends on the light intensity. The main advantages of SiPMs with respect to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are essentially the small dimensions, the insensitivity to magnetic fields and a low bias voltage. This contribution presents the performance of a SiPM based readout system for crystal calorimeters developed in the framework of the FACTOR/TWICE collaboration. The SiPM used for the test is a new device produced by FBK-irst which consists in a matrix of four sensors embedded in the same silicon substrate, called QUAD. The SiPM has been coupled to a lead tungstate crystal, an early-prototype version of the crystals developed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment. New tests are foreseen using a complete module consisting of nine crystals, each one readout by two QUADs.

  5. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; et al

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to matchmore » these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.« less

  6. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, Stefano; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  7. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 ×10-17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  8. A study on dual readout crystal calorimeter for hadron and jet energy measurement at a future lepton collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Studies of requirements and specifications of crystals are necessary to develop a new generation of crystals for dual readout crystal hadron or total absorption calorimeter. This is a short and basic study of the characteristics and hadron energy measurement of PbWO4 and BGO crystals for scintillation and Cerenkov Dual Readout hadron calorimeter.

  9. Characterization of an Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the Proposed International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, Merideth; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC

    2006-09-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is part of a new generation of accelerators enabling physicists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental components of the universe. The proposed ILC will accelerate positrons and electrons towards each other with two facing linear colliders, each twenty kilometers long. Designing and planning for the future accelerator has been undertaken as a global collaboration, with groups working on several possible detectors to be used at the ILC. The following research at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) pertained to the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter. The energy and spatial resolution of the calorimeter was tested by using computer simulations for proposed detectors. In order to optimize this accuracy, different designs of the electromagnetic calorimeter were investigated along with various methods to analyze the data from the simulated detector. A low-cost calorimeter design was found to provide energy resolution comparable to more expensive designs, and new clustering algorithms offered better spatial resolution. Energy distribution and shape characteristics of electromagnetic showers were also identified to differentiate various showers in the calorimeter. With further research, a well-designed detector will enable the ILC to observe new realms of physics.

  10. The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Vardan Tadevosyan, Hamlet Mkrtchyan, Arshak Asaturyan, Arthur Mkrtchyan, Simon Zhamkochyan

    2012-12-01

    The design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeters in the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers, construction information and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are presented. The design and simulated performance for a new calorimeter to be used in the new SHMS spectrometer is also presented. We have developed and constructed electromagnetic calorimeters from TF-1 type lead-glass blocks for the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers at JLab Hall C. The HMS/SOS calorimeters are of identical design and construction except for their total size. Blocks of dimension 10 cm × 10 cm × 70 cm are arranged in four planes and stacked 13 and 11 blocks high in the HMS and SOS respectively. The energy resolution of these calorimeters is better than 6%/√E, and pion/electron (π/e) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1–5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and GEANT4 simulated energy resolutions. The HMS/SOS calorimeters have been used nearly in all Hall C experiments, providing good energy resolution and a high pion suppression factor. No significant deterioration in their performance has been observed in the course of use since 1994. For the SHMS spectrometer, presently under construction, details on the calorimeter design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. A Preshower+Shower design was selected as the most cost-effective among several design choices. The preshower will consist of a layer of 28 modules with TF-1 type lead glass radiators, stacked in two columns. The shower part will consist of 224 modules with F-101 type lead glass radiators, stacked in a “fly's eye” configuration of 14 columns and 16 rows. The active area of 120 × 130 cm(2) will encompass the beam envelope at the calorimeter. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is simulated over the full momentum range of the SHMS, predicting

  11. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the solenoidal tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, G.D.; Llope, W.J.; Underwood, D.G.

    1993-10-01

    In this document, we outline a proposal to the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction of an electromagnetic calorimeter for STAR that fulfills these requirements. This proposal creates the opportunity for the NSF to make a major impact on the experimental program at RHIC by providing a crucial, but defensibly omitted, component of the STAR experiment as approved.

  12. A lead-liquid scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter for direct photon physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, M.; Bonvin, E.; Booth, P. S. L.; Bortoletto, D.; Carroll, L. J.; Cass, A. J.; Cavalli, D.; Cecchet, G.; Costa, G.; Donnat, M.; Dorsaz, P. A.; Edwards, D. N.; Fischer, J. R.; Fluri, L.; Frame, D.; Gianotti, F.; Jack, S.; Jackson, J. N.; Kelly, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Lucock, R.; Lynch, J. G.; Mandelli, L.; Martin, M.; Mathys, L.; Maxwell, A.; Mazzanti, M.; Myerscough, J. J.; Negus, P. J.; Pensotti-Rancoita, S.; Perini, L.; Perrin, D.; Perrin, E.; Range, W. H.; Rosselet, L.; Rutschmann, J.; Snow, S. W.; Tamborini, M.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Wells, J.; Werlen, M.

    1987-11-01

    A fine-grained sampling electromagnetic calorimeter using liquid scintillator contained in teflon tubes, its associated electronics and reconstruction programs, as used in an experiment on direct photons at CERN, are described. The performance of the system based on three years of operation is discussed.

  13. The hole trappers related to lead vacancy in PbWO 4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingyu, Liu; Qiren, Zhang; Songlin, Zhuang

    2004-10-01

    Several lattice structures around a lead vacancy V Pb2- in PbWO 4 (PWO) are optimized using a plane-wave pseudo-potential formulation within the framework of density function theory, with generalized gradient correction in the form of Perdew-Wang-91. The electronic structures around V Pb2- in the PWO crystal are studied using the molecular-cluster model within the framework of the fully relativistic self-consistent Dirac-Slater theory by using a numerically discrete variational (DV-Xα) method. By analyzing the lattice relaxation and electronic structures around V Pb2- we can reasonably believe that once V Pb2- is formed in PWO crystal, O 2- turns to be prior to trap holes to compensate the electrical negativity of V Pb2- Pb 2+ may never be the hole-trap compensating V Pb2- and Pb 3+ and Pb 4+ in PWO crystal may not actually exist. The possible defect micro-model caused by V Pb2- in the as-grown PWO crystal is that each V Pb2- creates a V K+-V F- aggregate color center.

  14. An electromagnetic calorimeter for the JLab real compton scattering experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D J; Wojtsekhowski, B; Annand, J.R. M.; Chang, T -H; Chudakov, E; Danagoulian, A; Degtyarenko, P; Egiyan, K; Gilman, R; Gorbenko, V; Hines, J; Hovhannisyan, E; Hyde-Wright, C E; de Jager, C W; Ketikyan, A; Mamyan, V H; Michaels, R; Natham, A M; Nelyubin, V; Rachek, I; Roedelbrom, M; Petrosyan, A; Pomatsalyuk, R; Popov, V; Segal, J; Shestakov, Y; Templon, J; Voskanyan, H

    2011-07-01

    A lead–glass hodoscope calorimeter that was constructed for use in the Jefferson Lab Real Compton Scattering experiment is described. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6%/View the MathML source. Features of both the detector design and its performance in the high luminosity environment during the experiment are presented.

  15. Electromagnetic Calorimeter studies for the GEp(5) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayerbe Gayoso, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    The GEp(5) experiment, part of the SBS collaboration, will be the fourth measurement of the GEp /GMp ratio using the proton recoil polarization technique. The current data suggests that the GEp /GMp ratio obtained with this technique, might cross zero near Q2 ~ 10 GeV2 , now reachable with the CEBAF upgrade to 12 GeV energy beam. This measurement technique requires a precise measurement of the energy and angles of the scattered electron in coincidence with the recoil proton. The electron's measured energy and crude position will be used in the trigger, while the offline position measurement will be used in kinematic cuts to separate the elastic process from the background. A lead-glass calorimeter, which was used in the previous experiments, is not optimal for the planned experiment due to the rapid radiation damage in the experiment's running conditions. A sampling calorimeter, made of lead and plastic scintillators, is under consideration. Results from a test beam and Monte Carlo simulations of this kind of calorimeter will be presented. Supported from a NSF grant, PHY-1066374.

  16. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: Applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C.; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H.; Dhananjaya, N.

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB > RhB > MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  17. Facile synthesis of PbWO4: applications in photoluminescence and photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under visible light.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Rohit; Shivakumara, C; Behera, Sukanti; Nagabhushana, H; Dhananjaya, N

    2015-02-01

    Stolzite polymorph of PbWO4 catalyst was prepared by the facile room temperature precipitation method. Structural parameters were refined by the Rietveld analysis using powder X-ray data. PbWO4 was crystallized in the scheelite-type tetragonal structure with space group I41/a (No. 88). Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed leaf like morphology. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit broad blue emission (425 nm) under the excitation of 356 nm. The photocatalytic degradation of Methylene blue, Rhodamine B and Methyl orange dyes were measured under visible illumination. The 100% dye degradation was observed for MB and RhB dyes within 60 and 105 min. The rate constant was found to be in the decreasing order of MB>RhB>MO which followed the 1st order kinetic mechanism. Therefore, PbWO4 can be a potential candidate for blue component in white LEDs and also acts as a catalyst for the treatment of toxic and non-biodegradable organic pollutants in water.

  18. The calibration and monitoring system for the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; Kistenev, E.; Stoll, S.

    1997-11-01

    A system for calibrating the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter modules with cosmic rays and monitoring the stability during operation is described. The system is based on a UV laser which delivers light to each module through a network of optical fibers and splutters and is monitored at various points with silicon and vacuum photodiodes. Results are given from a prototype system which used a nitrogen laser to set the initial phototube gains and to establish the energy calibration of calorimeter modules and monitor their stability. A description of the final system to be used in PHENIX based on a high power YAG laser, is also given.

  19. The calibration and monitoring system for the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; Kistenev, E.; Stoll, S.; White, S.; Woody, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Chernichenkov, S.; Denisov, A.; Gilitzky, Y.; Kochetkov, V.; Melnikov, Y.; Onuchin, V.; Semenov, A.; Shelikhov, V.; Soldatov, A.

    1998-11-09

    A system for calibrating the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter modules with cosmic rays and monitoring the stability during operation is described. The system is based on a UV laser which delivers light to each module through a network of optical fibers and splitters and is monitored at various points with silicon and vacuum photodiodes. Results are given from a prototype system which used a nitrogen laser to set the initial phototube gains and to establish the energy calibration of calorimeter modules and monitor their stability. A description of the final system to be used in PHENIX, based on a high power YAG laser, is also given.

  20. New electronics of the spectrometric channel for the SND detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, M. N.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Surin, I. K.; Tekut`ev, A. I.; Usov, Yu. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Spherical Neutral Detector (SND) is intended for study of electron-positron annihilation at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider (BINP, Novosibirsk) in the center-of-mass energy region below 2 GeV. The main part of the detector is a three-layer electromagnetic calorimeter based on NaI(Tl) crystals. The physics program of the SND experiment includes a high statistics study of neutron-antineutron production near threshold, for which time measurements in the calorimeter are required. In this paper we describe new shaping and digitizing calorimeter electronics, which allow to reach a time resolution of about 1 ns for 100 MeV signal and an amplitude resolution of about 250 keV.

  1. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeters for the magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Carlini, Roger D.; Tadevosyan, Vardan H.; Arrington, John Robert; Asaturyan, Arshak Razmik; Christy, Michael Eric; Dutta, Dipangkar; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard C.; Gaskell, David J.; Horn, Tanja; Jones, Mark K.; Keppel, Cynthia; Mack, David J.; Malace, Simona P.; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Seely, Charles Jason; Tvaskis, Vladas; Wood, Stephen A.; Zhamkochyan, Simon

    2013-08-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeters of the various magnetic spectrometers in Hall C at Jefferson Lab are presented. For the existing HMS and SOS spectrometers design considerations, relevant construction information, and comparisons of simulated and experimental results are included. The energy resolution of the HMS and SOS calorimeters is better than $\\sigma/E \\sim 6%/\\sqrt E $, and pion/electron ($\\pi/e$) separation of about 100:1 has been achieved in energy range 1 -- 5 GeV. Good agreement has been observed between the experimental and simulated energy resolutions, but simulations systematically exceed experimentally determined $\\pi^-$ suppression factors by close to a factor of two. For the SHMS spectrometer presently under construction details on the design and accompanying GEANT4 simulation efforts are given. The anticipated performance of the new calorimeter is predicted over the full momentum range of the SHMS. Good electron/hadron separation is anticipated by combining the energy deposited in an initial (preshower) calorimeter layer with the total energy deposited in the calorimeter.

  2. Calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter via reconstructing the neutral-pion invariant mass

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, I. M. Golubkov, D. Yu. Egorychev, V. Yu. Polikarpov, S. M. Savrina, D. V.

    2015-12-15

    The calibration of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter is a multistep procedure aimed at reconstructing photon and electron energies to a precision not poorer than 2%. A method based on measuring the neutral-pion invariantmass is applied at the last step of this procedure. A regular application of this method makes it possible to improve substantially the resolution for particles that decay through channels featuring electrons and photons in the final state.

  3. Fast Simulation of Electromagnetic Showers in the ATLAS Calorimeter: Frozen Showers

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, E.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    One of the most time consuming process simulating pp interactions in the ATLAS detector at LHC is the simulation of electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter. In order to speed up the event simulation several parametrisation methods are available in ATLAS. In this paper we present a short description of a frozen shower technique, together with some recent benchmarks and comparison with full simulation. An expected high rate of proton-proton collisions in ATLAS detector at LHC requires large samples of simulated events (Monte Carlo) to study various physics processes. A detailed simulation of particle reactions ('full simulation') in the ATLAS detector is based on GEANT4 and is very accurate. However, due to complexity of the detector, high particle multiplicity and GEANT4 itself, the average CPU time spend to simulate typical QCD event in pp collision is 20 or more minutes for modern computers. During detector simulation the largest time is spend in the calorimeters (up to 70%) most of which is required for electromagnetic particles in the electromagnetic (EM) part of the calorimeters. This is the motivation for fast simulation approaches which reduce the simulation time without affecting the accuracy. Several of fast simulation methods available within the ATLAS simulation framework (standard Athena based simulation program) are discussed here with the focus on the novel frozen shower library (FS) technique. The results obtained with FS are presented here as well.

  4. LED Monitoring System of the Phenix Muon Piston Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motschwiller, Steven

    2010-11-01

    The Muon Piston Calorimeter in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC has a monitoring system consisting of LEDs and PIN diodes to calibrate out the time dependent changes to the detector. The LEDs track the temperature and radiation-damage changes to the response of the MPC, while the absolute calibration can be done using 0̂ decays. To execute this, LEDs flash light through the PbWO4 crystal to the Avalanche Photo Diodes The MPC is made up of 416 independent electromagnetic calorimeter towers. By using the LEDs we can correct for changes in the gains of each tower in the MPC, on a run by run basis. Because the LED value only gives a relative measurement of the gain over time, this method of calibration can only be used in conjunction with absolute calibrations provided by 0̂ decays or by minimum ionizing peaks . This work will be used to make a final measurement on Transverse energy at √sNN = 200 GV in Au+Au collisions.

  5. Electromagnetic shower development and applications to sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1984-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic theory to particle interactions is an old subject which represented one of the early successes in the study of particle interactions and fundamental forces. The ability to describe properties of electron, positron, and photon interactions has led to applications in numerous experimental devices used in high energy experiments. The subject is now considered to be relatively mature, but applications continue to evolve as new ideas are tried and new techniques become available. This report is a review of the underlying processes, a discussion of the application to electromagnetic calorimetry, discussions of some scaling laws and approximations that serve to guide designs of experimental devices, and examples where these principles are put to work. 13 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  6. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the GLUEX Particle Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsaganis, Stamatios

    This thesis focuses on the GLUEX Barrel Calorimeter (BCAL), a key subsystem of the GLUE experiment, which is currently under construction. GLUE will shed light on an as yet unexplored area of the interaction between the fundamental constituents of matter, that of confinement. To achieve its goals, GLUE requires a hermetic detector with good acceptance and good energy and position resolution. To that end, a lot of effort has been spent on R&D in order to optimize the performance of the BCAL. Specifically, the effect of the thickness of the lead sheets, used to build the BCAL, on the performance of the BCAL was simulated using Monte Carlo techniques. Using the GEANT simulation package, three different geometry configurations were simulated and the shape of the longitudinal shower profile, energy resolution and the fractional energy deposition and energy leakage were extracted and the results comprise the first half of this thesis. The second half of the thesis consists of an analysis of data collected in 2006 from a beam test performed at Jefferson Lab on a BCAL prototype module. The analysis was done in order to extract the energy resolution for several different angles of incidence, including the 90° which was used as reference.

  7. Further study on different dopings into PbWO 4 single crystals to increase the scintillation light yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Usuki, Y.; Ishii, M.; Itoh, M.; Nikl, M.

    2005-03-01

    Since we presented our preliminary result (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 486 (2002) 170) at SCINT2001, we have continued our efforts to increase the light yield (LY) of PbWO 4 scintillators by extending different dopings with an aim to find a possibility of using PbWO 4 successfully in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Overall result obtained for single doping as well as double and tripple co-dopings are summarized, including decay characteristics and radiation hardness. The LY in non-doped PbWO 4 crystals with a size of 10×10×(20-30) mm 3 is 25-35 photolectrons/MeV (phe/MeV) corresponding to 3-4% of the LY in BGO, when measured with a bialkali photomultiplier during a gate of ˜1 μs. The maximum LY increased to 49 phe/MeV for single doping with Mo 6+, 80 phe/MeV for double co-doping of Mo 6++Sb 5+, and ˜85 phe/MeV for tripple co-doping of Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+. The radiation hardness is larger than 10 5 Gy for each of the samples co-doped with Mo 6++Sb 5+ and Mo 6++Cd 2++Sb 5+, while it is much poorer in PWO:Mo 6+. In each of these co-doped samples, a medium-speed green emission in the microsecond range is created besides the fundamental fast (˜a few nanoseconds range) blue one, giving a peak at ˜500 nm in the radioluminescence spectrum similarly as in PWO:Mo 6+.

  8. Identification of γ -rays sources with the AMS-02 electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerri, I.; AMS-02 ECAL Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 is a particle physics experiment designed to operate for a long time in space. It was installed on the International Space Station ISS in May 2011 and its purpose is to obtain accurate and high-statistics measurements of cosmic rays spectra and composition up to TeV energies, searching for primordial Anti-Matter and probing the nature of Dark Matter. AMS-02 is mainly conceived as a charged-particle detector, but the unique features of its electromagnetic calorimeter also allow the identification of γ -rays. ECAL has an excellent energy resolution and a high granularity that makes possible the reconstruction of the direction of the incoming particle with an unprecedent angular resolution for a calorimeter. In this paper the AMS-02 gamma sky obtained with the first 3 years of data and the highest energy detected photon are presented.

  9. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGES

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; et al

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of thismore » type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.« less

  10. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. -C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J. -C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of this type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  11. The calibration and monitoring system for the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    David, G.; Kistenev, E.; Stoll, S.; White, S.; Woody, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Chernichenkov, S.; Denisov, A.; Gilitzky, Y.; Kochetkov, V.; Melnikov, Y.; Onuchin, V.; Semenov, A.; Shelikhov, V.; Soldatov, A.

    1998-11-01

    A system for calibrating the PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter modules with cosmic rays and monitoring the stability during operation is described. The system is based on a UV laser which delivers light to each module through a network of optical fibers and splitters and is monitored at various points with silicon and vacuum photodiodes. Results are given from a prototype system which used a nitrogen laser to set the initial phototube gains and to establish the energy calibration of calorimeter modules and monitor their stability. A description of the final system to be used in PHENIX, based on a high power YAG laser, is also given. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Trigger-less readout system with pulse pile-up recovery for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Tambave, G.; Hevinga, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Schakel, P.; Schreuder, F.; Speelman, R.; Löhner, H.; Panda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust on-line data-processing scheme was developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt. The implementation of the processing algorithm in FPGA enables the construction of an almost dead-time free data acquisition system. The prototype of a complete trigger-less readout chain has been developed and evaluated. The precision of time synchronisation commands has been verified. A pile-up recovery algorithm was developed and evaluated over a large dynamic range of signal amplitudes.

  13. Precision machining, polishing and measurement of mechanical and toxicological properties of lead tungstate crystals for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.; Shi, X.

    1995-08-01

    We have developed new machining and polishing techniques that have previously been applied to large scintillating crystal arrays for high energy physics experiments such as the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the GEM Detector at SSCL, the LCsI Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the BaBar Detector at PEP-II B Factory at SLAC and the 110,000 crystal CMS Lead Tungstate Electromagnetic Calorimeter at LHC at CERN. We discuss earlier results achieved with diamond machining and polishing methods and present new results on diamond machining of lead tungstate crystals. Additionally we present new results on mechanical properties of lead tungstate including toxicological data important for the safe handling and processing of this material.

  14. Dead cell and side leakage correction for a lead-scintillating fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Zu-Hao; Tang, Zhi-Cheng; Basegmez du Pree, Suzan; Zhang, Shao-Wen; Wang, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Min; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is one of the key detectors for dark matter searches. It measures the energies of electrons, positrons and photons and seperates them from hadrons. Currently, there are 5 dead cells in the ECAL, which affect the reconstructed energy of 4.2% of total events in the ECAL acceptance. When an electromagnetic shower axis is close to the ECAL border, due to the side leakage, the reconstructed energy is affected as well. In this paper, methods for dead cells and side leakage corrections for the ECAL energy reconstruction are presented. For events with the shower axis crossing dead cells, applying dead cell correction improves the difference in the reconstructed energy from 12% to 1%, while for events near the ECAL border, with side leakage correction it is improved from 4% to 1%. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China(11220101004)

  15. The effects of Nd impurity on the optical, dielectric and electrical properties of PbWO4 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Huang, Hongwei; Feng, Xiqi

    2005-10-01

    A series of Nd-doped PbWO4 (PWO) crystals are grown using the Czochralski method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. It is found that the Nd3+ ion characterizes the optical absorption spectra of Nd-containing crystals. On increasing the concentration of Nd, the optical absorption edge of the crystals shifts to low energy, which results from the defect energy level effect. Similar to other trivalent rare-earth ions, the improvement of radiation hardness is also achieved in Nd-doped PWO. Impedance spectroscopy reveals two dielectric loss peaks, which are assigned to [2()-(VPb)] and [()-()-(VO)] defect complexes, respectively. High electrical conductivity with an activation energy of about 0.29 +/- 0.02 eV at high temperature is present in PWO containing 1.6% Nd. It is of interest that the heavily Nd-doped PWO could be a high-temperature ionic conductor.

  16. Study of requirements and performances of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Soleti, S.

    2015-06-15

    In this thesis we discuss the simulation and tests carried out for the optimization and design of the electromagnetic calorimeter for the Mu2e (Muon to electron conversion) experiment, which is a proposed experiment part of the Muon Campus hosted at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, United States.

  17. Near Threshold K0Λ Photoproduciton on the Neutron Studied with an Electromagnetic Calorimeter FOREST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchikawa, Y.; Fujimura, H.; Fukasawa, H.; Hashimoto, R.; He, Q.; Honda, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Iwata, T.; Kaida, S.; Kasagi, J.; Kawano, A.; Kuwasaki, S.; Maeda, K.; Masumoto, S.; Miyabe, M.; Miyahara, F.; Mochizuki, K.; Muramatsu, N.; Nakamura, A.; Nawa, K.; Ogushi, S.; Okada, Y.; Onodera, Y.; Ozawa, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, M.; Shimizu, H.; Sugai, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tajima, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Yamazaki, H.; Yamazaki, R.; Yoshida, H. Y.

    The K0Λ photoproduction has been measured for the incident photon energy ranging from the threshold to 1.15 GeV by using a 4π electromagnetic calorimeter complex FOREST. The large acceptance of FOREST enables us to detect all the final state particles generated by the KS0 to π 0π 0 to 4γ and Λ → pπ- decay chains. The KS0 produced events are clearly observed in the π0π0 invariant mass distributions. The K0 angular distribution for the γn → K0Λ reaction shows flat shape near the threshold, and becomes backward peaking in the high energy region.

  18. Performance of the prototype module of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Leverington, Blake; Lolos, George; Papandreou, Zisis; Hakobyan, Rafael; Huber, Garth; Janzen, Kathryn; Semenov, Andrei; Scott, Eric; Shepherd, Matthew; Carman, Daniel; Lawrence, David; Smith, Elton; Taylor, Simon; Wolin, Elliott; Klein, Franz; Santoro, Joseph; Sober, Daniel; Kourkoumeli, Christina

    2008-11-01

    A photon beam test of the 4 m long prototype lead/scintillating-fibre module for the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter was carried out in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility with the objective of measuring the energy and timing resolutions of the module as well as the number of photoelectrons generated. Data were collected over an energy range of 150 - â 650 MeV at multiple positions and angles along the module. Details of the analysis at the centre of and perpendicular to the module are shown herein; the results are View the MathML source, View the MathML source ps, and 660 photoelectrons for 1 GeV at each end of the module.

  19. Pulse pile-up recovery for the front-end electronics of the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambave, G.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Schreuder, F.; Moeini, H.; Löhner, H.

    2012-11-01

    At the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research near Darmstadt in Germany the PANDA detector will be employed to study the charmonium spectrum and to search for narrow exotic hadronic states, predicted by Quantum Chromodynamics. In the PANDA experiment, 1.5 to 15 GeV/c anti-protons will annihilate with a hydrogen target at an average rate of 20MHz. Among the sub-detectors of PANDA is the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) planned for the studies of electromagnetic transitions and neutral meson decays. Due to the high annihilation rates, the EMC will be exposed to single-detector hit rates up to 500kHz, which may lead to pulse overlap. Hence, to recover the energy and time information of the overlapping pulses, a pulse pile-up recovery method is developed. The method is easy to implement in FPGA for online data processing. The Constant Fraction Timing algorithm is applied at the trailing edge to determine the time stamp of pile-up pulses. The energy and the time information of pile-up pulses can be recovered up to time differences of 50ns, equal to the pulse rise-time, in a large dynamic energy range.

  20. Monte Carlo Study of Electromagnetic Calorimeter Performance for Proton Form Factor Measurements at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrecht, Richard; Puckett, Andrew; Super BigBite Spectrometer Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Jefferson Lab's continuous electron beam, capable of luminosities approaching 1039 cm-2 s-1, has recently been upgraded to a maximum energy of 12 GeV, allowing the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GEp /GMp to be measured at momentum transfer Q2 of up to 12 GeV2 via the polarization transfer method. The measurement will use the Super BigBite Spectrometer (SBS), a new magnetic spectrometer capable of operating at forward scattering angles under high luminosity conditions, to detect and measure the polarization of elastically scattered protons. The measurement of GEp /GMp also requires detection of the elastically scattered electron in coincidence using a lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal). ECal, the subject of this talk, is based on the ``BigCal'' detector used in a predecessor experiment in Hall C, re-configured to match the acceptance of SBS for elastically scattered protons. This talk will present an overview of ECal, its role in the measurement of GEp at large Q2, and the technical challenges involved in its operation in the high-radiation environment of Hall A, followed by the results of of detailed GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulations characterizing its expected performance under experimental conditions.

  1. Photoinduced oxygen-vacancy related centers in PbWO4: Electron spin resonance and thermally stimulated luminescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguta, V. V.; Martini, M.; Vedda, A.; Rosetta, E.; Nikl, M.; Mihokovo, E.; Bohacek, P.; Rosa, J.; Hofstatter, A.; Meyer, B. K.; Usuki, Y.

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) three different electron traps based on regular W sites perturbed by oxygen vacancies have been identified in PbWO4 . Analysis of ESR spectra parameters ( g -factor values and principal axes orientations) has shown that revealed centers are (WO3 )(-) vacancy containing complex anions associated with a defect in Pb sublattice: (WO3)(-) -A(Pb) complexes. One of the centers (W-1) is thermally stable up to 350-370 K, while the other two (W-2 and W-3 ) only to 270-290 K. Above these temperatures trapped electrons become free and recombine with localized holes, giving rise to TSL glow peaks at T approximate to 323 K and 365 K. Using the initial rise method the 323 K TSL peak-shape was fitted allowing the first order recombination kinetic that gives trap parameters E = 0.88 eV and s similar or equal to 5* 10(12) 1/s.

  2. RESEARCH NOTES FROM COLLABORATIONS: Intercalibration of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter crystals in φ using symmetry of energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futyan, D.; Seez, C.

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes the investigation of a first step in a strategy for rapidly obtaining electromagnetic calorimeter crystal intercalibration at start-up in the absence of test beam precalibration of the complete detector. In the case of the CMS (compact muon solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter, the precision to which crystals can be intercalibrated in phi using 18 million fully simulated minimum-bias events, and assuming complete ignorance of the distribution of material in front of the calorimeter, is determined as a function of the pseudorapidity (eta) and has been found to be close to 1.5% for |eta| < 1.0 and between 2% and 3.5% for the remainder of the barrel. Similar values are found for the endcap. The precision is limited by the inhomogeneity of tracker material. With increasing knowledge of the material distribution in the tracker, after the start of LHC running, the attainable precision of the method will increase, with the potential of providing rapid and repeated calibration of the calorimeter.

  3. Improvement of the technique of identification of electrons and positrons with use of electromagnetic calorimeter of the CLAS detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorgyan, N. E.; Dashyan, N. B.; Paremuzyan, R. G.; Stepanyan, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    We study the dependence of the sensitivity of response of the electromagnetic calorimeter of CLAS plant on the momenta of electrons and positrons. We made calculation of this dependence and elaborated a method for its employment in identification of e- and e+. We have shown that the new method of selection of e- and e+ improves the quality of identification by about 10%. We used the experimental data obtained with the plant CLAS of linear accelerator at Jefferson laboratory (USA).

  4. Electromagnetic calorimeter for the Heavy Photon Search Experiment at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Emma

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search Experiment (HPS) seeks to detect a hypothesised hidden sector boson, the A', predicted to be produced in dark matter decay or annihilation. Theories suggest that the A' couples weakly to electric charge through kinetic mixing, allowing it, as a result, to decay to Standard Matter (SM) lepton pair, which may explain the electron and positron excess recently observed in cosmic rays. Measuring the lepton pair decay of the A' could lead to indirect detection of dark matter. The HPS experiment is a fixed target experiment that will utilize the electron beam produced at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). The detector set-up includes a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) and an Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECal). The ECal will provide the trigger and detect e+e- pairs and its construction and testing forms the focus of this thesis. The ECal consists of 442 PbWO4- tapered crystals with a length 16cm and a 1.6x1.6cm2 cross-section, stacked into a rectangular array and are coupled to Large Area APDs and corresponding pre-amplifiers. Supplementary to the ECal is a Light Monitoring System (LMS) consisting of bi-coloured LEDs that will monitor changes in APD gain and crystal transparency due to radiation damage. Before construction of the ECal each of the components were required to be individually tested to determine a number of different characteristics. Irradiation tests were performed on PbWO4 ECal crystals and, as a comparison, one grown by a different manufacturer to determine their radiation hardness. A technique for annealing the radiation damage by optical bleaching, which involves injecting light of various wavelengths into the crystal, was tested using the blue LED from the LMS as a potential candidate. The light yield dependence on temperature was also measured for one of the PbWO4 crystal types. Each APD was individually tested to determine if they functioned correctly and

  5. The electromagnetic calorimeter for the T2K near detector ND280

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D.; Andreopoulos, C.; Angelsen, C.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bentham, S.; Bertram, I.; Boyd, S.; Briggs, K.; Calland, R. G.; Carroll, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Carver, A.; Chavez, C.; Christodoulou, G.; Coleman, J.; Cooke, P.; Davies, G.; Densham, C.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dobson, J.; Duboyski, T.; Durkin, T.; Evans, D. L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Gannaway, F. C.; Grant, A.; Grant, N.; Grenwood, S.; Guzowski, P.; Hadley, D.; Haigh, M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Haycock, T. D. J.; Hyndman, A.; Ilic, J.; Ives, S.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kasey, V.; Kellet, L.; Khaleeq, M.; Kogan, G.; Kormos, L. L.; Lawe, M.; Lawson, T. B.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Lockwood, M.; Malek, M.; Maryon, T.; Masliah, P.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCauley, N.; Mercer, I.; Metelko, C.; Morgan, B.; Morris, J.; Muir, A.; Murdoch, M.; Nicholls, T.; Noy, M.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Owen, R. A.; Payne, D.; Pearce, G. F.; Perkin, J. D.; Poplawska, E.; Preece, R.; Qian, W.; Ratoff, P.; Raufer, T.; Raymond, M.; Reeves, M.; Richards, D.; Rooney, M.; Sacco, R.; Sadler, S.; Schaack, P.; Scott, M.; Scully, D. I.; Short, S.; Siyad, M.; Smith, R.; Still, B.; Sutcliffe, P.; Taylor, I. J.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Thorpe, M.; Timis, C.; Touramanis, C.; Uchida, M. A.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Van Schalkwyk, J. F.; Veledar, O.; Waldron, A. V.; Ward, M. A.; Ward, G. P.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; West, N.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    The T2K experiment studies oscillations of an off-axis muon neutrino beam between the J-PARC accelerator complex and the Super-Kamiokande detector. Special emphasis is placed on measuring the mixing angle θ13 by observing νe appearance via the sub-dominant νμ → νe oscillation and searching for CP violation in the lepton sector. The experiment includes a sophisticated, off-axis, near detector, the ND280, situated 280 m downstream of the neutrino production target in order to measure the properties of the neutrino beam and to understand better neutrino interactions at the energy scale below a few GeV. The data collected with the ND280 are used to study charged- and neutral-current neutrino interaction rates and kinematics prior to oscillation, in order to reduce uncertainties in the oscillation measurements by the far detector. A key element of the near detector is the ND280 electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal), consisting of active scintillator bars sandwiched between lead sheets and read out with multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). The ECal is vital to the reconstruction of neutral particles, and the identification of charged particle species. The ECal surrounds the Pi-0 detector (PØD) and the tracking region of the ND280, and is enclosed in the former UA1/NOMAD dipole magnet. This paper describes the design, construction and assembly of the ECal, as well as the materials from which it is composed. The electronic and data acquisition (DAQ) systems are discussed, and performance of the ECal modules, as deduced from measurements with particle beams, cosmic rays, the calibration system, and T2K data, is described.

