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Sample records for pcb aroclor 1254-induced

  1. EFFECT OF AROCLOR 1254 ON THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CREB AND CELL VIABILITY IN A PRIMARY CULTURE OF IMMATURE CORTICAL CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable work indicates that elevations in Ca2+ levels and kinase activity are sensitive responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are developmental neurotoxicants. In cortical cells in vitro the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces temporally and mechanistica...

  2. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-06-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (ΣPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure.

  3. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2012-01-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (ΣPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure. PMID:23538476

  4. L-Theanine alleviates the neuropathological changes induced by PCB (Aroclor 1254) via inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Asha, Deivasigamani; Nagarajan, Ganesan; Sreenivas, Arivazhagan; Nivedha, Rajendran

    2016-03-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective role of L-theanine on aroclor 1254-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Intraperitoneal administration of Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days) caused oxidative stress in rat brain and also caused neurobehavioral changes. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining the levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), protein carbonyl content, and changes in activities of creatine kinase (CK), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and ATPases in the hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex of control and experimental rats. Histopathological results showed that PCB caused neuronal loss in all three regions. PCB upregulated the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines. Oral administration of L-theanine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) increased the status of antioxidants, decreased the levels of LPO, nitric oxide (NO) and increased the activities of CK, AchE and ATPases. L-Theanine restored normal architecture of brain regions and downregulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, L-theanine shows a protective role against PCBs-induced oxidative damage in rat brain.

  5. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Lawson, W.G.

    1981-10-01

    Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.

  6. Lethal and sublethal effects of the sediment-associated PCB Aroclor 1254 on a meiobenthic copepod

    SciTech Connect

    DiPinto, L.M.; Coull, B.C.; Chandler, G.T. . Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Marine Science Program, and Belle W. Baruch Inst. for Marine Biology and Coastal Research)

    1993-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed on field-collected copepods (Microarthridion littorale) using the sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 (i.e., PCB concentrations in bulk sediments in the bound and/or unbound states). Three replicates of 50 adult copepods were exposed to five levels of PCB-contaminated sediments for 96 h and compared to untreated controls and solvent controls. LC50 concentrations were nearly twice as high for females as for males. To determine the effects of the PCB on reproductive output of the copepods, copulating pairs of Microarthridion littorale were allowed to reproduce in concentrations of Aroclor 1254-contaminated sediments below LC50 values. Two experimental trials with 10 and 15 replicates, each with one pair of Microarthridion littorale in copulus, were conducted for 12 d, the normal time needed for females to produce one set of nauplii and carry a second clutch of eggs. In both experiments, a significant decrease in number of nauplii was found with Aroclor contamination. Although NOECs were not determined, high concentrations of the sediment-associated Aroclor NOECs were required to affect mortality significantly, whereas lower levels impaired reproduction.

  7. Congener-based analysis of the weathering of PCB Aroclor 1242 in paper mill sludge.

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-02-01

    Aroclor 1242 contains a high percentage of lightly chlorinated congeners, which makes it susceptible to congener profile alterations as a result of physical-chemical environmental weathering by water washing, evaporation, and volatilization. The analysis of the variability of congener profiles in paper sludge samples using PCA, mixing models, and correlation (R(2)) analysis, provided an integrated description of the behavior of Aroclor 1242 after its release in the environment. The results showed that the total PCB concentration decreased as the sample experienced weathering, with the congener profile of Aroclor 1242 shifting towards resembling heavier Aroclors as lighter congeners were lost. Mixing model analysis confirmed that a sample containing weathered Aroclor 1242 could easily be misidentified by laboratories as containing a mix of heavier Aroclors. The R(2) analysis showed that the profile of the congeners within a homologue group remained the same after weathering. This analysis showed that congeners that belong to the same level of chlorination behave similarly in such a manner that retains their overall profile when exposed to physical weathering.

  8. Modern method features for determining aroclors and toxic PCB isomers in environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    A goal of the analytical chemistry program of the USEPA Characterization Research Division in Las Vegas is to develop a comprehensive method to address PCB screening and confirmatory needs. Supercritical and liquid solvent extractions, carbon chromatographic partitioning, immunoassay, gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques are being applied. The result of this research is a method with options to meet a variety of detection limit, congener specificity, waste reduction, and identification requirements. Significant advances were made in the areas of waste reduction, identification and quantitation of toxic congeners, and Aroclor identification using high- and low-resolution mass spectrometric data. Specific mass monitoring procedures will be discussed. Procedures will be presented for converting individual isomer and congener total area responses to quantitation based on Aroclor content. Notice: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its Office of Research and Development (ORD), partially funded and collaborated in the research described in this abstract for a proposed poster. It does not necessarily reflect the views of the EPA or ORD.

  9. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  10. 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (non-Aroclor PCB-11) as a marker of non-legacy PCB contamination in marine species: comparison between Antarctic and Mediterranean bivalves.

    PubMed

    Pizzini, Sarah; Sbicego, Chiara; Corami, Fabiana; Grotti, Marco; Magi, Emanuele; Bonato, Tiziano; Cozzi, Giulio; Barbante, Carlo; Piazza, Rossano

    2017-02-06

    In this study the accumulation of the 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) in monitoring organisms from the Antarctic and Mediterranean coastal environments has been investigated. This lesser-known PCB congener, unrelated to the industrial use of commercial mixtures, continues to be generated and released into the environment mainly as an unintentional by-product of pigment manufacturing. Specimens of the filter-feeders Adamussium colbecki from Terra Nova Bay and of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum from the north-western Adriatic coasts were collected and analyzed for PCB-11 by Gas Chromatography coupled both to Low-Resolution and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LRMS, HRMS). In order to assess the influence of PCB-11 with respect to the legacy contamination, 126 PCB congeners related to the Aroclor commercial mixtures were simultaneously analyzed. PCB-11 was detected in all the samples, regardless of the species and of the geographical area, representing on average 17.6% and 15.6% of the total PCBs (n = 127) in Antarctic and Mediterranean samples, respectively. In the Adriatic area the highest concentrations were related to the influence of industrial activities or ship traffic, while the highest value found in Antarctic specimens, namely those collected in the austral summer 1997-1998, was ascribed to a local anthropogenic source. The occurrence of PCB-11 in the other samples from Terra Nova Bay may be related to Long-Range Atmospheric Transport (LRAT), facilitated by the higher volatility of the analyte compared to the heavier PCB congeners. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies are needed in order to evaluate the relative contribution of local and distant sources.

  11. The effect of Aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the physiology of reproduction in the female rat--I.

    PubMed

    Brezner, E; Terkel, J; Perry, A S

    1984-01-01

    Daily oral exposure of rats to 30 mg/kg of Aroclor 1254 for 1 month caused deleterious effects on the reproductive process, which were reflected in a decrease in the reproductive potential. The following disturbances were observed: prolongation of the estrous cycle; decrease in sexual receptivity; delay in timing of copulation; vaginal bleeding during gestation; decrease in litter size and delay in the time of parturition. The offspring, whether exposed to PCBs either prenatally and/or postnatally, showed a slower rate of body weight gain than controls. This was accompanied by high mortality until weaning of treated pups. Vaginal opening in the PCB-treated (as young) females occurred precociously, while other reproductive parameters were not affected at adulthood. Discontinuance of PCB treatment reversed the above symptoms.

  12. First evidence on the occurrence and dynamics of Dehalococcoides mccartyi PCB-dechlorinase genes in marine sediment during Aroclor1254 reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Matturro, B; Di Lenola, M; Ubaldi, C; Rossetti, S

    2016-11-15

    The present study evaluates the PCB-dehalorespiring capabilities and dynamics of indigenous Dehalococcoides mccartyi population in a PCB contaminated marine sediment. Specialized PCB-dechlorinase genes pcbA1, pcbA4 and pcbA5 previously characterized in pure cultures of D. mccartyi, were here found for the first time in environmental samples. Reductive dechlorination was stimulated by spiking Aroclor1254 to the sediment and by imposing strictly anaerobic conditions both with and without bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides mccartyi enrichment culture. In line with the contaminant dechlorination kinetics, Dehalococcoides population increased during the entire incubation period showing growth yields of 4.94E+07 Dehalococcoides per μmolCl(-1) and 7.30E+05 Dehalococcoides per μmolCl(-1) in the marine sediment with and without bioaugmentation respectively. The pcbA4 and pcbA5 dechlorinase genes, and to a lesser extent pcbA1 gene, were enriched during the anaerobic incubation suggesting their role in Aroclor1254 dechlorination under salinity conditions.

  13. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms for PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. In order to understand the role of these proposed mechanisms and to identify other mechanisms in PCB-induced neurotoxicity, we have chosen a global approach utilizing oligonucleotide microarrays to examine gene expression profiles in the brain following developmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 (0 or 6 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21) in Long-Evans rats. Gene expression levels in the cerebellum and hippocampus from PNDs 7 and 14 animals were determined on Affymetrix rat 230A{sub 2}.0 chips. In the cerebellum, 87 transcripts were altered at PND7 compared to 27 transcripts at PND14 by Aroclor 1254 exposure, with only one transcript affected at both ages. In hippocampus, 175 transcripts and 50 transcripts were altered at PND7 and PND14, respectively, by Aroclor 1254 exposure with five genes commonly affected. Functional analysis suggests that pathways related to calcium homeostasis (Gng3, Ryr2, Trdn, Cacna1a), intracellular signaling (Camk2d, Stk17b, Pacsin2, Ryr2, Trio, Fert2, Ptk2b), axonal guidance (Lum, Mxd3, Akap11, Gucy1b3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling (Nfia, Col1a2), and transcripts involved in cell proliferation (Gspt2, Cdkn1c, Ptk2b) and differentiation (Ifitm31, Hpca, Zfp260, Igsf4a, Hes5) leading to the development of nervous system were significantly altered by Aroclor 1254 exposure. Of the two brain regions examined, Aroclor 1254-induced genomic changes were greater in the hippocampus than the cerebellum. The genomic data suggests that PCB-induced neurotoxic effects were due to disruption of normal ontogenetic pattern of nervous system growth and development by altering intracellular signaling pathways

  14. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) produces a persistent impairment in long-term potentiation in the rat dentate gyrus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M E; Crofton, K M

    1999-12-11

    Developmental exposure to polycholorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals. The present study sought to examine synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for some types of memory function, in animals exposed to PCBs early in development. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered either corn oil (control) or 6 mg/kg/day of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254) by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 until pups were weaned on postnatal day (PND) 21. In adult male offspring (3-6 months of age), field potentials evoked by perforant path stimulation were recorded in the dentate gyrus under urethane anesthesia. Input/output (I/O) functions were assessed by averaging the response evoked in the dentate gyrus to stimulus pulses delivered to the perforant path in an ascending intensity series. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by delivering a series of brief high frequency (400 Hz) train bursts to the perforant path at a moderate stimulus intensity and I/O functions were reassessed 1 h later. No differences in baseline synaptic population spike (PS) and minor effects on excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) slope amplitudes were discerned between the groups prior to train delivery. Post-train I/O functions, however, revealed a 50% decrement in the magnitude of LTP in PCB-exposed animals. These data are the first to demonstrate persistent decrements in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the intact animal following developmental exposure to PCBs. Disruption of early brain ontogeny due to developmental PCB exposure may underlie perturbations in the neurological substrates that support synaptic plasticity and contribute to deficits in LTP and learning that persist into adulthood.

  16. CHANGES IN ENANTIOMERIC FRACTIONS DURING MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF PCB132, PCB149, AND AROCLOR 1254 IN LAKE HARTWELL SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantioselectivity of microbial reductive dechlorination of chiral PCBs in sediments from Lake Hartwell, SC, was determined by microcosm studies and enantiomer-specific GC analysis. Sediments from two locations in the vicinity of the highest levels of PCB contamination were used...

  17. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  18. Aroclor 1254

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1254 ; CASRN 11097 - 69 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Aroclor 1016

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1016 ; CASRN 12674 - 11 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Aroclor 1248

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1248 ; CASRN 12672 - 29 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  3. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  4. PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Influence of Aroclor 1242 concentration on polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.

    1996-08-01

    PCBs are a family of compounds sold with various levels of chlorination and under different trade names. They have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota, raising concerns about possible health risks. The upper Hudson River was contaminated with Aroclor 1242. This study examines the influence of Aroclor concentration on PCB biotransformations in the upper Hudson River sediment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Are polychlorinated biphenyl residues adequately describe by aroclor mixture equivalents. Isomer-specific principal components analysis of such residues in fish and turtles

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L.; Rice, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues from fish and turtles were analyzed with SIMCA (Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy), a principal components analysis technique. A series of technical Aroclors were also analyzed to provide a reference data set for pattern recognition. Environmental PCB residues are often expressed in terms of relative Aroclor composition. In this work, we assessed the similarity of Aroclors to class models derived for fish and turtles to ascertain if the PCB residues in the samples could be described by an Aroclor or Aroclor mixture. Using PCA, we found that these samples could not be described by an Aroclor or Aroclor mixture and that it would be inappropriate to report these samples as such. 18 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Distribution and sources of PCBs (Aroclor 1268) in the Sapelo Island National estuarine research reserve.

    PubMed

    Wirth, E F; Pennington, P L; Cooksey, C; Schwacke, L; Balthis, L; Hyland, J; Fulton, M H

    2014-12-01

    Aroclor 1268 is a highly chlorinated PCB mixture that was released into the aquatic environment near Brunswick, GA (BR), as a result of decades of local industrial activity. This extensive contamination has led to US EPA Superfund designation in estuarine areas in and around Purvis Creek, GA. Roughly 50 km to the northeast is the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SI) where previous studies have documented unexpectedly high Aroclor 1268-like PCB levels in blubber and plasma samples of resident bottlenose dolphins. This result led to a collaborative effort to assess the PCB patterns and concentrations in SI sediment and fish (as potential vectors for PCB transfer to SI resident dolphins). Thirty SI randomly assigned stations were sampled for sediment PCB levels. Additionally, fish were collected and analyzed from SI (n = 31) and BR (n = 33). Results were pooled with regional assessments of PCB concentrations from South Carolina and North Carolina in an effort to determine the association of Aroclor 1268 levels in SI samples. Results indicated that PCB levels in sediment and fish are much lower in the SI estuary compared to BR sediment and fish concentrations. However, PCB congener profiles for both sediments and fish were similar between the two locations and consistent with the Aroclor 1268 signature, indicating possible transport from the Brunswick area. A likely source of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins from SI is contaminated fish prey.

  8. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  9. Discovery of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a lake Michigan waterway and original commercial aroclors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Rachel F; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2013-08-06

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or coeluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248, and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present.

  10. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  11. Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.; Principe, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are relatively unreactive and hydrophobic, are widely used commercially, and have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota. The researchers partially simulated environmental conditions in the laboratory to examine the fate of Aroclor 1242 in the Upper Hudson River. The test tube microcosms developed both aerobic and anaerobic compartments. This paper reports on the patterns and rates of anaerobic and aerobic PCB transformations for a single set of conditions in static, unamended microosms to model the environmental fate of Aroclor 1242 in river sediments. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclors 1254 and 1016) on fertilization efficiency in Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, R.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure of the eggs of the purple sea urchin Arbacia punctulata to two of the commonly-occurring commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors 1254 and 1016. Eggs were exposed to PCB's 25 minutes prior to insemination and continuously thereafter. The PCB's were administered as a component of a filtered-sea-water medium (FSW). Since Arbacia eggs cleave synchronously following insemination, the percentage of eggs cleaving at 1.75 hr post-insemination was used to determine the fertilization efficiency. Toxicant concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L were employed for both Aroclors. A FSW control and a FSW-acetone control was employed since acetone was used in a 49:1, acetone:PCB ratio, to emulsify the PCB's. Differences in control and PCB exposed groups were tested using Chi square at a 95% level of confidence. Both PCB's affected the fertilization efficiency once the threshold was achieved. The Aroclor 1016 proved to be much more toxic than Aroclor 1254. These results agree with the data previously achieved using Hydraologactis as the experimental organism.

  13. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  14. Biomagnification of Aroclor 1242 in Decomposing Spartina Litter †

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, Andrew C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1242) in the process of detritus formation by a shredded marshgrass (Spartina alterniflora) under aerobic conditions was monitored in percolators for 4 months at 20°C. Dissolved PCB in the influent solution was 14 to 16 μg/liter. Parameters monitored in addition to PCB accumulation were CO2 evolution, NH4+ uptake, NO3− production, and total organic nitrogen and carbon in the effluent. An NaN3− poisoned control served to assess nonbiological PCB absorption. Up to 90% of the PCB dissolved in the influent water was removed by the biologically active detritus. Biomagnification resulted in three to four times higher PCB concentrations in the active detritus than in the abiotic control. Evolution of CO2 was slightly depressed by PCB, but the overall quality (C:N ratio) of the detritus was not affected. The results indicate that bioaccumulation of PCB in detritus is an important means of entry for this pollutant into estuarine food webs. PMID:16346096

  15. Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Lindell, Angela H; Schweitzer, Sara H; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2015-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and the rare PCB mixture Aroclor 1268 in least terns (Sternula antillarum), a colonially-nesting, piscivorous seabird, in the Turtle River estuary and other coastal sites in Georgia, USA, were investigated. The Turtle River estuary is the location of the Linden Chemical Plant (LCP) Superfund site, a site prioritized by USA law for immediate remediation, where industries released effluent containing these contaminants until 1994. Aroclor 1268 is a highly-chlorinated PCB mixture that was used and released exclusively at the LCP site and nowhere else in the south eastern USA. High concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners and mercury have been documented in biota local to LCP, but no studies report concentrations in high trophic level, piscivorous birds such as least terns. We collected feathers and feces from chicks, and eggs from adults, at nesting colonies along the Georgia coast to analyze contaminant loads (in dry weight ppb). Mean Aroclor 1268 mixture concentrations in eggs (≤16,329 ppb) were highest at colonies in and just outside LCP, and decreased with increasing distance (up to 110 km) from LCP, but the Aroclor 1268 signature congener mixture was present at all sites. Mercury concentrations in eggs (≤3370 ppb), feathers (≤5950 ppb), and feces (≤417 ppb), were present at all sites, but did not vary significantly among sites. This report confirms the extensive dispersal of Aroclor 1268 congeners (approximately 110 km north and 70 km south of its point source) via bioaccumulation and trophic transfer.

  16. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  17. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  18. Hyper- and Hypo- Induction of Cytochrome P450 activities with Aroclor 1254 and 3-Methylcholanthrene in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Melissa L.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Arch, Dorinda D.; Westbroek, Mark L.; Kushner, James P.; Phillips, John D.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The response of hepatic mono-oxygenase activities to Aroclor 1254 or 3-methylcholanthrene was investigated in wild-type and Cyp1a2(−/−) mice. Cytochrome P450 concentrations were similar in naïve Cyp1a2(−/−) and wild-type mice. There was no difference between naïve wild-type and Cyp1a2(−/−) animals in 7-ethoxyresorufin and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase activities, nor was the induction response after 3-methylcholanthrene any different between the two genotypes. However, both activities were induced to a higher extent in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice after Aroclor 1254. In contrast, 7-pentoxyresorufin dealkylation activity was lower in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice and this differential was maintained during induction by both agents. 7-Methoxy- and 7-benzoxyresorufin dealkylation activities were also lower than wild-type in naïve Cyp1a2(−/−) animals and during 3-methylcholanthrene induction, but showed accelerated induction in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice with Aroclor 1254. Bufuralol 1′- and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities, and P450 characteristics were evaluated 48 hours after inducer administration. Bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation, a sexual dimorphic activity (female > male) showed no genotype differences in naïve animals. Activity changes varied across gender and genotype, with 3-methylcholanthrene and Aroclor 1254 inducing in male Cyp1a2(−/−), and Aroclor 1254 inducing in female wild-type. Testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity was 16% higher in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice and neither 3-methylcholanthrene nor Aroclor 1254 elicited induction. After Aroclor 1254, a 24% increase in P450 concentration with a hypsochromic shift in the ferrous-CO maximum characteristic of CYP1A enzymes occurred in wild-type, compared to no change in either parameter in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice. Induction changes with 3-methylcholanthrene were greater in wild-type mice, a 60% increase in concentration and ~2 nm hypsochromic shift versus a 10% increase and ~1 nm hypsochromic

  19. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater.