  6. CDF calorimeter and its upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The CDF calorimeter systems are briefly reviewed with an emphasis on the calibration and the performance of the central electromagnetic calorimeter. Several physics analyses where the calorimetry plays an important role are discussed. The present gas calorimeter will be upgraded in accord with the collider upgrade. The new system is a scintillator-based calorimeter with optical fiber readout. A status of the CDF calorimeter upgrade project is also described.

  7. Characterization of a New Charge Sensitive Preamplifier (CSP) for the Electromagnetic Calorimeters of the ALICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaping; Cai, Xu; Yin, Zhongbao

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE calorimeters PHOS and EMCal (including its extension DCal) are based on Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) photosensors with Charge Sensitive Preamplifiers (CSPs) for readout of the scintillating elements. A new CSP has been developed on the basis of the design of the PHOS CSP, but modified to meet the requirements of the EMCal and DCal. Modifications were made specifically for a different APD choice with different characteristics, and also with the goals of less noise, faster rise time, and reduced cost. This paper presents a detailed description of the new CSP features and the test results.

  8. Response of a close to final prototype for the P bar ANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter to photons at energies below 1 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, C.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, Peter; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuske, T.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R. W.; Rosier, P.; Ryazantsev, A.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2016-07-01

    The response of two generations of prototypes of the P bar ANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC), PROTO60 and PROT120, to photons in the energy range between 50 MeV and 800 MeV was obtained. Furthermore, the performance of the pre-amplifier ASIC (APFEL) under real experimental conditions, the position dependence of the energy resolution within the crystal and the implementation of higher order energy correction algorithms with a 15 GeV/c positron beam were studied.

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental study of PbWO4/EPDM and Bi2WO6/EPDM for the shielding of γ-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chi; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Quan-Ping; Li, Yin-Tao; Li, Ying-Jun; Zhou, Yuan-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP5 code was employed to simulate the γ-ray shielding capacity of tungstate composites. The experimental results were applied to verify the applicability of the Monte Carlo program. PbWO4 and Bi2WO6 were prepared and added into ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) to obtain the composites, which were tested in the γ-ray shielding. Both the theoretical simulation and experiments were carefully chosen and well designed. The results of the two methods were found to be highly consistent. In addition, the conditions during the numerical simulation were optimized and double-layer γ-ray shielding systems were studied. It was found that the γ-ray shielding performance can be influenced not only by the material thickness ratio but also by the arrangement of the composites. Supported by Research Funds of Southwest University of Science and Technology (15zx7159) and Open Fund of State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Sichuan Province (13zxfk07)

  10. Multiple-neutral-meson decays of the /tau/ lepton and electromagnetic calorimeter requirements at Tau-Charm Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, K.K.

    1989-08-01

    This is a study of the physics sensitivity to the multiple-neutral-meson decays of the /tau/ lepton at the Tau-Charm Factory. The sensitivity is compared for a moderate and an ultimate electromagnetic calorimeter. With the high luminosity of the Tau- Charm Factory, a very large sample of the decays /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus//2/pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau// and /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus//3/pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau// can be collected with both detectors. However, with the ultimate detector, 2/pi//sup 0/ and 3/pi//sup 0/ can be unambiguously reconstructed with very little background. For the suppressed decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus///eta//pi//sup 0//nu//sub /tau//, only the ultimate detector has the sensitivity. The ultimate detector is also sensitive to the more suppressed decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ K/sup /minus///eta//nu//sub /tau// and the moderate detector may have the sensitivity if the hadronic background is not significantly larger than that predicted by Lund. In the case of the highly suppressed second-class-current decay /tau//sup /minus// /yields/ /pi//sup /minus///eta//nu//sub /tau//, only the ultimate detector has sensitivity. The sensitivity can be greatly enhanced with a small-angle photon veto. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  12. Free carrier absorption in self-activated PbWO4 and Ce-doped Y3(Al0.25Ga0.75)3O12 and Gd3Al2Ga3O12 garnet scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffray, E.; Korjik, M.; Lucchini, M. T.; Nargelas, S.; Sidletskiy, O.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tratsiak, Y.; Vaitkevičius, A.

    2016-08-01

    Nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in the scintillators prospective for fast timing in high energy physics and medical imaging applications was studied. The time-resolved free carrier absorption investigation was carried out to study the dynamics of nonequilibrium carriers in wide-band-gap scintillation materials: self-activated led tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) ant two garnet crystals, GAGG:Ce and YAGG:Ce. It was shown that free electrons appear in the conduction band of PWO and YAGG:Ce crystals within a sub-picosecond time scale, while the free holes in GAGG:Ce appear due to delocalization from Gd3+ ground states to the valence band within a few picoseconds after short-pulse excitation. The influence of Gd ions on the nonequilibrium carrier dynamics is discussed on the base of comparison the results of the free carrier absorption in GAGG:Ce containing gadolinium and in YAGG without Gd in the host lattice.

  13. Di-jet Measurements at Forward Rapidity Utilizing the Endcap Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EEMC) at the STAR Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Brian

    2012-10-01

    One of the main goals of the STAR spin program is to determine the spin-dependent gluon distribution, δg(x), of the proton. To date, the most stringent constraints on δg(x) from STAR have come from inclusive jet measurements, which access a partonic Bjorken-x range of 0.05electromagnetic calorimetry is provided by the EEMC in the forward region (1<η<2), jet reconstruction is complicated by the falling charged particle tracking efficiency of the Time Projection Chamber for |η|>1. Methods to address this issue, as well as the overall status of the forward di-jet measurement utilizing the 200 GeV polarized p-p data from 2009, will be presented.

  14. Secondary Emission Calorimeter (SEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J. J.; Northrop, Richard; Frisch, Henry; Elagin, Andrey; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ramberg, Erik; Spiropulu, Maria; Apresyan, Artur; Xie, Si

    2014-06-25

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) the experimenters of University of Chicago and California Institute of Technology, who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2014-2015 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations. The experimenters propose using large-area micro-channel plates assembled without the usual bialkali photocathodes as the active element in sampling calorimeters, Modules without photocathodes can be economically assembled in a glove box and then pumped and sealed using the process to construct photomultipliers, This electromagnetic calorimeter is based on W and Pb absorber plates sandwiched with detectors. Measurements can be made with bare plates and absorber inside the vacuum vessel.

  15. Calibration technique for electromagnetic flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawochka, S. G.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal calorimetric method is used to calibrate electromagnetic flowmeters for liquid alkali metals. The electromagnetic flowmeter is placed in the liquid metal flow system in series with a thermal calorimeter. Therefore, the calculated flow rate through the calorimeter can be compared directly with the respective electromagnetic flowmeter reading.

  16. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  17. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  18. Bomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, D.H.; Bell, F.H.

    1981-02-03

    A bomb calorimeter is presented in which a cartridge type specimen holder is provided in a fitted bomb casing so that a separate pressure seal is no longer required and the ease of making repeated tests is enhanced. The overall efficiency is also improved because of the central location of the specimen holder.

  19. Isothermal Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure-feedback signal indicates rate of heating. Improved isothermal calorimeter measures rate of heating in object under test. Called "isothermal" because chamber holding object and its environment maintained at or near constant temperature to minimize spurious tranfers of heat introducing errors into measurements. When item under test generates heat, rate of boiling and pressure in inner chamber increase. Servo-valve opens wider to maintain preset differential pressure. Valve-control voltage used as measure of rate of heating.

  20. Characterization of CALET prototype TASC lead tungstate calorimeter using CERN beam test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaid, Amir

    2013-04-01

    The CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) is a high-energy cosmic ray experiment that will be placed on the International Space Station in 2014. The primary goals of CALET are to measure the cosmic ray electron spectra from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, gamma rays from 10 GeV to 10 TeV, and protons and nuclei from 10 GeV up to 1000 TeV. The detector consists of three main components: a Charge Detector (CHD), Imaging Calorimeter (IMC), and Total Absorption Calorimeter (TASC). The TASC consists of 192 lead tungstate (PbWO4) logs arranged in 12 layers. An understanding of the major characteristics of the TASC is important for accurately determining the incident particle shower energy deposition. In September 2012, a prototype CALET detector was exposed to electron, muon, and proton beams from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. Muon beams can be used to determine the detector response to minimum ionizing particles (MIP). In the present paper, we discuss the response of the TASC logs to muon beams as a function of position, and signal attenuation during propagation. Included is a discussion of parameterizations of position-dependent muon energy deposition and signal attenuation functions for the TASC logs based on the CERN beam test data.

  1. Operation and performance of the CDF calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauletta, Giovanni; CDF Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    All electromagnetic and hadronic components of the The CDF run II calorimeter system are scintillator - based sampling calorimeters employing both older (Run I) and newer fiber - based techniques for light extraction. The system has now been operating successfully for several years and is presently taking data at high luminosity thanks to its design characteristics and the upgrade of its frontend daq and trigger electronics. The composition and operation of the calorimeter system is described with due consideration for calibration and maintenance techniques required for the preservation of data quality and stability and its performance will be summarized with reference to design expectations.

  2. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  3. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  4. The liquid krypton calorimeter of NA48: First operation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, F.

    1998-02-01

    The first technical run of the complete NA48 experimental apparatus took place in 1996. The first operation results of the full size liquid Krypton electromagnetic calorimeter as energy resolution and π 0 mass resolution are presented in this paper.

  5. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  6. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R&D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, {gamma} and {pi}{sup 0} has been designed. Its performance requirements, R&D results and mechanical design are discussed.

  7. Performance of the CDF Calorimeter Simulation in Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Pedro A. Movilla

    2006-10-27

    The CDF experiment is successfully collecting data from pp(bar sign) collisions at the Tevatron in Run II. As the data samples are getting larger, systematic uncertainties due to the measurement of the jet energy scale assessed using the calorimeter simulation have become increasingly important. In many years of operation, the collaboration has gained experience with GFLASH, a fast parametrization of electromagnetic and hadronic showers used for the calorimeter simulation. We present the performance of the calorimeter simulation and report on recent improvements based on a refined in situ tuning technique. The central calorimeter response is reproduced with a precision of 1-2%.

  8. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A. ); Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  10. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  11. Performance and calibration of the D0 uranium liquid-argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Guida, J.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-01-01

    The performance of the D{phi} uranium liquid-argon calorimeter is discussed, as well as the electromagnetic energy calibration. Results from test beam studies and collider data are incorporated to estimate the energy scale. The {phi} symmetry of the events is used to improve the understanding of the electromagnetic part of the calorimeter, and the EM energy scale is determined from Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} events. The calorimeter`s response to other resonances is also investigated.

  12. Performance of the VENUS lead-glass calorimeter at TRISTAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyoshi, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ogawa, K.; Takasaki, F.; Haba, J.; Kamitani, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Osabe, H.; Sugimoto, S.; Yamashita, T.; Sakano, M.; Yoshida, H.; Shino, K.

    1988-09-01

    The initial performance of the VENUS barrel electromagnetic calorimeter at TRISTAN is described. The calorimeter is composed of 5160 lead-glass counters in a semi-tower arrangement. An energy resolution of 3.8% was obtained for 26 GeV Bhabha events. The neutral pions in the hadronic events were reconstructed with a mass resolution of σ = 16 MeV. The gain of the lead-glass counters was stable within 2% during a four months operation at TRISTAN.

  13. Data Analysis for the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    The scintillating optical fiber calorimeter is a hybrid instrument with both active and passive components for measuring the proton and helium cosmic ray spectra from 0.2 to IO TeV kinetic energy. A thin emulsion/x-ray film chamber is situated between a cerenkov counter and an imaging calorimeter. Scintillating optical fibers sample the electromagnetic showers that develop in the calorimeter and identify the trajectory of cosmic rays that interact in SOFCAL. The emulsion/x-ray film data provide an in flight calibration for SOFCAL. The data reduction techniques used will be discussed and interim results of the analysis from a 20 hour balloon flight will be presented.

  14. Radiation damage in the SDC hadronic endcap calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-12-01

    Detectors for the SSC face a radiation field which is very dependent on angle. For example, the SDC barrel'' calorimeter can function well for 100 year operation of the SSC running at desip luminosity, while the small angle forward calorimeter'' faces Grad of radiation in the same period. The SDC endcap'' calorimeter is in an intermediate location. One wishes to examine whether it might be possible to use conventional scintillator technology with periodic refurbishment in the endcap- The angular range covered by the endcap spans the region, 1.4 < [eta] < 3.0. In this note, only the hadronic (HAD) compartment is considered. The electromagnetic (EM) compartment is considered elsewhere.

  15. Radiation damage in the SDC hadronic endcap calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-12-01

    Detectors for the SSC face a radiation field which is very dependent on angle. For example, the SDC ``barrel`` calorimeter can function well for 100 year operation of the SSC running at desip luminosity, while the small angle ``forward calorimeter`` faces Grad of radiation in the same period. The SDC ``endcap`` calorimeter is in an intermediate location. One wishes to examine whether it might be possible to use conventional scintillator technology with periodic refurbishment in the endcap- The angular range covered by the endcap spans the region, 1.4 < {eta} < 3.0. In this note, only the hadronic (HAD) compartment is considered. The electromagnetic (EM) compartment is considered elsewhere.

  16. A heat flow calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for nickel-cadmium cell is not known well enough to allow calculation of heat effects. Calorimeter can measure heat absorbed or evolved in cell, by determining amount of external heat that must be supplied to calorimeter to maintain constant flow isothermal heat sink.

  17. A photon calorimeter using lead tungstate crystals for the CEBAF HAll A Compton polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    D. Neyret; T. Pussieux; T. Auger; M. Baylac; E. Burtin; C. Cavata; R. Chipaux; S. Escoffier; N. Falletto; J. Jardillier; S. Kerhoas; D. Lhuillier; F. Marie; C. Veyssiere; J. Ahrens; R. Beck; M. Lang

    2000-05-01

    A new Compton polarimeter is built on the CEBAF Hall A electron beam line. Performances of 10% resolution and 1% calibration are required for the photon calorimeter of this polarimeter. This calorimeter is built with lead tungstate scintillators coming from the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter R&D. Beam tests of this detector have been made using the tagged photon beam line at MAMI, Mainz, and a resolution of 1.76%+2.75%/v+0.41%/E has been measured.

  18. Hadron calorimeter with reradiating fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kostritskii, A.V.; Baliev, L.O.; Buzultskov, A.F.

    1995-03-01

    A hadron calorimeter in which scintillators are aligned in parallel with the particle beam and the light is output from the scintillators via optical fibers doped with a reradiating is described. The active element has been tested and the calorimeter`s operation simulated. The structure of a calorimeter unit is illustrated.

  19. Calorimeter Control Program

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unitmore » via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.« less

  20. Nose-cone calorimeter: PHENIX forward upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Ondrej

    2009-07-01

    PHENIX is a high rate experiment efficient at measuring rare processes, but has limited acceptance in azimuth and pseudorapidity ( η). The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC), a W-Si sampling calorimeter in the region of 0.9< η<3, is one of the upgrades which will significantly increase coverage in both azimuth and pseudorapidity. The NCC will expand PHENIX’s precision measurements of electromagnetic probes in η, reconstruct jets, perform a wide scope of correlation measurements, and enhance triggering capabilities. The detector will significantly contribute to measurements of γ-jet correlations, quarkonia production, and low- x nuclear structure functions. This report discusses details of the detector design and its performance concerning a sample of the physics topics which will benefit from the NCC. In view of recent funding difficulties, outlook of the activities is discussed.

  1. Performance of the HPC calorimeter in DELPHI

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crawley, H.B.; Edsall, D.M. |

    1995-08-01

    The performance of the High-density Projection Chamber (HPC), the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the DELPHI experiment, is described. The detector adopts the time projection technique in order to obtain exceptionally fine spatial granularity in the three coordinates ({approximately}2{times}20 mrad{sup 2} in {theta}{times}{phi} with nine samplings along the shower axes), using a limited number of readout channels (18,432). Among the various topics concerning the HPC construction and operation, major emphasis is given to the aspects related to the calibration in energy of the calorimeter, based mainly on the analysis of the detector response to {sup 83m}Kr decays, and to the treatment of aging in the readout proportional counters.

  2. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  3. Automated calorimeter testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; James, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Automated Calorimeter Testing System (ACTS) is a portable measurement device that provides an independent measurement of all critical parameters of a calorimeter system. The ACTS was developed to improve productivity and performance of Mound-produced calorimeters. With ACTS, an individual with minimal understanding of calorimetry operation can perform a consistent set of diagnostic measurements on the system. The operator can identify components whose performance has deteriorated by a simple visual comparison of the current data plots with previous measurements made when the system was performing properly. Thus, downtime and out of control'' situations can be reduced. Should a system malfunction occur, a flowchart of troubleshooting procedures has been developed to facilitate quick identification of the malfunctioning component. If diagnosis is beyond the capability of the operator, the ACTS provides a consistent set of test data for review by a knowledgeable expert. The first field test was conducted at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site in early 1990. 6 figs.

  4. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.; SLD Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z{sup 0} decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z{sup 0} events) is discussed.

  5. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z[sup 0] decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z[sup 0] events) is discussed.

  6. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  7. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented. (WHK)

  8. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  9. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS forward calorimeter wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adams, M.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Anderson, E. W.; Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Ayan, S.; Aydin, S.; Baarmand, M.; Babich, K.; Baden, D.; Bakirci, M. N.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Bard, R.; Barnes, V.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bencze, G.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Burchesky, K.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Cerci, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Chung, Y.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Damgov, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Demianov, A.; de Visser, T.; Dimitrov, L.; Dindar, K.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Eskut, E.; Fenyvesi, A.; Fisher, W.; Freeman, J.; Gamsizkan, H.; Gavrilov, V.; Genchev, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Gülmez, E.; Gümüş, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hashemi, M.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Ilyina, N.; Isiksal, E.; Jarvis, C.; Johnson, K.; Kaftanov, V.; Kalagin, V.; Kalinin, A.; Karmgard, D.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kim, H.; Kisselevich, I.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Koylu, S.; Kramer, L.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krokhotin, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kurt, P.; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A.; Laasanen, A.; Ladygin, V.; Laszlo, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Levchuk, L.; Linn, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Litov, L.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Lukanin, V.; Ma, Y.; Machado, E.; Mans, J.; Markowitz, P.; Massolov, V.; Martinez, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Merlo, J. P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.; Moissenz, P.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Ozkan, C.; Ozkurt, H.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Paktinat, S.; Pal, A.; Patil, M.; Penzo, A.; Petrushanko, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Pikalov, V.; Piperov, S.; Podrasky, V.; Pompos, A.; Posch, C.; Qiang, W.; Reddy, L.; Reidy, J.; Ruchti, R.; Rogalev, E.; Rohlf, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Ryazanov, A.; Safronov, G.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanzeni, C.; Sarycheva, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Schmidt, I.; Sekmen, S.; Semenov, S.; Senchishin, V.; Sergeyev, S.; Serin-Zeyrek, M.; Sever, R.; Singh, J.; Sirunyan, A.; Skuja, A.; Sharma, S.; Sherwood, B.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, V.; Sogut, K.; Sorokin, P.; Spezziga, M.; Stefanovich, R.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Suzuki, I.; Talov, V.; Teplov, K.; Thomas, R.; Topakli, H.; Tully, C.; Turchanovich, L.; Ulyanov, A.; Vankov, I.; Vardanyan, I.; Varela, F.; Vergili, M.; Verma, P.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vlassov, E.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Volkov, A.; Volodko, A.; Wang, L.; Wetstein, M.; Winn, D.; Wigmans, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, S. X.; Yazgan, E.; Yershov, A.; Yetkin, T.; Zalan, P.; Zarubin, A.; Zeyrek, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using high energy electrons, pions and muons with the CMS forward calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3≤|η|≤5), and is essential for a large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels in Higgs production. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h≈5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as a/sqrt{E}oplus{b}. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a = 280% and b = 11%.

  10. Nose-Cone Calorimeter: upgrade of PHENIX detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Ondrej

    2008-10-01

    PHENIX experiment at RHIC is efficient at measuring processes involving rare probes, but has limited acceptance in azimuth and pseudorapidity (η). The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC), a W-Si sampling calorimeter in the region of 0.9,<η<,, is one of the upgrades which will dramatically increase coverage in azimuth and pseudorapidity. The NCC will expand PHENIX's precision measurements of electromagnetic probes in η, reconstruct jets, and enhance triggering capabilities. It will significantly contribute to measurements of γ-jets, quarkonia, and low-x nuclear structure functions. Details of the detector design, performance, and a sample of the physics topics which will benefit from the NCC, will be discussed.

  11. Test beam operation of the CMS calorimeter trigger synchronization boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, A.; Almeida, N.; da Silva, J.; Silva, P.; Varela, J.

    2008-05-01

    The CMS experiment uses information from its electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and muon detectors to decide whether to read out the whole detector. For such a task to be successful, all trigger primitives pushed through the trigger decision tree must be flawlessly aligned in time for operation at 40 MHz. Both calorimeters in CMS use the Synchronization Link Board for this purpose. In this article we report on the test results of this board using the bunched beams available in the H4 electron beam line at CERN.

  12. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  13. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  14. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, Thomas P.; Oertel, Christopher P.; Tyree, William H.; Valdez, Joe L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated.

  15. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, T.P.; Oertel, C.P.; Tyree, W.H.; Valdez, J.L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a Wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated. 7 figures.

  16. Absorbed dose water calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Domen, S.R.

    1982-01-26

    An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated sleeving and then to junctions to form a wheatstone bridge circuit. Convection barriers may be provided to reduce the effects of convection from the point of measurement. Controlled heating of different levels in the water bath is accomplished by electrical heater circuits provided for controlling temperature drift and providing adiabatic operation of the calorimeter. The absorbed dose is determined from the known specific heat of water and the measured temperature change.

  17. Modeling Complex Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a software suite that models complex calorimeters in the time and frequency domain. These models can reproduce all measurements that we currently do in a lab setting, like IV curves, impedance measurements, noise measurements, and pulse generation. Since all these measurements are modeled from one set of parameters, we can fully describe a detector and characterize its behavior. This leads to a model than can be used effectively for engineering and design of detectors for particular applications.

  18. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  19. Study of response nonuniformity for the LHCb calorimeter module and the prototype of the CBM calorimeter module

    SciTech Connect

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.

    2009-02-15

    A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0.5 mm thick. The nonuniformity of the response of the inner LHCb modules to 50-GeV electrons is also measured. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter. A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data.

  20. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  1. Development of calorimeters using thin chambers operating in a high gain mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bella, G.; Cohen, J.; Czyrkowski, H.; Fink, P.; Horwitz, N.; Kalo, J.; Lupu, N.; Majewski, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Mir, R.; Nowak, R.; Revel, D.; Walczak, R.; Walker, J.

    1986-12-01

    A new type of thin multiwire proportional chamber detector operating in a high gain mode has been developed. Its characteristics have been optimized for calorimetric use. Two setups consisting of ten such detectors (electromagnetic calorimeter) interlaced with lead plates of 6 mm thickness and with iron plates of 8 cm thickness (hadron calorimeter) were tested. The characteristics of these detectors operating in calorimetric environments have been investigated and compared with theoretical expectations.

  2. T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trentalange, Stephen; Tsai, Oleg; Igo, George; Huang, Huan; Pan, Yu Xi; Dunkelberger, Jay; Xu, Wen Qin; Soha, Aria; Heppelmann, Steven; Gagliardi, Carl; /Texas A-M

    2011-11-16

    The present experiments at the BNL-RHIC facility are evolving towards physics goals which require the detection of medium energy electromagnetic particles (photons, electrons, neutral pions, eta mesons, etc.), especially at forward angles. New detectors will place increasing demands on energy resolution, hadron rejection and two-photon resolution and will require large area, high performance electromagnetic calorimeters in a variety of geometries. In the immediate future, either RHIC or JLAB will propose a facility upgrade (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with physics goals such as electron-heavy ion collisions (or p-A collisions) with a wide range of calorimeter requirements. An R and D program based at Brookhaven National Laboratory has awarded the group funding of approximately $110,000 to develop new types of calorimeters for EIC experiments. The UCLA group is developing a method to manufacture very flexible and cost-effective, yet high quality calorimeters based on scintillating fibers and tungsten powder. The design and features of the calorimeter can be briefly stated as follows: an arbitrarily large number of small diameter fibers (< 0.5 mm) are assembled as a matrix and held rigidly in place by a set of precision screens inside an empty container. The container is then back-filled with tungsten powder, compacted on a vibrating table and infused with epoxy under vacuum. The container is then removed. The resulting sub-modules are extremely uniform and achieve roughly the density of pure Lead. The sub-modules are stacked together to achieve a final detector of the desired shape. There is no dead space between sub-modules and the fibers can be in an accordion geometry bent to prevent 'channeling' of the particles due to accidental alignment of their track with the module axis. This technology has the advantage of being modular and inexpensive to the point where the construction work may be divided among groups the size of typical university physics departments

  3. Installation and operation of recording calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Kersey, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The Cutler-Hammer recording calorimeter is illustrated in this paper. This calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas, and continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. The paper emphasizes the importance of calorimeter accuracy. It is suggested that the calorimeter manufacturer be consulted for advice and assistance in developing a sound service program for trouble shooting and for service.

  4. The scintillating optical fiber calorimeter (SOFCAL) instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, Thomas A.; Roberts, F. E.; Benson, C.; Berry, Fred A.; Gregory, J. C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-10-01

    A hybrid detector system is being developed for measuring the cosmic ray elemental composition and energy spectra above approximately GeV/nucleon. This system employs both a conventional 'passive' emulsion chamber and an 'active' ionization calorimeter incorporating scintillating fibers. Emulsion chambers have a proton energy threshold approximately greater than 5 TeV for detectable dark spots in the x-ray films which are used as a visual 'trigger.' The central element of this hybrid system is a calorimeter which has 10 x-y hodoscopic layers of 0.5 mm scintillating fibers interspersed with 4 mm lead plates. The fibers sample the hadronic and electromagnetic showers (cascades) initiated by interactions in the overlying emulsion chamber. The cascades are recorded by two image-intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras which view the ends of the fibers to present orthogonal views. These showers are located and traced with microscopes in the emulsion chamber to provide an energy calibration through standard emulsion chamber methods, and an independent confirmation of the primary particle's charge (which is also measured with a Cerenkov counter above the emulsion chamber). The hybrid system will be used this fall for a balloon-borne measurement of the cosmic ray proton and helium spectra from approximately 400 GeV/n to approximately 10 TeV/n. An 8-hour test flight was performed in September 1995. Details of the detector system and sample results from the test flight are presented.

  5. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  6. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  7. Study of collisons of supersymmetric top Quark in the channel $\\tilde{t}$1$\\tilde{t}$1 -> e±μ$\\tilde{v}$$\\tilde{v}$b$\\bar{b}$ with the experience of D0 at the Tevatron. Callibration of the electromagnetic calorimeter at D0.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Aurelien

    2006-10-02

    Supersymmetry is one of the most natural extensions of the Standard Model. At low energy it may consist in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model which is the framework chosen to perform the search of the stop with 350 pb-1 of data collected by D0 during the RunIIa period of the TeVatron. They selected the events with an electron, a muon, missing transverse energy and non-isolated tracks, signature for the stop decay in 3-body ($\\bar{t}$ → bl$\\bar{v}$). Since no significant excess of signal is seen, the results are interpreted in terms of limit on the stop production cross-sections, in such a way that they extend the existing exclusion region in the parameter space (m$\\bar{t}$,m$\\bar{v}$) up to stop masses of 168 (140) GeV for sneutrino masses of 50 (94) GeV. Finally because of the crucial role of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a fine calibration was performed using Z → e+e- events, which improved significantly the energy resolution.

  8. Containerless high temperature calorimeter apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A calorimeter apparatus for measuring high temperature thermophysical properties of materials is disclosed which includes a containerless heating apparatus in which the specimen is suspended and heated by electron bombardment.

  9. Muon g-2 Calorimeter Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, Chris; /Fermilab

    2010-05-03

    The proposed design is a tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter with 35 segments, each read out by a separate PMT. Tungsten, which is significantly denser than lead, produces compact showers. This is necessary, in order to improve shower separation in analysis and to fully contain the showers within a calorimeter that satisfies the strict space constraints of the experiment. A single calorimeter segment (4 x 6 x 15 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed in order establish the feasibility of the new design and study its properties. Initial tests of the detector segment at the Paul Scherrer Institute were conducted with a low energy < 400 MeV/c electron beam. A higher-energy test with electrons up to a few GeV/c was performed at the Test Beam Facility under the experimental number T-967. All data from that test have been analyzed and published, and the tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter still appears to be a viable candidate. For this test beam run, a larger calorimeter (15 x 15 x 11 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed and an emphasis will be placed on understanding shower leakage and the ability to separate pileup events with a more granular readout. The experimenters will measure the energy resolution, linearity, and shower size of the calorimeter segment. This will provide important information for finalizing decisions on the angle of the fibers relative to the incoming electrons and the optimal granularity of the readout.

  10. Design, performance, and calibration of the CMS hadron-outer calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adam, N.; Adams, M.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Anderson, E. W.; Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Ayan, S.; Aydin, S.; Aziz, T.; Baarmand, M.; Babich, K.; Baden, D.; Bakirci, M. N.; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bard, R.; Barnes, V.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bencze, G.; Beri, S.; Berntzon, L.; Bhandari, V.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Bodek, A.; Bose, S.; Bose, T.; Budd, H.; Burchesky, K.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Cerci, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Chung, Y.; Clarida, W.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Damgov, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Debbins, P.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Demianov, A.; de Visser, T.; Deshpande, P. V.; Diaz, J.; Dimitrov, L.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Ershov, A.; Erturk, S.; Esen, S.; Eskut, E.; Fenyvesi, A.; Fisher, W.; Freeman, J.; Ganguli, S. N.; Gaultney, V.; Gamsizkan, H.; Gavrilov, V.; Genchev, V.; Gleyzer, S.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Murat Güler, A.; Gülmez, E.; Gümüş, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Halyo, V.; Hashemi, M.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Heister, A.; Hunt, A.; Ilyina, N.; Ingram, D.; Isiksal, E.; Jarvis, C.; Jeong, C.; Johnson, K.; Jones, J.; Kaftanov, V.; Kalagin, V.; Kalinin, A.; Kalmani, S.; Karmgard, D.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kim, H.; Kisselevich, I.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Kramer, L.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krokhotin, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Laasanen, A.; Ladygin, V.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Laszlo, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Lee, S. W.; Levchuk, L.; Linn, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Lobolo, L.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Lukanin, V.; Ma, Y.; Machado, E.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mans, J.; Marlow, D.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Merlo, J. P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Moeller, A.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.; Moissenz, P.; Mondal, N.; Mossolov, V.; Nagaraj, P.; Narasimham, V. S.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Ozkan, C.; Ozkurt, H.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Ozok, F.; Paktinat, S.; Pal, A.; Patil, M.; Penzo, A.; Petrushanko, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Pikalov, V.; Piperov, S.; Podrasky, V.; Polatoz, A.; Pompos, A.; Popescu, S.; Posch, C.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Qian, W.; Ralich, R. M.; Reddy, L.; Reidy, J.; Rogalev, E.; Roh, Y.; Rohlf, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Ruchti, R.; Ryazanov, A.; Safronov, G.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanzeni, C.; Sarycheva, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Schmidt, I.; Sekmen, S.; Semenov, S.; Senchishin, V.; Sergeyev, S.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Singh, B.; Singh, J. B.; Sirunyan, A.; Skuja, A.; Sharma, S.; Sherwood, B.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, V.; Sogut, K.; Sonmez, N.; Sorokin, P.; Spezziga, M.; Stefanovich, R.; Stolin, V.; Sudhakar, K.; Sulak, L.; Suzuki, I.; Talov, V.; Teplov, K.; Thomas, R.; Tonwar, S.; Topakli, H.; Tully, C.; Turchanovich, L.; Ulyanov, A.; Vanini, A.; Vankov, I.; Vardanyan, I.; Varela, F.; Vergili, M.; Verma, P.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vlassov, E.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Volobouev, I.; Volkov, A.; Volodko, A.; Wang, L.; Werner, J.; Wetstein, M.; Winn, D.; Wigmans, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, S. X.; Yazgan, E.; Yetkin, T.; Zalan, P.; Zarubin, A.; Zeyrek, M.

    2008-10-01

    The Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL HO) of the CMS detector is designed to measure the energy that is not contained by the barrel (HCAL HB) and electromagnetic (ECAL EB) calorimeters. Due to space limitation the barrel calorimeters do not contain completely the hadronic shower and an outer calorimeter (HO) was designed, constructed and inserted in the muon system of CMS to measure the energy leakage. Testing and calibration of the HO was carried out in a 300 GeV/c test beam that improved the linearity and resolution. HO will provide a net improvement in missing E T measurements at LHC energies. Information from HO will also be used for the muon trigger in CMS.

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, N.

    2014-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose detector built for analyzing LHC collision data. In July 2012, ATLAS announced the discovery of the Higgs boson, the last undiscovered particle in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter played a crucial role in the discovery by providing accurate measurements of Higgs final state objects such as photons, electrons and jets. The LAr detector is a sampling calorimeter consisting of four subsystems: an electromagnetic barrel, electromagnetic endcaps, hadronic endcaps, and forward calorimeters. The purity and temperature of the liquid argon remained well above the required levels throughout the data-taking period. Overall the calorimeter performed very well, with over 99% of data it collected in 2012 proton-proton collisions being suitable for physics analyses. In order to ensure good LAr detector performance at future higher luminosity LHC operation, several upgrades are being planned and implemented.

  12. The Development of a 3D Imaging Calorimeter of DAMPE for Cosmic Ray Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Hu, Yiming; Feng, Changqing; Liu, Shubin; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wei, Yifeng; Huang, Guangshun

    2016-07-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment began its on-orbit operations on December 17, 2015. The BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BGO ECAL) of the DAMPE is a total absorption calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the shower shape. It provides a good energy resolution (<1%@200GeV) and high electron/hadron discrimination (>10^5). The calorimeter also provides a trigger capability to DAMPE. The BGO ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. An Engineering qualified model was built and tested using high energy electron and proton beams with energy ranging from 1 GeV to 250GeV. Some pre results will be introduced in this talk.

  13. Electron Calorimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Boron loaded scintillators are suitable for measuring secondary neutrons produced by high-energy particles: protons & electrons Neutron flux can be used to discriminate hadron and electro-magnetic particles Combined effectiveness of all e/p discriminators techniques employedTBD Only moderate improvement in detection efficiency for B-10 concentrations >few% in thick moderators Bottom scintillator might serve as cascade penetration counter (TBC)

  14. The lead-liquid argon calorimeter for FNAL-E653

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, R.M.; Freyberger, A.P.; Lipton, R.J.; Nichols, W.R.; Potter, D.M.; Russ, J.S.; Zhang, Y.L.

    1987-02-01

    A lead-liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed for Fermilab experiment E-653. The design, operation, energy and spatial resolution, and analysis are described. A description of a unique read-out geometry which gives the detector powerful pattern recognition capability is also given.

  15. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  16. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  17. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter. PMID:26724069

  18. Measurement of the response of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter to electrons at the 2004 combined test-beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aharrouche, M.; Ma, H.; Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Aleksa, M.; Banfi, D.; Benchekroun, D.; Benslama, K.; Boonekamp, M.; Carli, T.; Carminati, L.; Chen, H.; Citterio, M.; Dannheim, D.; Delmastro, M.; Derue, F.; Di Girolamo, B.; El Kacimi, M.; Fanti, M.; Froeschl, R.; Fournier, D.; Grahn, K.-J.; Kado, M.; Kerschen, N.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lampl, W.; Laplace, S.; Lechowski, M.; Lelas, D.; Liang, Z.; Loureiro, K.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; McPherson, R.; Meng, Z.; Paganis, S.; Prieur, D.; Puzo, P.; Ridel, M.; Riu, I.; Rousseau, D.; Sauvage, G.; Schwemling, P.; Simon, S.; Spano, F.; Straessner, A.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, F.; Thioye, M.; Unal, G.; Wilkens, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I. and Zhang, H.

    2010-03-11

    During summer and fall 2004, the response of a full slice of the ATLAS barrel detector to different particles was studied in controlled beam. One module of the ATLAS liquid argon barrel calorimeter - identical to the production modules and read out by the final front-end and back-end electronics - was used for electromagnetic calorimetry. This paper presents and discusses the electron performance of the LAr barrel calorimeter, including linearity, uniformity, and resolution with different amounts of material upstream the calorimeter and energies ranging from 1 to 250 GeV.

  19. High-temperature battery calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.D.; Hart, R.H.; Chen, D.M.; Gibbard, H.F.

    1982-04-01

    A battery calorimeter was built for the measurement of thermal energy generation of high-temperature lithium--aluminum/iron sulfide battery cells, which are under development for electric vehicle propulsion and other energy storage applications. The calorimeter was designed with a temperature range of 400 /sup 0/--500 /sup 0/C, a detection limit of 1 mW, and an upper limit of heat flow of 50 W. The results of measurements on 200-Ah LiAl/FeS cells were in excellent agreement with the predictions of thermodynamic calculations based on precise measurements of the total cell polarization and the temperature coefficient of the emf. Details of the construction and operation principles of this calorimeter are given.

  20. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  1. D-Zero Calorimeter Multiplan

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-06-15

    This short report explains the parameters, and their basis, of the D-Zero calorimeter multiplan spread sheet Macintosh Multiplan worksheets have been found to be a valuable asset to the D-Zero design effort. The spread sheet contains parameters (constants) and results that come from the parameters. The full effect of changes in D-Zero calorimeter parameters can be calculated quite easily with Multiplan. When a change in a parameter is made, any results that pertain to that parameter automatically change also. This report will explain how some of the unobvious results were obtained.

  2. A linear Fick's law calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, Seymour S.; Bryant, Pat D.; Woodside, William F.

    1982-10-01

    A small animal calorimeter is described that is based on the direct application of Fick's law. Heat flow is channeled through a circular disk of magnesium and the temperature difference between the inside and outside surface of the disk is detected by means of solid-state temperature transducers. The device is calibrated using a light-weight electrical resistive source and is shown to be linear in its response and to have an e-folding time of 4.8 min. A rat was introduced into the calorimeter and its heat energy expenditure rate was observed in both the sedated and unsedated states.

  3. Calorimeters for pulsed lasers: calibration.

    PubMed

    Thacher, P D

    1976-07-01

    A calibration technique is developed and tested in which a calorimeter used for single-shot laser pulse energy measurements is calibrated with reference to a cw power standard using a chopped cw laser beam. A pulsed laser is required only to obtain the relative time response of the calorimeter to a pulse. With precautions as to beam alignment and wavelength, the principal error of the technique is that of the cw standard. Calibration of two thermopiles with cone receivers showed -2.5% and -3.5% agreement with previous calibrations made by the National Bureau of Standards. PMID:20165270

  4. Response of the D0 calorimeter to cosmic ray muons

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1992-10-01

    The D0 Detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is a large multipurpose detector facility designed for the study of proton-antiproton collision products at the center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. It consists of an inner tracking volume, hermetic uranium/liquid argon sampling calorimetry, and an outer 47{pi} muon detector. In preparation for our first collider run, the collaboration organized a Cosmic Ray Commissioning Run, which took place from February--May of 1991. This thesis is a detailed study of the response of the central calorimeter to cosmic ray muons as extracted from data collected during this run. We have compared the shapes of the experimentally-obtained pulse height spectra to the Landau prediction for the ionization loss in a continuous thin absorber in the four electromagnetic and four hadronic layers of the calorimeter, and find good agreement after experimental effects are folded in. We have also determined an absolute energy calibration using two independent methods: one which measures the response of the electronics to a known amount of charge injected at the preamplifiers, and one which uses a carry-over of the calibration from a beam test of central calorimeter modules. Both absolute energy conversion factors agree with one another, within their errors. The calibration determined from the test beam carryover, relevant for use with collider physics data, has an error of 2.3%. We believe that, with further study, a final error of {approx}1% will be achieved. The theory-to-experiment comparison of the peaks (or most probable values) of the muon spectra was used to determine the layer-to-layer consistency of the muon signal. We find that the mean response in the 3 fine hadronic layers is (12 {plus_minus} 2%) higher than that in the 4 electromagnetic layers. These same comparisons have been used to verify the absolute energy conversion factors. The conversion factors work well for the electromagnetic sections.

  5. The KTeV Pure CsI Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    KTeV is currently building a state-of-the-art pure CsI electromagnetic calorimeter with a sophisticated digital readout. The CsI array is expected to have better than 1% resolution over a dynamic range of 2--64 GeV. The design of the CsI array is driven by the difficult physics goal of attempting to measure the CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) to 1 part in 10000 in a high-rate neutral beam environment. The physics requirements and their impact on the final design will be discussed.

  6. Test beam results on the Proton Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; De Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Scomparin, E.; Stocco, D.; Vercellin, E.; Yermia, F.; Cicalo, C.; De Falco, A.; Floris, M.; Masoni, A.

    2006-10-27

    The proton Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZP) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator protons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Since all the spectator protons have the same energy, the calorimeter's response is proportional to their number, providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. The ZP is a spaghetti calorimeter, which collects and measures the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a brass absorber. The details of its construction will be shown. The calorimeter was tested at the CERN SPS using pion and electron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 200 GeV/c. The response of the calorimeter and its energy resolution have been studied as a function of the beam energy. Also, the signal uniformity and a comparison between the transverse profile of the hadronic and electromagnetic shower are presented. Moreover, the differences between the calorimeter's responses to protons and pions of the same energy have been investigated, exploiting the proton contamination in the positive pion beams.

  7. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  8. ELECTRONICS FOR CALORIMETERS AT LHC.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA,V.

    2001-09-11

    Some principal design features of front-end electronics for calorimeters in experiments at the LHC will be highlighted. Some concerns arising in the transition from the research and development and design phase to the construction will be discussed. Future challenges will be indicated.

  9. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  10. Development and evaluation of charge-sensitive preamplifier for CsI calorimeter in the KEK B-factory

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Manobu; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tamai, Kunio ); Takemoto, Megumi; Hayashii, Hisashi )

    1994-08-01

    In the KEK B-factory the barrel part of the electromagnetic calorimeter comprises 7,000 CsI(Tl) crystals. Each crystal has two photodiodes (HAMAMATSU S2744-03) and two preamplifiers. The capacitance of the photodiode is 100 pF at a bias voltage of 60 V and the leakage current is less than 4 nA. The authors developed a charge-sensitive preamplifier for the electromagnetic calorimeter (CsI(Tl)) in the KEK B-factory. They examined noise characteristic, dynamic range and power-supply ripple-rejection ratio on power rails.

  11. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, V. E. Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  12. Addition of photosensitive dopants to the D0 liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, N.A.; Anderson, D.F.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The addition of photosensitive dopants to liquid argon greatly enhances the signal from heavily ionizing particles. Since binding energy losses we correlated with the heavily ionizing component in hadronic showers, the addition of photosensitive dopants has been suggested as a mechanism to tune the e/{pi} ratio in liquid argon calorimeters. A measurement was performed at the FNAL test beam, adding 4 ppM tetramethylgermanium to the D{phi} uranium-liquid argon calorimeter. An increase in response for electromagnetic and hadronic showers was observed, with no net change in the e/{pi} ratio.

  13. GEANT4 physics evaluation with testbeam data of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Oberlack, H.; Salihagić, D.; Schacht, P.; Strizenec, P.

    2006-05-01

    We evaluate the validity of the GEANT4 electromagnetic and hadronic physics models by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter with GEANT4-based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and shapes of showers are studied both for electrons and charged pions. Furthermore, throughout the paper we compare GEANT4 and the corresponding predictions of GEANT3 used with the G-CALOR code for hadronic shower development.

  14. Characterization of Lead Tungstate for Neutral Particle Spectrometer at 12 GeV JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Precision measurements of the deeply-virtual Compton scattering cross section at different beam energies to extract the real part of the Compton form factor, measurements to push the energy scale of real Compton scattering, and measurements of the basic semi-inclusive neutral-pion cross section in a kinematical region where the QCD factorization scheme is expected to hold all have something in common: the need for detecting neutral particles with high precision and high luminosity. The Neutral Particle Spectrometer (NPS) is a crystal electromagnetic calorimeter preceded by a sweeping magnet to sweep away charged particles. In this presentation I will show the results of PbWO4 crystal quality studies for the NPS. PbWO4 is optimal for the NPS due to its small Moliere radius and radiation hardness. The critical aspect for crystal quality, and thus resolution/precision, is the combination of high light output and radiation hardness, which depend strongly on the manufacturing process. We have tested the performance of PbWO4 crystals, and in particular, measured their light yield, optical transmission, and uniformity and radiation hardness. The homogeneity of the crystal was investigated based on the variation of the transverse optical transmission. Supported in part by NSF-PHY-1306227.

  15. Development of a compact photon detector for ANKE at C OSY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejny, V.; Bacelar, J.; Chernyshev, V.; Büscher, M.; Hoek, M.; Koch, H. R.; Löhner, H.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Novotny, R.; Römer, K.; Ströher, H.; Wrońska, A.

    2002-06-01

    Recent improvements in the performance of PbWO 4, a high-density inorganic scintillator, offer the possibility to design very compact, large-acceptance electromagnetic calorimeters with excellent timing and good energy resolution, applicable also for photon energies below 1 GeV. Such a detection system is planned to be built for the internal magnetic spectrometer ANKE (Apparatus for Studies of Nucleon and Kaon Ejectiles) at the Cooler Synchrotron ( COSY) Jülich. The limited space and stray magnetic fields of ANKE place severe boundary conditions, which have to be taken into account for detector layout and the choice of photo sensors.

  16. Hierarchical Trigger of the ALICE Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high p{sub T} photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high p{sub T} gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  17. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  18. sPHENIX Hadronic Calorimeter Scintillator Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Reuben; Sphenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A new form of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) was discovered with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). PHENIX is an experiment at RHIC that helped with this discovery, but plans are being made to replace it with a new spectrometer with different capabilities. The sPHENIX detector will consist of a superconducting solenoid magnet, hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry and charged particle tracking. sPHENIX will enable a rich jet physics program that will address fundamental questions about of the nature of the QGP. The new detector will provide full azimuthal coverage and +/- 1.1 in pseudorapidity. The Hadronic Calorimeter is a major subsystem in this detector. It is made of alternating layers of scintillating tiles and steel plates. In the current prototype the tiles are covered with a reflective coating and contain wavelength shifting fibers. As the second round of prototypes are developed for an upcoming beam test, special care is being taken to provide uniform light collection efficiency across the detector. Studies are being conducted to ensure this by careful alignment of the silicon photomultipliers to the fibers and varying coatings on the tiles. The effects of the coating will be presented along with the current status and ongoing plans.

  19. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter and its performance after two years of LHC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aperio Bella, L.

    2013-08-01

    The ATLAS detector is designed to study proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Its calorimeter system, for the electromagnetic and forward part and for a fraction of the hadronic part, is made of liquid argon sampling calorimeters. During the 2011 data taking period, ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency and recorded more than 5fb-1 integrated luminosity of 7 TeV center of mass energy proton-proton collisions. The ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeters played a significant role in this achievement. Its main features are first described. Then, some of its performances over the past two years are given. Highlights are put on its operation, calibration, stability and data taking efficiency, as well as on the related physics performances.

  20. Containerless high-temperature calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Robinson, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Samples are heated by electron bombardment in high-temperature calorimeter that operates from 1,000 to 3,600 C yet consumes less that 100 watts at temperatures less than 2,500 C. Contamination of samples is kept to minimum by suspending them from wire in vacuum chamber. Various sample slopes such as wires, dishs, spheres, rods, or irregular bodies can be accommodated and only about 100 nq of samples are needed for accurate measurements.

  1. An elevated temperature titration calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Zanonato, P.L.; Choppin, G.R. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-06-01

    A variable-temperature (313 K to 353 K) titration calorimeter of high sensitivity has been constructed. The purpose of the calorimeter is to study temperature effects on the enthalpies of complex formation and of other reactions of metal cations such as hydrolysis and precipitation. Operation of the calorimetric system, including that final calculation of the heat released during titration, is automatic via computer control. Calibration tests of the calorimeter using 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol gave -(46.0 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(46.2 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} for the enthalpy of protonation, at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. For titrations of 2-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol, enthalpy of protonation values of -(28.4 {plus minus} 0.3) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} and -(29.3 {plus minus} 0.2) kJ mol{sup {minus}1} were obtained at 318 K and at 343 K, respectively. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%.

  3. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Monte Carlo study on the low momentum μ-π identification of the BESIII EM calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Lü, Jun-Guang; He, Kang-Lin; An, Zheng-Hua; Cai, Xiao; Dong, Ming-Yi; Fang, Jian; Hu, Tao; Liu, Wan-Jin; Lu, Qi-Wen; Ning, Fei-Peng; Sun, Li-Jun; Sun, Xi-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Xue, Zhen; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Zhou, Li

    2009-10-01

    The BESIII detector has a high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter which can be used for low momentum μ-π identification. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, μ-π separation was studied. A multilayer perceptron neural network making use of the defined variables was used to do the identification and a good μ-π separation result was obtained.

  4. The CMS barrel calorimeter response to particle beams from 2 to 350 GeV/ c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adam, N.; Adams, M.; Adzic, P.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Almeida, N.; Anagnostou, G.; Andelin, D.; Anderson, E. W.; Anfreville, M.; Anicin, I.; Antchev, G.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M. W.; Auffray, E.; Argiro, S.; Askew, A.; Atramentov, O.; Ayan, S.; Arcidy, M.; Aydin, S.; Aziz, T.; Baarmand, M.; Babich, K.; Baccaro, S.; Baden, D.; Baffioni, S.; Bakirci, M. N.; Balazs, M.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Bard, R.; Barge, D.; Barnes, V.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Baty, C.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bandurin, D.; Beauceron, S.; Bell, K. W.; Bencze, G.; Benetta, R.; Bercher, M.; Beri, S.; Bernet, C.; Berntzon, L.; Berthon, U.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhatti, A.; Biino, C.; Blaha, J.; Bloch, P.; Blyth, S.; Bodek, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bose, S.; Bose, T.; Bourotte, J.; Brett, A. M.; Brown, R. M.; Britton, D.; Budd, H.; Buehler, M.; Burchesky, K.; Busson, P.; Camanzi, B.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Carrera, E.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Cerci, S.; Cerutti, M.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Charlot, C.; Chen, E. A.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, Z.; Chendvankar, S.; Chipaux, R.; Choudhary, B. C.; Choudhury, R. K.; Chung, Y.; Clarida, W.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Combaret, C.; Conetti, S.; Cossutti, F.; Cox, B.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Cussans, D. G.; Dafinei, I.; Damgov, J.; da Silva di Calafiori, D. R.; Daskalakis, G.; Davatz, G.; David, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Debbins, P.; Deiters, K.; Dejardin, M.; Djordjevic, M.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Della Negra, R.; Della Ricca, G.; Del Re, D.; Demianov, A.; de Min, A.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; de Visser, T.; Descamps, J.; Deshpande, P. V.; Diaz, J.; Diemoz, M.; di Marco, E.; Dimitrov, L.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Dobrzynski, L.; Drndarevic, S.; Duboscq, J. E.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Dutta, D.; Dzelalija, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Elias, J.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; El Mamouni, H.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Ershov, A.; Erturk, S.; Esen, S.; Eskut, E.; Evangelou, I.; Evans, D. L.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Fay, J.; Fenyvesi, A.; Ferri, F.; Fisher, W.; Flower, P. S.; Franci, D.; Franzoni, G.; Freeman, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gargiulo, C.; Gascon, S.; Gataullin, M.; Gaultney, V.; Gamsizkan, H.; Gavrilov, V.; Geerebaert, Y.; Genchev, V.; Gentit, F. X.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Ghezzi, A.; Ghodgaonkar, M. D.; Gilly, J.; Givernaud, A.; Gleyzer, S.; Gninenko, S.; Go, A.; Gobbo, B.; Godinovic, N.; Golubev, N.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Gong, D.; Govoni, P.; Grant, N.; Gras, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Guevara Riveros, L.; Guillaud, J. P.; Gurtu, A.; Murat Güler, A.; Gülmez, E.; Gümüş, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Haguenauer, M.; Halyo, V.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Hashemi, M.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heath, H. F.; Heering, A.; Heister, A.; Heltsley, B.; Hill, J. A.; Hintz, W.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P. R.; Honma, A.; Hou, G. W. S.; Hsiung, Y.; Hunt, A.; Husejko, M.; Ille, B.; Ilyina, N.; Imlay, R.; Ingram, D.; Ingram, Q.; Isiksal, E.; Jarry, P.; Jarvis, C.; Jeong, C.; Jessop, C.; Johnson, K.; Jones, J.; Jovanovic, D.; Kaadze, K.; Kachanov, V.; Kaftanov, V.; Kailas, S.; Kalagin, V.; Kalinin, A.; Kalmani, S.; Karmgard, D.; Kataria, S. K.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Kennedy, B. W.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kim, H.; Kisselevich, I.; Kloukinas, K.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kokkas, P.; Kolberg, T.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Kramer, L.; Krasnikov, N.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krokhotin, A.; Krpic, D.; Kryshkin, V.; Kubota, Y.; Kubrik, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kunori, S.; Kuo, C. M.; Kurt, P.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Laasanen, A.; Ladygin, V.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Laszlo, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Lebeau, M.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lee, S.-W.; Leshev, G.; Lethuillier, M.; Levchuk, L.; Lin, S. W.; Lin, W.; Linn, S.; Lintern, A. L.; Litvine, V.; Litvintsev, D.; Litov, L.; Lobolo, L.; Locci, E.; Lodge, A. B.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Luckey, P. D.; Lukanin, V.; Lustermann, W.; Lynch, C.; Ma, Y.; Machado, E.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malberti, M.; Malclès, J.; Maletic, D.; Mandjavidze, I.; Mans, J.; Manthos, N.; Maravin, Y.; Marchica, C.; Marinelli, N.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Marlow, D.; Markowitz, P.; Marone, M.; Martinez, G.; Mathez, H.; Matveev, V.; Mavrommatis, C.; Maurelli, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Meridiani, P.; Merlo, J. P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Mikhailin, V.; Milenovic, P.; Miller, M.; Milleret, G.; Miné, P.; Moeller, A.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.; Mohanty, A. K.; Moissenz, P.

    2009-04-01

    The response of the CMS barrel calorimeter (electromagnetic plus hadronic) to hadrons, electrons and muons over a wide momentum range from 2 to 350 GeV/ c has been measured. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system has been studied. These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a detailed discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. We also show techniques that apply corrections to the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic (EB) and hadronic (HB) barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons. Above 5 GeV/ c, these corrections improve the energy resolution of the combined system where the stochastic term equals 84.7±1.6% and the constant term is 7.4±0.8%. The corrected mean response remains constant within 1.3% rms.

  5. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter; Performance after 2 years of LHC operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbouZeid, Hass; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particle flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at about 88 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 9 fb-1 (as of June, 2012) of data have been collected at a center of mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating almost optimally, with performances very close to the specifications.

  6. A Triggerless readout system for the bar PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemens, M.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    One of the physics goals of the future bar PANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this concept, each detector subsystem preprocesses the signal, so that in a later stage, high-level phyiscs constraints can be applied to select events of interest. A dedicated clock source using a protocol called SODANET over optical fibers ensures proper synchronisation between the components. For this new type of readout, a new way of simulating the detector response also needed to be developed, taking into account the effects of pile-up caused by the 20 MHz interaction rate.

  7. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10-80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  8. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    DOE PAGES

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; et al

    2015-12-02

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g–2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. Here, we report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  9. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Pocanic, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2015-12-02

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g–2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. Here, we report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  10. The calorimeter system of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Počanić, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2016-07-01

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g-2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Čerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. We report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0-4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  11. Status of the CDF II Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Mark

    2006-10-27

    The status of the CDF calorimeters was reported at the CALOR2002 conference, about a year after Run II started at the Tevatron Collider. I will review upgrades to the system since that conference, as well as the operation and performance of the calorimeters.

  12. 5.8 X-ray Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  13. High-temperature containerless calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.; Lacy, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (greater than 1500 K) containerless calorimeter is described and its usefulness demonstrated. The calorimeter uses the technique of omnidirectional electron bombardment of pendant drops to achieve an isothermal test environment. The small heat input into the sample (i.e., 15-50 W) can be controlled and measured. The apparatus can be used to determine the total hemispherical emissivity, specific heat, heat of fusion, surface tension, and equilibrium melting temperature of small molten drops in the temperature range of 1500 to 3500 K. The total hemispherical emissivity and specific heat of pure niobium and two alloys of niobium-germanium have been measured in the temperature range of 1700 to 2400 K. As reported in the literature, the total hemispherical emissivity varied as a function of temperature. However, specific heat values for both the pure metal and alloys seem to be independent of temperature. Specific heat for the liquid alloy phase was also measured and compared to the solid phase.

  14. The Status Of GLAST CsI Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Chekhtman, A.

    2006-10-27

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) CsI calorimeter, which consists of 16 flight modules and 2 spare modules, was assembled in 2004-2005 by an international team from the USA, France and Sweden. Each module contains 96 CsI crystals supported by a carbon fiber composite structure and read out from both ends with silicon PIN photodiodes. Signals from the array of photodiodes are processed by custom analog ASICs and commercial ADCs. After assembly, each module underwent a full environmental test program including electromagnetic interference and compatibility, vibration, and thermal-vacuum test to flight-acceptance levels. The functional performance of each module was verified before and after each test, and calibration with cosmic muons and charge injection was performed throughout the test sequence. All 18 modules showed stable functioning over the few months of the assembly and test program. None of the 1728 crystals experienced mechanical or optical degradation. Integration of the calorimeter modules with the other detector and electronics subsystems into the complete Large Area Telescope began at SLAC in April 2005 and was completed in December 2005. The environmental testing of full LAT instrument is planned for summer 2006. Simultaneously the beam test of calibration unit made of spare modules is planned to be done at PS and SPS beam lines at CERN.

  15. New calorimeters for space experiments: physics requirements and technological challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrocchesi, Pier Simone

    2015-07-01

    Direct measurements of charged cosmic radiation with instruments in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), or flying on balloons above the atmosphere, require the identification of the incident particle, the measurement of its energy and possibly the determination of its sign-of-charge. The latter information can be provided by a magnetic spectrometer together with a measurement of momentum. However, magnetic deflection in space experiments is at present limited to values of the Maximum Detectable Rigidity (MDR) hardly exceeding a few TV. Advanced calorimetric techniques are, at present, the only way to measure charged and neutral radiation at higher energies in the multi-TeV range. Despite their mass limitation, calorimeters may achieve a large geometric factor and provide an adequate proton background rejection factor, taking advantage of a fine granularity and imaging capabilities. In this lecture, after a brief introduction on electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, an innovative approach to the design of a space-borne, large acceptance, homogeneous calorimeter for the detection of high energy cosmic rays will be described.

  16. Performance And Operation of the BaBar Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, A.M.; /Texas U.

    2011-11-23

    The performance and operation of the CsI(Tl) crystal calorimeter of the BABAR detector during the last years of operation is discussed. The BABAR detector is located at the PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). PEP-II is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider operating mainly at a center-of-mass energy of 10.58 GeV. This corresponds to the mass of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, which decays exclusively into B{sup 0}{bar B}{sup 0} and B{sup +}B{sup -} pairs. One main physics goal of the BABAR experiment was the measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in the decay of neutral B-mesons. Other goals of the experiment include precision measurements of the decays of bottom mesons to charm and {tau} leptons, as well as searches for rare decays utilizing the high luminosity delivered by the PEP-II accelerator. The BABAR detector (Fig 1) consists of 6 subdetectors. Starting from the interaction point and moving radially outwards there is a Silicon Vertex Detector, Drift Chamber, DRC (Cherenkov detector), an Electromagnetic Calorimeter, and an Instrumented Flux Return.

  17. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/..sqrt..E was achieved.

  18. The NA62 Liquid Krypton calorimeter readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Ryjov, V.; De Simone, N.; Venditti, S.

    2016-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at the CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator studies the ultra-rare decays of charged kaons. The high-resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) electromagnetic calorimeter of the former NA48 experiment [2] is a key component of the experiment photon-veto system. The new LKr readout system comprises 14,000 14-bit ADC acquisition channels, 432× 1 Gbit Ethernet data request and readout links routed by 28× 10 Gbit network switches to the experiment computer farm, and timing, trigger and control (TTC) distribution system. This paper presents the architecture of the LKr readout and TTC systems, the overall performance and the first successfully collected experiment physics data.

  19. Calibration of BGO Calorimeter of the DAMPE in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explore (DAMPE) is a satellite based experiment which launched on December 2015 and aims at indirect searching for dark matter by measuring the spectra of high energy e±, γ from 5GeV up to 10TeV originating from deep space. The 3D imaging BGO calorimeter of DAMPE was designed to precisely measurement the primary energy of the electromagnetic particle and provides a highly efficient rejection of the hadronic background by reconstruct the longitudinal and lateral profiles of showers. To achieve the expected accuracy on the energy measurement, each signal channel has to be calibrated. The energy equalization is performed using the signal that Minimum Ionizing Particles (MIP) leave in each BGO bar, the MIPs measurement method with orbit data and, data quality, time stability using MIPs data will be presented, too.

  20. Can a Pb/SCIFI calorimeter survive the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzog, D.W.; Hughes, S.A.; Reimer, P.E.; Tayloe, R.L. ); Johnson, K.F. ); Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.; Zorn, M. )

    1990-01-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%{radical}E to 14.0%{radical}E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%{radical}E. The tests are described. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Can a PB / SCIFI Calorimeter Survive the SSC?

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Hertzog; S. A. Hughes; P. E. Reimer; R. L. Tayloe; K. F. Johnson; S. Majewski; C. Zorn; M. Zorn

    1990-03-01

    A scintillating fiber based electromagnetic calorimeter module built from radiation-hard materials has been tested in a beam capable of delivering both low and high currents of monoenergetic electrons. Energy resolution and light output measurements were made following high-dose exposures. The procedure was repeated until the resolution of the detector decreased from an initial value of 6.9%/sqrt E to 14.0%/sqrt E and the pulse height dropped by a factor of 11. After four weeks, the detector was retested. Partial recovery was observed in the light output which returned to approximately 52% of its original value. The resolution recovered to a value of 8.8%/sqrt E. The tests are described.

  2. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  3. The Soudan 2 honeycomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, C.

    1990-12-01

    Soudan 2 is an 1100-ton honeycomb tracking calorimeter which is being constructed to search for nucleon decay. The detector consists of finely segmented iron instrumented with long drift tubes, and records three spatial coordinates and dE/dx for every gas crossing. Excellent event reconstruction capability, particle identification and muon sign and direction determination give superior rejection of the neutrino background to nucleon decay in many modes. The first 620 tons of Soudan 2 are now in steady operation, with completion planned for 1992. Detector performance has been studied using cosmic ray tracks and a charged test beam calibration. Results on detector performance and detector response are described in this paper. 2 refs. , 11 figs.

  4. ATLAS LAr calorimeter performance and LHC Run-2 commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spettel, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector was built to study proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center of mass energy of up to 14 TeV. The Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry as well as the hadronic calorimetry in the endcap and forward regions. They have shown excellent performance during the first LHC data taking campaign, from 2010 to 2012, so-called Run 1, at a peak luminosity of 8 ×1033cm-2s-1. During the next run, peak luminosities of 1.5 ×1034cm-2s-1 and even higher are expected at a 25 ns bunch spacing. Such a high collision rate may have an impact on the quality of the energy reconstruction which is attempted to be maintained at a high level using a calibration procedure described in this contribution. It also poses major challenges to the first level of the trigger system which is constrained to a maximal rate of 100 kHz. For Run-3, scheduled to start in 2019, instantaneous luminosity as high as 3 ×1034cm-2s-1 are foreseen imposing an upgrade of the LAr trigger system to maintain its performance. A demonstrator containing prototypes of the upgraded trigger electronic architecture has been installed on one of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter readout front end crates to test it during the Run-2 campaign. The new architecture and its benefits for data taking will be discussed below as well as the results from first beam splash events.

  5. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  6. Accelerator Test of an Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Binns, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) utilizes a thin sampling calorimeter concept for direct measurements of high-energy cosmic rays. The ICA design uses arrays of small scintillating fibers to measure the energy and trajectory of the produced cascades. A test instrument has been developed to study the performance of this concept at accelerator energies and for comparison with simulations. Two test exposures have been completed using a CERN test beam. Some results from the accelerator tests are presented.

  7. Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Software

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Jean R.; Levi, Gerald

    1998-08-27

    The calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program performs the calculations necessary to calculate the calorimetric sample results in grams and provide a printable report for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters. To determine a standard''s wattage or sample gram fill, the reporting program retrieves the output voltage from the power supply at the calorimeter and a temperature resistant resistor via a voltmeter and digital input card in a Hewlett Packard Data Acquisition Unit (DAQ). From the retrieved voltage data, the reporting program can calculate a standard''s wattage output and sample gram fill. The reporting program also determines equilibrium (stability) by performing a stability algorithm bassed on user defined slope an/or sigma values for the previous forty values. Once the stability is determined, the reporting program will notify the user that the calorimeter has reached equilibrium. The Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program operates continuously as described to monitor for calorimeter equilibrium and to generate a printable report with sample results.

  8. CALDAR. Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Software

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, J.R.; Levi, G.

    1998-07-20

    The calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program performs the calculations necessary to calculate the calorimetric sample results in grams and provide a printable report for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters. To determine a standard`s wattage or sample gram fill, the reporting program retrieves the output voltage from the power supply at the calorimeter and a temperature resistant resistor via a voltmeter and digital input card in a Hewlett Packard Data Acquisition Unit (DAQ). From the retrieved voltage data, the reporting program can calculate a standard`s wattage output and sample gram fill. The reporting program also determines equilibrium (stability) by performing a stability algorithm bassed on user defined slope an/or sigma values for the previous forty values. Once the stability is determined, the reporting program will notify the user that the calorimeter has reached equilibrium. The Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program operates continuously as described to monitor for calorimeter equilibrium and to generate a printable report with sample results.

  9. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-12-31

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

  10. Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Software

    1998-08-27

    The calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program performs the calculations necessary to calculate the calorimetric sample results in grams and provide a printable report for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters. To determine a standard''s wattage or sample gram fill, the reporting program retrieves the output voltage from the power supply at the calorimeter and a temperature resistant resistor via a voltmeter and digital input card in a Hewlett Packard Data Acquisition Unit (DAQ). From themore » retrieved voltage data, the reporting program can calculate a standard''s wattage output and sample gram fill. The reporting program also determines equilibrium (stability) by performing a stability algorithm bassed on user defined slope an/or sigma values for the previous forty values. Once the stability is determined, the reporting program will notify the user that the calorimeter has reached equilibrium. The Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program operates continuously as described to monitor for calorimeter equilibrium and to generate a printable report with sample results.« less

  11. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  12. The automatic gain-matching in the PIBETA CsI calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frlež, E.; Bychkov, M.; Počanić, D.

    2008-08-01

    Segmented electromagnetic calorimeters are used to determine both the total energy and direction (momentum components) of charged particles and photons. A trade-off is involved in selecting the degree of segmentation of the calorimeter as the spatial and energy resolutions are affected differently. Increased number of individual detectors reduces accidental particle pile-up per detector but introduces complications related to ADC pedestals and pedestal variations, exacerbates the effects of electronic noise and ground loops, and requires summing and discrimination of multiple analog signals. Moreover, electromagnetic showers initiated by individual ionizing particles spread over several detectors. This complicates the precise gain-matching of the detector elements which requires an iterative procedure. The PIBETA calorimeter is a 240-module pure CsI non-magnetic detector optimized for detection of photons and electrons in the energy range 5-100 MeV. We present the computer-controlled, automatic, in situ gain-matching procedure that we developed and used routinely in several rare pion and muon decay experiments with the PIBETA detector.