  20. Suppression of aromatase activity in vitro by PCBs 28 and 105 and Aroclor 1221.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Amanda J; Cooke, Gerard M

    2004-08-30

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in vitro were investigated using a commercially available microsomal fraction obtained from baculovirus infected insects that had been transfected with the human CYP19 gene and cytochrome P450 reductase. The assay measured the conversion of tritiated testosterone to estradiol in Tris buffer at pH 7.4. When aroclors, commercial preparations of PCBs, were added to aromatase assays at a 10 microM concentration, Aroclor 1221 caused a reduction in the aromatase activity, whereas other aroclors (1016, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 5432, 5442 and 5460) were without effect. Further investigation of the effect of Aroclor 1221 on aromatase activity showed that the inhibition was dose dependent. When a reconstituted mixture (RM) of PCBs that represented the congeneric content of human milk was investigated, no inhibition of aromatase activity at the maximum treatment of 15.0 microM was observed. None of the congeners present in the reconstituted mixture, except PCB 28 and 105, affected P450 arom activity. PCB 28 showed a statistically significant inhibition of aromatase activity (P<0.05) at 1.5 and 15 microM and a significant inhibition of aromatase activity by PCB 105 was also observed, but only at 15 microM. In three separate kinetic analyses the Km(app) for aromatase was 64, 89 and 69 nM (mean 74 nM). In addition, PCB 28 resulted in an increase in the Km(app) without a significant effect on Vmax(app), suggesting competitive inhibition by this congener. This conclusion was supported by slope (Km(app)/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) and intercept (1/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) replots. The slope replots gave Ki(app) values for PCB 28 of 0.9, 1.3 and 2.0 microM (mean 1.4 microM), whereas intercept replots were almost horizontal. Thus, PCB 28 is a competitive inhibitor of aromatase with a Ki(app) value approximately 20-fold the Km(app) value. Based on these studies, we conclude that

  1. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  2. Modular methodology for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil as Aroclors and individual congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, J.R.; Grange, A.H.; Herron, N.R.

    1996-07-01

    A comprehensive screening and confirmatory method was developed for monitoring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), both as Aroclors and as individual congeners. This approach incorporates extraction, extract cleanup, and analysis modules designed to match cost, time, and data quality requirements. Soxhlet, sonication, supercritical fluid, and accelerated solvent extractions were evaluated. Carbon chromatographic cleanup procedures were used for separation of congeners on the basis of ortho substitutions, which permitted calculation of toxicity equivalents. Individual congener determinations, congener total histograms, and peak comparison techniques for Aroclor identification were elaborated by using high and low resolution mass spectrometric data. A screening procedure based on immunoassay using the Ohmicron PCB RaPID Assay{trademark} kit gave results comparable to those obtained by gas chromatography with electron capture detection in the range 0.40-230 ppm, when the appropriate Aroclor calibrator was used. 21 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. “Dehalococcoides” sp. Strain CBDB1 Extensively Dechlorinates the Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture Aroclor 1260▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, Lorenz; Dudková, Vlasta; Demnerová, Katařina; Bedard, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    “Dehalococcoides” sp. strain CBDB1 in pure culture dechlorinates a wide range of PCB congeners with three to eight chlorine substituents. Congener-specific high-resolution gas chromatography revealed that CBDB1 extensively dechlorinated both Aroclor 1248 and Aroclor 1260 after four months of incubation. For example, 16 congeners comprising 67.3% of the total PCBs in Aroclor 1260 were decreased by 64%. We confirmed the dechlorination of 43 different PCB congeners. The most prominent dechlorination products were 2,3′,5-chlorinated biphenyl (25-3-CB) and 24-3-CB from Aroclor 1248 and 235-25-CB, 25-25-CB, 24-25-CB, and 235-236-CB from Aroclor 1260. Strain CBDB1 removed flanked para chlorines from 3,4-, 2,4,5-, and 3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily para chlorines from 2,3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily meta chlorines from 2,3,4- and 2,3,4,6-chlorophenyl rings, and either meta or para chlorines from 2,3,4,5,6-chlorophenyl rings. The site of attack on the 2,3,4-chorophenyl ring was heavily influenced by the chlorine configuration on the opposite ring. This dechlorination pattern matches PCB Process H dechlorination, which was previously observed in situ both in the Acushnet Estuary (New Bedford, MA) and in parts of the Hudson River (New York). Accordingly, we propose that Dehalococcoides bacteria similar to CBDB1 are potential agents of Process H PCB dechlorination in the environment. This is the first time that a complex naturally occurring PCB dechlorination pattern has been reproduced in the laboratory using a single bacterial strain. PMID:19429555

  4. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  5. Cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls: enhanced transformation of Aroclor 1254 by growing bacterial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, H P; Kohler-Staub, D; Focht, D D

    1988-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. strain P6 and a soil isolate, Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B, were tested for their ability to transform Aroclor 1254 as washed resting cells and as growing cells with biphenyl as the substrate. Growing cells were far superior to resting-cell suspensions in terms of total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation, transformation of specific PCB congeners, and diversity of congeners that were attacked. Growing cells of Acinetobacter sp. strain P6 and Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B transformed 32 and 23% of the [14C]Aroclor 1254, respectively, whereas resting cells of the same respective cultures transformed only 17 and 8%. Transformation was significantly greater with resting cells in only 2 of 39 cases in which congeners were transformed by both growing and resting cells of both cultures. The components of 19 and 12 capillary gas-chromatographic peaks of Aroclor 1254 were transformed by biphenyl-grown resting cells of Acinetobacter sp. strain P6 and Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B, respectively, whereas the components of an additional 6 and 7 peaks were attacked by growing cells of the same respective cultures. Biphenyl oxidation by resting cells of both cultures decreased with time to less than 8% in 28 h. In addition to the normal 2,3-dioxygenase attack on PCBs, Acinetobacter sp. strain P6 also attacked congeners lacking an open 2,3-position. The ability of Acinetobacter sp. strain P6 to transform the components of 25 of the 40 largest peaks of Aroclor 1254 makes it one of the most versatile PCB-transforming organisms yet reported. PMID:3140725

  6. Aroclor 1254 residues in birds: Lethal levels and loss rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Lethal residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm of Aroclor 1254) until one-half had died, sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. For all species, residues of 310 ppm or higher in the brain showed increasing likelihood of death from PCB poisoning. Residues in dead birds did not differ among species except for starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ), which averaged slightly lower than the others. However, the species differed in the length of time to 50% mortality and in the levels of PCBs in brains at sacrifice.

  7. Differential effects of two lots of aroclor 1254: congener-specific analysis and neurochemical end points.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, P R; Kannan, N; Yamashita, N; Derr-Yellin, E C; Ward, T R; Burgin, D E; Tilson, H A; Birnbaum, L S

    2001-11-01

    Aroclor 1254 is a widely studied commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture which, by definition, contains 54% chlorine by weight. Recent reports indicate substantial differences in the congener composition among Aroclor lots and hence their biologic effects. We designed the current study to compare the effects of two lots of Aroclor 1254 (lots 6024 and 124-191). We analyzed these two lots for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). We used previously established techniques for analyzing intracellular Ca(2+) buffering and protein kinase C (PKC) translocation to test their biologic activity in neuronal preparations. PCB congener-specific analysis indicated that ortho and non-ortho congeners in these two lots varied in their percent contribution. Among all congeners, the percentages of non-ortho congeners (PCBs 77, 81, 126, and 169) were higher in lot 6024 (2.9% of total) than in lot 124-191 (0.02% of total). We detected no dioxins in these two lots (< 2 ppb). Although there are some differences in the congener composition, total PCNs were similar in both lots: 171 ppm in lot 6024 and 155 ppm in lot 124-191. However, total PCDFs were higher in lot 6024 (38.7 ppm) than in lot 124-191 (11.3 ppm). When we tested these two Aroclors on Ca(2+) buffering and PKC translocation in brain preparations, the effects were significantly different. Although lot 124-191 was more potent on PKC translocation than lot 6024, lot 6024 was slightly more active on Ca(2+) buffering than lot 124-191. These effects could not be attributed to the differences in the percentage of non-ortho congeners or PCDFs because they were inactive on these two parameters. The effects could not be attributed to PCNs because the levels were almost similar. The effects seen with two lots of Aroclor 1254 in neuronal cells were also not predicted based on the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), although TEQs predicted

  8. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  9. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children.

  11. Accumulation of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1242 from contaminated detritus and water by the saltmarsh detritivore, Uca pugnax

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, A.C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-09-01

    The uptake of Aroclor 1242 from ingested detritus and in contaminated water is compared in the fiddler crab. Analysis was by gas chromatography. Results show that uptake from water was about one-half that of the uptake from PCB-laden (85 ng/g dry wt) detritus after 34 days. Respiration and egestion rates may not be the only factors controlling accumulation and concentration. The concentration of PCBs in detritus may have a major effect. (JMT)

  12. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression ({>=} 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans.

  13. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  14. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; States, J. Christopher; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:24998970

  15. EVIDENCE THAT CA2+ SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (CREB) ACTIVITIES STIMULATED BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARE LOCALIZED TO DEVELOPING NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a mixed culture of neonatal cortical cells, we have demonstrated that the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces complex Ca2+i signals involving multiple receptors/channels (Inglefield and Shafer, J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 295:105) and also activates/ p...

  16. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m−3 to 5500 pg m−3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

  17. Treatment of Aroclor 1016 contaminated soil by hydrogen peroxide: laboratory column study.

    PubMed

    Viisimaa, Marika; Veressinina, Jelena; Goi, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The potential and feasibility of treating soil contaminated with electrical insulating oil, Aroclor 1016, containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with stabilized hydrogen peroxide were evaluated using columns packed with soils of two different matrixes. The column experiments showed that PCBs degraded by the stabilized hydrogen peroxide treatment in both soil matrixes, although the efficacy of the treatment depended strongly on the soil characteristics. The removal of PCB-containing oil was higher in sandy silt soil than in sandy soil. While a higher iron content promoted hydrogen peroxide oxidation of the contaminant in sandy silt soil, lower permeability and higher organic matter content contributed to an oxidation decrease as a function of depth. Dehydrogenase activity measurements indicated no substantial changes in microbial activity during the treatment of both sandy and sandy silt soils, thus offering opportunities to apply the hydrogen peroxide treatment to the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  18. Brominated Biphenyls Prime Extensive Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi; Deweerd, Kim A.