  13. Design Studies of the Calorimeter Systems for the sPHENIX Experiment at RHIC and Future Upgrade Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, C.; Kistenev, E.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The PHENIX Experiment at RHIC is planning a series of major upgrades that will enable a comprehensive measurement of jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions, provide enhanced physics capabilities for studying nucleon-nucleus and polarized proton collisions, and allow a detailed study of electron-nucleus collisions at the Electron Ion Collider at Brookhaven (eRHIC). The first of these upgrades, sPHENIX, will be based on the former BaBar magnet and will include a hadronic calorimeter and new electromagnetic calorimeter that will cover ±1.1 units in pseudorapidity and 2π in azimuth in the central region, resulting in a factor of 6 increase in acceptance over the present PHENIX detector. The electromagnetic calorimeter will be a tungsten scintillating fiber design with a radiation length ~ 7 mm and a Moliere radius ~ 2 cm. It will have a total depth of ~ 18 radiation lengths and an energy resolution ~ 15%/√E. The hadronic calorimeter will consist of steel plates with scintillating tiles in between that are read out with wavelength shifting fibers, It will have a total depth of ~ 5 interaction lengths and an energy resolution 100%/√E. Both calorimeters will use silicon photomultipliers as the readout sensor. Detailed design studies and Monte Carlo simulations for both calorimeters have been carried out and prototype detectors have been constructed and tested in a test beam at Fermilab in February 2014. This contribution describes these design studies for the sPHENIX experiment and its future upgrade plans at RHIC.

  14. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-12-17

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to {+-}0.001 C.

  15. Calibration of the BaBar CsI(Tl) Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Jorg; Marks, Joerg; /Heidelberg U.

    2011-11-23

    After nine years of operation, the BABAR experiment at the e{sup +}e{sup -} B factory PEP-II (Standford Linear Accelerator Center) stopped data taking in April 2008. An important part of the experiment is the electromagnetic calorimeter which consists of 6580 CsI crystals doped with thallium and read out by Si-PIN photodiodes. The light yield of the CsI crystals is changing in time due to radiation exposure. In addition to the changing light yield, passive material in front of and between the crystals as well as signal thresholds during the reconstruction influence the reconstructed energies. This requires a time-dependent calibration of the calorimeter. The calibration issues are reviewed and the calibration results obtained from various data samples are presented.

  16. Test of a LYSO calorimeter prototype readout by large-area Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, D.; Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Vallazza, E.; Cecchi, C.; Germani, S.; Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E.; Rossi, A.

    2014-06-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger-Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (˜ 106). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9 ˜ 18X0 LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4 × 4 mm2 SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter has been tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100-500 MeV energy range.

  17. The CMS barrel calorimeter response to particle beams from 2-GeV/c to 350-GeV/c

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adam, N.; Adams, M.; Adzic, P.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Almeida, N.; /Lisbon, LIFEP /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr. /Virginia U. /Iowa State U.

    2009-01-01

    The response of the CMS barrel calorimeter (electromagnetic plus hadronic) to hadrons, electrons and muons over a wide momentum range from 2 to 350 GeV/c has been measured. To our knowledge, this is the widest range of momenta in which any calorimeter system has been studied. These tests, carried out at the H2 beam-line at CERN, provide a wealth of information, especially at low energies. The analysis of the differences in calorimeter response to charged pions, kaons, protons and antiprotons and a detailed discussion of the underlying phenomena are presented. We also show techniques that apply corrections to the signals from the considerably different electromagnetic (EB) and hadronic (HB) barrel calorimeters in reconstructing the energies of hadrons. Above 5 GeV/c, these corrections improve the energy resolution of the combined system where the stochastic term equals 84.7 {+-} 1.6% and the constant term is 7.4 {+-} 0.8%. The corrected mean response remains constant within 1.3% rms.

  18. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance after Three Years of LHC Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampl, W.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at CERN. Liquid argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudo-rapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadron calorimetry in the range 1.5-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterised by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response without any gap. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadron calorimetry; whereas a classic plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at approximately 89 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three-year period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 27 fb-1 of data have been collected at centre of mass energies of 7-8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter has been operating almost optimally, with performance very close to specifications. The talk will cover all aspects of these first years of operation, including the calibration efforts and the data quality assessment procedure. The excellent performance achieved will also be briefly reviewed, especially in the context of the recently announced discovery of the Higgs boson.

  19. High temperature calorimeter performance variable study

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, R.

    1986-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory with funding supplied by the Department of Energy sponsored the evaluation of a water calorimeter for thermal transmission testing of refractory fiber insulation using a ruggedness test. The specimens tested were low density refractory fiber flexible blanket insulation. The factors evaluated included (1) emissivity of copper plate; (2) calorimeter to guard balance; (3) calorimeter to room temperature balance; (4) calorimeter water flow rate; (5) perimeter insulation; (6) type of hot side thermocouple and (7) type of cold side thermocouple. A ruggedness test is a statistical method of evaluating step changes making multiple changes each test. Five of the seven factors were found to be significant at a minimum of one temperature. One plate versus three plates, two inch thick specimen versus three inch thick specimen and a release agent were three factors that were tested independently of the ruggedness test. The specimens were also tested in a guarded hot plate for comparison purposes. Recommendations are given to improve the design and operation of the calorimeter.

  20. Description of an ionization calorimeter complemented with proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babayan, K. P.; Boyadzhyan, N. G.; Vasiltsov, V. V.; Grigorov, N. L.; Sobinyakov, V. A.; Shestoperov, V. Y.

    1975-01-01

    An ionization calorimeter is described with a system of proportional counters which are used to determine the charge of the particles incident to the calorimeter and to estimate the number of the secondary charged particles.

  1. Calorimeter operations in RunII at DØ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    The operation and performance of the DØ calorimeter is presented. Calorimeter operation will be overviewed with specific focus on calibration techniques hardware monitoring and stability, and overall data quality strategies

  2. Steady-state differential calorimeter measures gamma heating in reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, D.; Talboy, J. H.

    1968-01-01

    Steady-state differential calorimeter, which displays good accuracy and reproducibility of results, is used to measure gamma heating in a reactor environment. The calorimeter has a long life expectancy since it is virtually unharmed by the reactor environment.

  3. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  4. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  5. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  6. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2016-07-12

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal’s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter after three years of LHC operation and plans for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strizenec, P.

    2014-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Liquid Argon sampling calorimeters are used for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region up to 3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry in the range 1.4-4.9. The electromagnetic calorimeters use lead as passive material and are characterized by an accordion geometry that allows a fast and uniform azimuthal response. Copper and tungsten were chosen as passive material for the hadronic calorimetry; whereas a parallel plate geometry was adopted at large polar angles, an innovative one based on cylindrical electrodes with thin argon gaps was designed for the coverage at low angles, where the particles flow is higher. All detectors are housed in three cryostats kept at 88.5 K. After installation in 2004-2006, the calorimeters were extensively commissioned over the three years period prior to first collisions in 2009, using cosmic rays and single LHC beams. Since then, around 27 fb-1 of data have been collected at a unprecedented center of mass energies between 7 TeV and 8 TeV. During all these stages, the calorimeter and its electronics have been operating with performances very close to the specification ones. After 2019, the instantaneous luminosity will reach 2-3 × 1034 cm-2s-1, well above the luminosity for which the calorimeter was designed. In order to preserve its triggering capabilities, the detector will be upgraded with a new fully digital trigger system with a refined granularity. In 2023, the instantaneous luminosity will ultimately reach 5-7 × 1034 cm-2s-1, requiring a complete replacement of the readout electronics. Moreover, with an increased particle flux, several phenomena (liquid argon boiling, space charge effects...) will affect the performance of the forward calorimeter (FCal). A replacement with a new FCal with smaller LAr gaps or a new calorimeter module are considered. The performance of these new

  8. Electromagnetic Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milson, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)

  9. Nonlinear processes upon two-photon interband picosecond excitation of PbWO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukanin, V. I.; Karasik, A. Ya

    2016-09-01

    A new experimental method is proposed to study the dynamics of nonlinear processes occurring upon two-photon interband picosecond excitation of a lead tungstate crystal and upon its excitation by cw probe radiation in a temporal range from several nanoseconds to several seconds. The method is applied to the case of crystal excitation by a sequence of 25 high-power picosecond pulses with a wavelength of 523.5 nm and 633-nm cw probe radiation. Measuring the probe beam transmittance during crystal excitation, one can investigate the influence of two-photon interband absorption and the thermal nonlinearity of the refractive index on the dynamics of nonlinear processes in a wide range of times (from several nanoseconds to several seconds). The time resolution of the measuring system makes it possible to distinguish fast and slow nonlinear processes of electronic or thermal nature, including the generation of a thermal lens and thermal diffusion. An alternative method is proposed to study the dynamics of induced absorption transformation and, therefore, the dynamics of the development of nonlinear rocesses upon degenerate two-photon excitation of the crystal in the absence of external probe radiation.

  10. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  11. Fractal dimension of particle showers measured in a highly granular calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Manqi; Jeans, Daniel; Boudry, Vincent; Brient, Jean-Claude; Videau, Henri

    2014-01-10

    We explore the fractal nature of particle showers using Monte Carlo simulation. We define the fractal dimension of showers measured in a high granularity calorimeter designed for a future lepton collider. The shower fractal dimension reveals detailed information of the spatial configuration of the shower. It is found to be characteristic of the type of interaction and highly sensitive to the nature of the incident particle. Using the shower fractal dimension, we demonstrate a particle identification algorithm that can efficiently separate electromagnetic showers, hadronic showers, and nonshowering tracks. We also find a logarithmic dependence of the shower fractal dimension on the particle energy.

  12. Sum and buffer amplifier for lead-glass barrel calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ujiie, N.; Ikeda, M.; Inaba, S.

    1988-02-01

    Analog sum and buffer amplifiers have been developed to provide a fast trigger signal from the lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector for TRISTAN e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider experiments at KEK. The total kick-back noise from the 4300 channel gate signals of the LeCroy FASTBUS ADC 1885N has been suppressed to less than 40 mV (equivalent to a 0.4 GeV electron signal). The performances of the analog sum and buffer amplifiers that have been developed are described.

  13. Electromagnetic secondaries and punch-through effects in the CMS ME1/1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belotelov, I. I.; Golunov, A. O.; Golutvin, I. A.; Gorbunov, N. V.; Karjavin, V. Yu.; Kiryushin, Yu. T.; Kamenev, A. Yu.; Khabarov, S. V.; Khabarov, V. V.; Mescheryakov, G. V.; Moissenz, K. P.; Moissenz, P. V.; Movchan, S. A.; Palichik, V. V.; Perelygin, V. V.; Shmatov, S. V.; Smolin, D. A.; Zarubin, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the shower leakage from the CMS Endcap Hadron calorimeter (HE) due to electromagnetic secondaries and punch-through in the region of the ME1/1 Forward Muon Station. Two configurations are considered: with and without the CMS Endcap Electromagnetic calorimeter (EE). The experimental data have been taken during the combined beam test of CMS subdetectors (HE, ME, RPC, DT) at the CERN H2 beam facility in 2004. Serial CSC chambers (ready for installation in CMS) fully equipped with readout electronics have been exposed. Simulation of a beam test setup has been performed using the GEANT4-based simulation software package OSCAR.

  14. Grout Analysis for EC and CC Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, L.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-01-06

    The EC and CC calorimeters roll on Two parallel hardened steel ways which reside on the top of the D0 platform's center beam. The ways will be grouted to the center beam once their correct elevation has been established. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and compare three different epoxy grouts and their properties for this application.

  15. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  16. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-11-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  17. Electromagnetic fasteners

    DOEpatents

    Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.

  18. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, C. R.; Fuchs, B. A.; Holdener, F. R.; Heck, J. L., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large scintillating crystal arrays such as the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the GEM Detector at SSCL, the Crystal Clear Collaboration's cerium fluoride or lead tungstenate calorimeter at the proposed LHC and CERN, the PHENIX Detector at RHIC (barium fluoride), and the cesium iodide Calorimeter for the BaBar Detector at PEP-2 B Factory at SLAC. The machining and polishing methods to be presented in this paper provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analysis. Surface roughness of about 10-20 A and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large barium fluoride crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining the proper angled surfaces and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. These techniques utilize kinematic mount technology developed at LLNL to allow precision machining and polishing of complex surfaces. They will present this technology along with detailed surface studies of barium fluoride and cerium fluoride crystals polished with this technique.

  19. A flexible demonstrator system for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Brawn, I.; Carney, R.; Connors, A.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed level-1 calorimeter trigger system for ATLAS relies upon several key technologies which we have been testing in a demonstrator programme. We describe here the final phase of this programme, which concentrates on crucial aspects of high-speed data transmission inherent in the trigger architecture while operating with signals from prototype ATLAS calorimeters. The 36-channel trigger demonstrator system has been designed to provide a flexible infrastructure for the study of alternative techniques of communication between the calorimeters and the trigger processor, including both analogue links and high-speed digital optical and electrical links operating at up to 1.6 Gbaud. Data fan-out at 160 Mbit/s between trigger processor modules using serializing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) driving transmission-line backplanes is also evaluated. A programmable timing system re-synchronizes all channels before pipeline processing by ASICs executing an electromagnetic cluster-finding algorithm. Some preliminary results are presented from the operation of this demonstrator system installed in the ATLAS test-beam at CERN.

  20. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  1. Testing a prototype BGO calorimeter with 100-800 MeV positron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Fujimura, H.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Hashimoto, R.; Kaida, S.; Kitazawa, R.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Nakamura, A.; Shimizu, H.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tsuchikawa, Y.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.; Yamazaki, H.

    2016-11-01

    An electromagnetic calorimeter, BGOegg, composed of 1320 BGO crystals, has been constructed at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science, Tohoku University to study the structure of hadrons in detail using photo-induced reactions. The design of the new electromagnetic calorimeter and the basic characteristics of the manufactured BGO crystals are described. A performance test has been conducted for the prototype, which consists of 25 crystals arranged in a 5×5 matrix, using positron beams at energies ranging from 100 to 800 MeV. The obtained energy resolution is (σE / E) 2 =(0.63 %) 2 +(1.15 % ± 0.04 %) 2 /(E / GeV) +(0.42 % ± 0.03 %) 2 /(E / GeV) 2 at room temperature. The energy resolution corresponds to 1.38 % ± 0.05 % for 1-GeV positrons. The position resolution is found to be σr / mm =(3.07 ± 0.03)(E / GeV) - 0.202 ± 0.008 which corresponds to an angular resolution of approximately 1 ° for 1-GeV positrons.

  2. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  3. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  4. A FOrward CALorimeter Upgrade For PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Richard S.

    2011-06-01

    Over the past few years, the PHENIX detector has undergone several upgrades in the forward region (1<|{eta}|<4), initially covered only by the muon arms. The focus of these upgrades is toward a better understanding of the Color-Glass Condensate and the interplay between the different components of the proton's spin valence/sea quark and gluon contributions. This paper highlights the newly proposed forward calorimeter detector, FOCAL. FOCAL is a tungsten-silicon sampling calorimeter with high position and energy resolution, covering a pseudorapidity of 1.6<{eta}<2.5. This future detector aims to constrain the current view of gluon saturation at small x in the Color-Glass Condensate framework, through isolation of direct photons at high-p{sub T} over a broad range of pseudorapidity.

  5. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  6. Overview of the Lhcb Calorimeter Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machefert, Frédéric

    2005-02-01

    The goal of the LHCb calorimeter electronics is twofold. It provides a fast response for the first level trigger on the nature and characteristics of the particles produced in the B meson decay and gives precision measurements for the offline analysis. Stringent constraints are imposed on the electronics whose noise and pile-up effect must remain low, in spite of the high data sample rate and of its location (just above the detector), in a high radiation level area.

  7. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  8. Performance testing of a large volume calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Calorimetry is used as a nondestructive assay technique for determining the power output of heat-producing nuclear materials. Calorimetric assay of plutonium-bearing and tritium items routinely obtains the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques, and the power calibration can be traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology through certified electrical standards. Because the heat-measurement result is completely independent of material and matrix type, it can be reliably used on any material form or item matrix. The calorimetry measurement is combined with isotopic composition information to determine the correct plutonium content of an item. When an item is unsuitable for neutron or gamma-ray NDA, calorimetric assay is used. Currently, the largest calorimeter capable of measuring plutonium-bearing or tritium items is 36 cm in diameter and 61 cm long. Fabrication of a high-sensitivity large volume calorimeter (LVC) capable of measuring tritium and plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 (55-gal) shipping or storage containers has provided a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult to measure forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. This large calo rimeter can also be used to make secondary working standards from process material for the calibration of faster NDA assay techniques. The footprint of the calorimeter is 104 cm wide by 157 cm deep and 196 cm high in the closed position. The space for a standard electronics rack is also necessary for the operation of the calo rimeter. The maximum item size that can be measured in the LVC is 62 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The extensive use of heat-flow calorimeters for safeguards-related measurements at DOE facilities makes it important to extend the capability of calorimetric assay of plutonium and tritium items to larger container sizes. Measurement times, precision, measurement threshold, and position sensitivity of the instrument will be discussed.

  9. Troubleshooting guide for Mound calorimeter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Breakall, K.L.; Duff, M.F.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1988-06-29

    This report is to be used as a tool for troubleshooting Mound calorimeter systems. It describes in simple language the equilibration, prediction, and servo-control modes of operation. A problem-cause-action table provides suggestions and, in some cases, directs personnel to one of six troubleshooting flow charts included in the report. Using the flow charts, laboratory personnel should be able to rcognize and troubleshoot most problems that occur. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of HERD calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Chen, G. M.; Dong, Y. W.; Lu, J. G.; Quan, Z.; Wang, L.; Wang, Z. G.; Wu, B. B.; Zhang, S. N.

    2014-07-01

    The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. It is designed as a next generation space facility focused on indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. The calorimeter plays an essential role in the main scientific objectives of HERD. A 3-D cubic calorimeter filled with high granularity crystals as active material is a very promising choice for the calorimeter. HERD is mainly composed of a 3-D calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by silicon trackers (TK) from all five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of 9261 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. Here the simulation results of the performance of CALO with GEANT4 and FLUKA are presented: 1) the total absorption CALO and its absorption depth for precise energy measurements (energy resolution: 1% for electrons and gammarays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV); 2) its granularity for particle identification (electron/proton separation power better than 10-5); 3) the homogenous geometry for detecting particles arriving from every unblocked direction for large effective geometrical factor (<3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gammarays, >2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei); 4) expected observational results such as gamma-ray line spectrum from dark matter annihilation and spectrum measurement of various cosmic ray chemical components.

  11. Design considerations for a scintillating plate calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, P. K.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.; Gabriel, T. A.

    1992-06-01

    Results of the simulation studies for the design of a scintillating plate calorimeter for an SSC detector are presented. These simulation studies have been carried out with the CALOR89 code. The results show that both lead and uranium can yield good compensation in practical sampling geometries. However, the significant delayed energy release in the uranium systems can lead to a serious pile up problem at high rates. In the energy range under consideration, an iron-scintillator system is not compensating at any absorber to scintillator ratio. An inhomogeneous calorimeter with 4γ of lead-scintillator in a compensating configuration followed by 4γ of iron-scintillator with moderate sampling is found to perform as well as a homogeneous lead-scintillator compensating calorimeter. In such inhomogeneous systems the hadronic signal from different segments are weighted by a scheme based on minimum ionizing d E/d X. We show that, in a properly optimised three segment, compensation and good hadronic resolution can be achieved by appropriately weighting the signal from the segments.

  12. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-10-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

  13. Heat flow calorimeter. [measures output of Ni-Cd batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.; Johnston, W. V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow calorimeter devices are used to measure heat liberated from or absorbed by an object. This device is capable of measuring the thermal output of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries or cells during charge-discharge cycles. An elongated metal heat conducting rod is coupled between the calorimeter vessel and a heat sink, thus providing the only heat exchange path from the calorimeter vessel itself.

  14. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  15. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Callegari, G.; Piemontese, L.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I., Piccolo, M.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Johnson, A.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.

    1986-03-01

    A prototype hadron calorimeter, of similar design to the Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) planned for the SLD experiment, has been built and its performance has been studied in a test beam. The WIC is an iron sampling calorimeter whose active elements are plastic streamer tubes similar to those used for the Mont-Blanc proton decay experiment. The construction and operation of the tubes will be briefly described together with their use in an iron calorimeter - muon tracker. Efficiency, resolution and linearity have been measured in a hadron/muon beam up to 11 GeV. The measured values correspond to the SLD design goals.

  16. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Callegari, G.; Piemontese, L.; DeSangro, R.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Johnson, A.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.

    1986-02-01

    A prototype hadron calorimeter, of similar design to the Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) planned for the SLD experiment, has been built and its performance has been studied in a test beam. The WIC is an iron sampling calorimeter whose active elements are plastic streamer tubes similar to those used for the Mont-Blanc proton decay experiment. The construction and operation of the tubes will be briefly described together with their use in an iron calorimeter - muon tracker. Efficiency, resolution and linearity have been measured in a hadron/muon beam up to 11 GeV. The measured values correspond to the SLD design goals.

  17. Research and development for a free-running readout system for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters at the high luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hils, Maximilian

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeters were designed and built to measure electromagnetic and hadronic energy in proton-proton collisions produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034 cm-2 s-1. The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) programme is now developed for up to 5-7 times the design luminosity, with the goal of accumulating an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. In the HL-LHC phase, the increased radiation levels and an improved ATLAS trigger system require a replacement of the Front-end (FE) and Back-end (BE) electronics of the LAr Calorimeters. Results from research and development of individual components and their radiation qualification as well as the overall system design will be presented.

  18. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2010-02-12

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise

  19. Summary talk on fiber tower calorimeter for the scintillation calorimeter subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.P.; Walker, J.K.; Johnson, C.; Wahl, H.; Gabriel, T.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a new calorimeter design based on small scintillator tiles, lead absorber and wavelength shifting fiber readout. We have addressed all the major issues in SSC calorimetry and have developed a design with many advantageous features. It has been well demonstrated that the best resolution is obtained for a 'compensated' calorimeter. It is also well known how such compensation may be achieved by a suitable choice of active and passive materials and their relative thickness. One such choice is that of lead and scintillator for which the best thickness ratio is 4:1. This selection has been used in the development of the so-called spaghetti calorimeter (SPACAL) discussed at this workshop. The relative merits of this and many other designs have been the subject of much discussion at SSC workshops from which a number of critical issues have emerged for each design. In the present paper, we have addressed the issues raised in the SPACAL design and proposed an alternative, improved design. The SPACAL represents a significant step forward in calorimeter design, but there are always areas which can be improved in any design when it is subjected to detailed study. Specifically we have considered the areas of energy resolution, channeling, projective towers/calibration, longitudinal segmentation, and radiation sensitivity. We will now discuss each of these areas in turn. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Calorimeter measurements of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, T.L.; Camp, K.L.; Hildner, S.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to decontamination and decommissioning has led to more measurements of waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. The difficulty that these materials pose for segmented gamma scanning and neutron counting has increased the use of calorimetric assay for very low wattage items (< 250 millwatts). We have measured well characterized {sup 238}Pu oxide ranging in wattage from 25 to 500 milliwatts in the calorimeters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and report the error and the precision of the measurements.

  1. Monitoring LSO/LYSO Crystal Based Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Precision light monitoring is important for keeping excellent energy resolution promised by LSO/LYSO crystals in severe radiation environment. In this paper, we report an investigation on the wavelength choice for monitoring LYSO crystal based calorimeters. Gamma-ray induced absorption and light output loss were measured for 20 cm long crystals from five different vendors. Monitoring sensitivity and divergence between crystals from different vendors were investigated. The pros and cons of two monitoring approaches using emission and excitation light and their practical implementation for a LYSO/W Shashlik test beam matrix are discussed.

  2. Calorimeter probe studies of PDX and PLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, D. M.; Budny, R.; Satake, T.; Cohen, S. A.

    1982-12-01

    Using a combined electrostatic-calorimeter probe, a comprehensive survey of energy flux in the edge plasmas of low field ohmic and beam-heated PDX and PLT discharges has been made. Ions are shown to carry the majority of the power to floating probes. The intercepted energy is found to increase nearly linearly with applied heating power. The scrape-off distances, ranging from 0.5 cm for a 4 null diverted discharge to 2.5 cm for inside dee diverted discharge, are independent of heating power. Direct evidence is presented for the prompt loss to the walls and limiters in PDX of energetic beam ions.

  3. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Foudas, C.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present results on the efficiency and performance of the ZEUS detector Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) using data taken during the 1993 HERA physics run. The CFLT is designed to process events in a digital pipeline applying pattern recognition algorithms and fast digital summation techniques in order to collect interesting physics events and reduce background from beam gas interactions. The total FLT efficiency was 98% for neutral current events and 85% for charged current events above Q{sup 2} of 10 GeV{sup 2}. The introduction of the isolated electron trigger increases the CFLT beam gas rejection by a factor of two.

  4. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a

  5. Charge Detector for the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Cosmic Ray Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) Mission is planned to consist of a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a thin ionization calorimeter. In order to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray, it is necessary for the calorimeter to have its own charge detector. Silicon detectors are chosen for the charge detector because of their excellent resolution, small size and nearly square shape. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to find the probability of misidentifying protons as alpha particles due to backscattered radiation from the calorimeter. Simulations were also used to investigate identifying primary cosmic rays that fragmented in the TRD before reaching the calorimeter. For this study algorithms have been developed for determining a direction of the core shower in the calorimeter. These algorithms are used to find the approximate location of the primary particle in the silicon detectors. Results show the probability to misidentify the charge depends upon the energy and direction of the primary particles.

  6. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Alves, R.; Amaral, P.; Ananiev, A.; Anderson, K.; Andresen, X.; Antonaki, A.; Batusov, V.; Bednar, P.; Behrens, A.; Bergeaas, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Blocki, J.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Brunel, B.; Budagov, J.; Calderón, D.; Calvet, D.; Cardeira, C.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castillo, M. V.; Costello, J.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Clement, C.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Da Silva, P.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dotti, A.; Downing, R.; Drake, G.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Farbin, A.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feng, E.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferdi, C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, J.; Flaminio, V.; Flix, J.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana, E.; Garde, V.; Gayde, J. C.; Gellerstedt, K.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Giokaris, N.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gouveia, J.; Grenier, P.; Gris, P.; Grudzinski, J.; Guarino, V.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Haney, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Higon, E.; Hill, N.; Holmgren, S.; Hruska, I.; Hurwitz, M.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jon-And, K.; Junk, T.; Karyukhin, A.; Khubua, J.; Klereborn, J.; Kopikov, S.; Korolkov, I.; Krivkova, P.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y.; Kuzhir, P.; Lapin, V.; Lasseur, C.; LeCompte, T.; Lefevre, R.; Leitner, R.; Li, J.; Lyablin, M.; Lim, H.; Lokajicek, M.; Lomakin, Y.; Lourtie, P.; Lovas, L.; Lupi, A.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Maliukov, S.; Manousakis, A.; Marques, C.; Marroquim, F.; Martin, F.; Mazzoni, E.; Mergelkuhl, D.; Merritt, F.; Miagkov, A.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, L.; Montarou, G.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nikitine, I.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nyman, T.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M.; Palan, B.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Pereira, A.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinhão, J.; Pod, E.; Podlyski, F.; Portell, X.; Poveda, J.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Ramalho, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Raposeiro, L.; Reis, J.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romanov, V.; Rose-Dulcina, L.; Rosnet, P.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Rumiantsau, V.; Russakovich, N.; da Costa, J. Sa; Salto, O.; Salvachua, B.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Says, L.-P.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Selldèn, B.; Shalanda, N.; Shchelchkov, A.; Shevtsov, P.; Shochet, M.; Silva, J.; Simaitis, V.; Simonyan, M.; Sissakian, A.; Sjoelin, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sorokina, J.; Sosebee, M.; Spano, F.; Speckmeyer, P.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Starovoitov, P.; Suk, M.; Sykora, I.; Tang, F.; Tas, P.; Teuscher, R.; Tokar, S.; Topilin, N.; Torres, J.; Underwood, D.; Usai, G.; Utkin, V.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazeille, F.; Vellidis, C.; Ventura, F.; Vichou, I.; Vivarelli, I.; Volpi, M.; White, A.; Wood, K.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenin, A.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zilka, B.

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  7. Closed Gap Slug Calorimeter for Plasma Stream Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gorbunov, Sergey; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Jones, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Slug calorimeters are used in sheer and stagnation mode to characterize heat flux levels for high enthalpy streams. The traditional design features a gap between slug and holder, which can be of concern in these convective heat flux environments. The challenge is to develop a calorimeter that closes the gap to gas flow, but largely maintains thermal insulation of the slug. The work presented herein introduces two new slug calorimeter designs featuring a closed gap. This is done using either aerogel as a filler or press fitting the slug with a disk. The designs were verified and compared to the baseline calorimeter design under radiative heat flux. Building on this, the calorimeters were exposed to convective heat flux in the arc-jet facilities. Results from the new designs and conclusions on the impact of the gap in convective heat flux will be shown.

  8. TECHNICAL DESIGN REPORT FOR A NOSECONE CALORIMETER (NCC) FOR THE PHENIX EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    PHENIX EXPERIMENT; OBRIEN,E.; BOOSE, S.; CHIU, M.; JOHNSON, B.M.; KISTENEV, E.P.; LYNCH, D.; NOUICER, R.; PAK, R.; PISANI, R.; STOLL, S.P.; SUKHANOV, A.; WOODY, C.L.; LI, Z.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.

    2007-08-01

    A remarkable result has emerged from the first several years of data taking at RHIC--the high temperature and density phase of QCD matter created in heavy ion collisions at RHIC is best described as a near perfect fluid--the strongly interacting Quark-Gluon-Plasma (sQGP). This state is characterized by a small viscosity to entropy ratio, and a high density of color charges which induces huge energy losses of partons transversing the medium. The task for the future is to understand the characteristics of the sQGP, and perhaps more importantly--to gain some insight into how and why such a medium is created. The PHENIX detector has been one of the primary experimental tools at RHIC; in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter has been a critical component of many of the measurements leading to this discovery. The coverage of the present PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter is rather limited, covering half the azimuth and -0.35< {eta} <0.35 Further progress requires larger coverage of electromagnetic calorimetry, both to increase the rate for low cross section phenomena, and to cover a broader range of pseudorapidity to study the rapidity dependence of the medium. A pair of Nosecone Calorimeters (NCC) has been designed covering both positive and negative rapidity regions 1< |{eta}| <3 of the PHENIX detector. The NCC will make it possible to perform tomographic studies of the jet energy dependence of energy loss and medium response, by using direct photons as trigger particles over a large rapidity range. The technique of correlating trigger hadrons with low momentum hadrons has been powerfully exploited at RHIC to study the evolution of back to back jets [1, 2] and hence the response of the medium. The NCC will make it possible to do such studies using direct photons as the trigger particles. The direct photon in such ''photon-jet'' events tags the transverse momentum of outgoing parton which then fragments into lower energy particles. Together with the Forward Silicon

  9. Design and Application of the Reconstruction Software for the BaBar Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, Philip David; /Imperial Coll., London

    2006-07-07

    The BaBar high energy physics experiment will be in operation at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in Spring 1999. The primary purpose of the experiment is the investigation of CP violation in the neutral B meson system. The electromagnetic calorimeter forms a central part of the experiment and new techniques are employed in data acquisition and reconstruction software to maximize the capability of this device. The use of a matched digital filter in the feature extraction in the front end electronics is presented. The performance of the filter in the presence of the expected high levels of soft photon background from the machine is evaluated. The high luminosity of the PEP-II machine and the demands on the precision of the calorimeter require reliable software that allows for increased physics capability. BaBar has selected C++ as its primary programming language and object oriented analysis and design as its coding paradigm. The application of this technology to the reconstruction software for the calorimeter is presented. The design of the systems for clustering, cluster division, track matching, particle identification and global calibration is discussed with emphasis on the provisions in the design for increased physics capability as levels of understanding of the detector increase. The CP violating channel B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi}K{sub S}{sup 0} has been studied in the two lepton, two {pi}{sup 0} final state. The contribution of this channel to the evaluation of the angle sin 2{beta} of the unitarity triangle is compared to that from the charged pion final state. An error of 0.34 on this quantity is expected after 1 year of running at design luminosity.

  10. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Celentano, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) at Jefferson Laboratory will search for a new U(1) massive gauge boson, or "heavy-photon", mediator of a new fundamental interaction, called "dark-force", that couples to ordinary photons through kinetic mixing. HPS has sensitivity in the mass range 20 MeV – 1 GeV and coupling epsilon2 between 10-5 and 10-10. The HPS experiment will look for the e+e- decay of the heavy photon, by resonance search and detached vertexing, in an electron beam fixed target experiment. HPS will use a compact forward spectrometer, which employs silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking, and a PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter for energy measurement and fast triggering.

  11. Implementation of linear bias corrections for calorimeters at Mound

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, T.M.

    1993-12-31

    In the past, Mound has generally made relative bias corrections as part of the calibration of individual calorimeters. The correction made was the same over the entire operating range of the calorimeter, regardless of the magnitude of the range. Recently, an investigation was performed to check the relevancy of using linear bias corrections to calibrate the calorimeters. The bias is obtained by measuring calibrated plutonium and/or electrical heat standards over the operating range of the calorimeter. The bias correction is then calculated using a simple least squares fit (y = mx + b) of the bias in milliwatts over the operating range of the calorimeter in watts. The equation used is B{sub i} = B{sub 0} + (B{sub w} * W{sub m}), where B{sub i} is the bias at any given power in milliwatts, B{sub 0} is the intercept (absolute bias in milliwatts), B{sub w} is the slope (relative bias in milliwatts per watt), and W{sub m} is the measured power in watts. The results of the study showed a decrease in the random error of bias corrected data for most of the calorimeters which are operated over a large wattage range (greater than an order of magnitude). The linear technique for bias correction has been fully implemented at Mound and has been included in the Technical Manual, ``A Measurement Control Program for Radiometric Calorimeters at Mound`` (MD-21900).

  12. Method and system for improved resolution of a compensated calorimeter detector

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for a depleted uranium calorimeter detector used in high energy physics experiments. In a depleted uranium calorimeter detector, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined and the output response of the calorimeter detector is compensated so that the ratio of the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a lepton to the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a hadron of the same energy as the lepton is approximately equal to 1. In the present invention, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined as a function of time and the hadron content of the response of the calorimeter detector is inferred based upon the time structure of the energy pulse measured by the calorimeter detector. The energy measurement can be corrected based on the inference of the hadron content whereby the resolution of the calorimeter can be improved.

  13. Complex Calorimeter with AC- and Relaxation-Mode Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, Kenji; Uematsu, Takashi; Sugata, Atsushi; Yao, Haruhiko

    1993-04-01

    A complex calorimeter has been developed. This calorimeter, which can be operated both in the ac mode and the relaxation mode using the same sample cell and the same apparatus settings, uses only a small amount (30-50 mg) of sample. An application to measurements in the vicinity of the antiferroelectric phase transitions in the liquid crystal MHPOBC(4-(1-methylheptyloxycarbonyl)-phenyl 4'-octyloxybiphenyl-4-carboxylate) is demonstrated. It is shown that the present calorimeter, when operated in the relaxation mode, enables detection of the latent heat with a resolution of 0.002 J/g.

  14. Rectangular waveguide calorimeter for single intense microwave pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, L.M.; Ballard, W.P.; Roose, L.D.

    1986-09-01

    A new calorimeter for single intense microwave pulses has been designed and tested. The device was constructed in WR284 rectangular waveguide and was operated at frequencies from 2.5 to 4.3 GHz with a tunable instantaneous bandwidth of approximately 500 MHz. The calorimeter used a single thermistor to measure the energy deposited on a carbon absorber having a microwave power absorbance of 90%. The calorimeter was tested at power levels from 100 to 1000 MW for pulse lengths of 12--6 ns, respectively. The sensitivity of the device was 200--300 mV/J.

  15. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Light yield of Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibers for the Gluex barrel calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, T. D.; Fischer, A. P.; Krueger, S. T.; Lolos, G. J.; Papandreou, Z.; Plummer, E. L.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Semenova, I. A.; Sichello, L. M.; Teigrob, L. A.; Smith, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Over three quarters of a million 1-mm-diameter 4-m-long Kuraray double-clad SCSF-78MJ (blue-green) scintillating fibers have been used in the construction of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter for the Hall D experimental program at Jefferson Lab. The quality of a random sample of 4750 of these fibers was evaluated by exciting the fibers at their mid point using a 90Sr source in order to determine the light yield using a calibrated vacuum photomultiplier as the photosensor. A novel methodology was developed to extract the number of photoelectrons detected for measurements where individual photoelectron peaks are not discernible. The average number of photoelectrons from this sample of fibers was 9.17±0.6 at a source distance of 200 cm from the PMT.

  17. Energy correction for the BGO calorimeter of DAMPE using an electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wei, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Yun-Long; Wen, Si-Cheng; Wang, Xiao-Lian; Xu, Zi-Zong; Huang, Guang-Shun

    2016-08-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer is an orbital indirect dark matter search experiment which measures the spectra of photons, electrons and positrons originating from deep space. The electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), made of bismuth germinate (BGO), is one of the key sub-detectors of DAMPE, and is designed for energy measurement with a large dynamic range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. In this paper, methods for energy correction are discussed, in order to reconstruct the primary energy of the incident electrons. Different methods are chosen for the appropriate energy ranges. The correction results of Geant4 simulation and beam test data (at CERN) are presented. Supported by the Chinese 973 Program (2010CB833002), the Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (XDA04040202-4) and 100 Talents Program of CAS

  18. Proton Irradiation Response of CsI(Tl) Crystals for the GLAST Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bergenius, S.; Carius, S.; Carlson, P.; Grove, J.E.; Johansson, G.; Klamra, W.; Nilsson, L.; Pearce, M.; Metzler, S.D.

    2012-04-10

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) consists of 16 towers of CsI(Tl) crystals. Each tower contains 8 layers of crystals (each 326.0 x 26.7 x 19.9 mm{sup 3}) arranged in a hodoscopic fashion. The crystals are read out at both ends with photodiodes. Crystals produced by Amcrys-H (Ukraine) are used. A full size crystal was irradiated with a 180 MeV proton beam and the radiation induced attenuation was measured. The induced radioactivity of the crystal was also studied. In this paper we will discuss the damage due to proton irradiation and compare this with the expected in-orbit background flux.

  19. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and Its Performance after One Year of LHC Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Julia; ATLAS Collaboration

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid Argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η = 1.4 to η = 4.8. An overview of the system is shown as well as a discussion of its operation and performance at √s=900 GeV and 7 TeV since the start of LHC running. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years are also discussed.

  20. Light yield of Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibers for the Gluex barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, T D; Fischer, A P; Krueger, S T; Lolos, G J; Papandreou, Z; Plummer, E L; Semenov, A Yu; Semenova, I A; Sichello, L M; Teigro, L A; Smith, E S

    2014-09-01

    Over three quarters of a million 1-mm-diameter 4-m-long Kuraray double-clad SCSF-78MJ (blue-green) scintillating fibers have been used in the construction of the GlueX electromagnetic barrel calorimeter for the Hall D experimental program at Jefferson Lab. The quality of a random sample of 4,750 of these fibers was evaluated by exciting the fibers at their mid point using a 90Sr source in order to determine the light yield using a calibrated vacuum photomultiplier as the photosensor. A novel methodology was developed to extract the number of photoelectrons detected for measurements where individual photoelectron peaks are not discernible. The average number of photoelectrons from this sample of fibers was 9.17±0.6 at a source distance of 200 cm from the PMT.

  1. SCA controller for the ATLAS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, D.M.; Hewlett, J.C.; Holm, L.

    1997-12-31

    The front-end readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter will store data locally in analog pipeline memories at the LHC beam crossing frequency of 40 MHz. Switched capacitor array chips meeting the ATLAS readout requirements will be used. These new chips axe capable of simultaneous read and write operations, and allow random access to storage locations. To utilize these essential design features requires a substantial amount of fast control and address bookkeeping logic. We have designed a controller capable of operating the pipelines as analog random access memories and that satisfies the ATLAS readout requirements. The pipeline controller manages the data of 144 time samples and can operate at a mean trigger rate of about 75 kHz, when reading out five time samples per event. We are currently prototyping an integrated version of the controller implemented in a FPGA from Xilinx.

  2. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  3. TFTR neutral beam calorimeter fabrication and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, E.D.; Brown, G.M.; Dudek, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Calorimeter were designed by Lawrence Livemore Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, but while the production units were being fabricated by the Plasma Physics Laboratory, several design changes were made. The major alterations included a detailed examination of the braze joints and cooling tubes along with techniques for inspecting the joints, and changing the temperature measurement instrumentation from thermistors to thermocouples. In addition, the water pipes were changed from custom bent pieces to assemblies of off the shelf street elbows and metal bellows, the motor control wiring was reworked to interface with the various TFTR control systems, and a second set of guide rollers was added to the retraction mechanism in order to provide smoother operation. Also, separate blow-out lines for each vee were added in order to increase the reliability of sufficiently purging the cooling systems and provide the capability of draining a single vee should it develop a leak.

  4. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  5. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  6. CALOR89 calorimeter simulations, benchmarking, and design calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T. ); Panakkal, J.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Cremaldi, L.; Moore, B.; Reidy, J.J. ); Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Results on CALOR89 benchmarking and design calculations utilizing the CALOR89 programs are presented. The benchmarking is done with respect to the ZEUS and DO calorimeters. The design calculations were done for a variety of absorbers (depleted uranium, lead, and iron) of various thickness for a given scintillator thickness and for a fixed absorber thickness using various thickness for the scintillator. These studies indicate that a compensating calorimeter can be built using lead as the absorber, whereas a purely iron calorimeter would be non-compensating. A depleted uranium calorimeter would possibly be unsuitable if used in a large configuration and a high luminosity machine because of the delayed energy release from capture gammas. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The ZEUS uranium calorimeter: Main characteristics and first operating experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, R.

    The uranium scintillator calorimeter of the ZEUS experiment in the HERA (German acronym for hadron electron storage ring) in Hamburg, Germany, is described. It covers 99.8% of the solid angle, has an energy resolution 35%/square root of E for single hadrons and jets, and 17.5%/square root of E for electrons. e/h is 1 within 2% in the energy range of 2 to 100 GeV. Test beams results show that an intercalibration at the 1% level is achievable using uranium radioactivity. The calorimeter was commissioned in Apr. 1992. The main characteristics of the calorimeter construction, readout, and trigger are reviewed. The experience from the first data taking period, including results on noise, stability of calibration, background from HERA accelerator, and performance of the calorimeter trigger is discussed.

  8. Building and testing a high school calorimeter at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesot, L.; Crane, R.; Engelen, M. A. G.; van Haren, A. M. A.; van Kleef, R. H. B.; Leenders, O. R.; Timmermans, C.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed, built and tested a crystal calorimeter in the context of CERN’s first beam line for schools competition. The results of the tests at CERN show that the light output of our calorimeter depends on the energy deposited by particles (electrons and muons) hitting the crystals. Our design can be reproduced by high schools around the world, as we have avoided the use of toxic chemicals.

  9. A cryogenic dose calorimeter for pulsed radiographic machines

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, S.; Mueller, K.; Kauppila, T.

    1995-05-05

    Calorimetry is the most direct, absolute technique for absorbed dose measurements. To improve the measurement accuracy for use with quantitative radiography, a calorimeter has been developed for LANL`s pulsed radiographic machines which produce bremsstrahlung radiation fields of 50--200 Rad per pulse at 1 meter from the source. This paper describes the theory of operation, the calorimeter design, and presents results from the PHERMEX accelerator. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. A cryogenic dose calorimeter for pulsed radiographic accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, S.A.; Kauppila, T.; Mueller, K.H.

    1994-10-01

    Calorimetry is the most direct, absolute technique for absorbed dose measurements. To improve the measurement accuracy for use with quantitative radiography, a calorimeter has been developed for LANL`s pulsed radiographic machines which produce Bremsstrahlung radiation fields of 50-200 Rad per pulse at 1 meter from the source. This paper describes the theory of operation, the calorimeter design, and presents results from the PHERMEX accelerator.

  11. Measurement of pion and proton response and longitudinal shower profiles up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths with the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H. P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.; Caloba, L.; Calvet, D.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castelo, J.; Castillo, M. V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Clement, C.; Cobal, M.; Cogswell, F.; Constantinescu, S.; Costanzo, D.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cuenca, C.; Damazio, D. O.; Davidek, T.; De, K.; Del Prete, T.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dobson, M.; Dotti, A.; Downing, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Farbin, A.; Fassouliotis, D.; Febbraro, R.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferdi, C.; Ferrer, A.; Flaminio, V.; Francis, D.; Fullana, E.; Gadomski, S.; Gameiro, S.; Garde, V.; Gellerstedt, K.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Giokaris, N.; Gollub, N.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gorini, B.; Grenier, P.; Gris, P.; Gruwe, M.; Guarino, V.; Guicheney, C.; Gupta, A.; Haeberli, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Haney, M.; Hellman, S.; Henriques, A.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.; Hurwitz, M.; Huston, J.; Iglesias, C.; Isaev, A.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jon-And, K.; Joos, M.; Junk, T.; Karyukhin, A.; Kazarov, A.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, J.; Khubua, J.; Kolos, S.; Korolkov, I.; Krivkova, P.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Yu.; Kuzhir, P.; Le Compte, T.; Lefevre, R.; Lehmann, G.; Leitner, R.; Lembesi, M.; Lesser, J.; Li, J.; Liablin, M.; Lokajicek, M.; Lomakin, Y.; Lupi, A.; Maidanchik, C.; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maliukov, S.; Manousakis, A.; Mapelli, L.; Marques, C.; Marroquim, F.; Martin, F.; Mazzoni, E.; Merritt, F.; Miagkov, A.; Miller, R.; Minashvili, I.; Miralles, L.; Montarou, G.; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nessi, M.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Norniella, O.; Novakova, J.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Petersen, J.; Pilcher, J.; Pina, J.; Pinhão, J.; Podlyski, F.; Portell, X.; Poveda, J.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Ramstedt, M.; Richards, R.; Roda, C.; Romanov, V.; Rosnet, P.; Roy, P.; Ruiz, A.; Rumiantsev, V.; Russakovich, N.; Saltó, O.; Salvachua, B.; Sanchis, E.; Sanders, H.; Santoni, C.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Satsunkevitch, I.; Says, L.-P.; Schlager, G.; Schlereth, J.; Seixas, J. M.; Selldèn, B.; Shalanda, N.; Shevtsov, P.; Shochet, M.; Silva, J.; Da Silva, P.; Simaitis, V.; Simonyan, M.; Sissakian, A.; Sjölin, J.; Solans, C.; Solodkov, A.; Soloviev, I.; Solovyanov, O.; Sosebee, M.; Spanò, F.; Stanek, R.; Starchenko, E.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Suk, M.; Sykora, I.; Tang, F.; Tas, P.; Teuscher, R.; Tokar, S.; Topilin, N.; Torres, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tsiareshka, P.; Tylmad, M.; Underwood, D.; Unel, G.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls, J. A.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazeille, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V.; Vivarelli, I.; Volpi, M.; White, A.; Zaitsev, A.; Zenine, A.; Zenis, T.

    2010-04-01

    The response of pions and protons in the energy range of 20-180 GeV, produced at CERN's SPS H8 test-beam line in the ATLAS iron-scintillator Tile hadron calorimeter, has been measured. The test-beam configuration allowed the measurement of the longitudinal shower development for pions and protons up to 20 nuclear interaction lengths. It was found that pions penetrate deeper in the calorimeter than protons. However, protons induce showers that are wider laterally to the direction of the impinging particle. Including the measured total energy response, the pion-to-proton energy ratio and the resolution, all observations are consistent with a higher electromagnetic energy fraction in pion-induced showers. The data are compared with GEANT4 simulations using several hadronic physics lists. The measured longitudinal shower profiles are described by an analytical shower parametrization within an accuracy of 5-10%. The amount of energy leaking out behind the calorimeter is determined and parametrized as a function of the beam energy and the calorimeter depth. This allows for a leakage correction of test-beam results in the standard projective geometry.

  12. Absolute Energy Calibration with the Neutron-Activated Liquid-Source System at BaBar's CsI(Tl) Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J

    2004-01-05

    The electro-magnetic calorimeter at the BABAR detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with good resolution. The calorimeter is calibrated at the low energy end with 6.13 MeV photons obtained from a liquid source system. During the calibration, a fluorine-rich liquid is activated via a neutron generator and pumped past the front of the calorimeter's crystals. Decays that occur in front of the crystals emit photons of well-defined energy, which are detected in the crystals with the regular data acquisition system. The liquid source system adds only very little material in front of the calorimeter, needs nearly no maintenance, and allows operation at the switch of a key with minimal safety hazards. The report describes the system, presents calibration results obtained from its operation since 1999, shows the crystals' loss of light yield due to radiation damage, and shares experiences gained over the years.

  13. An Imaging Calorimeter for Access-Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, James H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure tile spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to approximately 10(exp 15) eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  14. Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.

    1991-01-01

    The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are ubiquitous in modern society. It is well known that exposure to strong fields can result in acute effects, such as burns; the mechanisms behind such effects are well established. There is, however, also a concern that long-term exposure to weak fields might have health effects due to an as-yet unknown mechanism. Because of the already widespread exposure, even small health effects could have profound public health implications. Comprehensive research efforts are therefore warranted, and are indeed ongoing. The strongest evidence for health risks is from exposure to fields generated in connection with use of electric power. As for fields used by telecommunications technology, there is still considerably fewer data available and for the time being there is only very weak support for the existence of health effects. However, extensive research activities are ongoing and much more data will be available in the near future. This situation of scientific uncertainty and considerable public concern creates dilemmas for decision makers.

  16. CALORIC: A readout chip for high granularity calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, L.; Bonnard, J.; Manen, S.; Gay, P.; Soumpholphakdy, X.

    2011-07-01

    A very-front-end electronics has been developed to fulfil requirements for the next generation of electromagnetic calorimeters. The compactness of this kind of detector and its large number of channels (up to several millions) impose a drastic limitation of the power consumption and a high level of integration. The electronic channel proposed is first of all composed of a low-noise Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) able to amplify the charge delivered by a silicon diode up to 10 pC. Next, a two-gain shaping, based on a Gated Integration (G.I.), is implemented to cover the 15 bits dynamic range required: a high gain shaper processes signals from 4 fC (charge corresponding to the MIP) up to 1 pC, and a low gain filter handles charges up to 10 pC. The G.I. performs also the analog memorization of the signal until it is digitalized. Hence, the analog-to-digital conversion is carried out through a low-power 12-bit cyclic ADC. If the signal overloads the high-gain channel dynamic range, a comparator selects the low-gain channel instead. Moreover, an auto-trigger channel has been implemented in order to select and store a valid event over the noise. The timing sequence of the channel is managed by a digital IP. It controls the G.I. switches, generates all needed clocks, drives the ADC and delivers the final result over 12 bits. The whole readout channel is power controlled, which permits to reduce the consumption according to the duty cycle of the beam collider. Simulations have been performed with Spectre simulator on the prototype chip designed with the 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology from Austriamicrosystems. Results show a non-linearity better than 0.1% for the high-gain channel, and a non-linearity limited to 1% for the low-gain channel. The Equivalent Noise Charge referred to the input of the channel is evaluated to 0.4 fC complying with the MIP/10 limit. With the timing sequence of the International Linear Collider, which presents a duty cycle of 1%, the power

  17. Source calibrations and SDC calorimeter requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-10-01

    Several studies of the problem of calibration of the SDC calorimeter exist. In this note the attempt is made to give a connected account of the requirements on the source calibration from the point of view of the desired, and acceptable, constant term induced in the EM resolution. It is assumed that a ``local`` calibration resulting from exposing each tower to a beam of electrons is not feasible. It is further assumed that an ``in situ`` calibration is either not yet performed, or is unavailable due to tracking alignment problems or high luminosity operation rendering tracking inoperative. Therefore, the assumptions used are rather conservative. In this scenario, each scintillator plate of each tower is exposed to a moving radioactive source. That reading is used to ``mask`` an optical ``cookie`` in a grey code chosen so as to make the response uniform. The source is assumed to be the sole calibration of the tower. Therefore, the phrase ``global`` calibration of towers by movable radioactive sources is adopted.

  18. Source calibrations and SDC calorimeter requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1992-10-01

    Several studies of the problem of calibration of the SDC calorimeter exist. In this note the attempt is made to give a connected account of the requirements on the source calibration from the point of view of the desired, and acceptable, constant term induced in the EM resolution. It is assumed that a local'' calibration resulting from exposing each tower to a beam of electrons is not feasible. It is further assumed that an in situ'' calibration is either not yet performed, or is unavailable due to tracking alignment problems or high luminosity operation rendering tracking inoperative. Therefore, the assumptions used are rather conservative. In this scenario, each scintillator plate of each tower is exposed to a moving radioactive source. That reading is used to mask'' an optical cookie'' in a grey code chosen so as to make the response uniform. The source is assumed to be the sole calibration of the tower. Therefore, the phrase global'' calibration of towers by movable radioactive sources is adopted.

  19. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying to jets in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bartsch, V.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernat, P.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, T. T.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borri, M.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brelier, B.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bromberg, C.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bundock, A. C.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Byszewski, M.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charfeddine, D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciocio, A.; Cirkovic, P.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Colon, G.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Daniells, A. C.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davignon, O.; Davison, A. R.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dechenaux, B.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Dobos, D.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dube, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Dwuznik, M.; Dyndal, M.; Ebke, J.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Engelmann, R.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Florez Bustos, A. C.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, C.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Glonti, G. L.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goeringer, C.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Gozpinar, S.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guicheney, C.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guttman, N.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Heller, C.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holmes, T. R.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikematsu, K.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Inamaru, Y.; Ince, T.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G.-Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, K. E.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Jung, C. A.; Jungst, R. M.; Jussel, P.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. 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J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scott, W. G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellers, G.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simoniello, R.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sircar, A.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skovpen, K. Yu.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosebee, M.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wright, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-04-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb-1 of data collected in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  20. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement. PMID:26724055

  1. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  2. Simulations of a thin sampling calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard

    2001-09-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10 15 eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a thin sampling calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectrum in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum is believed to occur have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS.

  3. The ATLAS tile calorimeter performance at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demonstrates a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is proved to be well within the design expectations. (authors)

  4. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  5. The E864 lead-scintillating fiber hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T. A.; Barish, K.; Bennett, S. J.; Cormier, T. M.; Cernej, R.; Chikanian, A.; Coe, S. D.; Davies, R.; Dee, P. R.; Diebold, G. E.; Fachini, P.; Finch, E.; George, N. K.; Greene, S. V.; Haridas, P.; Hill, J. C.; Hirsch, A.; Huang, H. Z.; Hoversten, R. A.; Kim, B.; Kumar, B. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Libby, B.; Maguire, C. F.; Majka, R. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murgatroyd, J. T.; Nagle, J. L.; Petridis, A. N.; Pless, I. A.; Pope, J. K.; Pruneau, C. A.; Riso, J.; Rabin, M. S. Z.; Reid, J. D.; Rotondo, F. S.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sandweiss, J.; Scharenberg, R.; Sheen, J.; Tincknell, M.; Rimai, A.; Van Buren, G.; Wilson, W. K.; Wohn, F. K.; Zhao, K.

    1998-02-01

    A large hadronic lead scintillating fiber calorimeter has been built and integrated into the AGS experiment E864 [C. Pruneau et al., E864 Collaboration, Proc. 6th Internal. Conf. on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, 1996, Frascati, Italy; F. Rotondo et al., E864 Collaboration, Proc. Quark Matter'96, Heidelberg, Germany, 20 May 1996] spectrometer to provide an independent measurement of the mass of particles produced in heavy ion collisions. The "spaghetti-type" calorimeter design and construction techniques are described in detail. Results from a prototype and the full implementation of the calorimeter are reported. The hadronic energy resolution of the calorimeter is found to be 6E/E = 0.035(± 0.005) + 0.344(± 0.008)/trE/GeV, in very good agreement with a FLUKA calculation. The hadronic time resolution is measured to be better than 400 ps. The combined calorimeter energy and time signals provide for a mass determination with good resolution. The mass resolution scales as δm/m = 0.026 + 0.347/√E(GeV) for velocities v/c < 0.98.

  6. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  7. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  8. Optimization of pyrolysis properties using TGA and cone calorimeter test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Hee; Yoon, Kyung-Beom

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes an optimization work to obtain the properties related to a pyrolysis process in the solid material such as density, specific heat, conductivity of virgin and char, heat of pyrolysis and kinetic parameters used for deciding pyrolysis rate. A repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the pyrolysis-related properties. In the previous study all properties obtained only using a cone calorimeter but in this paper both the cone calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) are used for precisely optimizing the pyrolysis properties. In the TGA test a very small mass is heated up and conduction and heat capacity in the specimen is negligible so kinetic parameters can first be optimized. Other pyrolysis-related properties such as virgin/char specific heat and conductivity and char density are also optimized in the cone calorimeter test with the already decided parameters in the TGA test.

  9. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  10. Performance of the DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1996-06-01

    The DELPHI STIC detector is a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter with wave length shifting optical fibers used for light collection. The main goal of the calorimeter at LEP100 is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The detector has been in operation since the 1994 LEP run. Presented here is the performance measured during the 1994--1995 LEP runs, with the emphasis on the achieved energy and space resolution, the long-term stability and the efficiency of the detector. The new bunchtrains mode of LEP requires a rather sophisticated trigger and timing scheme which is also presented. To control the trigger efficiency and stability of the calorimeter channels, a LED-based monitoring system has been developed.

  11. Test results of the solid state stand alone development calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, D.P.; Breakall, K.L.; Fultz, R.L.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Radiometric heat flow calorimeters have been used to determine the heat output of radioactive materials for over 40 years. EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed a stand alone developmental calorimeter which utilizes solid state sensor technology. The sample size was increased to 8 in. high by 4 in. diameter in the system under test from 3 in. high by 5/8 in. diameter in the previous prototype. The calorimeter system uses an air bath for environmental stability which further reduces weight and assay time. Tests in the developmental system have produced excellent servo control results over the 0.5 to 5 watt range, with one sigma precision errors ranging from 1.3% at 0.5 watts to 0.1% at 4 watts. The average run time of these samples was approximately 90 minutes with no preconditioning used.

  12. Effect of dead materials on calorimeter response and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmaratna, W.G.D.; D0 Collaboration

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter system, cylindrical central calorimeter and two end calorimeters, is constructed with minimal cracks and dead regions in order to provide essentially hermetic coverage over the full solid angle. The effect of the existing few construction features which could perturb the uniformity of the calorimeter is studied in detail with beam tests. The results with the correction algorithms are presented. A comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation is made.

  13. Effect of dead materials on calorimeter response and Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmaratna, W.G.D. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    The D0 calorimeter system, cylindrical central calorimeter and two end calorimeters, is constructed with minimal cracks and dead regions in order to provide essentially hermetic coverage over the full solid angle. The effect of the existing few construction features which could perturb the uniformity of the calorimeter is studied in detail with beam tests. The results with the correction algorithms are presented. A comparison with the Monte Carlo simulation is made.

  14. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  15. Signal Reconstruction and Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Atlas

    2014-03-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is the hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. Latest results on calibration, signal reconstruction and performance of the TileCal detector using pp collision data are presented. The studies of the TileCal response to single isolated charged particles and the noise description with increasing pile-up are presented. In addition, TileCal upgrade plans are discussed. on behalf of the ATLAS Collaboration.

  16. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  17. Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS Simulations with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John; Lee, Jeongin

    2000-01-01

    Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) is a candidate of the calorimeter for the NASA's ACCESS program to be flown on the International Space Station. The ICA studies the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays in the energy up to 10(exp 16) eV. For the past year, Monte Carlo simulation study for the ICA has been conducted using GEANT/FLUKA to predict the detector performance and to design the system for match the scientific objectives. Simulation results will be shown for the detector response and the energy resolution for various configurations.

  18. The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Instrument Performance (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. J.; Benson, C. M.; Berry, F. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J. S.; Munroe, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    SOFCAL is a balloon-borne instrument designed to measure the P-He cosmic ray spectra from about 200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. SOFCAL uses a thin lead and scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter to measure the cascades produced by cosmic rays interacting in the hybrid detector system. Above the fiber calorimeter is an emulsion chamber that provides the interaction target, primary particle identification and in-flight energy calibration for the scintillating fiber data. The energy measurement technique and its calibration are described, and the present results from the analysis of a 1 day balloon flight will be presented.

  19. Precision two-compartment bomb calorimeter for combustion in fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenski, H.; Böhler, D.

    1980-02-01

    An isothermally jacketed liquid calorimeter permitting thermochemical studies on spontaneous combustion in fluorine has been built and tested. The fluorine storage tank was located outside the calorimeter vessel, thus lowering the heat capacity of the system and its thermal inertia. Particular attention was paid to the method and rate of liquid circulation since it largely determines the experimental accuracy. The system can be calibrated electrically. The possible experimental errors are discussed, and their analysis shows that calibration is feasible with an accuracy of ≳99.98%. A series of measurements involving a temperature rise of about 0.9 K showed a standard deviation of 0.02%.

  20. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  1. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  2. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  3. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter pre-prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.S.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Verdier, R.; Carumbalis, D.

    1985-10-01

    The performance of a pre-prototype of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) build with proportional tube cathode pad readout has been studied. The calorimeter was found to have an average resolution of 36.7 +- 0.2% for muons at 2.0, 5.0 and 10.5 GeV and 81 +- 2%/..sqrt..E for pion showers at 5.0 and 10.5 GeV. The mean energy found for the pion showers was consistent with a linear dependence on energy within these standard deviations. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Assess progress being made for the KTeV electromagnetic calorimeter crystal order in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, S. R.

    1993-08-01

    This report contains a record of our activities at the Quartz & Silice facility during this visit. Significant progress was achieved in illustrating the importance and practical application of particular measurements in characterizing crystal quality, and in understanding problems with crystal polishing techniques currently being used. Detailed discussions with Quartz & Silice personnel on these issues were held, as were discussions on current production and furnace growth cycle options which may significantly increase ingot production rates.

  5. RESEARCH NOTE FROM COLLABORATION: Inter-calibration of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter with isolated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostino, L.; Daskalakis, G.; Govoni, P.; Malgeri, L.; Paganoni, M.

    2007-03-01

    The bulk viscosity of three-flavour colour-superconducting quark matter originating from the nonleptonic process u + s <--> u + d is computed. It is assumed that up and down quarks form Cooper pairs while the strange quark remains unpaired (2SC phase). A general derivation of the rate of strangeness production is presented, involving contributions from a multitude of different subprocesses, including subprocesses that involve different numbers of gapped quarks as well as creation and annihilation of particles in the condensate. The rate is then used to compute the bulk viscosity as a function of the temperature, for an external oscillation frequency typical of a compact star r-mode. We find that, for temperatures far below the critical temperature Tc for 2SC pairing, the bulk viscosity of colour-superconducting quark matter is suppressed relative to that of unpaired quark matter, but for T gtrsim Tc/30 the colour-superconducting quark matter has a higher bulk viscosity. This is potentially relevant for the suppression of r-mode instabilities early in the life of a compact star.

  6. Studies of lead tungstate crystals for the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter PHOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolitov, M.; Beloglovsky, S.; Bogolubsky, M.; Burachas, S.; Erin, S.; Klovning, A.; Kuriakin, A.; Lebedev, V.; Lobanov, M.; Maeland, O.; Manko, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nyanin, A.; Odland, O. H.; Punin, V.; Sadovsky, S.; Samoilenko, V.; Sibiriak, Yu.; Skaali, B.; Tsvetkov, A.; Vinogradov, Yu.; Vasiliev, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full-size (22×22×180 mm 3) A LICE crystals were delivered by "North Crystals" company, Apatity, Russia. These crystals were tested with test benches, specially built for measurements of the crystals optical transmission and light yield. Beam-test results of different sets of 3×3 matrices with Hamamatsu APD light readout are presented. Data were taken at electron momenta from 600 MeV/ c up to 10 GeV/ c. Energy resolution and linearity curves are measured. The tests were carried out at the C ERN PS and SPS secondary beam-lines.

  7. Design and expected performance of a fast scintillator hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A typical pulse from the 807 calorimeter is shown. This was generated by 4 GeV electrons but the pulses from hadrons and at different energies are not significantly different. The width and shape of this pulse comes from the convolution of a number of sources: (a) The time spread of energy deposition by a shower including time of flight of slow protons and neutrons, (b) scintillator phosphor rise and decay times, (c) shifter rise and decay times, (d) phototube response, (e) time delays in the light collection from different parts of the calorimeter and time dispersion in transmission. The objective of the first phase of this study was to isolate these spearate contributions, estimate how they could be speeded up and find what costs are involved. In the second phase we constructed an extremely crude calorimeter whose pulses should have the same characteristic as in a real device. With this we have observed signals whose mean width was 7 nsec and whose width at 10% of maximum height was 15 nsec. Clipping could reduce these widths to 6 and 12 nsec respectively. We conclude that gate times of less than 20 nsec would be appropriate for such a calorimeter.

  8. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  9. Resolution Performance of HERA-B Lead-Glass Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Anthony; Brash, Edward; Thomas, Jordan; Ayerbe-Gayoso, Carlos; Burton, Matthew; Perdisat, Charles; Jones, Mark; Punjabi, Vina; Hast, Carsten; Szalata, Zenon

    2013-10-01

    In preparation of upcoming 12 GeV experiments at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility it is necessary to upgrade existing systems or install new detectors. As part of this effort, an array of lead-glass sampling calorimeters is need for use in the GEP-5 experiment. A sampling calorimeter can be used to determine the energy and spatial position of a high energy particle that enters it while simultaneously stopping the particle. To determine the appropriate construction to meet the needs of upcoming experiments, it was necessary to take an existing model and confirm its energy and position resolution. This model could then be confirmed as an option for the final construction, or used as a starting point to design a better detector. For our test we obtained ten lead-glass calorimeters used in HERA-B and tested them in End Station A at SLAC. I will report on our findings for the HERA-B lead-glass sampling calorimeters. I will cover the results of both the energy and position resolutions as well as the methods used to determine these quantities.

  10. Jet Reconstruction and Calibration in the ATLAS Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen Roca, Sigrid

    2006-10-27

    Many physics studies in ATLAS require precise reconstruction and calibration of particle jet kinematics. Among these are the reconstruction of the top quark mass, the search for the Higgs boson, and possible supersymmetric particles. The ATLAS calorimeter system has been designed to meet these requirements across a wide acceptance in pseudorapidity (|{eta}|<5). Different calorimeter technologies are applied in different rapidity regions to optimize the performance with respect to coverage, containment, highest possible spatial granularity, and the best possible energy resolution, in the difficult and changing experimental conditions characteristic for each of these regions.In this talk we briefly illustrate the ATLAS calorimeter features most relevant for the jet measurement. The general approach to calorimeter jet calibration is two-fold. First, the jet signal shape is used to correct for detector effects such as non-compensation and energy losses in inactive materials. This followed by corrections for biases introduced by the jet clustering algorithms and effects from the collision physics environment. We intend to discuss this calibration procedure and the different strategies available to implement it, in the context of the evaluation of the jet reconstruction performance for various available jet clustering algorithms, including a fixed cone and the Kt algorithm. A focus in this discussion is on the expected initial run condition at ATLAS start-up.

  11. Noise in a Calorimeter Readout System Using Periodic Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2009-02-26

    Fourier transform analysis of the calorimeter noise problem gives quantitative results on (a) the time-height correlation, (b) the effect of background on optimal shaping and on the ENC, (c) sampling frequency requirements, and (d) the relation between sampling frequency and the required quantization error.

  12. Towards a compensatable Muon Collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Muon Collider detectors pose very challenging problems in detector technology due to extremely large backgrounds present in the detector volume as a result of muon decays. Current designs of a 750 GeV/c per beam Muon Collider envisage 4.28 x 10{sup 5} muon decays per meter in the beam pipe close to the interaction region. The decay electrons after intense shielding still manage to produce large backgrounds in the detector volume of low energy photons, neutrons and higher energy Bethe Heitler muons. There are 170/184/6.8/177 TeVs energy entering the detector volume per crossing due to EM particles/Muons/Mesons/Baryons respectively. We investigate the capabilities of an iron calorimeter with pixelated readout where each pixel gives a yes/no answer as to whether a charged particle passed through it or not, to solve this problem. Each pixel is individually triggered by a 'travelling gate trigger' with a gate of 2 ns where the beginning of the gate is the time of arrival of a light signal from the interaction region to the pixel. We show that such a calorimeter is compensatable and propose two schemes to compensate the digital output in software to improve the resolution of the calorimeter. We show that such a calorimeter is capable of digitizing physics signals from the interaction region and as a result, the backgrounds from the muon decays are much reduced and under control.