    1998-01-01

    The upper Housatonic River and Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.), a shallow impoundment on the river, are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the residue of partially dechlorinated Aroclor 1260. Certain PCB congeners have the ability to activate or “prime” anaerobic microorganisms in Woods Pond sediment to reductively dehalogenate the Aroclor 1260 residue. We proposed that brominated biphenyls might have the same effect and tested the priming activities of 14 mono-, di-, and tribrominated biphenyls (350 μM) in anaerobic microcosms of sediment from Woods Pond. All of the brominated biphenyls were completely dehalogenated to biphenyl, and 13 of them primed PCB dechlorination. Measured in terms of chlorine removal and decrease in the proportion of hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls, the microbial PCB dechlorination primed by several brominated biphenyls was nearly twice as effective as that primed by chlorinated biphenyls. Congeners containing a meta bromine primed Dechlorination Process N (flanked meta dechlorination), and congeners containing an unflanked para bromine primed Dechlorination Process P (flanked para dechlorination). Two ortho-substituted congeners, 2-bromobiphenyl and 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (2-BB and 26-BB), also primed Process N dechlorination. The most effective primers were 26-BB, 245-BB, 25-3-BB, and 25-4-BB. The microbial dechlorination primed by 26-BB converted ∼75% of the hexa- through nonachlorobiphenyls to tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls in 100 days and removed ∼75% of the PCBs that are most persistent in humans. These results represent a major step toward identifying an effective method for accelerating PCB dechlorination in situ. The challenge now is to identify naturally occurring compounds that are safe and effective primers. PMID:9572952

  19. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  20. Evaluation of treatment options for mercury/PCB contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate treatment alternatives for soil contaminated with mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) aroclor 1268 at the LCP site, a former chlor-alkali plant, in Brunswick, GA. The site was operated as a petroleum refinery from 1919 to 1930. Based on past experience and a literature search, soil washing and thermal desorption were deemed to be the most promising technologies. A bulk soil sample was collected from the south process area and analyzed to have 190 mg/kg mercury and 405 mg/kg of PCB aroclor 1268. The soil was screened to {1/4} treatability tests. Testing was performed in three parts consisting of a round of geophysical and chemical analyses to determine matrix characteristics; thermal desorption tests at temperatures ranging from 100 C to 700 C to determine the volatility of mercury and PCB aroclor 1268; and a soil-washing study matrix to evaluate the effect of chemical additives such as acids, oxidizers, and surfactants to physically and chemically remove contaminants from the soil matrix.

  1. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, J J; Skinner, L C

    1977-09-01

    PCB residues in fish from 41 stations throughout New York State were monitored in 1975. Nearly all fish contained PCB's in detectable amounts although the levels of contamination and specific Aroclor varied. The Hudson River contained the highest known PCB concentrations within the United States; levels often exceeded 100 ppm. Other waters and fish which were significantly contaminated include Lake Ontario salmonids and Cayuga Lake lake trout. Onondaga Lake, previously closed to fishing because of mercury contamination, also appears to have abnormally high levels of PCB's approaching in some instances the action level of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Samples from marine waters generally have contaminant levels substantially below 5.0 ppm.

  3. Phylogenetically Distinct Bacteria Involve Extensive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Sediment-Free Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanquan; He, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reductive dechlorination of the persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is attracting much attention in cleanup of the contaminated environment. Nevertheless, most PCB dechlorinating cultures require presence of sediment or sediment substitutes to maintain their dechlorination activities which hinders subsequent bacterial enrichment and isolation processes. The information on enriching sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures is still limited. In this study, 18 microcosms established with soils and sediments were screened for their dechlorination activities on a PCB mixture – Aroclor 1260. After one year of incubation, 10 out of 18 microcosms showed significant PCB dechlorination with distinct dechlorination patterns (e.g., Process H, N and T classified based on profiles of PCB congeners loss and new congeners formation). Through serial transfers in defined medium, six sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures (i.e., CW-4, CG-1, CG-3, CG-4, CG-5 and SG-1) were obtained without amending any sediment or sediment-substitutes. PCB dechlorination Process H was the most frequently observed dechlorination pattern, which was found in four sediment-free cultures (CW-4, CG-3, CG-4 and SG-1). Sediment-free culture CG-5 showed the most extensive PCB dechlorination among the six cultures, which was mediated by Process N, resulting in the accumulation of penta- (e.g., 236-24-CB) and tetra-chlorobiphenyls (tetra-CBs) (e.g., 24-24-CB, 24-25-CB, 24-26-CB and 25-26-CB) via dechlorinating 30.44% hepta-CBs and 59.12% hexa-CBs after three months of incubation. For culture CG-1, dechlorinators mainly attacked double flanked meta-chlorines and partially ortho-chlorines, which might represent a novel dechlorination pattern. Phylogenetic analysis showed distinct affiliation of PCB dechlorinators in the microcosms, including Dehalogenimonas and Dehalococcoides species. This study broadens our knowledge in microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs, and provides essential

  4. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, D.T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread aquatic contaminant and are present in both wild and hatchery raised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The possible sub-lethal alterations in smolt physiology and behavior due to PCB exposure of salmon have not been widely examined. In this study, we examined the effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 on survival and smolt development of Atlantic salmon. In separate experiments, fish were exposed as yolk-sac larvae or as juveniles just prior to the parr-smolt transformation in April to 1 ??g l-1 (PCB-1) or 10 ??g l-1 (PCB-10) aqueous Aroclor 1254 (A1254), or vehicle for 21 days. After exposure, yolk-sac larvae were reared at ambient conditions for 1 year, until the peak of smolting the following May. Juveniles were sampled immediately after exposure. Both groups were assessed for behavioral, osmoregulatory, and endocrine disruption of smolt development at the peak of smolting. PCB-1 and PCB-10 treated yolk-sac larvae exhibited significant increases in the rate of opercular movement after 14 and 21 days of exposure. At the peak of smolting, prior exposure as yolk-sac larvae to PCB-1 did not affect behavior, while PCB-10 dramatically decreased volitional preference for seawater. Neither concentration of A1254 had long-term effects on the osmoregulatory or endocrine parameters measured in animals exposed as yolk-sac larvae. Juvenile fish exposed to PCB-1 or PCB-10 during smolting exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in preference for seawater. Fish treated with the higher dose of A1254 also exhibited a 50% decrease in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and a 10% decrease in plasma chloride levels in freshwater. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine was reduced 35-50% and plasma cortisol 58% in response to exposure to either concentration; whereas plasma thyroxine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to A1254 may vary according to

  5. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  6. Induction of hepatic CYP1A activity as a biomarker for environmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 in feral rodents.

    PubMed

    Lubet, R A; Nims, R W; Beebe, L E; Fox, S D; Issaq, H J; McBee, K

    1992-04-01

    Specimens of the feral mouse species Reithrodontomys fulvescens trapped from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated field location had hepatic ethoxyresorufin (ETR) O-dealkylase activities and immunoreactive CYP1A protein contents which were two- to threefold higher than those measured in animals of the same species and sex collected from non PCB-contaminated reference sites. Specimens with hepatic ETR O-dealkylase activities differing by as little as 50% could readily be assigned as originating from the PCB or reference sites by the use of a specific chemical inhibitor of cytochrome P450IA (CYP1A). The relative levels of ETR O-dealkylase activity in R. fulvescens significantly correlated with hepatic PCB burdens (r = 0.819, P less than 0.01). When the magnitudes of the induced ETR O-dealkylase activities corresponding to given hepatic PCB burdens were compared between the feral animals, F344/NCr rats (Rattus norvegicus) or B6C3F1 mice (Mus musculus) exposed in the laboratory to dietary Aroclor 1254, the order of sensitivity to the inducing effects of PCBs were F344/NCr rat greater than B6C3F1 mouse greater than R. fulvescens.

  7. Determination of mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in Aroclors and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Peterman, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) is the best known technique for the separation of complex mixtures; however, no single GC column has yet separated all 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A number of coeluting PCB congener pairs exist, and even under favorable separation conditions such as with multidimensional GC, assignment of peak identities to known PCB structures is tedious, subject to errors from other contaminants, and requires enrichment to achieve the necessary detection limits for the most toxic PCB congeners. Routine analysis of PCBs is also complicated by coelution with other halogenated hydrocarbons such as naphthalenes, terphenyls, dibenzofurans, and pesticides. Therefore, techniques for class separations of PCBs prior to gas chromatography must be developed. These techniques should separate PCB congeners along lines that have environmental or toxicological significance. The unique ability of activated carbon to separate halogenated aromatics on the basis of molecular planarity and degree of halogenation has been demonstrated. We present a method that uses dispersed carbon on glass fibers and commercially available instrumentation to fractionate and determine mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted PCB congeners in Aroclors and environmental samples.

  8. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival.