  13. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful $\\mu/e$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.

  14. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  15. Development of standard operating procedures for differential scanning calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callanan, Jane E.; Sullivan, Sandra A.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the behavior of a differential scanning calorimeter and the development of satisfactory calibration, operation, and data reduction procedures, which depend on performance characteristics of the individual instrument. Factors that contribute to thermal lag are identified; suggestions for evaluating and compensating for it are given.

  16. Operational experience with the CMS hadronic calorimeter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetkin, Taylan; CMS Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) of CMS was commissioned before and during the initial proton collisions in Large Hadron Collider. Various phases of HCAL commissioning were used to gain operational experience and prepare the detector for physics. In this note we briefly summarize the activities and outcomes from the the commissioning studies.

  17. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    DOE PAGES

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerfulmore » $$\\mu/e$$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.« less

  18. Development of a scintillating optical fiber ionization calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A design study of a scintillation fiber (SF) calorimeter for a cosmic ray observation is made. An evaluation of various fibers and design configuration was made. The proposed design has a dimension of 1 m (W) x 1 m (L) x 16 cm (H) contains 1000 fibers at each of 40 x- or 40 y-layers interleaved with 1mm thick leadplates. Two or four CCD Particle Track Imaging Systems are connected to a bundle of SF edges at x- and y-ends. The overall weight of a calorimeter is 1,200 kg including read-out systems and supporting boards. The designed calorimeter can measure cosmic ray nuclei and gamma-rays with position, angles and energy information suitable for detailed spectrum analysis. The system is particularly beneficial at very high energies where the flux is extremely low and it requires a very long exposure over many years in space. Emulsion chambers have an advantage for cosmic ray measurements if the exposure is limited to several months in space. In fact, the most important energy region for the current cosmic ray studies is at around 1,000 TeV where a drastic change of elemental composition is indicated by various indirect observations. A detector whose size is in the order of 1 m(sup 2) requires several years of exposure in space accumulate sufficient statistics near 1,000 TeV. Emulsions will be strongly contaminated by background radiation for such a long duration flight, while SF calorimeter is totally immune from this concern. This is particularly important for long-duration experiments. The SF calorimeter also allows time-tagging of individual events, extending the experimental capability in various ways.

  19. Search for new physics in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment and the response of the CMS calorimeters to particles and jets

    SciTech Connect

    Gumus, Kazim Ziya

    2008-08-01

    A Monte Carlo study of a generic search for new resonances beyond the Standard Model (SM) in the CMS experiment is presented. The resonances are axigluon, coloron, E6 diquark, excited quark, W', Z', and the Randall-Sundrum graviton which decay to dijets. The dijet resonance cross section that the CMS can expect to discover at a 5σ significance or to exclude at 95% confidence level for integrated luminosities of 100 pb-1, 1 fb-1, and 10 fb-1 is evaluated. It is shown that a 5σ discovery of a multi-TeV dijet resonance is possible for an axigluon, excited quark, and E6 diquark. However, a 5σ discovery can not be projected with confidence for a W', Z' and the Randall-Sundrum graviton. On the other hand, 95% CL exclusion mass regions can be measured for all resonances at high luminosities. In the second part of this dissertation, the analyses of the 2006 test beam data from the combined electromagnetic and hadronic barrel calorimeters are presented. The CMS barrel calorimeters response to a variety of beam particles in a wide momenta range (1 to 350 GeV/c) is measured. Furthermore, using these beam data, the expected performance of the barrel calorimeters to jets is predicted.

  20. Electromagnetic structure of pion

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, Clayton S.; Cruz Filho, Jose P.; Da Silva, Edson O.; El-Bennich, Bruno; De Melo, J. P.; Filho, Victo S.

    2013-03-25

    In this work, we analyze the electromagnetic structure of the pion, an elementary particle composed by a quark-antiquark bound state, by considering the calculation of its electromagnetic radius and its electromagnetic form factor in low and intermediate energy range. Such observables are determined by means of a theoretical model that takes into account the constituent quark and antiquark of the pion, in the formalism of the light-front field theory. In particular, it is considered a nonsymmetrical vertex for such a model, in which we have calculated the electromagnetic form factor of the pion in an optimized way, by varying its regulator mass, so that we can obtain the best value for the pion electromagnetic radius when compared with the experimental one. The theoretical calculations are also compared with the most recent experimental data involving the pion electromagnetic form factor and the results show very good agreement.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of the n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C.; Cano-Ott, D.; Mendoza, E.; Taín, J. L.; Algora, A.; Berthoumieux, E.; Colonna, N.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; González-Romero, E.; Heil, M.; Jordán, D.; Käppeler, F.; Lampoudis, C.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Plag, R.; n TOF Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) is a 4π BaF2 segmented detector used at CERN for measuring neutron capture cross-sections of importance for the design of advanced nuclear reactors. This work presents the simulation code that has been developed in GEANT4 for the accurate determination of the detection efficiency of the TAC for neutron capture events. The code allows to calculate the efficiency of the TAC for every neutron capture state, as a function of energy, crystal multiplicity, and counting rate. The code includes all instrumental effects such as the single crystal detection threshold and energy resolution, finite size of the coincidence time window, and signal pile-up. The results from the simulation have been validated with experimental data for a large set of electromagnetic de-excitation patterns: β-decay of well known calibration sources, neutron capture reactions in light nuclei with well known level schemes like natTi, reference samples used in (n,γ) measurements like 197Au and experimental data from an actinide sample like 240Pu. The systematic uncertainty in the determination of the detection efficiency has been estimated for all the cases. As a representative example, the accuracy reached for the case of 197Au(n,γ) ranges between 0.5% and 2%, depending on the experimental and analysis conditions. Such a value matches the high accuracy required for the nuclear cross-section data needed in advanced reactor design.

  2. New detecting techniques for a future calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auffray, E.; Buganov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Lecoq, P.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tikhomirov, S.; Vasil'ev, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the last forty years, application of crystalline materials in homogeneous Electromagnetic Calorimeters has played a crucial role in the discovery of matter properties and promoted a continuous progress in the detecting technique. The detection systems progressed from small detectors based on NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), BaF2, PbF2, and Bi4Ge3O12 to giant Electromagnetic Calorimeters of CMS, ALICE Collaborations at LHC and PANDA Collaboration at FAIR, where the systems consisted of thousands lead tungstate PbWO4 scintillation crystals. Lead tungstate (PWO) became the most extensively used scintillation material in high energy physics experiments. PWO possesses a unique combination of scintillation properties including high energy and time resolutions in the detection of high energy particles. Here, we report on the results of the two photon absorption in PWO crystals obtained by pump-probe technique using ultra short laser pulses. The results demonstrate that the relaxation processes in PWO offer capability of this material to be used in detection systems to make a time stamp with precision close to 10-12 s or even better.

  3. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  4. The OPAL silicon-tungsten calorimeter front end electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.E.; Charalambous, A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Anderson, K. )

    1994-08-01

    A pair of small angle silicon-tungsten (Si-W) calorimeters has been built to measure the luminosity to a precision better than 0.1% in the OPAL experiment at the Large Electron Positron (LEP) collider at CERN near Geneva. Each calorimeter contains 19 layers of tungsten (W) plates and silicon (Si) detectors, corresponding to a total of 22 radiation lengths, sampled by about 1 m[sup 2] of detectors divided into 304 x64 independently read out channels. A complete electronics system has been developed, from the preamplifier up to the VME read out and control interface. It includes a fast trigger based on analogue sums. This paper describes how a large number of channels have been implemented in a dense environment, thanks to the use of ASIC's directly bonded on the detector.

  5. CMS HF calorimeter PMTs and Xi(c)+ lifetime measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, Ugur; /Iowa U.

    2003-12-01

    This thesis consists of two parts: In the first part we describe the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) selection and testing processes for the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS, a Large Hadron Collier (LHC) experiment at CERN. We report the evaluation process of the candidate PMTs from three different manufacturers, the complete tests performed on the 2300 Hamamatsu PMTs which will be used in the HF calorimeter, and the details of the PMT Test Station that is in University of Iowa CMS Laboratories. In the second part we report the {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} lifetime measurement from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment at Fermilab. Based upon 301 {+-} 31 events from three di.erent decay channels, by using the binned maximum likelihood technique, we observe the lifetime of {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} as 427 {+-} 31 {+-} 13 fs.

  6. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  7. Charge Detector Study for a Thin Sampling Calorimeter for ACCESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) is a NASA's new mission concept that is now being studied. The scientific objective is to measure cosmic ray elemental energy spectra in the energy range from I TeV up to 1000 TeV. ACCESS will carry two instruments and measure the energy and charge of incoming particles. One of these will be a calorimeter with a charge detector. The charge detector will see not only signals from the incident cosmic rays but also signals from radiation backscattered from the calorimeter. In that case, bias information on particle identification is unavoidable. This study shows how much the charge detector will be affected by backscatter and how it can be designed with a minimized effect.

  8. Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS Simulations with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) is a candidate of the calorimeter for the NASA's ACCESS program. The ICA studies the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays in the energy up to 10(exp 16) eV. For the past year, Monte Carlo simulation study for the ICA has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for match the scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector response resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution with ICA can be achieved about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed bent power law spectra in the region where the knee occurs have been conducted and clearly show that this detector can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters that are a science goal of ACCESS.

  9. Thermal detection of X-rays. [cryogenic calorimeters for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Plucinsky, P.; Zhang, J.; Kelley, R.; Holt, S.; Madejski, G.; Moseley, S.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of calorimeters is described in terms of their proposed application to sounding-rocket investigations of cosmic X-ray sources. The fundamental theory of the energy resolution of the devices is given, and general discussions are presented regarding the limitations associated with the materials used and available thermometer types. Also given are data describing electrical nonlinearity as a function of temperature, thermistor sensitivity, and heat capacity, as well as data regarding the excess noise that aids in the conduction process. Cryogenic calorimeters based on doped semiconductor thermistors are found to be limited, although thermal detectors have important applications to high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy. Electrical nonlinearity and the excess noise are found to be important for obtaining optimum heat capacity in the thermistor.

  10. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, K.E.; DeWerd, L.A.; Rudman, D.A.; Schima, S.A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  11. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  12. Effects of operating environment on performance of radiometric calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R. L., II

    An experimental program was conducted to assess the effects of changes in operating environment on calorimeter performance. An environmental chamber was used to permit bath temperature stability, room temperature stability, room humidity, and the humidity to which the calorimeter's sample chamber is exposed to be varied independently of one another. The resulting effects on the mean and standard deviation of the error for standard measurements were studied. The results of analysis indicated that the interaction of bath and room temperature stability has a significant effect on error standard deviation, while the humidity to which the sample chamber is exposed most significantly affects mean error. This information can be used as part of a measurement assurance program by checking the product of bath and room temperature stability for significant changes with each sample measurement, and by checking for major shifts in humidity to which the sample chamber is exposed.

  13. The large-scale anisotropy with the PAMELA calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelin, A.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G.; Bazilevskaya, G.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; De Donato, C.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Formato, V.; Galper, A.; Koldashov, S.; Koldobskiy, S.; Krut'kov, S.; Kvashnin, A.; Leonov, A.; Malakhov, V.; Marcelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mayorov, A.; Menn, W.; Mergé, M.; Mikhailov, V.; Mocchiutti, E.; Monaco, A.; Mori, N.; Munini, R.; Osteria, G.; Palma, F.; Panico, B.; Papini, P.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S.; Sarkar, R.; Simon, M.; Scotti, V.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Y.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G.; Voronov, S.; Yurkin, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.

    2015-10-01

    The large-scale anisotropy (or the so-called star-diurnal wave) has been studied using the calorimeter of the space-born experiment PAMELA. The cosmic ray anisotropy has been obtained for the Southern and Northern hemispheres simultaneously in the equatorial coordinate system for the time period 2006-2014. The dipole amplitude and phase have been measured for energies 1-20 TeV n-1.

  14. After-burning of nitropenta products in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H

    1999-06-18

    Explored here are the ''after-burning'' effects for explosions of Nitropenta (NP) charges in air. Detonation of the charge transforms the solid explosive ( C HNO 5 8412 , also known as PETN) into gaseous products that are rich in carbon and CO, which subsequently act as a fuel. When these hot ({approximately}3500 K) gases mix with air, rapid combustion (after-burning) takes place. The dynamics of this exothermic process was studied in ''pressure calorimeter'' experiments performed at EMI.

  15. Cryogenic Technology Development For The MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, Tomiyoshi

    2008-02-21

    Cryogenic key technologies have been developed for the muon rare decay experiment (MEG) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. These technologies are the high power pulse tube cryocooler for precise temperature and pressure control of liquid xenon in the calorimeter, a purification system with a cryogenic liquid pump and a cryogenic dewar with 1000 L storage capacity. The paper describes the general concepts and the first test results of each technology. All the results imply a promising performance for the coming MEG experiment.

  16. Calibration and Characterization of the Small Sample Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Perry, Katherine A.

    2012-08-13

    An early component of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a test of gram scale electrochemical recycling of spent fuel which is to be performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Included in this test is the development of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technologies that would be applicable for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards of the electrochemical recycling process. Of upmost importance to safeguarding the fuel cycle associated with the electrochemical recycling process is the ability to safeguard the U/TRU ingots that will be produced in the process. For the gram scale test, the ingots that will be produced will have an expected thermal power of approximately 130 mW. To ascertain how well the calorimetric assay NDA technique can perform in assaying these ingots, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized and calibrated a small solid-state calorimeter called the Small Sample Calorimeter (SSC3) to perform these measurements at LANL. To calibrate and characterize the SSC3, a series of measurements were performed using certified {sup 238}Pu heat standards whose power output is traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electrical standards. The results of these measurements helped establish both the calibration of the calorimeter as well as the expected performance of the calorimeter in terms of its accuracy and precision as a function of thermal power of the item that is being measured. In this report, we will describe the measurements that were performed and provide a discussion of the results of these measurements.

  17. On timing properties of LYSO-based calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Duarte, J.; Pena, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Trevor, J.; Xie, S.

    2015-04-23

    We present test beam studies and results on the timing performance and characterization of the time resolution of Lutetium–Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO)-based calorimeters. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for a particular design. Additionally, we discuss precision timing calorimetry as a tool for the mitigation of physics object performance degradation effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen at the Large Hadron Collider.

  18. Micro-fabricated DC comparison calorimeter for RF power measurement.

    PubMed

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-10-27

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10⁻³ V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0−1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0−2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2−4 GHz.

  19. Development of an air flow thermal balance calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An air flow calorimeter, based on the idea of balancing an unknown rate of heat evolution with a known rate of heat evolution, was developed. Under restricted conditions, the prototype system is capable of measuring thermal wattages from 10 milliwatts to 1 watt, with an error no greater than 1 percent. Data were obtained which reveal system weaknesses and point to modifications which would effect significant improvements.

  20. Development of Radhard VLSI electronics for SSC calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J.W.; Nodulman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new program of development of integrated electronics for liquid argon calorimeters in the SSC detector environment is being started at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University together with an industrial participants are expected to collaborate in this work. Interaction rates, segmentation, and the radiation environment dictate that front-end electronics of SSC calorimeters must be implemented in the form of highly integrated, radhard, analog, low noise, VLSI custom monolithic devices. Important considerations are power dissipation, choice of functions integrated on the front-end chips, and cabling requirements. An extensive level of expertise in radhard electronics exists within the industrial community, and a primary objective of this work is to bring that expertise to bear on the problems of SSC detector design. Radiation hardness measurements and requirements as well as calorimeter design will be primarily the responsibility of Argonne scientists and our Brookhaven and Vanderbilt colleagues. Radhard VLSI design and fabrication will be primarily the industrial participant's responsibility. The rapid-cycling synchrotron at Argonne will be used for radiation damage studies involving response to neutrons and charged particles, while damage from gammas will be investigated at Brookhaven. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Design of a Calorimeter to Measure Concentrated Solar Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefkow, Elizabeth Anne Bennett

    A water-cooled, cavity calorimeter was designed to accurately measure concentrated solar thermal power produced by the University of Minnesota's solar simulator. The cavity is comprised of copper tubing bent into spiral and helical coils for the base and cylindrical walls, respectively. Insulation surrounds the cavity to reduce heat transfer to the ambient, and a water- cooled aperture cover is positioned at the open end of the cavity. The calorimeter measures the heat gain of water flowing through the system as radiant energy is passed through the aperture. Chilled water flows through the tubing, and the energy incident on the cavity surface is conducted through the wall and convected to the flowing water. The energy increase in the water can be observed by an increase in fluid temperature. A Monte Carlo ray tracing method is used to predict the incident flux distribution and corresponding power on the surfaces of the cavity. These values are used to estimate the thermal losses of the system, and it is found that they account for less that 1% of the total power passed through the aperture. The overall uncertainty of the calorimeter is found by summing the measured uncertainty and the estimated heat loss and is found to be +/-2.5% for 9.2 kW of power output and +/-3.4% for 3 kW.

  2. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  3. Quality Factor for the Hadronic Calorimeter in High Luminosity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seixas, J. M.; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter System

    2015-05-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and has about 10,000 eletronic channels. An Optimal Filter (OF) has been used to estimate the energy sampled by the calorimeter and applies a Quality Factor (QF) for signal acceptance. An approach using Matched Filter (MF) has also been pursued. In order to cope with the luminosity rising foreseen for LHC operation upgrade, different algorithms have been developed. Currently, the OF measurement for signal acceptance is implemented through a chi-square test. At a low luminosity scenario, such QF measurement has been used as a way to describe how the acquired signal is compatible to the pulse shape pattern. However, at high-luminosity conditions, due to pile up, this QF acceptance is no longer possible when OF is employed, and the QF becomes a measurement to indicate whether the reconstructed signal suffers or not from pile up. Methods are being developed in order to recover the superimposed information, and the QF may be used again as signal acceptance criterion. In this work, a new QF measurement is introduced. It is based on divergence statistics, which measures the similarity of probability density functions.

  4. Signal reconstruction performance with the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimek, Pawel; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    2012-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS. It is a key detector for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, taus and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The read out system is designed to reconstruct the data in real time fulfilling the tight constraints imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The signal amplitude for each channel and their phase are measured using Optimal Filtering techniques both at online and offline level. We present the performance of these techniques on the data collected in the proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy equal to 7 TeV. We will address the performance for the measurement on high pile-up environment and on various physics and calibration signals.

  5. An automated flow calorimeter for heat capacity and enthalpy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandarusi, J. A.; Yesavage, V. F.

    1988-11-01

    An automated flow calorimeter has been developed for the measurement of heat capacity and latent enthalpies of fluids at elevated temperatures (300 700 K) and pressure (<30M Pa) with a design accuracy of 0.1%. The method of measurement is the traditional electrical power input flow calorimeter, utilizing a precision metering pump, which eliminates the need for flow-rate monitoring. The calorimeter cell uses a unique concentric coil design with passive metal radiation shields and active guard heaters to minimize heat leakage, eliminate the traditional constant-temperature bath, and facilitate easy component replacement. An additional feature of the instrument is a complete automation system, greatly simplifying operation of the apparatus. A novel multitasking software scheme allows a single microcomputer simultaneously to control all system temperatures, provide continuous monitoring and updates on system status, and log data. Preliminary results for liquid water mean heat capacities show the equipment to be performing satisfactorily, with data accuracies of better than ±0.3%. Minor equipment modifications and better thermometry are required to reduce systemic errors and to achieve the designed operational range.

  6. An automated flow calorimeter for heat capacity and enthalpy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sandarusi, J.A.; Yesavage, V.F.

    1988-11-01

    An automated flow calorimeter has been developed for the measurement of heat capacity and latent enthalpies of fluids at elevated temperatures (300-700 K) and pressure (< 30 MPa) with a design accuracy of 0.1%. The method of measurement is the traditional electrical power input flow calorimeter, utilizing a precision metering pump, which eliminates the need for flow-rate monitoring. The calorimeter cell uses a unique concentric coil design with passive metal radiation shields and active guard heaters to minimize heat leakage, eliminate the traditional constant-temperature bath, and facilitate easy component replacement. An additional feature of the instrument is a complete automation system, greatly simplifying operation of the apparatus. A novel multitasking software scheme allows a single microcomputer simultaneously to control all system temperatures, provide continuous monitoring and updates on system status, and log data. Preliminary results for liquid water mean heat capacities show the equipment to be performing satisfactorily, with data accuracies of better than /plus minus/0.3%. Minor equipment modifications and better thermometry are required to reduce systemic errors and to achieve the designed operational range.

  7. [Electromagnetic urological stimulator].

    PubMed

    Zaslavskiĭ AOi; Markarov, G S; Gelis, Iu S

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with an electromagnetic urological stimulator which generates a modulated low-frequency electromagnetic field of nonthermal intensity and its brief technical data. It presents a treatment regimen for urolithiasis and recommendations how to use the above therapeutical agent to stimulate urinary function in patients with urolithiasis in order to inoperatively eliminate urinary calculi and sand which form following extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

  8. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  9. Electromagnetically Operated Counter

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, H D; Goldberg, M I

    1951-12-18

    An electromagnetically operated counter wherein signals to be counted are applied to cause stepwise rotation of a rotatable element which is connected to a suitable register. The mechanism involved consists of a rotatable armature having three spaced cores of magnetic material and a pair of diametrically opposed electromagnets with a suitable pulsing circuit to actuate the magnets.

  10. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  11. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  12. Electromagnetic wave test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. K.; Stepanek, S. A.

    Electromagnetic wave testing, which represents a relatively new test technique that involves the union of several disciplines (aerothermodynamics, electromagnetics, materials/structures, and advanced diagnostics) is introduced. The essence of this new technique deals with the transmission and possible distortion of electromagnetic waves (RF or IR) as they pass through the bow shock, flow field, and electromagnetic window of a missile flying at hypersonic speeds. Variations in gas density along the optical path can cause significant distortion of the electromagnetic waves and, therefore the missile seeker system may not effectively track the target. Two specific test techniques are described. The first example deals with the combining of a wind tunnel and an RF range while the second example discusses the complexities of evaluating IR seeker system performance.

  13. Precision closed bomb calorimeter for testing flame and gas producing initiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. R., Jr.; Taylor, A. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A calorimeter has been developed under this study to help meet the needs of accurate performance monitoring of electrically or mechanically actuated flame and gas producing devices, such as squib-type initiators. A ten cubic centimeter closed bomb (closed volume) calorimeter was designed to provide a standard pressure trace and to measure a nominal 50 calorie output, using the basic components of a Parr Model 1411 calorimeter. Two prototype bombs were fabricated, pressure tested to 2600 psi, and extensively evaluated.

  14. Electromagnetism, Second Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, I. S.; Phillips, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scientists R. J. Barlow and A. R. Barnett Electromagnetism, Second Edition is suitable for a first course in electromagnetism, whilst also covering many topics frequently encountered in later courses. The material has been carefully arranged and allows for flexi-bility in its use for courses of different length and structure. A knowledge of calculus and an elementary knowledge of vectors is assumed, but the mathematical properties of the differential vector operators are described in sufficient detail for an introductory course, and their physical significance in the context of electromagnetism is emphasised. In this Second Edition the authors give a fuller treatment of circuit analysis and include a discussion of the dispersion of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetism, Second Edition features: The application of the laws of electromagnetism to practical problems such as the behaviour of antennas, transmission lines and transformers. Sets of problems at the end of each chapter to help student understanding, with hints and solutions to the problems given at the end of the book. Optional "starred" sections containing more specialised and advanced material for the more ambitious reader. An Appendix with a thorough discussion of electromagnetic standards and units. Recommended by many institutions. Electromagnetism. Second Edition has also been adopted by the Open University as the

  15. SUITABILITY OF A NEW CALORIMETER FOR EXOTIC MESON SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bookwalter, C.; Ostrovidov, A.; Eugenio, P.

    2007-01-01

    Exotic mesons, particles that have quantum numbers that are inaccessible to conventional quark-model mesons, are predicted by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), but past experiments seeking to identify exotic candidates have produced controversial results. The HyCLAS experiment (E04005) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) proposes the use of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B to study the photoproduction of exotic mesons. However, the base detector package at CLAS is not ideal for observing and measuring neutral particles, particularly at forward angles. The Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) experiment at TJNAF has commissioned a new calorimeter for detecting small-angle photons, but studies must be performed to determine its suitability for a meson spectroscopy experiment. The ηπ system has been under especial scrutiny in the community as a source for potential exotics, so the new calorimeter’s ability at reconstructing these resonances must be evaluated. To achieve this, the invariant mass of showers in the calorimeter are reconstructed. Also, two electroproduction reaction channels analogous to photoproduction channels of interest to HyCLAS are examined in DVCS data. It is found that, while not ideal, the new calorimeter will allow access to additional reaction channels, and its inclusion in HyCLAS is warranted. Results in basic shower reconstruction show that the calorimeter has good effi ciency in resolving π° decays, but its η reconstruction is not as strong. When examining ep → epπ°η, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ° system shows faint signals in the a0(980) region. In the ep → e n π+ η channel, preliminary reconstruction of the ηπ+ system gave good signals in the a0(980) and a2(1320) regions, but statistics were poor. While more analyses are necessary to improve statistics and remove background, these preliminary results support the claim

  16. Master plate production for the tile calorimeter extended barrel modules.

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.J.; Hill, N.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Wood, K.

    1999-03-10

    Approximately 41,000 master plates (Fig. 1) are required for the Extended Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Early in the R&D program associated with the detector, it was recognized that the fabrication of these steel laminations was a significant issue, both in terms of the cost to produce these high precision formed plates, as well as the length of time required to produce all plates for the calorimeter. Two approaches were given serious consideration: laser cutting and die stamping. The Argonne group was a strong supporter of the latter approach and in late 1995 initiated an R&D program to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of die stamping these plates by constructing a die and stamping approximately 2000 plates for use in construction of three full size prototype modules. This was extremely successful and die stamping was selected by the group for production of these plates. When the prototype die was constructed it was matched to the calorimeter envelope at that time. This subsequently changed. However with some minor adjustments in the design envelope and a small compromise in terms of instrumented volume, it became possible to use this same die for the production of all master plates for the Tile Calorimeter. Following an extensive series of discussions and an evaluation of the performance of the stamping presses available to our collaborators in Europe, it was decided to ship the US die to CERN for use in stamping master plates for the barrel section of the calorimeter. This was done under the supervision of CERN and JINR, Dubna, and carried out at the TATRA truck plant at Koprivinice, Czech Republic. It was a great success. Approximately 41,000 plates were stamped and fully met specification. Moreover, the production time was significantly reduced by avoiding the need of constructing and then qualifying a second die for use in Europe. This also precluded small geometrical differences between the barrel and

  17. Upgrade fo the CMS Hadron Outer Calorimeter with SIPMs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jacob; Freeman, James; Los, Sergey; Whitmore, Juliana; /Fermilab

    2011-09-14

    The CMS Hadron Outer Calorimeter (HO) is undergoing an upgrade to replace the existing photodetectors (HPDs) with SIPMs. The chosen device is the Hamamatsu 3 x 3mm 50 {mu}m pitch MPPC. The system has been developed to be a 'drop-in' replacement of the HPDs. A complete control system of bias voltage generation, leakage current monitoring, temperature monitoring, and temperature control using solid state Peltier coolers has been developed and tested. 108 channels of the system have been installed into CMS and operated for more than 2 years. The complete system of about 2200 channels is in production and will be installed in the next LHC long shutdown scheduled for 2013. The CMS central calorimeter consists of a detector inside the solenoidal magnet, HB, and a component outside the magnet, the Outer Hadron Calorimeter, HO [1]. The HO is installed inside the magnet flux return yoke and provides for typically 3{lambda} of additional absorber to the calorimetric measurement. The outer calorimeter is composed of one or more layers of scintillator with wavelength shifting fiber readout into photodetectors. Figure 1 (a) shows the schematic layout of the calorimeters in CMS and shows the location of the HO scintillator layers. The front end electronics are placed inside the CMS detector, close to the scintillators. Figure 1(b) shows a photograph of the scintillators. Note the four wavelength shifting fibers per tile. The tile size creates a projective tower with the HB. Currently the photodetector used is the HPD but for performance and operational reasons it is desired to upgrade these with SIPMs. The CMS HCAL group has developed a drop-in replacement for the HPD using SIPMs. SIPMs are very suitable for this application because of several factors: The radiation levels are modest with a lifetime expected fluence of less than 5*10{sup 11} neutrons (E > 100 KeV) per cm{sup 2}. The energy flux into HO is small, the rate of larger energy depositions is low, and the required

  18. A gage for measuring heat transfer to the bore of electromagnetic railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Derbidge, T.C.; Micali, J.V. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a calorimeter gage for directly measuring plasma armature heat transfer in electromagnetic railguns that has been fabricated and tested. The concept utilizes a miniature thermocouple-instrumented pyrolytic graphic cylinder. The high vaporization temperature and anisotropic properties of the pyrolytic graphite combine to enable measurement of intense heat pulses (time integral of heat flux) beyond the capacity of any other calorimeter. Since the sensing surface does not melt or ablate, data interpretation is straightforward and gage destruction is avoided. Initial tests of the gage have been conducted in the Plasma Utility Gun (PUG). Gage response was generally as anticipated and heat transfer was determined at two bore locations for two PUG shots. Results from these preliminary tests indicate that heat transfer to bore insulators is less than that to the rails. Additional tests are planned including direct measurements of rail heating to confirm initial indications of the heat transfer distribution betwebetween rails and insulators.

  19. Magnetic calorimeter with a SQUID for detecting weak radiations and recording the ultralow energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Kuleshova, G V; Tskhovrebov, A M; Izmailov, G N

    2006-12-31

    The scheme of a magnetic calorimeter for recording extremely low energy releases is developed. The calorimeter is activated by the method of adiabatic demagnetisation and its response to the energy release is measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The estimate of the ultimate sensitivity of the calorimeter with the SQUID demonstrates the possibilities of its application for detecting ultralow radiation intensity, recording single X-ray quanta in the proportional regime and other events with ultralow energy releases. The scheme of the calorimeter with the SQUID on matter waves in superfluid {sup 4}He is proposed. (radiation detectors)

  20. Forward hadron calorimeter for measurements of projectile spectators in heavy-ion experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Golubeva, M. B. Guber, F. F. Ivashkin, A. P. Kurepin, A. B. Marin, V. N. Sadovsky, A. S. Petukhov, O. A.

    2012-06-15

    The construction and performance of a modular hadron calorimeter for NA61 experiment at CERN are described. The calorimeter consists of individual lead/scintillator sandwich modules with the sampling satisfying the compensating condition. The light from the individual scintillator tiles is captured and transported with the WLS-fibers embedded in the scintillator grooves. The light readout is done by avalanche micro-pixel photodiodes. The construction ensures a fine transverse granulation of the calorimeter and a longitudinal segmentation of each module in 10 independent sections. The results of beam tests of the calorimeter prototype are presented.

  1. A calorimeter for measuring the neutral beam power reaching the plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Edmonds, P.H.; Hahs, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    A calorimeter has been designed to measure the neutral beam power reaching the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) plasma. The high-heat-flux surface of this calorimeter is made of an array of graphite tiles. The calorimeter, which will be located in the adapter section between the ATF vacuum vessel and the beam line, is retractable so that it can be moved away from the plasma without opening the vacuum vessel during normal ATF operation. Two rows of thermocouples mounted perpendicular to each other allow determination of the beam profile. This paper presents the details of the design and fabrication of the calorimeter. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  2. An opening electromagnetic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Tubular solenoids have been widely used without any change since an electrical wire was discovered to create magnetic fields by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 and thereby the wire was first coiled as a helix into a solenoid coil by William Sturgeon in 1823 and was improved by Joseph Henry in 1829 [see http://www.myetymology.com/encyclopedia/History_of_the_electricity.html; J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010); and F. Winterberg, Plasma Phys. 8, 541553 (1996)]. A magnetic control method of C-shaped carrying-current wire is proposed, and thereby a new opening electromagnetic transducer evidently differing from the traditional tubular solenoid is created, capable of directly encircling and centering the acted objects in it, bringing about convenient and innovative electromagnetic energy conversion for electromagnetic heating, electromagnetic excitation, physical information capture, and electro-mechanical motion used in science research, industry, and even biomedical activities.

  3. Electromagnetism in the Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Lori R.; Patterson, Evelyn T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes how the authors used portions of popular movies to help students review concepts related to electromagnetism. Movies used and concepts covered in the review are listed, and a sample activity is described. (WRM)

  4. Electromagnetic rotational actuation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Alexander Lee

    2010-08-01

    There are many applications that need a meso-scale rotational actuator. These applications have been left by the wayside because of the lack of actuation at this scale. Sandia National Laboratories has many unique fabrication technologies that could be used to create an electromagnetic actuator at this scale. There are also many designs to be explored. In this internship exploration of the designs and fabrications technologies to find an inexpensive design that can be used for prototyping the electromagnetic rotational actuator.

  5. Concurrent electromagnetic scattering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jean E.; Cwik, Tom; Ferraro, Robert D.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Parker, Jay

    1989-01-01

    The computational power of the hypercube parallel computing architecture is applied to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems. Three analysis codes have been implemented. A Hypercube Electromagnetic Interactive Analysis Workstation was developed to aid in the design and analysis of metallic structures such as antennas and to facilitate the use of these analysis codes. The workstation provides a general user environment for specification of the structure to be analyzed and graphical representations of the results.

  6. The CMS hadron calorimeter detector control system upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, M. O.; Behrens, U.; Campbell, A.; Martens, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. A.; Saxena, P.

    2015-04-01

    The detector control system of the CMS hadron calorimeter provides the 40.0788 MHz LHC clock to the front end electronics and supplies synchronization signals and I2C communication. Pedestals and diagnostic bits are controlled, and temperatures and voltages are read out. SIPM temperatures are actively stabilized by temperature readback and generation of correction voltages to drive the Peltier regulation system. Overall control and interfacing to databases and experimental DAQ software is provided by the software CCM Server. We report on design and development status, and implementation schedule of this system.

  7. Performance of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, G.; Ellison, S.; Gould, R.; Granger, D.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Price, B.; Stewart, M.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC instrument is a balloon-borne experiment capable of measuring cosmic ray elemental spectra from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from H to Fe with a fully active Bismuth Germanate calorimeter. Several Long Duration Balloon flights from McMurdo station, Antarctica are scheduled. The detector was tested with high energy electron, proton, and pion beams at CERN. We present results for 150 and 375 GeV protons, and 150 GeV pions and comparison with a GEANT Monte Carlo.

  8. A Gas-Filled Calorimeter for High Intensity Beam Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, Robert; Ankenbrandt, Harles; Flanagan, Gene; Hauptman, John; Kahn, Steven; Lee, Sehwook; Notani, Masahiro

    We describe a novel gas-Cherenkov calorimeter, which detects Cherenkov light showers emitted in an array of thin metal tubes or channels filled with gas. The materials are not vulnerable to radiation damage, and the detector is inherently fast and able to operate in high rate environments. Future accelerators such as the ILC and a muon collider will need fast, radiation-tolerant detectors for monitoring beams and beam halos, and detectors are needed that can operate in the presence of high particle rates. Such detectors will also be useful for high rate environments at upgraded facilities such as RHIC, CEBAF II, and at Fermilab's Project X.

  9. Silicon photomultiplier characterization for the GlueX barrel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    F. Barbosa, J.E. McKisson, J. McKisson, Y. Qiang, E. Smith, C. Zorn

    2012-12-01

    GlueX is a new detector being constructed at Jefferson Laboratory to study gluonic excitations and confinement via the detection of exotic meson states. The hermetic detector includes a barrel calorimeter where the photodetectors must operate in a high magnetic field exceeding 0.5 T. After extensive tests with a variety of sensors, the chosen photodetector will be a custom silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation. This paper will focus on the characterization of the first 80 production samples of these SiPMs, including dark rate, photodetection efficiency (PDE), crosstalk, response uniformity and radiation tolerance.

  10. Run 2 upgrades to the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, B.; Berryhill, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Mishra, K.; Rivera, R.; Uplegger, L.; Apanasevich, L.; Zhang, J.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Foudas, C.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J. B.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Barbieri, R.; Cali, I. A.; Innocenti, G. M.; Lee, Y.-J.; Roland, C.; Wyslouch, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Northup, M.; Tran, B.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is being upgraded in two stages to maintain performance as the LHC increases pile-up and instantaneous luminosity in its second run. In the first stage, improved algorithms including event-by-event pile-up corrections are used. New algorithms for heavy ion running have also been developed. In the second stage, higher granularity inputs and a time-multiplexed approach allow for improved position and energy resolution. Data processing in both stages of the upgrade is performed with new, Xilinx Virtex-7 based AMC cards.

  11. Evaluating Small Scintillating Cells for Digital Hadron Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the use of scintillator cells with digital electronics as a basis for a digital hadron calorimeter. The detection of a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), analysis of crosstalk, and determination of light yield for the array of scintillating cells are described. The cells were found to have a light yield (in terms of single photoelectrons per MIP) of 7 to 13. Crosstalk due to transfer of light between adjacent cells or photomultiplier tube channels can reach 45%. Rejection versus efficiency studies show that single-channel thresholds can be set that reject noise while accepting MIP signals.

  12. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique.

    PubMed

    Delogu, R S; Poggi, C; Pimazzoni, A; Rossi, G; Serianni, G

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing. PMID:26932104

  13. Simulation of Energy Response of the ATIC Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batkov, K. E.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Case, G.; Christl, M.; Chang, J.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon borne experiment designed to measure the cosmic ray composition for elements from hydrogen to iron and their energy spectra from approx.50 GeV to near 100 TeV. It consists of a Si-matrix detector to determine the charge of a CR particle, a scintillator hodoscope for tracking, carbon interaction targets and a fully active BGO calorimeter. ATIC had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001. The ATIC flight collected approximately 25 million events. For reconstruction of primary spectra from spectra of energy deposits measured in the experiment, correlations between kinetic energy of a primary particle E(sub kin) and energy deposit in the calorimeter E(sub d) should be known. For this purpose, simulations of energy response of the calorimeter on energy spectra of different nuclei were done. The simulations were performed by GEANT-3.21 code with QGSM generator for nucleus - nucleus interactions. The incident flux was taken as isotropic in the ATIC aperture. Primary spectra power-law by momentum were used as inputs according to standard models of cosmic ray acceleration. These spectra become power-law by kinetic energy at E(sub kin) higher than approx.20Mc(sup 2), where M is primary nucleus mass. It should be noted that energy deposit spectra measured by ATIC illustrate similar behavior. Distributions of ratio E(sub kin)/E(sub d) are presented for different energy deposits and for a set of primaries. For power-law regions of energy spectra at E(sub d)> or equal to 20Mc(sup 2) the obtained mean value of E(sub kin)/E(sub d) increases from approx.2.4 for protons to approx.3.1 for iron, while rms/ decreases from 50% for protons to about 15% for iron. These values were obtained for the spectral index gamma=1.6

  14. Operational performance of a large liquid argon photon calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C.; Biel, J.; Droege, T.; Jonckheere, A.; Koehler, P.; Berg, D.; Chandlee, C.; Cihangir, S.; Ferbel, T.; Huston, J.; Jensen, T.; LeBritton, J.; Lobkowicz, F.; McLaughlin, M.; Ohshima, T.; Slattery, P.; Thompson, P.; Bromberg, C.; Cooper, S. R. W.; Collick, B.; Heppelmann, S.; Makdisi, Y.; Marshak, M.; Peterson, E.; Povlis, J.; Ruddick, K.; Brown, B.; Garelick, D.; Glass, G.; Glaubman, M.; Han, S. R.; Pothier, E.

    1983-11-01

    We describe the performance of a large (0.9 × 1.4 m2) liquid argon photon calorimeter in high energy experiments at Fermilab. Resolutions for π0 and electron showers, obtained under data-taking conditions, are compared with electron-beam calibration results. Exceptional spatial and time resolutions have been achieved for isolated showers (σx,y <0.7 mm and σt ∼6 ns). Electron data up to energies of 80 GeV and π0 data up to 180 GeV are presented.

  15. Soudan 2 detector as a time-projection calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, W.W.M.; Alner, J.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.; Barr, G.D.; Barrett, L.; Brooks, C.B.; Cobb, J.H.; Cockerill, D.; Courant, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 2 Nucleon Decay Detector uses Hytrel plastic tubes to cause ionization electrons to drift up to 50 cm prior to gas multiplication and collection. The drift tubes are embedded in a matrix of thin steel sheets. Readout is accomplished by flash digitizers in a system with distributed intelligence. This design is usable as a general-purpose calorimeter in which 3 spatial coordinates and pulse height are measured at all points where ionization occurs. Several 4.3 ton modules of this detector have now been studied in detail. We will present information about the detector performance and its dependence on manufacturing tolerances.

  16. Description of a Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter Used for Cold Fusion Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD. This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.

  17. Calorimeter measures high nuclear heating rates and their gradients across a reactor test hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burwell, D.; Coombe, J. R.; Mc Bride, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pedestal-type calorimeter measures gamma-ray heating rates from 0.5 to 7.0 watts per gram of aluminum. Nuclear heating rate is a function of cylinder temperature change, measured by four chromel-alumel thermocouples attached to the calorimeter, and known thermoconductivity of the tested material.

  18. Twin solution calorimeter determines heats of formation of alloys at high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, J. B., Jr.; Kleb, R.; Kleppa, O. J.

    1968-01-01

    Calvert-type, twin liquid metal solution calorimeter determines the heats of formation of transition metal alloys at high temperatures. The twin differential calorimeter measures the small heat effects generated over extended periods of time, has maximum operating temperature of 1073 degrees K and an automatic data recording system.

  19. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster. PMID:26353514

  20. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fellers, C.L.; Lemming, J.F.

    1981-06-30

    The Argonne National Laboratory bulk assay calorimeter (BAC) was subjected to a series of tests, using plutonium-238 heat standards, to evaluate the performance of the calorimeter over its operating range. The results of these tests provide baseline information of the instrument performance under laboratory conditions.

  1. Flow Type Bio-Chemical Calorimeter with Micro Differential Thermopile Sensor.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Nakabeppu, Osamu

    2015-04-01

    Bio-chemical calorimeters with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) thermopile sensor have been studied for monitoring detailed processes of the biochemical reactions of a minute sample with a high temporal resolution. The bio-calorimeters are generally divided into a batch-type and a flow-type. We developed a highly sensitive batch-type calorimeter which can detect a 100 nW level thermal reaction. However it shows a long settling time of 2 hours because of the heat capacity of a whole calorimeter. Thus, the flow-type calorimeters in passive and active mode have been studied for measuring the thermal reactions in an early stage after starting an analysis. The flow-type calorimeter consists of the MEMS differential thermopile sensor, a pair of micro channel reactor in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sheet in a three-fold thermostat chamber. The calorimeter in the passive mode was tested with dilution reactions of ethanol to water and NaCl aqueous solution to water. It was shown that the calorimeter detects exo- and endothermic reaction over 250 nW at solution flow rate of 0.05 ~ 1 µl/min with a settling time of about 4 minutes. In the active mode, a response test was conducted by using heat removal by water flow from the reactor channel. The active calorimetry enhances the response time about three to four times faster.

  2. A completely automated flow, heat-capacity, calorimeter for use at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z. ); Sandarusi, J. )

    1990-11-01

    An automated, flow calorimeter has been constructed to measure the isobaric heat capacities of concentrated, aqueous electrolyte solutions using a differential calorimetry technique. The calorimeter is capable of operation to 700 K and 40 MPa with a measurement accuracy of 0.03% relative to the heat capacity of the pure reference fluid (water). A novel design encloses the calorimeter within a double set of separately controlled, copper, adiabatic shields that minimize calorimeter heat losses and precisely control the temperature of the inlet fluids. A multistage preheat train, used to efficiently heat the flowing fluid, includes a counter-current heat exchanger for the inlet and outlet fluid streams in tandem with two calorimeter preheaters. Complete system automation is accomplished with a distributed control scheme using multiple processors, allowing the major control tasks of calorimeter operation and control, data logging and display, and pump control to be performed simultaneously. A sophisticated pumping strategy for the two separate syringe pumps allows continuous fluid delivery. This automation system enables the calorimeter to operate unattended except for the reloading of sample fluids. In addition, automation has allowed the development and implementation of an improved heat loss calibration method that provides calorimeter calibration with absolute accuracy comparable to the overall measurement precision, even for very concentrated solutions.

  3. Calibration of a calorimeter for measuring the performance of thermal control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John; Siebes, Georg

    1993-01-01

    The calibration to evaluate the heat leak in terms of the deviation from a perfect calorimeter is described. A thermal vacuum test was carried out to characterize the performance of the calorimeter. The calorimeter was equipped with a heater to control the sample disc temperature and with specific instrumentation to measure the heat leak. The radiation sink temperature of the black cavity target was varied from -192 to +31C, while the heater power was varied from 0 to 311 milliwatts. A steady state thermal model was developed to correlate the results. The calorimeter performance was characterized in terms of the heat leak as a percentage of the ideal heat flow of the calorimeter disc. Large deviations from ideal performance occur at low sink temperatures. The effect of the use of the heater is discussed. The effects of transient conditions during low Earth orbit are discussed. It is concluded that heat leak calibrations are necessary for a wide range of conditions.

  4. Addendum 3 to CSAR 80-027, Use of calorimeter 109B for fissile material measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.

    1994-12-05

    This modification to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) calorimeter system involves removing current calorimeter No. 3 from the water bath and replacing it with a calorimeter that can accommodate larger diameter items (an oversize can). The inside diameters of both the sample and the reference cells will be increased to 5.835 inches at the top opening and to 5.22 inches at the bottom, the 8 inch high measurement zone. This Addendum 3 to Criticality Safety Analysis Report 80-027 examines criticality safety during the use of the modified calorimeter (Calorimeter 109B) with enlarged cell tube diameters to assure that an adequate margin of subcriticality is maintained for all normal and contingency conditions.

  5. The modular nuclear absorber of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter (The experience controlled assembly of the surface and in the pit).

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.; Batusov, V.; Budagov, J.; Leitener, R.; Lyablin, M.; Miralles, L.; Nessi, M.; Russakovich, N.; Sissakian, A.; Topilin, N.; Khubua, J.; Henriques, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter of the ATLAS spectrometric complex is a principal part of the whole setup. This paper describes the developed concept and methods for the controlled construction of a steel nuclear calorimeter absorber which provides calorimeter assembly on the surface and in the underground experimental hall meeting the required design tolerances.

  6. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter.

    PubMed

    Venkata Krishnan, R; Jogeswararao, G; Parthasarathy, R; Premalatha, S; Prabhakar Rao, J; Gunasekaran, G; Ananthasivan, K

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%. PMID:25554316

  7. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T.; Job, P.K.; Price, L.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1992-05-12

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation.

  8. Cosmic Ray Study with the Nose Cone Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langin, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC) is a proposed upgrade detector for the PHENIX experiment at Brookhaven National Lab. The NCC will be useful for a variety of measurements in polarized p+p, d+A, and A+A collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The NCC is a tungsten-silicon sampling calorimeter, made up of 3 mm tungsten plates sandwiched by 1.5x1.5 cm^2 silicon pads. The NCC would add a new capability to measure the χC meson and electrons from W-boson decays in PHENIX, as well as adding acceptance for the 0̂ and γ-jet and many other measurements. Since it uses tungsten plates which have a very small Moliere radius of 0.9 cm, the NCC is capable of distinguishing photons down to very small separations, which is essential for the high densities in the heavy ion collisions and for decay photons from very high energy 0̂'s. The performance of the most recent NCC prototype was tested using cosmic rays, which deposit close to the lowest energies the NCC needs to measure. We find that the dynamic range of the NCC is within design specifications. Additionally, different methods to reconstruct the energy from the measured signal pulses were studied which will help in optimizing the pulse shaping for the next prototype.

  9. π0 Reconstruction using the Muon Piston Calorimeter Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Dhruv; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Muon-Piston Calorimeter Extension (MPC-EX) is a new detector in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider that was installed for the recent Run 15 of the experiment. In polarized p+p and polarized p+A collisions, an important measurement is the yield and momentum distribution of direct photons. Unaffected by the strong force, direct photons traverse the dense medium in the collision zone mostly unchanged, thereby providing information about the initial stages of the collision. However, there is a huge background of photons from other sources, primarily π0 which decay into two photons. The opening angle between the decay photons becomes smaller with higher energies of the original π0. For energies greater than ~20 GeV, the Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) cannot distinguish the two decay photons from a single photon, as their showers merge. The MPC-EX, an 8-layer tungsten and silicon sensor sandwich in front of the MPC, can measure and image the shower development, and help distinguish between direct photons and π0 decay photons up to higher energies than the MPC alone. We will describe the MPC-EX detector and its readout, and present the calibration procedures applied to the data in order to obtain the π0 spectrum. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of Massive Absorbers for Cryogenic Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, D.; Asai, M.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Silva, E.do Couto e; Kelsey, M.; Leman, S.W.; McArthy, K.; Resch, R.; Wright, D.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; /MIT

    2012-06-12

    There is a growing interest in cryogenic calorimeters with macroscopic absorbers for applications such as dark matter direct detection and rare event search experiments. The physics of energy transport in calorimeters with absorber masses exceeding several grams is made complex by the anisotropic nature of the absorber crystals as well as the changing mean free paths as phonons decay to progressively lower energies. We present a Monte Carlo model capable of simulating anisotropic phonon transport in cryogenic crystals. We have initiated the validation process and discuss the level of agreement between our simulation and experimental results reported in the literature, focusing on heat pulse propagation in germanium. The simulation framework is implemented using Geant4, a toolkit originally developed for high-energy physics Monte Carlo simulations. Geant4 has also been used for nuclear and accelerator physics, and applications in medical and space sciences. We believe that our current work may open up new avenues for applications in material science and condensed matter physics.

  11. Imaging pion showers with the CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Feege, N.

    2011-07-01

    The CALICE collaboration investigates different technology options for highly granular calorimeters for detectors at a future electron-positron collider. One of the devices constructed and tested by the collaboration is a 1 m{sup 3} prototype for an imaging scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter for hadrons with analogue readout (AHCAL). The light from 7608 small scintillator cells is detected with silicon photomultipliers. The AHCAL has been successfully operated during electron and hadron test-beam measurements at DESY, CERN, and Fermilab since 2005. The collected data allow for evaluating the novel technologies employed. In addition, these data provide a valuable basis for validating pion cascade simulations. This paper presents the current status of comparisons between the AHCAL data and predictions from different Monte Carlo models implemented in GEANT4. The comparisons cover the total visible energy, longitudinal and radial shower profiles, and the shower substructure. Furthermore, this paper discusses a software compensation algorithm for improving the energy resolution of the AHCAL for single pions. (authors)

  12. Construction and operation of a drift-collection calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Dawson, J.W.; Hoftiezer, J.H.; Mann, W.A.; May, E.N.; Pearson, N.M.; Price, L.E.; Sivaprasad, K.; Solomey, N.

    1984-01-01

    Large areas planar drift chambers with long drift distance (up to 50 cm) have been developed for possible use in the new Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector. Design goals included fine sampling to determine the topology of complex events with several low-energy tracks. The large scale of the experiment (> 1000 metric tons) required large area inexpensive chambers, which also had good position resolution and multi-track separation. The chambers were to be installed between thin sheets of steel to form a finegrained detector. A second goal was the sampling of dE/dx with each position measurement, in order to determine the direction and particle identity of each track. In this paper we report on the construction and operation of a prototype dectector consisting of 50 chambers, separated by 3 mm-thick steel plates. Readout of drift time and pulse height from anode wires and an orthogonal grid of bussed cathode pads utilized 6-bit flash ADC's. This application of the drift-collection calorimeter technique to a nucleon decay detector follows the investigation by a number of groups of calorimeters for high energy detectors based on long drifting.

  13. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-15

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  14. Cryogenic Tests of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, J.; Fabre, C.; Passardi, G.; Chalifour, M.

    2006-04-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter consists of the barrel and two end-cap detectors housed in three independent cryostats filled with a total volume of 78 m3 of liquid argon. During cool-down the temperature differences in the composite structure of the detectors must be kept within strict limits to avoid excessive mechanical stresses and relative displacements. During normal operation the formation of gas bubbles, which are detrimental to the functioning of the detector, must be prevented and temperature gradients of less than 0.7 K across the argon bath are mandatory due to the temperature dependence of the energy measurements. Between April 2004 and May 2005 the barrel (120 t) and one end-cap (219 t) underwent qualification tests at the operating temperature of 87.3 K using a dedicated test facility at ground level. These tests provided a validation of the cooling methods to be adopted in the final underground configuration. In total 6.9 GJ and 15.7 GJ were extracted from the calorimeters and a temperature uniformity of the argon bath of less than 0.4 K was achieved.

  15. Construction and operation of a drift-collection calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Dawson, J.W.; Hoftiezer, J.H.; Mann, W.A.; May, E.N.; Pearson, N.M.; Price, L.E.; Sivaprasad, K.

    1985-02-01

    Large area planar drift chambers with long drift distances (up to 50 cm) have been developed for possible use in the new Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector. Design goals included fine sampling to determine the topology of complex events with several low-energy tracks. The large scale of the experiment (greater than 1000 metric tons) required large area, inexpensive chambers, which also had good position resolution and multi-track separation. The chambers were to be installed between thin sheets of steel to form a finegrained detector. A second goal was the sampling of dE/dx with each position measurement, in order to determine the direction and particle identity of each track. In this paper we report on the construction and operation of a prototype detector consisting of 50 chambers, separated by 3 mm-thick steel plates. Readout of drift time and pulse height from anode wires and an orthogonal grid of bussed cathode pads utilized 6-bit flash ADC's. This application of the drift-collection calorimeter technique to a nucleon decay detector/sup 1/ follows the investigation by a number of groups/sup 2 -4/ of calorimeters for high energy detectors based on long drifting.

  16. Floating data acquisition system for microwave calorimeter measurements on MTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sewall, N.R.; Meassick, S. )

    1989-09-13

    A microwave calorimeter has been designed for making 140-GHz absorption measurements on the MTX. Measurement of the intensity and spatial distribution of the FEL-generated microwave beam on the inner wall will indicate the absorption characteristics of the plasma when heated with a 140 GHz FEL pulse. The calorimeter works by monitoring changes of temperature in silicon carbide tiles located on the inner wall of the tokamak. Thermistors are used to measure the temperature of each tile. The tiles are located inside the tokamak about 1 cm outside of the limiter radius at machine potential. The success of this measurement depends on our ability to float the data acquisition system near machine potential and isolate it from the rest of the vault ground system. Our data acquisition system has 48 channels of thermistor signal conditioning, a multiplexer and digitizer section, a serial data formatter, and a fiber-optic transmitter to send the data out. Additionally, we bring timing signals to the interface through optical fibers to tell it when to begin measurement, while maintaining isolation. The receiver is an HP 200 series computer with a serial data interface; the computer provides storage and local display for the shot temperature profile. Additionally, the computer provides temporary storage of the data until it can be passed to a shared resource management system for archiving. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Development of a semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jogeswararao, G.; Parthasarathy, R.; Premalatha, S.; Prabhakar Rao, J.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ananthasivan, K.

    2014-12-01

    A semi-adiabatic isoperibol solution calorimeter has been indigenously developed. The measurement system comprises modules for sensitive temperature measurement probe, signal processing, data collection, and joule calibration. The sensitivity of the temperature measurement module was enhanced by using a sensitive thermistor coupled with a lock-in amplifier based signal processor. A microcontroller coordinates the operation and control of these modules. The latter in turn is controlled through personal computer (PC) based custom made software developed with LabView. An innovative summing amplifier concept was used to cancel out the base resistance of the thermistor. The latter was placed in the dewar. The temperature calibration was carried out with a standard platinum resistance (PT100) sensor coupled with an 8½ digit multimeter. The water equivalent of this calorimeter was determined by using electrical calibration with the joule calibrator. The experimentally measured values of the quantum of heat were validated by measuring heats of dissolution of pure KCl (for endotherm) and tris (hydroxyl methyl) amino-methane (for exotherm). The uncertainity in the measurements was found to be within ±3%.

  18. Electrosensibility and electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Leitgeb, Norbert; Schröttner, Jörg

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic sensibility, the ability to perceive electric and electromagnetic exposure, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), developing health symptoms due to exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields, need to be distinguished. Increased electrosensibility is a necessary, however, not a sufficient condition for electromagnetic hypersensitivity. At an extended sample of the general population of 708 adults, including 349 men and 359 women aged between 17 and 60 years, electrosensibility was investigated and characterized by perception threshold and its standard deviation. By analyzing the probability distributions of the perception threshold of electric 50 Hz currents, evidence could be found for the existence of a subgroup of people with significantly increased electrosensibility (hypersensibility) who as a group could be differentiated from the general population. The presented data show that the variation of the electrosensibility among the general population is significantly larger than has yet been estimated by nonionizing radiation protection bodies, but much smaller than claimed by hypersensitivity self-aid groups. These quantitative results should contribute to a less emotional discussion of this problem. The investigation method presented, is capable of exclusion diagnostics for persons suffering from the hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:12929157

  19. Electromagnetic attachment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic attachment mechanism is disclosed for use as an end effector of a remote manipulator system. A pair of electromagnets, each with a U-shaped magnetic core with a pull-in coil and two holding coils, are mounted by a spring suspension system on a base plate of the mechanism housing with end pole pieces adapted to move through openings in the base plate when the attractive force of the electromagnets is exerted on a strike plate of a grapple fixture affixed to a target object. The pole pieces are spaced by an air gap from the strike plate when the mechanism first contacts the grapple fixture. An individual control circuit and power source is provided for the pull-in coil and one holding coil of each electromagnet. A back-up control circuit connected to the two power sources and a third power source is provided for the remaining holding coils. When energized, the pull-in coils overcome the suspension system and air gap and are automatically de-energized when the pole pieces move to grapple and impose a preload force across the grapple interface. A battery backup is a redundant power source for each electromagnet in each individual control circuit and is automatically connected upon failure of the primary source. A centerline mounted camera and video monitor are used in cooperation with a target pattern on the reflective surface of the strike plate to effect targeting and alignment.

  20. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  1. [Electromagnetic fields hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Sobiczewska, Elzbieta; Szmigielski, Stanisław

    2009-01-01

    The development of industry, particularly of new technologies in communication systems, gives rise to the number and diversty of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources in the environment. These sources, including power-frequent, radiofrequent and microwaves, make human life richer, safer and easier. But at the same time, there is growing concern about possible health risks connected with EMF exposure. An increasing number of persons have recently reported on a variety of health problems induced, in their opinion, by exposure to EMF. It is important to note that EMF levels to which these individuals are exposed are generally well below the recommended exposure limits and are certainly far below those known to produce any adverse effects. These persons call themselves "electromagnetic hypersensitivity individuals" And complain about experiencing various types of non-specific symptoms, including dermatological, neurological and vegetative. In the present paper, the problem of electromagnetic hypersensitivity phenomenon is discussed based on the recently published literature.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, T.; Pascalutsa, V.; Vanderhaeghen, M.; Martin-Camalich, J.

    2011-10-21

    We discuss the chiral behavior of the nucleon and {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic properties within the framework of a SU(2) covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Our one-loop calculation is complete to the order p{sup 3} and p{sup 4}/{Delta} with {Delta} as the {Delta}(1232)-nucleon energy gap. We show that the magnetic moment of a resonance can be defined by the linear energy shift only when an additional relation between the involved masses and the applied magnetic field strength is fulfilled. Singularities and cusps in the pion mass dependence of the {Delta}(1232) electromagnetic moments reflect a non-fulfillment. We show results for the pion mass dependence of the nucleon iso-vector electromagnetic quantities and present preliminary results for finite volume effects on the iso-vector anomalous magnetic moment.

  4. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  5. Space-time development of electromagnetic and hadronic showers and perspectives for novel calorimetric techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Benaglia, Andrea; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Wenzel, Hans; Para, Adam

    2016-04-20

    The performance of hadronic calorimeters will be a key parameter at the next generation of High Energy Physics accelerators. A detector combining fine granularity with excellent timing information would prove beneficial for the reconstruction of both jets and electromagnetic particles with high energy resolution. In this work, the space and time structure of high energy showers is studied by means of a Geant4-based simulation toolkit. In particular, the relevant time scales of the different physics phenomena contributing to the energy loss are investigated. A correlation between the fluctuations of the energy deposition of high energy hadrons and the time developmentmore » of the showers is observed, which allows for an event-by-event correction to be computed to improve the energy resolution of the calorimeter. Lastly, these studies are intended to set the basic requirements for the development of a new-concept, total absorption time-imaging calorimeter, which seems now within reach thanks to major technological advancements in the production of fast scintillating materials and compact photodetectors.« less

  6. Space-Time Development of Electromagnetic and Hadronic Showers and Perspectives for Novel Calorimetric Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Benaglia, Andrea; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Wenzel, Hans; Para, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The performance of hadronic calorimeters will be a key parameter at the next generation of High Energy Physics accelerators. A detector combining fine granularity with excellent timing information would prove beneficial for the reconstruction of both jets and electromagnetic particles with high energy resolution. In this work, the space and time structure of high energy showers is studied by means of a Geant4-based simulation toolkit. In particular, the relevant time scales of the different physics phenomena contributing to the energy loss are investigated. A correlation between the fluctuations of the energy deposition of high energy hadrons and the time development of the showers is observed, which allows for an event-by-event correction to be computed to improve the energy resolution of the calorimeter. These studies are intended to set the basic requirements for the development of a new-concept, total absorption time-imaging calorimeter, which seems now within reach thanks to major technological advancements in the production of fast scintillating materials and compact photodetectors.

  7. Volcano-electromagnetic effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, Malcolm J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Volcano-electromagnetic effects—electromagnetic (EM) signals generated by volcanic activity—derive from a variety of physical processes. These include piezomagnetic effects, electrokinetic effects, fluid vaporization, thermal demagnetization/remagnetization, resistivity changes, thermochemical effects, magnetohydrodynamic effects, and blast-excited traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Identification of different physical processes and their interdependence is often possible with multiparameter monitoring, now common on volcanoes, since many of these processes occur with different timescales and some are simultaneously identified in other geophysical data (deformation, seismic, gas, ionospheric disturbances, etc.). EM monitoring plays an important part in understanding these processes.

  8. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  9. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  10. Superconducting dipole electromagnet

    DOEpatents

    Purcell, John R.

    1977-07-26

    A dipole electromagnet of especial use for bending beams in particle accelerators is wound to have high uniformity of magnetic field across a cross section and to decrease evenly to zero as the ends of the electromagnet are approached by disposing the superconducting filaments of the coil in the crescent-shaped nonoverlapping portions of two intersecting circles. Uniform decrease at the ends is achieved by causing the circles to overlap increasingly in the direction of the ends of the coil until the overlap is complete and the coil is terminated.

  11. An analysis of calibration curve models for solid-state heat-flow calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Hypes, P. A.; Bracken, D. S.; McCabe, G.

    2001-01-01

    Various calibration curve models for solid-state calorimeters are compared to determine which model best fits the calibration data. The calibration data are discussed. The criteria used to select the best model are explained. A conclusion regarding the best model for the calibration curve is presented. These results can also be used to evaluate the random and systematic error of a calorimetric measurement. A linear/quadratic model has been used for decades to fit the calibration curves for wheatstone bridge calorimeters. Excellent results have been obtained using this calibration curve model. The Multical software package uses this model for the calibration curve. The choice of this model is supported by 40 years [1] of calorimeter data. There is good empirical support for the linear/quadratic model. Calorimeter response is strongly linear. Calorimeter sensitivity is slightly lower at higher powers; the negative coefficient of the x{sup 2} term accounts for this. The solid-state calorimeter is operated using the Multical [2] software package. An investigation was undertaken to determine if the linear/quadratic model is the best model for the new sensor technology used in the solid-state calorimeter.

  12. Room-temperature calorimeter for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T. Kato, M.; Saito, N.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-09-15

    We have developed a room-temperature calorimeter for absolute radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. This room-temperature calorimeter is an electrical substitution device based on the equivalence of electrical and radiant heating. Consequently, the measured radiant powers are traceable to electrical standards, i.e., the International System Units (SI). We demonstrated the performance of the room-temperature calorimeter by electrical power measurements (offline tests). In the offline tests, the room-temperature calorimeter was proven to be able to measure external powers up to at least 6.9 mW, which exceeds the upper limit (∼4 mW) of a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector in Japan). In addition, measurement uncertainties of the room-temperature calorimeter were evaluated to be less than 1.0%, which is adequate for the radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. An indirect comparison with the cryogenic radiometer was performed using a synchrotron radiation source to confirm the validity of the absolute radiant powers measured with the room-temperature calorimeter. The absolute radiant powers measured by the calorimeter agreed with those measured by the cryogenic radiometer within 0.6%, which is less than the relative standard uncertainty of the comparison (1.0%)

  13. Central Calorimeter configuration: A study report to the SDC Technical Board

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, T.B.W.; Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-04-11

    The single most important determinant of the overall Central Calorimeter (CC) shape is the criterion for depth of hadron shower containment. This criterion and its rapidity dependence is discussed in a companion document to this report titled ``Depth Requirements in SSC Calorimeters`` by a D. Green et al., SDC-91-00016. The conclusion reached there is that the calorimeter should be 10 {lambda} thick at {eta} = 0 and increase smoothly to 12 {lambda} at {eta} = 3. We adopt this criterion in this report and discuss the mechanical properties and design details of a CC that meets this condition.

  14. The ATIC Experiment: Performance of the Scintillator Hodoscopes and the BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, Joachim; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment had its first flight from Mcmurdo, Antarctica 28/12/2000 to 13/01/2001, local time, recording over 360 hours of data. The design goal of ATIC was to measure the Cosmic Ray composition and energy spectra from approximately 50 GeV to near 100 TeV utilizing a Si-matrix detector, a scintillator hodoscope, carbon targets and a calorimeter consisting of a stack of BGO scintillator crystals. The design, the operations and in-flight performance of the scintillator hodoscope and the BGO calorimeter are described.

  15. The ATIC Experiment : Performance of the Scintillator Hodoscope and the BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment had its first flight from McMurdo, Antarctica, 28/12/00 to 13/01/01, recording over 360 hours of data. The design goal for ATIC was to measure the Cosmic Ray composition and energy spectra from approximately 50 GeV to near 100 TeV utilizing a Si-matrix detector, a scintillator hodoscope, carbon targets and a calorimeter consisting of a stack of BGO scintillator crystals. The design, operation, and in-flight performance of the scintillator hodoscope and the BGO calorimeter are described.

  16. Evaluation of a bulk calorimeter and heat balance for determination of supersonic combustor efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclinton, C. R.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from the shakedown and evaluation test of a bulk calorimeter. The calorimeter is designed to quench the combustion at the exit of a direct-connect, hydrogen fueled, scramjet combustor model, and to provide the measurements necessary to perform an analysis of combustion efficiency. Results indicate that the calorimeter quenches reaction, that reasonable response times are obtained, and that the calculated combustion efficiency is repeatable within + or -3 percent and varies in a regular way with combustor model parameters such as injected fuel equivalence ratio.

  17. Design of experiments for measuring heat-transfer coefficients with a lumped-parameter calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine optimum experimental conditions for using a lumped-parameter calorimeter to measure heat-transfer coefficients and heating rates. A mathematical model of the transient temperature response of the calorimeter was used with the measured temperature response to predict the heat-transfer coefficient and the rate of heating. A sensitivity analysis was used to determine the optimum transient experiment for simultaneously measuring the heat addition during heating and the convective heat-transfer coefficient during heating and cooling of a lumped-parameter calorimeter. Optimum experiments were also designed for measuring the convective heat-transfer coefficient during both heating and cooling and cooling only.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of a Multichannel 3D Thermopile for Chip Calorimeter Applications

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tho Phuoc; Zhang, Yilei; Yehuda, Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensors based on thermopiles are some of the most robust and popular temperature sensing technologies across industries and research disciplines. A chip calorimeter with a 3D thermopile layout with a large sensing area and multichannel capacity has been developed, which is highly desired for many applications requiring large reaction chambers or high throughputs, such as biofilm research, drug screening, etc. The performance of the device, including temperature sensitivity and heat power sensitivity, was evaluated. The capability to split the chip calorimeter to multiple channels was also demonstrated, which makes the chip calorimeter very flexible and powerful in many applications. PMID:25654716

  19. Operation of the enhanced ATLAS First Level Calorimeter Trigger at the start of Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palka, Marek

    2016-02-01

    In 2015 the LHC is already operating with a higher centre-of-mass energy and proton beam luminosity. To keep high trigger efficiency with the increased event rate ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger electronics have been re-designed or newly introduced (Pre-Processors, Merging Modules and Topological Processors). Additionally, to achieve the best possible resolution for the reconstructed physics objects, complex calibration and monitoring systems are employed. Hit rates and energy spectra down to channel level, based on reconstructed events, are supervised with the calorimeter trigger hardware. In this paper the performance of the upgraded Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger at the beginning of LHC Run-2 is described.