  9. Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

  10. Effect of dose on the inhibition of carcinogenesis/mutagenesis by aroclor 1254 in rainbow trout fed aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.W.; Hendricks, J.D.; Coulombe, R.A.; Bailey, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that Aroclor 1254 (PCB) differentially alters the incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) induced hepatocellular carcinomas in trout, depending upon the time of PCB administration relative to AFB/sub 1/ exposure. When fed simultaneously with AFB/sub 1/, PCB inhibits carcinoma incidence. The effect of AFB/sub 1/ and PCB dose on this inhibition was investigated. Duplicate tanks of 100 rainbow trout were fed AFB/sub 1/ at concentrations of 1, 4, or 8 ppb, either with or without the addition of 50 ppm PCB. Other groups were fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB, 50 ppm PCB alone, or control diet alone. After 9 and 12 mo, 40 and 60 fish per tank, respectively, were sampled to determine the incidence of liver tumors. The results show a parallel inhibition of the AFB/sub 1/-tumor dose-response curve by the presence of 50 ppm PCB. Fish fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB showed slight inhibition in response when compared with 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ alone. Also, livers from fish fed 50 ppm PCB were used to prepare S20 for use in the Salmonella mutagenesis assay. These livers were less efficient in converting AFB/sub 1/ to a mutagen, when compared to control S20. The AFB/sub 1/-mutagenesis dose-response curve was again shifted parallel to the right of the curve generated using control S20. These results suggest that the inhibitory action is at least partly at the level of carcinogen activation. The finding of parallel, as opposed to proportional, inhibition with varying carcinogen exposure for certain classes of inhibitors may have important implications for inhibition of environmental carcinogenesis at low levels of carcinogen exposure. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  11. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous Arctic Char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor< 1254) residues in rainbow trout: effects on sensitivity to nine fishery chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Mauck, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of background polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on the susceptibility of the fish to nine chemicals routinely or occasionally used in fishery operations was evaluated. Rainbow trout fry were divided into three groups: one was exposed to 0.01 ppb and another to 0.1 ppb of the PCB Aroclor (R) 1254; the third (control) group was unexposed. After 30 days of exposure, whole body residues were 0.28 and 2.31 ppm for fish exposed to 0.01 and 0.1 ppb, respectively; control fish had residue concentrations of 0.04 ppm. Acute toxicity tests showed that both groups of exposed fish were more sensitive to rotenone and 2,4-D. Exposure did not significantly affect sensitivity to 2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol (GD-174), 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), nifurpirinol (Furanace), tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), or copper sulfate. Fishery managers should be aware that sensitivity of fish to control chemicals may be altered by the presence of contaminants in the water or residues of contaminants in the fish.

  14. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  15. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  16. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  17. Proteomic Strategy for the Analysis of the Polychlorobiphenyl-Degrading Cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 Exposed to Aroclor 1254

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Lu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). These proteins were involved in (i) PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase); (ii) transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii) energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase); (iv) electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein); (v) general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable); (vi) carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta); and (vii) nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase). The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  18. Involvement of calcium and calmodulin in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and modulation by Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Thomas, Peter

    2005-12-01

    The involvement of calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis was investigated in Atlantic croaker. Treatment with the calcium ionophores A23187 and ionomycin caused a 2- to 5-fold increase in basal steroid accumulation by croaker ovarian tissue in vitro. A23187 potentiated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced testosterone (T) accumulation, whereas it inhibited accumulation of estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and the conversion of T to E(2), suggesting that intracellular calcium modulates aromatase enzyme activity. Gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian steroidogenesis was decreased in the presence of EGTA and inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate-receptors (IP(3)Rs), indicating that releases of calcium from both intracellular and extracellular stores are components of the signal transduction pathways initiated by gonadotropin. Calmodulin is also involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in croaker, since the calmodulin inhibitors W-7 and trifluoperazine (TFP) attenuated hCG-stimulated T and E(2) accumulation. These results are broadly similar to those reported previously in goldfish and suggest that the major calcium-dependent signaling pathways involved in gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in tetrapods are also present in teleosts. In addition, the involvement of calcium in the regulation of aromatase activity was demonstrated for the first time in a vertebrate ovary. Finally, acute exposure to 0.001-1 ppm Aroclor 1254 induced up to a 5-fold increase in hCG-stimulated E(2) accumulation, and this effect was attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of VSCCs and calmodulin, suggesting the existence of a novel mechanism of endocrine disruption by an environmental contaminant involving alteration of calcium-dependent signaling pathways regulating steroidogenesis.

  19. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  20. Comparison of rat liver S-9 activity induced with aroclor-1254 and phenobarbital/{beta}-naphthoflavone in microbial and CHO/HGPRT mutation assays

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Pant, K.

    1995-11-01

    There is an intense interest in alternatives to Aroclor-1254 (PCB) for induction of S-9. Manufacturers no longer produce PCB, and are selling PCB, in stock, with a 30% increase in price. One substitute, a combination of phenobarbital (PB) and {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF), has been suggested to be a suitable replacement for PCB. In order to compare the activity of PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 with PCB-induced S-9, the two kinds of S-9 were prepared and tested in both Microbial and CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assays. One group of CD rats was treated with PB at 75 mg/kg by I.P. injection for 4 consecutive days and a single dose of {beta}-NF at 80 mg/kg 2 days prior to sacrifice. A second group of CD rats was treated with a single dose of Aroclor-1254 at 500 mg/kg on Day 1 by I.P. injection. All animals were sacrificed on Day 5. A Plate Incorporation Mutation Assay was performed with five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and one Escherichia coli tester strain. A single dose of 2-Amino-anthracene (2-AA) at 1.25 {mu}g/plate for the five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and 10 {mu}g/plate for the WP2uvrA tester stain was used as a positive control. DMSO at 0.1 mL/plate was used as a solvent control. In the CHO/HGPRT Gene Mutation Assay, 7, 12-Dimethylbenz ({alpha})anthra-cene (DMBA) was used at 5.0 {mu}g/mL as a positive control. Acetone at 10 {mu}L/mL was used as a solvent control. The results from the Microbial Assay showed that the increase in mean reversion frequency of 2-AA over that of the corresponding solvent control with the PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 was greater than the increase from the PCB-induced S-9 for all of the six tester strains. In the CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assay, the results showed that DMBA gave a similar positive response for both the PCB- and PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9s. The data obtained from these comparative studies supports the suggestion of the authors listed above that PB/{beta}-NF is a suitable substitute for PCB for induction of S-9.

  1. FeSO{sub 4} amendments stimulate extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Zwiernik, M.J.; Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.

    1998-11-01

    Anaerobic microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs is important because it removes the chlorine substituents that block aerobic metabolism and it reduces PCB toxicity. Although this process occurs widely in nature, its extent is often limited to dechlorination of some of the chlorines in the meta positions of biphenyl. In this report the authors demonstrate the ability to achieve nearly complete meta plus para dechlorination of Aroclor 1242. This involves the additions of FeSO{sub 4} to PCB contaminated sediments and results in {approximately}90 mol % of the total PCBs being converted to aerobically degradable ortho-substituted mono- and dichlorinated congeners. They propose that iron sulfate provides two mutually beneficial effects leading to its stimulation of anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Sulfate stimulates growth of sulfate reducing organisms responsible for PCB dechlorination, while Fe{sup 2+} reduces sulfide bioavailability and hence toxicity by forming the insoluble precipitate FeS. Ferrous sulfate is an inexpensive, innocuous compound which could be utilized to overcome factors limiting both the extent of in situ dechlorination as well as the implementation of sequential anaerobic/aerobic biotreatment systems. In addition it is expected that the toxicities of Aroclors, and hence the risk they pose, will be substantially reduced at sites where PCBs have been extensively dechlorinated.

  2. Oxidation of Aroclor 1248 in supercritical water: A global kinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Anitescu, G.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    2000-03-01

    Supercritical water oxidation of extracted contaminants is the second step of a two-stage supercritical fluid technology proposed to remediate soils and sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In connection with the second step, the supercritical water oxidation rate of Aroclor 1248 (A1248), a mixture of {approximately}76 PCB congeners, is investigated at 25.3 MPa and temperatures of 723, 748, 773, and 823 K. The reactions are conducted in an isothermal, isobaric plug-flow tubular reactor, and GC/ECD, GC/FID, GC/TCD, and GC/MS chromatographic methods are employed for product analysis. Experiments are conducted at a nominal A1248 feed concentration of 5.75 x 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L (reaction conditions) using a methanol solution of 5.245 g/L (5,245 ppm) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an initial oxidant (providing {approximately}20 mol +ACU- excess of O{sub 2}). Molar global conversion of A1248 varies from 36.06% (for residence time equal to 6.29 s at 723 K) to 99.95% (54.4 s at 823 K). The overall conversion follows apparent second order, and the rate constant calculated from the data leads to Arrhenius parameters of frequency factor A = 10{sup 17.0{+-}0.1} s{sup {minus}1} (mol/L){sup {minus}1} and energy of activation E{sub a} = 186 {+-} 2 kJ/mol (44.43 {+-} 0.51 kcal/mol). The congener specific analysis indicates a buildup of intermediate congener byproducts, which also undergo oxidation decomposition. The identified reaction products are mainly biphenyl, low-chlorinated PCB congeners such as 2-chlorobiphenyl and 2,2{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl, CO, and CO{sub 2}.

  3. Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr.; Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W.; Spadone, J.; Pires, L.

    1995-12-31

    The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

  4. Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Matsumura, Tohru; Shiozaki, Ken; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Special polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) standards (native and isotope labeled) were analyzed by isotope dilution method using HRGC-HRMS. Multiple analysis of special PCBs standards by three different laboratories produced the relative response factors (RRFs) and relative standard deviations (RSDs %) was in the average of 0.979 and 3.86, respectively. Additionally, inter-laboratory analysis of various forms of transformer oil revealed the PCBs concentrations were in the following order; PCBs fortified transformer oil (940-1300 ng/g)>PCB polluted transformer oil (490-680 ng/g)>chemically degraded-transformer oil (480-490 ng/g) and PCBs free oil (ND-17 ng/g). Chemical degradation resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in the PCB concentrations. Specifically, higher chlorinated PCBs degraded into lower chlorinated PCBs. Also, composition of PCBs have been determined in PCB formulations from Japan (Kanechlor), Germany (Clophen), USA (Aroclor), Russia (Sovol) and Poland (Chlorofen). Major PCBs (24-PCB congeners) contributed 54-67%, 55-68%, 16-69%, 71% and 72% in Kanechlor, Clophen, Aroclor, Sovol and Chlorofen, respectively to total PCBs. The homologue pattern of Kanechlor, Aroclor and Clophen in technical fromulation was similar (e.g., Kanechlor-300 resembled to those of Clophen A-30 and Aroclor-1242). Furthermore, congener-specific distributions of major PCBs/dioxin-like PCBs and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) were calculated. Based on our tentative assumption calculations, cumulative production of five different technical PCB formulations, WHO-TEQ emission was estimated to be approximately 16.05 tons.