  20. Operation of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters at sLHC luminosities: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Atlas Liquid Argon Hilum Group

    2010-05-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at sLHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the end-cap (EMEC, HEC) and in the forward region (FCAL). Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity (up to 10 12 pps) proton beam of 60 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. Also, the dependence of the HV currents as well as calorimeter module temperature on the beam intensity has been measured.

  1. Performance of the BGO endcap calorimeter with phototriode readout for the CMD-2 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, D.N.; Akhmetshin, R.R.; Beschastnov, P.M.; Fedorenko, V.E.; Pyata, E.E.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V.

    1995-08-01

    The endcap calorimeter of the CMD-2 detector for the VEPP-2M collider is described. The calorimeter contains 680 BGO crystals read out by vacuum phototriodes. Charge sensitive preamplifiers are placed directly on the phototriodes for the best noise performance. The calorimeter was installed during the last year. Calibration by cosmic rays showed the energy equivalent of the electronic noise to be about 0.9 MeV during operation in a 1 T magnetic field which corresponds to the design value.

  2. Installation, commissioning and operation of the tile hadron calorimeter of ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenschein, Ulla

    2007-03-01

    Within the ATLAS experiment at the pp-collider LHC at CERN, the Tile Hadron Calorimeter is the first subdetector to be assembled, commissioned and operated. The calorimeter has successfully been deployed in the ATLAS cavern. The installation of the services and the routing of connections is in progress. The final certification of the front-end electronics has started, using both a temporary and the final back-end. Cosmic muons are used to test the performance and alignment of the whole calorimeter. In parallel, the integration with other ATLAS systems has started.

  3. Hadron shower decomposition in a highly granular calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadeeva, Marina; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The spatial development of showers induced by positive hadrons with momenta 10-80 GeV in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadronic calorimeter is analysed. The parametrisation of both longitudinal and radial shower profiles with the two- component functions are fit to the test beam data and simulations using the physics lists QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT from GEANT4 version 9.6 patch 01. The shower parameters, describing the longitudinal tail and radial halo, are in good agreement between data and simulations and are similar for pions and protons. For the longitudinal development, the most significant difference between data and simulations is in the relative containment of the separated components. For the radial development, the core slope parameter is underestimated by simulations. The physics list FTFP_BERT gives a very good description of proton showers in the studied energy range and gives better predictions of the pion shower development than QGSP_BERT.

  4. Web system to support analysis of the Tile Calorimeter commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidantchik, C.; Faria, A.; Grael, F. F.; Ferreira, F. G.; Galvão, K. K.; Dotti, A.; Solans, C.; Price, L.

    2008-07-01

    This article describes the set of computer systems that support the data analysis and quality control during the Tile Calorimeter commissioning phase. The Tile Commissioning Web System (TCWS) encapsulates the steps to retrieve information, execute programs, access the outcomes, register statements and verify the equipment status. TCWS integrates different applications, each one presenting a particular view of the commissioning process. The TileComm Analysis stores plots and analysis results, provides equipment-oriented visualization, collects information regarding the equipment performance, and outlines its status in each test. The Timeline application provides the equipment status history in a chronological way. The Web Interface for Shifters supports monitoring tasks by managing test parameters, graphical views of the detector's performance, and information status of all equipment that was used in each test. The DCS Web System provides a standard way to verify the behaviour of power sources and the cooling system.

  5. The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade During Phase I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülmez, E.

    2014-06-01

    The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter is being upgraded during phase 1. The upgrade includes the replacement of the current PMTs with the 4-anode ones and the readout electronics. Stray muons hitting the PMT windows produce Cherenkov light causing erroneous signals. These signals are detrimental to the triggering and physic results, since such signals mimic very high energy events. The new 4-anode PMTs are selected because of their thin windows to reduce the Cherenkov light production. Additional anodes also provide information to eliminate such signals. These new PMTs have been tested extensively to understand their characteristics and to develop the algorithms to eliminate the unwanted signals. Eventually, the current read out will be replaced with two-channel readout electronics for each PMT. The overall expected improvement on the physics results will also be discussed.

  6. The magnetized steel and scintillator calorimeters of the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, : D.G.

    2008-05-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment uses an accelerator-produced neutrino beam to perform precision measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the 'atmospheric neutrino' sector associated with muon neutrino disappearance. This long-baseline experiment measures neutrino interactions in Fermilab's NuMI neutrino beam with a near detector at Fermilab and again 735 km downstream with a far detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. The two detectors are magnetized steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. They are designed to be as similar as possible in order to ensure that differences in detector response have minimal impact on the comparisons of event rates, energy spectra and topologies that are essential to MINOS measurements of oscillation parameters. The design, construction, calibration and performance of the far and near detectors are described in this paper.

  7. The Electron Calorimeter (ECAL) Long Duration Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Binns, W. R.; Chang, J.; Cherry, M. L.; Christl, M.; Dowkontt, P.; Ellison, B.; Isbert, J. B.; Israel, M. H.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Panov, A.; Sokolskaya, N.; Stewart, M.; Watts, J.; Wefel, P.; Zatsepin, V.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the cosmic ray electron energy spectrum in the energy region 50 GeV to greater than 1 TeV may reveal structure caused by the annihilation of exotic dark matter particles and/or individual cosmic ray sources. Here we describe a new long duration balloon (LDB) experiment, ECAL, optimized to directly measure cosmic ray electrons up to several TeV. ECAL includes a double layer silicon matrix, a scintillating optical fiber track imager, a neutron detector and a fully active calorimeter to identify more than 90% of the incident electrons with an energy resolution of about 1.7% while misidentifying only 1 in 200,000 protons and 0.8% of secondary gamma rays as electrons. Two ECAL flights in Antarctica are planned for a total exposure of 50 days with the first flight anticipate for December 2009.

  8. Finite element analysis of the SDC barrel and endcap calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Guarino, V.; Hill, N.; Nasiakta, J.

    1992-03-11

    In designing the SCD barrel and endcap calorimeters, the inter-module connecting forces must be known in order to determine the required size and number of connecting links between modules, and in order to understand how individual modules will be affected by these forces when assembled to form a full barrel and endcap. The connecting forces were found by analyzing three-dimensional Finite Element Models of both the barrel and endcap. This paper is divided into two parts, the first part will describe in detail the results of the barrel analysis and the second part will describe the results obtained from the endcap analysis. A similar approach was used in constructing the models for both analysis.

  9. Relative Gain Monitoring of the GlueX Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anassontzis, Efstratios G.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Voulgaris, G.; Kappos, E.; Beattie, T.; Krueger, S.; Lolos, G. J.; Papandreou, Z.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Frye, John M.; Leckey, John P.; Shepherd, Matt; Bogart, T.; Smith, Elton S.

    2014-02-01

    The relative gain of the photodetectors for the GlueX Barrel and Forward calorimeters will be monitored using modular LED driver systems. The BCAL system consists of a global controller that feeds power, bias voltage and trigger signals to 96 local controllers situated at the ends of the 48 BCAL modules, which drive 40 LEDs associated with the 40 light guides at the end of each module. The FCAL system consists also of a global controller, a local controller for each acrylic quadrant covering the face of the FCAL, and ten 4-LED pulser boards per local controller connected in a star configuration along the edges of the acrylic panes. The respective systems are currently being installed on the detectors and their tested performance is presented herein.

  10. A high precision calorimeter for the SOX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, L.; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Caminata, A.; Cereseto, R.; Di Noto, L.; Farinon, S.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Schönert, S.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S.

    2016-07-01

    The SOX (Short distance neutrino Oscillations with BoreXino) experiment is being built to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos by observing short baseline oscillations of active-to-sterile neutrinos [1]. For this purpose, a 100 kCi 144Ce-144Pr antineutrino generator (CeSOX) will be placed under the BOREXINO detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Thanks to its large size and very low background, BOREXINO is an ideal detector to discover or reject eV-scale sterile neutrinos. To reach the maximal sensitivity, we aim at determining the neutrino flux emitted by the antineutrino generator with a < 1 % accuracy. With this goal, TU München and INFN Genova are developing a vacuum calorimeter, which is designed to measure the source-generated heat with high accuracy.

  11. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  12. "Hearing" Electromagnetic Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojo, Marta; Munoz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an educational experience is described in which a microwave communication link is used to make students aware that all electromagnetic waves have the same physical nature and properties. Experimental demonstrations are linked to theoretical concepts to increase comprehension of the physical principles underlying electromagnetic…

  13. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs. (LEW)

  14. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  15. Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

  16. Simple Superconducting "Permanent" Electromagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelson, Ulf E.; Strayer, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed short tube of high-temperature-superconducting material like YBa2Cu3O7 acts as strong electromagnet that flows as long as magnetic field remains below critical value and temperature of cylinder maintained sufficiently below superconducting-transition temperature. Design exploits maximally anisotropy of high-temperature-superconducting material.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  18. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  19. Electromagnetic structure of light nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Pastore, Saori

    2016-03-25

    Here, the present understanding of nuclear electromagnetic properties including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in nuclei with A ≤ 10 is reviewed. Emphasis is on calculations based on nuclear Hamiltonians that include two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials, along with one- and two-body electromagnetic currents derived from a chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons.

  20. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    SciTech Connect

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  1. The Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the LHC run 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, J.; Alexa, C.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Anderson, K. J.; Arabidze, G.; Araque, J. P.; Artamonov, A.; Asquith, L.; Astalos, R.; Backus Mayes, J.; Bartos, P.; Batkova, L.; Bertolucci, F.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Blanco Castro, A.; Blazek, T.; Bohm, C.; Boumediene, D.; Boveia, A.; Brown, H.; Busato, E.; Calkins, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Carli, T.; Carvalho, J.; Cascella, M.; Castro, N. F.; Cavasinni, V.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Chadelas, R.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekanov, S.; Chen, X.; Chikovani, L.; Choudalakis, G.; Cinca, D.; Ciubancan, M.; Clement, C.; Cole, S.; Constantinescu, S.; Costin, T.; Crouau, M.; Crozatier, C.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Darmora, S.; Davidek, T.; Del Prete, T.; Dita, S.; Djobava, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dotti, A.; Dubreuil, E.; Dunford, M.; Eriksson, D.; Errede, S.; Errede, D.; Faltova, J.; Farbin, A.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Feng, E. J.; Ferrer, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Francavilla, P.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Galhardo, B.; Gellerstedt, K.; Ghodbane, N.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giokaris, N.; Glonti, G. L.; Gomes, A.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Grenier, P.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Guicheney, C.; Hakobyan, H.; Hard, A. S.; Harkusha, S.; Heelan, L.; Helsens, C.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Hernandez, C. M.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hurwitz, M.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jennens, D.; Johansson, K. E.; Jon-And, K.; Jorge, P. M.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kapliy, A.; Karpov, S. N.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Khandanyan, H.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kim, H.; Klimek, P.; Korolkov, I.; Kruse, A.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Lafarguette, P.; Lambert, D.; LeCompte, T.; Leitner, R.; Leone, S.; Liao, H.; Lie, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Lundberg, O.; Magalhaes Martins, P. J.; Maio, A.; Makouski, M.; Maneira, J.; Filho, L. Manhaes de Andrade; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Martin, B.; Mchedlidze, G.; Meehan, S.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meoni, E.; Merritt, F. S.; Meyer, C.; Miller, D. W.; Milstead, D. A.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mir, L. M.; Molander, S.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Mosidze, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Nemecek, S.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nilsson, P.; Nodulman, L.; Nordkvist, B.; Ohm, C. C.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Onofre, A.; Oreglia, M. J.; Pallin, D.; Pantea, D.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Pedraza Morales, M. I.; Pedro, R.; Martins, F. M. Pedro; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pina, J.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Podlyski, F.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Poveda, J.; Pravahan, R.; Pribyl, L.; Price, L. E.; Proudfoot, J.; Rocha de Lima, J. G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Rossetti, V.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Says, L. P.; Schwartzman, A.; Scuri, F.; Shimizu, S.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Solans, C. A.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Spalla, M.; Stanek, R. W.; Starchenko, E. A.; Starovoitov, P.; Stavina, P.; Stoicea, G.; Succurro, A.; Suhr, C.; Sumida, T.; Sykora, I.; Tas, P.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tokár, S.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tudorache, V.; Tudorache, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tylmad, M.; Usai, G.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Vazeille, F.; Veloso, F.; Vichou, I.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Viret, S.; Volpi, M.; Wang, C.; Weng, Z.; White, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Yanush, S.; Yoshida, R.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Y.; Zinonos, Z.; Zutshi, V.; Ženiš, T.; van Woerden, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the Laser calibration system of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter that has been used during the run 1 of the LHC . First, the stability of the system associated readout electronics is studied. It is found to be stable with variations smaller than 0.6 %. Then, the method developed to compute the calibration constants, to correct for the variations of the gain of the calorimeter photomultipliers, is described. These constants were determined with a statistical uncertainty of 0.3 % and a systematic uncertainty of 0.2 % for the central part of the calorimeter and 0.5 % for the end-caps. Finally, the detection and correction of timing mis-configuration of the Tile Calorimeter using the Laser system are also presented.

  2. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-15

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  3. Modification of an oxygen bomb calorimeter to measure enthalpies of reaction of liquid metals.

    PubMed

    Carling, R W

    1978-10-01

    Modification of a commercially available oxygen bomb calorimeter is described. This modification permits direct determination of the enthalpies of reaction of liquid metals that have melting points below about 310 K. PMID:18698983

  4. Dynamic range and response speed of heat-flux differential calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal'Perin, L. N.

    2011-08-01

    A technique for the linearization of calorimeter cell (CC) thermal feedback in differential calorimeters was investigated. The technique was shown to ensure the linearity of the tract of rapid compensation measurements of thermokinetics ( W in( t)) in a dynamic range of heat-fluxes limited in principle only by the linearity of the CCs themselves, while their original identity is not required. The technique was employed in prototype models of updated DAK calorimeters, in which W in( t)max reached 0.5 W while the duration of the transition process associated with the insertion of the test specimen was reduced by a factor of 2.3. This was shown to reduce calorimeter inertia, extend the possibilities of thermokinetic measurements, and record earlier stages of the initial thermokinetics.

  5. The Liquid Xenon Scintillation Calorimeter of the MEG Experiment:. Operation of a Large Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorelli, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    The MEG experiment at PSI will search for the μ → eγ decay well below the present experimental limit (BR < 1.2 × 10-11). The detection of the 52.8 MeV photon in the experiment will be done by an innovative liquid Xenon calorimeter in which only the information provided by the scintillation light is used for the photon energy and position reconstruction. The major issues concerning this calorimeter, such as transparency to scintillation light and PMT behaviour at low temperature, will be reviewed. The calorimeter has been extensively tested with various particles: α-sources, cosmic ray muons and electrons. Recently a test with high energy photons from π0 decays has been carried out at PSI: the calorimeter response to photons in an energy range very close to the final experimental conditions will be presented.

  6. Experimental results and experience with the KfK-tritium-calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kapulla, H.; Heine, R.

    1995-10-01

    For the tritium assay at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) which started operation in Nov.94 an isothermal shield calorimeter was built. The calibration of the calorimeter was performed with an electrically heated simulator covering the range between 1 mW and about 2 W. After the calibration tritium activities in four Amersham uranium getter containers were determined. The excellent reproducibility and high precision of the measurements with the KfK-calorimeter was shown. The tritium activity inventories could be determined with relative standard deviations from the average value of the order of 0.01% to 0.1% depending on the activity level. These results demonstrate the suitability of the KfK-calorimeter as a nondestructive method for a careful assay of tritium. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Simultaneous operation of a liquid argon detector as bubble chamber and calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berset, J. C.; Burns, M.; Harigel, G.; Lindsay, J.; Linser, G.; Schenk, F.

    1982-12-01

    The first successful operation of a new detector, filled with liquid argon is described. It can be used simultaneously as bubble chamber and calorimeter, and may find interesting applications at high-energy accelerators.

  8. Study on Radiation Condition in DAMPE Orbit by Analyzing the Engineering Data of BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changqing; Liu, Shubin; Zhang, Yunlong; Ma, Siyuan

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objectives of the DAMPE mission are primary cosmic ray, gamma ray astronomy and dark matter particles, by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO calorimeter is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It utilizes 308 BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) crystal logs with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log, to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. In order to achieve a large dynamic range, each PMT base incorporates a three dynode (2, 5, 8) pick off, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE (Front End Electronics) modules, was developed. Its main functions are based on the Flash-based FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip and low power, 32-channel VA160 and VATA160 ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for precisely measuring the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals as well. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) and the hit rates of each layer is real-timely recorded by counters and packed into the engineering data, which directly reflect the flux of particles which fly into or pass through the detectors. In order to mitigate the SEU (Single Event Upset) effect in radioactive space environment, certain protecting methods, such as TMR

  9. Photonic electromagnetic field sensor apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliard, Donald P.; Mensa, Dean L.

    1993-07-01

    An electromagnetic field sensor apparatus which measures the field strength and phase of an incident electromagnetic field as well as the angle of arrival of an incident electromagnetic field is presented. The electromagnetic field sensor apparatus comprises a Luneberg lens which focuses an incoming planar electromagnetic wave entering on one side of the Luneberg lens onto a point on the opposite side of the lens. A photonic sensor is positioned on the Luneberg lens at the point upon which the electromagnetic wave is focused. A light source is located along an optical path which passes through the photonic sensor for transmitting polarized light through the sensor. The photonic sensor modulates the polarized light passing therethrough when the photonic sensor detects the incident electromagnetic wave.

  10. The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for SLD at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Nelson, D.; Freytag, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    The analog processing system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter for the SLD project at SLAC is described. Amplification, storage of the analog information, and multiplexing is realized on specially developed hybrids, which will be mounted directly on the detector. This leads to a substantial reduction of the cable plant. Test results for the amplifier and for the sampling and multiplexing hybrid (CDU hybrid) are presented. The latter hybird contains a custom monolithic device, the Calorimeter Data Unit (CDU).

  11. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagić, D.

    2007-03-01

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  12. GEANT4 physics evaluation with testbeam data of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Oberlack, H.; Salihagić, D.; Schacht, P.; Strizenec, P.

    2009-04-01

    The validation of GEANT4 physics models is done by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS hadronic end-cap calorimeter with GEANT4 based simulations. Various physics lists for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. We present results of studies of the calorimeter performance parameters (like energy resolution and shower shapes) as well as results of investigations of the influence of the Birks' law and of cuts on the time of development of hadronic showers.

  13. Hadronic Shower Validation Experience for the ATLAS End-Cap Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kiryunin, A. E.; Salihagic, D.

    2007-03-19

    Validation of GEANT4 hadronic physics models is carried out by comparing experimental data from beam tests of modules of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters with GEANT4 based simulations. Two physics lists (LHEP and QGSP) for the simulation of hadronic showers are evaluated. Calorimeter performance parameters like the energy resolution and response for charged pions and shapes of showers are studied. Comparison with GEANT3 predictions is done as well.

  14. Test and evaluation of an Argonne National Laboratory small sample calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rodenburg, W.W.

    1981-04-30

    This report provides details of an evaluation made at Mound Facility of the performance of the modified Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) small sample calorimeter (SSC). The goals of this evaluation were to: (1) Determine whether the problems associated with the previous calorimeter were solved. (2) Provide assurance that the procedures and operating characteristics remain valid for the modified instrument. (3) Calibrate the instrument using plutonium-fueled heat standards. (4) Provide recommendations for the operation of this instrument.

  15. Development of the front end electronics for the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Sippach, W.; Caldwell, A.; Cunitz, H.; Kotz, U.; Moeschen, J.

    1989-02-01

    The development and design of the pipelined data acquisition system for the high resolution ZEUS calorimeter is described. Details of the front end analog card and its performance are given. A description of the custom pipeline and buffer multiplexer chips is given, along with test results for the pipeline chip. In addition, some results are presented for a CCD test system built to evaluate the pipeline principles using the ZEUS calorimeter prototype at the CERN PS.

  16. WE-G-17A-06: A Water Calorimeter for Use in MRI Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    De Prez, L; De Pooter, J; Jansen, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: At VSL, Dutch Metrology Institute, a new water calorimeter was developed with the purpose to replace the existing primary standard for absorbed dose to water in the Netherlands. The new water calorimeter is designed to be operable in medium- to high energy photon beams, electrons, protons as well as MRI integrated linear accelerators. VSL has operated a water calorimeter since 2001. This calorimeter formed the basis for the NCS-18 dosimetry protocol, which is commonly applied by medical physicists in the Netherlands and Belgium. Methods: The unit Gray is the unit of interest for measurement of the absorbed dose to water. Water calorimetry involves the measurement of a small temperature rise (0.24 mK/Gy) with an uncertainty of less than 1 μK/Gy at a temperature of 4 °C. Using extensive multi-physics simulations the new calorimeter's thermal performance was simulated before it was constructed at the end of 2013. With the advent of radiotherapy treatment units incorporating MR imaging the performance of the thermistor temperature sensors were characterized in a 1.5 T magnetic field. Results: A change of thermistor resistance was observed of less than 0.004% as a Result of the magneto-resistance effect in a 1.5 T magnetic field. Although a magneto-resistance effect was detectable, the effect on the temperature response in the water calorimeter was found to be negligible. Conclusion: With the realization of the new calorimeter operable in MRI linacs and designed for use in a variety of beam modalities, VSL is ready for accurate dosimetry in new advanced radiotherapy modalities. Due to the small form factor the calorimeter can be used on location in the actual therapy beam inside a 68 cm linac bore. This work was supported by EMRP grant HLT06. The EMRP is jointly funded by the EMRP participating countries within EURAMET and the European Union.

  17. A measurement of E/{pi} for a fast lead liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Makowiecki, D.; Gordon, H.A.; Ma, H.; Murtagh, M.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S.; Abrams, G.S.; Groom, D.E.; Kirsten, F.; Levi, M.; Siegrist, J.; Amako, K.; Inaba, O.; Kondo, T.; Baden, A.R.; Fong, D.; Hadley, N.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Bowen, T.; Forden, G.; Jenkins, E.; Johns, K.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M.; Burnett, T.; Cook, V.; Davisson, R.; Mockett, P.; Rothberg, J.; Williams, R.W.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; DiGiacomo, N.; Draper, P.; Ferbel, T.; Lobkowicz, F.; Faust, J.; Hauptman, J.; Pang, M.; Gabriel, T.A.; Hagopian, V.; Womersley, J.; Handler, T.; Hitlin, D.; Mulholland, G.T.; Watanabe, Y.; Weerts, H.

    1990-12-31

    The NA34 (HELIOS) calorimeter has measured e/{pi} {congruent} 1.1 in a uranium/liquid argon calorimeter with a shaping time of 135 nsec. Lead may be a viable alternative, but e/{pi} must first be measured at fast shaping times in lead. We re preparing to measure e/{pi} at momenta ranging from 0.5 to 20 GeV/c and with shaping times of 50, 100 and 150 nsec.

  18. Comissioning and calibration of the Zero Degree Calorimeters for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMarco, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicald, C.; Cortese, P.; DeFalco, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Ferretti, A.; Floris, M.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Luparello, G.; Masoni, A.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Puddu, G.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Stocco, D.; Usai, G.; Vercellin, E.; ALICE Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDCs) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator nucleons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Since all the spectator nucleons have the same energy, the calorimeter reponse is proportional to their umber providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. Two sets of ZDCs are located at opposite sides with respect to the interaction point (I), 116 m away from it Each set consists of a neutron (ZN) calorimeter, placed between the two beam pipes, an a proton (ZP) calorimeter, posioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The ZDCs spaghetti calorimeters, which detect the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particle in silica optical fibers embedded in a dense absorber. In summer 2007 the ZN and ZP calorimeters have been placed on a movable platform and then installed in the LHC tunnel. The results of the commissioning studies and in particular the solutions adopted to control the stability of the PMTs response will be shown: light injection with a larser diode and cosmic rays. The foreseen calibration with e.m. dissociation event in Pb-Pb collisions will also be disussed. Finally the it meaurements carried out during the commissining in the LHC tunnel will be presentend.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulation Study of a Differential Calorimeter Measuring the Nuclear Heating in Material Testing Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amharrak, H.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Carette, M.; Brun, J.; De Vita, C.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.-F.; Guimbal, P.

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear heating measurements in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs) are crucial for the study of nuclear materials and fuels under irradiation. The reference measurements of this nuclear heating are especially performed by a differential calorimeter including a graphite sample material. Then these measurements are used for other materials, other geometries, or other experimental conditions in order to predict the nuclear heating and thermal conditions induced in the irradiation devices. This paper will present new simulations with MCNP Monte-Carlo transport code to determine the gamma heating profile inside the calorimeter. The whole complex geometry of the sensor has been considered. We use as an input source in the model, the photon spectra calculated in various positions of CARMEN-1 irradiation program in OSIRIS reactor. After a description of the differential calorimeter device, the MCNP modeling used for the calculations of radial profile of nuclear heating inside the calorimeter elements will be introduced. The obtained results of different simulations will be detailed and discussed in this paper. The charged particle equilibrium inside the calorimeter elements will be studied. Then we will focus on parametric studies of the various components of the calorimeter. The influence of source type will be also took into account. Moreover the influence of the material used for the sample will be described.

  20. Evaluation of the Argonne National Laboratory servo-controlled calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The control system of a replacement mode, twin-bridge, water-bath calorimeter originally built by Mound EG&G Applied Technologies was modified by Argonne National Laboratory. The calorimeter was upgraded with a PC-based computer control and data acquisition system. The system was redesigned to operate in a servo-control mode, and a preheater was constructed to allow pre-equilibration of samples. The instrument was sent to the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for testing and evaluation of its performance in the field using heat source standards and plutonium process materials. The important parameters for calorimeter operation necessary to satisfy the nuclear materials control and accountability requirements of the Plutonium Facility were evaluated over a period of several months. These parameters include calorimeter stability, measurement precision and accuracy, and average measurement time. The observed measurement precision and accuracy were found to be acceptable for most accountability measurements, although they were slightly larger than the values for calorimeters in routine use at the Plutonium Facility. Average measurement times were significantly shorter than measurement times for identical items in the Plutonium Facility calorimeters. Unexplained shifts in the baseline measurements were observed on numerous occasions. These shifts could lead to substantial measurement errors if they are not very carefully monitored by the operating facility. Detailed results of the experimental evaluation are presented in this report.

  1. Bulk-assay calorimeter: Part 1. System design and operation. Part 2. Calibration and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Roche, C.T.; Harkness, A.L.; Winslow, G.H.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Bulk-Assay Calorimeter is designed to measure the thermal power emitted by plutonium-containing samples. The sample power range of the instrument is 1.4 to 22.4 W. The instrument package consists of the calorimeter measurement chamber, the control circuit power bin, and the data acquisition system. Two sample preheating chambers and five calorimeter canisters for containing the samples are included. A set of 32 test points which monitor voltages at points within the calorimeter and its control circuitry are accessed by the data acquisition system. The use of the test points is described. System start-up and checkout are described. Sample assay and preheater operation procedures are given. The data acquisition system and data analysis software are described. The calorimeter was calibrated at 23 points with heat sources from 1.4 to 22.4 watts. The combined measurement error varied with sample power from 1.4% to 0.1% over the range of calibration measurements. Circuit diagrams for the calorimeter and schematics for the data acquisition system are included. (LEW)

  2. Fire tests and analyses of a rail cask-sized calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Greiner, Miles

    2010-10-01

    Three large open pool fire experiments involving a calorimeter the size of a spent fuel rail cask were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories Lurance Canyon Burn Site. These experiments were performed to study the heat transfer between a very large fire and a large cask-like object. In all of the tests, the calorimeter was located at the center of a 7.93-meter diameter fuel pan, elevated 1 meter above the fuel pool. The relative pool size and positioning of the calorimeter conformed to the required positioning of a package undergoing certification fire testing. Approximately 2000 gallons of JP-8 aviation fuel were used in each test. The first two tests had relatively light winds and lasted 40 minutes, while the third had stronger winds and consumed the fuel in 25 minutes. Wind speed and direction, calorimeter temperature, fire envelop temperature, vertical gas plume speed, and radiant heat flux near the calorimeter were measured at several locations in all tests. Fuel regression rate data was also acquired. The experimental setup and certain fire characteristics that were observed during the test are described in this paper. Results from three-dimensional fire simulations performed with the Cask Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) fire code are also presented. Comparisons of the thermal response of the calorimeter as measured in each test to the results obtained from the CAFE simulations are presented and discussed.

  3. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  4. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  5. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  6. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  7. Electromagnetic Hammer for Metalworking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. A.; Brunet, F.; Dowd, A.; Durham, R.; Ezell, J.; Gorr, G.; Hartley, D.; Jackson, F.; Marchand, J.; Macfarlane, W.; Nameth, P.; Okelly, K.; Phillips, H.; Rollo, J.; Rupert, E.; Sykes, H.; Vitrano, E.; Woods, M.

    1986-01-01

    High eddy currents apply pressure for cold-forming. Coil housing constructed for mechanical strength to hold coil against magnetic force, to maintain electrical contact with coil ends, and to maintain insulation between coil turns. Drilled holes placed to facilitate release of bubbles during potting. In contrast with mechanical hammers, electromagnetic hammer requires no dynamic material contact with workpiece; consequently, produces almost no change in metal grain structure.

  8. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  9. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  10. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  11. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  12. Electromagnetic tornadoes in space

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.; Crew, G.B.; Retterer, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The exotic phenomenon of energetic-ion conic formation by plasma waves in the magnetosphere is considered. Two particular transverse heating mechanisms are reviewed in detail; lower-hybrid energization of ions in the boundary layer of the plasma sheet and electromagnetic ion cyclotron resonance heating in the central region of the plasma sheet. Mean particle calculations, plasma simulations and analytical treatments of the heating processes are described.

  13. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  14. Earth's Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The natural spectrum of electromagnetic variations surrounding Earth extends across an enormous frequency range and is controlled by diverse physical processes. Electromagnetic (EM) induction studies make use of external field variations with frequencies ranging from the solar cycle which has been used for geomagnetic depth sounding through the 10^{-4}-10^4 Hz frequency band widely used for magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric studies. Above 10^4 Hz, the EM spectrum is dominated by man-made signals. This review emphasizes electromagnetic sources at ˜1 Hz and higher, describing major differences in physical origin and structure of short- and long-period signals. The essential role of Earth's internal magnetic field in defining the magnetosphere through its interactions with the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field is briefly outlined. At its lower boundary, the magnetosphere is engaged in two-way interactions with the underlying ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. Extremely low-frequency (3 Hz-3 kHz) electromagnetic signals are generated in the form of sferics, lightning, and whistlers which can extend to frequencies as high as the VLF range (3-30 kHz).The roughly spherical dielectric cavity bounded by the ground and the ionosphere produces the Schumann resonance at around 8 Hz and its harmonics. A transverse resonance also occurs at 1.7-2.0 kHz arising from reflection off the variable height lower boundary of the ionosphere and exhibiting line splitting due to three-dimensional structure. Ground and satellite observations are discussed in the light of their contributions to understanding the global electric circuit and for EM induction studies.

  15. Gravito-electromagnetic analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, L. Filipe O.; Natário, José

    2014-10-01

    We reexamine and further develop different gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) analogies found in the literature, and clarify the connection between them. Special emphasis is placed in two exact physical analogies: the analogy based on inertial fields from the so-called "1+3 formalism", and the analogy based on tidal tensors. Both are reformulated, extended and generalized. We write in both formalisms the Maxwell and the full exact Einstein field equations with sources, plus the algebraic Bianchi identities, which are cast as the source-free equations for the gravitational field. New results within each approach are unveiled. The well known analogy between linearized gravity and electromagnetism in Lorentz frames is obtained as a limiting case of the exact ones. The formal analogies between the Maxwell and Weyl tensors are also discussed, and, together with insight from the other approaches, used to physically interpret gravitational radiation. The precise conditions under which a similarity between gravity and electromagnetism occurs are discussed, and we conclude by summarizing the main outcome of each approach.

  16. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  17. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-11-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory.

  18. Performance evaluation of a commercially available heat flow calorimeter and applicability assessment for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Rudy, C.

    1998-12-31

    The performance characteristics of a commercially available heat-flow calorimeter will be presented. The heat-flow sensors within the calorimeter are based on thermopile technology with a vendor-quoted sensitivity of 150 {micro}V/mW. The calorimeter is a full-twin design to compensate for ambient temperature fluctuations. The efficacy of temperature fluctuation compensations will also be detailed. Finally, an assessment of design applicability to special nuclear materials control and accountability and safeguarding will be presented.

  19. Photonic electromagnetic field sensor apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilliard, Donald P.; Mensa, Dean L.

    1993-09-01

    An electromagnetic field sensor apparatus which measures the amplitude, phase, frequency and polarization of an incoming electromagnetic field as well as the angle of arrival of an incident electromagnetic field is introduced. A Luneberg lens focuses an incoming electromagnetic wave entering on one side of the Luneberg lens onto a point on the opposite side of the lens. A pair of photonic sensor which may be electro-optic modulators or Pockel cells are positioned on the Luneberg lens at the point upon which the incident electromagnetic wave is focused. The sensing axis of one of the electro-optic modulators is perpendicular to the sensing axis of the other electro-optic modulator. Polarized light is provided to each photonic sensor along an optical path which passes through the sensor. Each photonic sensor modulates the polarized light passing therethrough when the photonic sensor detects the incident electromagnetic wave.

  20. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.