  5. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  6. Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.R.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, T.L. . Environmental and Resource Studies)

    1993-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-zooplankton PCB concentration (lipid), or BAS, ratios were calculated as markers of the transport of PCBs through food webs. The lakes ranged from a shallow, well-mixed lake with a historic input of Aroclor technical mixtures to deeper, oligotrophic systems in which atmospheric deposition was the only known source. BSF ratios ranged from approximately one in cyprinids and zooplankton in all lakes to 30 in yellow perch in one lake. A significant correlation between lake maximum depth and combined BSF ratios for all biota indicated that PCBs were generally more available for accumulation in the shallower lakes, regardless of the PCB source. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the biota in the shallower lakes had higher ratios of higher chlorinated congeners, suggesting that predictions of equal concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants on a lipid basis in sediment and lower trophic levels may significantly underestimate the accumulation of very hydrophobic compounds in the organisms of some lake systems. BAF ratios ranged from approximately one in the lower trophic levels to approximately 10 in lake trout.

  7. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  8. Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.

    PubMed

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  9. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  10. Atmospheric dispersion of PCB from a contaminated Lake Michigan harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andres; Spak, Scott N.; Petrich, Nicholas T.; Hu, Dingfei; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-12-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago is an industrial waterway on Lake Michigan and a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan and the overlying air. We hypothesized that IHSC is an important source of airborne PCBs to surrounding communities. We used AERMOD to model hourly PCB concentrations, utilizing emission fluxes from a prior study and hourly meteorology provided by the State of Indiana. We also assessed dispersion using hourly observed meteorology from a local airport and high resolution profiles simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We found that emissions from IHSC waters contributed about 15% of the observed ∑PCB concentrations close to IHSC when compared on an hourly basis and about 10% of observed annual concentrations at a nearby school. Concentrations at the school due to emissions from IHSC ranged from 0 to 18,000 pg m-3, up to 20 times higher than observed background levels, with an annual geometric mean (GSD) of 19 (31) pg m-3. Our findings indicate that IHSC is an important source of PCBs to East Chicago, but not the only source. Four observed enriched PCB3 samples suggest a nearby non-Aroclor source.

  11. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 1. End-member characterization.

    PubMed

    Magar, Victor S; Johnson, Glenn W; Brenner, Richard C; Quensen, John F; Foote, Eric A; Durell, Greg; Ickes, Jennifer A; Peven-McCarthy, Carole

    2005-05-15

    extensive in most of the cores, it was not always consistent from core to core or at various depth intervals within a single core. The reason for this variability in dechlorination extent could not be determined from the existing data and did not appear to correlate with such factors as PCB concentration, total organic carbon, or age. The authors used fingerprinting analysis and a PVA multivariate receptor model as exploratory data analysis tools to characterize PCB sources and their alteration patterns. Dominant sources and alteration patterns were determined in this large data set by comparing PVA EM patterns with known source patterns (i.e., Aroclors or Aroclor mixtures) and literature-reported alteration patterns. PVA also afforded an opportunity to characterize the vertical and lateral distributions of the weathered and unweathered PCB source patterns and dechlorination patterns, a task that would have been much more difficult to accomplish through comparison of chromatograms alone.

  12. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  13. PCB recordkeeping and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  14. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  15. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  16. Record of PCB congeners, sorbents and potential toxicity in core samples in Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-10-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) is an active navigational system that serves a heavily industrial area of southern Lake Michigan. We have determined the amount of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), congener distributions, sorbent types and potential for dioxin-like PCB toxicity from two IHSC sediment cores. Vertical distributions of ΣPCBs (sum of 161 individual or coeluting congeners) ranged from 410 to 91000 and 1800 to 41000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) for cores 1 and 2, respectively. Core 1 showed its highest accumulation rate for the year ∼1979 and exhibits a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in sediments accumulating over the last 60 years. It appears that from the late 1930s until the beginning of the 1980s there was a large and constant input of PCBs into this system. This pattern differs from lake cores from the Great Lakes region which commonly exhibit a rapid increase, a peak, followed by a sharp decrease in the PCB accumulation rates. Core 2 also has a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in the top layers, but deeper layers show evidence of mixtures of Aroclors and/or weathering processes. High levels of black carbon as a fraction of total organic carbon were found in both cores (median ∼30%), which reflect the long history of local combustion sources. No strong relationship was found between ΣPCB concentration and sorbents. Both cores contain dioxin-like PCBs that are highest in concentration below the surface. The high levels of PCBs in the deep sediments are of concern because of plans to dredge this system.

  17. PCB loading from sediment in the Hudson River: congener signature analysis of pathways.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Jonathan B; Garvey, Edward A

    2004-06-15

    The upper Hudson River (NY) was subjected to massive PCB contamination over a period of three decades. A large inventory of PCBs remains in contaminated sediments of the river, most notably in the Thompson Island Pool. During the summer, flow crossing the Thompson Island Pool exhibits a large and consistent PCB load gain. This load gain is not associated with scouring flows and is not accompanied by an increase in suspended solids. A variety of hypotheses have been proposed to explain this load gain, including flux of contaminated porewater and dissolution of unverified reservoirs of pure PCBs. A wealth of congener-specific PCB data is available for the site throughout the 1990s. Interpretation of the Thompson Island Pool load gain is facilitated by examination of the PCB congener signature of the gain and comparison to the signature of potential sources. This examination suggests that neither the flux of porewater nor the dissolution of unaltered Aroclors are the predominant source of the load gain. Instead, the congener signature is consistent with a mixed source consisting of porewater flux and non-scour flux of contaminated sediments. The non-scour sediment flux, which reaches a maximum in the beginning of the summer growing season, is likely driven by a variety of biological and anthropogenic processes, including bioturbation by benthic organisms, bioturbation by demersal fish, scour by propwash, mechanical scour by boats and floating debris in nearshore areas, and uprooting of macrophytes.

  18. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos fed aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to 9 mo. old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least 1 mo. before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of 1st egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87.7%) than among controls (73.2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 wk of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14-17 of incubation.

  19. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks fed Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to nine-month-old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least a month before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of first egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87?7%) than among controls (73?2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 weeks of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14?17 of incubation.

  20. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  1. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Echols, Kathy R; Tillitt, Donald E; Nichols, John W; Secord, Anne L; McCarty, John P

    2004-12-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25,000 ng/g and accumulated to 32,000 and 96,000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d(-1) based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  2. ENANTIOSELECTIVITY IN THE BIODEGRADATION OF PCB ATROPISOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms inoculated with sediment from two locations in a contaminated reservoir, Lake Hartwell, SC, USA, degraded certain PCB atropisomers enantioselectively while other atropisomers were degraded in racemic proportions. The microcosms were spiked with either 234-236 PCB (PCB...

  3. Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for the Calibration and Validation of Analytical Methods for PCBs (as Aroclor Mixtures).

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Leigh, Stefan D; Wise, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    Six Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®) have been prepared by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the determination of PCBs as different Aroclor mixtures in methanol. Six additional SRMs of the same Aroclors in transformer oil have also been prepared. Specifically, solutions of Aroclors 1016, 1232, 1242, 1254, and 1260 have been gravimetrically prepared (individually) in methanol and transformer oil, mixed, and transferred to amber glass ampoules in approximately 1.2 mL aliquots. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) has been used to verify the gravimetric data for each solution and transformer oil SRM. Liquid chromatography was used for the isolation of the Aroclors from the transformer oil SRMs prior to GC-ECD analysis. Separate calibration solutions and oils were prepared with Aroclor levels similar to those in each methanol solution and transformer oil SRM and were processed alongside the samples. The GC-ECD response of each Aroclor was monitored relative to internal standards that were added to the complex mixtures for quantification. The gravimetric concentrations of Aroclors 1242 and 1254 in methanol were also examined by the same method of analysis (GC-ECD) using several different sources of Aroclors and two different capillary GC columns: a 5 % phenyl methylpolysiloxane phase and a relatively non-polar phase. The preparation of the materials, the gas chromatographic results, and the certified concentration values for each Aroclor SRM are described in this paper.

  4. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P.

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  6. Effects of polychlorinated (aroclors 1016 and 1254) on morphogenesis of the pluteus in Arbacia Punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    Arbacia eggs were exposed to both Aroclors 1254 and 1016 at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L. Exposure was initiated 25 minutes prior to insemination and was continuous for the 72-hour observation period used in this study. A Filtered-Sea-Water (FSW) control and an acetone-FSW control were studied. Four morphological categories were used to describe the development of the embryos at 24, 48 and 72-hour intervals: These categories were normal pluteus (p), deformed pluteus (dp), transparent and disintegrating (t/d), and gastrula (g). A two-tailed T-test was employed to test for significant differences in distribution of the four categories studied. Both Aroclors caused significant dysmorphogenesis of the Arbacia embryos, however, at equal concentrations Aroclor 1254 was more lethal.

  7. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  8. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  9. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF TWO LOTS OF AROCLOR 1254R: CONGENER ANALYSIS AND NEUROCHEMICAL ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in industry as heat transfer and dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors1. PCBs were commercially produced as AroclorR mixtures in USA by the chlorination of biphenyl. Although all 209 congeners can be syn...

  10. PCB cycling in marine plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Ashizawa, D.; Brownawell, B.; Fisher, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem-scale models of contaminant bioaccumulation and toxicity are often sensitive to quantification of uptake and trophic transfer at the base of aquatic food chains. Significant uncertainty remains in assessing the rates and routes of transfer of hydrophobic contaminants by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Using radio-labeled 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB), the authors have conducted experiments to measure the transfer of PCB from seawater to phytoplankton to copepods. Uptake, equilibration, and release of PCB onto/from algal cells were found to be rapid and not appreciably affected by the algal growth phase. Initial experiments indicate that when PCB-contaminated diatoms were fed to calanoid copepods, the assimilation efficiencies in the grazers ranged from 30--50%. Ongoing experiments are investigating this process further and quantitatively comparing copepod uptake of PCB from food and from the dissolved phase. These parameters of uptake and release are essential in the development and application of contaminant bioaccumulation models for marine and aquatic food chains.

  11. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In Vitro Exposure of Harbor Seal Immune Cells to Aroclor 1260 Alters Phocine Distemper Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Bogomolni, Andrea; Frasca, Salvatore; Levin, Milton; Matassa, Keith; Nielsen, Ole; Waring, Gordon; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years, several large-scale marine mammal mortality events have occurred, often in close association with highly polluted regions, leading to suspicions that contaminant-induced immunosuppression contributed to these epizootics. Some of these recent events also identified morbillivirus as a cause of or contributor to death. The role of contaminant exposures regarding morbillivirus mortality is still unclear. The results of this study aimed to address the potential for a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), specifically Aroclor 1260, to alter harbor seal T-lymphocyte proliferation and to assess if exposure resulted in increased likelihood of phocine distemper virus (PDV USA 2006) to infect susceptible seals in an in vitro system. Exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Aroclor 1260 did not significantly alter lymphocyte proliferation (1, 5, 10, and 20 ppm). However, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), lymphocytes exposed to 20 ppm Aroclor 1260 exhibited a significant decrease in PDV replication at day 7 and a significant increase at day 11 compared with unexposed control cells. Similar and significant differences were apparent on exposure to Aroclor 1260 in monocytes and supernatant. The results here indicate that in harbor seals, Aroclor 1260 exposure results in a decrease in virus early during infection and an increase during late infection. The consequences of this contaminant-induced infection pattern in a highly susceptible host could result in a greater potential for systemic infection with greater viral load, which could explain the correlative findings seen in wild populations exposed to a range of persistent contaminants that suffer from morbillivirus epizootics.

  13. Domestic dogs (Canus familiaris) as sentinels of environmental health hazards: The use of canine bioassays to determine alterations in immune system function following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl aroclor 1248

    SciTech Connect

    Fadden, M.F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The principle objective of this study was to determine if domestic dogs could be used as human surrogates to monitor the immunotoxic effects of environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our first objective was to determine if PCBs, which are commonly found as pollutants in the environment, have specific and identifiable effects on the function of immunocompetent cells in the dog. Our second aim was to explore the pathogenesis of any defects and to determine the cellular and molecular basis for observed changes. Our third objective was to compare immune function in normal laboratory beagles to dogs living contiguous to a US EPA Superfund site located near the Mohawk Nation community of Akwesasne and to correlate any observed immunologic abnormalities to plasma levels of specific congeners of PCBs. To elucidate the effects of PCBs on the canine immune system, laboratory beagles were fed 20 ppm (n = 2), 25 ppm (n =9) and 50 ppm (n = 2) PCB Aroclor 1248 in their diet and compared with age/sex matched controls (n = 8). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from all dogs and submitted to in vitro testing. Within 8 weeks, many significant changes were seen in PCB fed dogs including: excessive lacrimation (p < .001), weight loss, decreased serum thyroxine (p < .004), increased serum alkaline phosphatase and increased blood leukocyte count (p < .01). In addition, PCB fed dogs had altered in vitro T and B cell proliferative response (p < .004) and serum immunoglobulin levels (p < .01). Following thyroxine supplementation (wk 8-16) many, but not all, immunologic abnormalities improved. Necropsy examination revealed decreased thymus (p < .02) and lymph node (p < .004) weight; all other organs appeared normal. Many of the immunologic abnormalities documented in PCB fed beagles were similar to those observed in dogs residing in the Mohawk Nation Community of Akwesasne.

  14. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  15. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  16. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  18. Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

  19. Airborne PCB patterns and urban scale in the Southern Río de la Plata Basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Astoviza, Malena J; Cappelletti, Natalia; Bilos, Claudio; Migoya, Maria C; Colombo, Juan C

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs: ∑ 42 congeners) collected by polyurethane passive samplers (PAS-PUFs) in 29 stations from July 2010 to February 2014 (n=141) in the most productive and populated Southern Rio de la Plata area in Argentina were evaluated to assess concentration gradients, potential sources and compositional profiles related to different land use and urbanization. On a global scale, total airborne PCBs concentrations are low/very low (below detection limit to 937pgm(-3)) and show a significant potential correlation with urban scale increasing 2.5 times each 10 times increase of population reflecting the primary role of urbanization controlling PCB emissions. Compositional patterns evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) of individual congeners indicated that highly populated atmospheres are enriched in lighter, more volatile tri, tetra and penta chlorine congeners of lighter Aroclor mixtures (from 1242 to 1254) suggesting actual emission of fresh PCBs signatures from sealants, combustion and/or electrical equipment. Sub urban and rural sites show a gradual transition to heavier Aroclor mixtures (from 1254 to 1260) with predominance of more persistent hexa and hepta PCBs indicating an aged background signal resulting from long range transport and/or re-emission from historic reservoirs such as soils.

  20. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

  2. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB)-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CYTOTOXICITY CAN BE MITIGATED BY ANTIOXIDANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yueming; Kalen, Amanda L.; Li, Ling; Lehmler, Hans-J; Robertson, Larry W.; Goswami, Prabhat C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2009-01-01

    PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to cause cytotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress but the effectiveness of antioxidant intervention following exposure is not established. Exponentially growing MCF-10A human breast and RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells continuously exposed for 5 days to 3 μM PCBs [Aroclor 1254, PCB153, and the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone metabolite of PCB3 (4ClBQ)] were found to exhibit growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing, with 4ClBQ having the most pronounced effects. These PCBs were also found to increase steady-state levels intracellular O2·− and H2O2 (as determined by dihydroethidium, MitoSOX™red and 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation). These PCBs also caused 1.5- to 5.0-fold increases in MnSOD activity in MCF-10A cells and 2.5- to 5-fold increases in CuZnSOD activity in RWPE-1 cells. Measurement of MitoSOX™red oxidation with confocal microscopy coupled with co-localization of MitoTracker green in MCF-10A and RWPE-1 cells, supported the hypothesis that PCBs caused increased steady-state levels of O2·− in mitochondria. Finally, treatment with either N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated CuZnSOD and PEG-catalase added 1 hour after PCBs, significantly protected these cells from PCB toxicity. These results support the hypothesis that exposure of exponentially growing human breast and prostate epithelial cells to PCBs causes increased steady-state levels of intracellular O2·− and H2O2, induction of MnSOD or CuZnSOD activities, as well as clonogenic cell killing that could be inhibited by a clinically relevant thiol antioxidant, NAC, as well as by catalase and superoxide dismutase following PCB exposure. PMID:19796678

  3. ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  4. Immuno-localisations (GSSP) of subcellular accumulation sites of phenanthrene, aroclor 1254 and lead (Pb) in relation to cytopathologies in the gills and digestive gland of the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Einsporn, Sonja; Koehler, Angela

    2008-07-01

    Cell and tissue pathology of both, gill and digestive tissue, has been the subject of many studies for the elucidation of contaminant-induced biological effects. In the present study, cellular pathological alterations were linked to subcellular sites of chemical accumulation in gills and digestive gland tissues. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed to the organic contaminants aroclor 1254 (PCB) (20 microg/L), phenanthrene (PAH) (150 microg/L) or the metal lead (Pb) (2.5mg/L). The localization of chemicals at the subcellular level was analysed by an antibody-based detection system (GSSP) by the use of commercially available antibodies specifically directed against the chemicals. Pathological changes were analysed in parallel in identical samples by transmission electron microscopy. After exposure to the different contaminants, cell organelles such as mitochondria, the endo-lysosomal system as well as endoplasmic reticulum showed clear evidence of chemically-induced alterations. Large numbers of crystalloid inclusions were found in mitochondria and in autophagic lysosomes as well as multi-lamellated whorls after PAH and aroclor exposure. Immunocytochemical detection of the chemicals showed their accumulation inside of various cell organelles such as lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei. Additionally, chemicals were localized in association to membranes, cilia and microvilli of gill and digestive gland cells. Furthermore, the chitinous rod and mucus secretions of gill epithelial cells were positively labelled for contaminants indicating their role in protection. Localization of contaminants by immuno-detection in combination with pathological diagnosis gives insights into the cellular targets of chemical attack.

  5. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium

    PubMed Central

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  6. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium.

    PubMed

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  7. Simultaneous quantification of Aroclor mixtures in soil samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction using partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) method was applied to the quantification of two complex polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1254 and 1260, in a soil matrix. PCBs in soil samples were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Decachlorinated biphenyl (deca-CB) was used as internal standard. After the baseline correction was applied, four data representations including extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) for Aroclor 1254, EIC for Aroclor 1260, EIC for both Aroclors and two-way data sets were constructed for PLS-1 and PLS-2 calibrations and evaluated with respect to quantitative prediction accuracy. The PLS model was optimized with respect to the number of latent variables using cross validation of the calibration data set. The validation of the method was performed with certified soil samples and real field soil samples and the predicted concentrations for both Aroclors using EIC data sets agreed with the certified values. The linear range of the method was from 10μgkg(-1) to 1000μgkg(-1) for both Aroclor 1254 and 1260 in soil matrices and the detection limit was 4μgkg(-1) for Aroclor 1254 and 6μgkg(-1) for Aroclor 1260. This holistic approach for the determination of mixtures of complex samples has broad application to environmental forensics and modeling.

  8. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  9. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on inducible and repressible microsomal N-demethylases in the mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Argus, M F; Bryant, G M; Pastor, K M; Arcos, J C

    1975-06-01

    A comparative study of the effects of the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254, 3-methylcholanthrene, and starvation on hepatic dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) demethylase (a repressible enzyme) and azo dye N-demethylase (an inducible enzyme) has been carried out. As previously observed with polycyclic hydrocarbons and phenobarbital, Aroclor in rats is a potent inducer of liver tissue proliferation and of azo dye N-demethylase. However, in mice, although the inducing effect on liver tissue proliferation and azo dye N-demethylase activity is maintained, there is no change in DMN demethylase activity as a result of Aroclor administration. As in rats, 3-methylcholanthrene induces the azo dye N-demethylase in mice. This hydrocarbon, which is known to substantially repress the DMN demethylase in rats, has, however, no effect on this enzyme in mice. While starvation is known to have a substantial inducing effect on DMN demethylase in rats, in mice starvation brings about a moderate induction of DMN demethylase.

  10. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Lerner, D.T.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 ??g L-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 ??g L-1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 ??g L-1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 ??g L-1 groups (n = 12, P < 0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n = 12, P = 0.036) only in the 10 ??g L-1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  12. On site PCB analysis in support of a transformer rebuilding project.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Landriault, M; Fingas, M; Potvin, A

    2001-05-07

    In December 1997, Emergencies Science Division (ESD) was contracted by Natural Resources Canada (NRCAN) to perform on-site analyses in support of a transformer-rebuilding project at Sault Ste-Marie, Ont. Using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC/ECD) mounted in a mobile laboratory, PCB analyses were conducted on the original transformer oil, surface wipes, Varsol rinsing of the transformer tank interior and cooling fins. To assess the efficiency and validity of the decontamination process, PCB contamination was monitored closely on the rinse solvent. Surface wipe samples after wash down showed surface concentration of several hundred microg Aroclor 1254/100 cm(2), well below the acceptable limit of 8000 microg/100 cm(2). Because of the relatively large percentage of the internal surface area, the fin banks had to be rinsed exhaustively to meet the decontamination criteria. Final rinses of each of the seven fin banks of transformer 1 still showed presence of PCB, ranging from 80 to 590 ppm (microg/ml) with a mean value of 280 ppm. Upon completion of rebuilding, analysis of the R-Temp retro fill fluid showed 5 ppm at the initial power-up, increasing slightly to 16 ppm after 1 year of operation, which was far below the regulatory limit 50 ppm. The second transformer, by comparison, had a lower mean concentration of 54 ppm in the final fin rinse during decontamination. However, the backfill R-Temp showed an initial concentration of 38 ppm and remained essentially unchanged at 32 ppm after approximately 10 months of operation. Extensive comparison of GC and the quick test Clor-N-Oil kit were also carried out and showed generally good agreement. The use of an on-site GC was crucial in providing rapid and accurate analysis on-site, thus, enabling quick modifications to the decontamination strategies in order to meet the target PCB level. For projects of this nature, a GC/ECD was far superior to quick test kits by providing the selectivity and

  13. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  14. PCB126 Inhibits Adipogenesis of Human Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gadupudi, Gopi; Gourronc, Francoise A.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. PCB126 is a dioxin-like PCB and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. We hypothesized that PCB126 may be involved in the development of diabetes through disruption of adipogenesis. Using a newly developed human preadipocyte cell line called NPAD (Normal PreADipocytes), we found that exposure of preadipocytes to PCB126 resulted in significant reduction in their subsequent ability to fully differentiate into adipocytes, more so than when the cells were exposed to PCB126 during differentiation. Reduction in differentiation by PCB126 was associated with downregulation of transcript levels of a key adipocyte transcription factor, PPARγ, and late adipocyte differentiation genes. An AhR antagonist, CH223191, blocked this effect. These studies indicate that preadipocytes are particularly sensitive to the effects of PCB126 and suggest that AhR activation inhibits PPARγ transcription and subsequent adipogenesis. Our results validate the NPAD cell line as a useful model for studying the effects of POPs on adipogenesis. PMID:25304490

  15. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  16. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  17. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

  18. Energetic response of Chlorella vulgaris to alpha radiation and PCB stress

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This research project has evaluated the bioenergetic response of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following acute exposure to either the physical stress of radiation or the chemical stress of PCBs. After exposure, changes in survival or growth, adenylate pools (ATP, ADP, and AMP), CO/sub 2/ fixation and oxygen evolution and uptake were measured. By employing anaerobic conditions, or the electron transport inhibitor DCMU or dark conditions separately and in specific combinations, this study evaluated the response of three separate algal ATP producing mechanisms (respiration, total and cyclic photophosphorylation) to alpha radiation or PCB. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as an indicator of stress was also evaluated. The results of the radiation experiments indicated that alpha particle exposure between 25 to 275 rads caused a one-hour latent demand for ATP due to radioinduced DNA repair. In order to compensate for this ATP demand, nonessential utilization of ATP was decreased by slowing the rate of carbon fixation. The results also suggest that use of radiation as a tool to study algal physiology. The data obtained from the PCB experiments again showed each phosphorylation mechanism to be insensitive to 10, 100 and 200 ppm Aroclor 1254 exposures. Data suggest, however, that PCBs caused an increased photosynthetic rate, and total adenylate pool with decreased growth. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as a stress indicator was assessed. Because this ratio did not fluctuate at doses of radiation or PCBs that caused reduced survival and growth rates, this study concluded that for Chlorella the adenylate energy charge ration was a poor indicator of sublethal stress.

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  20. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  1. Notifications for Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents of any company or person storing, transporting or disposing of PCBs or conducting PCB research and development that notified the EPA and received an identification number using Form 7710-53.

  2. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  3. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  4. Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Pajari, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  6. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  7. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  8. PCB trial burn in a modular, movable incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, P. ); Reiter, B.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss a trial burn conducted from March 11-13, 1986, in El Dorado, Arkanasas, of an MWP-2000 Modular Incinerations system to destroy PCB liquids, PCB items and PCB-contaminated solids in conformance with TSCA requirements. MWP-2000 has 4 main process modules--Rotary kiln, capable of destroying liquid PCBs and PCB-contaminated dirt; secondary combustor, capable of destroying high-level PCB liquids; heat recovery system, generating steam to drive the system's prime mover; and pollution control system that removes acid gases and fine particulates from the gas stream. The trial burn consisted of 5 separate tests. The first 3 tests were replicate tests. In these tests PCB-contaminated soils, having a PCB content of 1.8%, and PCB-contaminated fuel, having a content of 60%, were burned simultaneously in the secondary combustor. In the fourth test, PCB liquids, having a PCB content of 61%, were burned in the secondary combustor while the kiln was not operated. In the fifth test, pre-shredded capacitors having a PCB content of 18% were fed to the kiln and PCB liquids having a PCB concentration of 64% were fed to the secondary combustor. Trial burn results clearly demonstrate that a DREs of 99.999999% were achieved. HCl removal efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved. Total particulate emissions of 0.01-0.02 gr/DSCF were achieved. PCB contamination in the kiln ash and effluent residuals of <2 ppm were achieved.

  9. Morphological alterations of Vero cell exposed to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kaili; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xincai; Chen, Yingxu

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, persistent environmental contaminants that display a complex spectrum of toxicological properties. Exposure to PCBs has been associated with morphological anomalies in cell cultures. However, most mechanistic studies of PCBs' toxic activity have been focused on coplanar congeners. It is of importance to determine whether PCB treatment would influence cell configuration and whether these changes would depend on the structural characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we investigated cell morphological alteration in Vero cell cultures after exposure to coplanar PCB 126 and noncoplanar PCB 153. The survival of Vero cells was measured through the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test. Cytotoxicity results suggested that PCB congeners had a toxic, antiproliferative effect on Vero cells. Morphological studies described structural modifications and provided evidence that apoptosis might be the main cell death pathway in PCB 153-treated cells. The comparison between PCB 126 and PCB 153 indicated that the cell death mechanisms involved in coplanar or noncoplanar PCB congener exposure were different in Vero cells.

  10. Divergent Effects of Dioxin- or Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Apoptosis of Primary Cell Culture from the Mouse Pituitary Gland.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Francesco; Russo, Dania; Urbani, Claudio; Sardella, Chiara; Manetti, Luca; Cappellani, Daniele; Lupi, Isabella; Tomisti, Luca; Martino, Enio; Marcocci, Claudio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can disrupt the endocrine function, promote neoplasms and regulate apoptosis in some tissues; however, it is unknown whether PCBs can affect the apoptosis of pituitary cells. The study evaluated the effect of PCBs on the apoptosis of normal pituitary cells and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cell cultures obtained from mouse pituitary glands were exposed to Aroclor 1254 or selected dioxin-like (PCB 77, PCB 126) or non-dioxin-like (PCB 153, PCB 180) congeners. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, and TUNEL assay. Both the expression and activity of caspases were analyzed. Selective thyroid hormone receptor (TR) or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or CYP1A1 antagonist were used to explore the mechanisms underlying PCBs action. Our results showed that Aroclor 1254 induced the apoptosis of pituitary cells as well as the final caspase-3 level and activity through the extrinsic pathway, as shown by the increased caspase-8 level and activity. On the other hand, the intrinsic pathway evaluated by measuring caspase-9 expression was silent. The selected non-dioxin-like congeners either increased (PCB 180) or reduced (PCB 153) pituitary cell apoptosis, affecting the extrinsic pathway (PCB 180), or both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways (PCB 153), respectively. In contrast, the dioxin-like congeners (PCB 77 and PCB 126) did not affect apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of PCB 153 was counteracted by a TR or a CYP1A1 antagonist, whereas the pro-apoptotic effect of PCB 180 was counteracted by an AhR antagonist. The induced apoptosis of Aroclor 1254 or PCB 180 was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, whereas the decreased apoptosis due to PCB 153 increased cell proliferation by 30%. In conclusion, our data suggest that non-dioxin-like PCBs may modulate apoptosis and the proliferation rate of pituitary cells that have either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the specific congeners

  11. Divergent Effects of Dioxin- or Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Apoptosis of Primary Cell Culture from the Mouse Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Francesco; Russo, Dania; Urbani, Claudio; Sardella, Chiara; Manetti, Luca; Cappellani, Daniele; Lupi, Isabella; Tomisti, Luca; Martino, Enio; Marcocci, Claudio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can disrupt the endocrine function, promote neoplasms and regulate apoptosis in some tissues; however, it is unknown whether PCBs can affect the apoptosis of pituitary cells. The study evaluated the effect of PCBs on the apoptosis of normal pituitary cells and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cell cultures obtained from mouse pituitary glands were exposed to Aroclor 1254 or selected dioxin-like (PCB 77, PCB 126) or non-dioxin-like (PCB 153, PCB 180) congeners. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, and TUNEL assay. Both the expression and activity of caspases were analyzed. Selective thyroid hormone receptor (TR) or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or CYP1A1 antagonist were used to explore the mechanisms underlying PCBs action. Our results showed that Aroclor 1254 induced the apoptosis of pituitary cells as well as the final caspase-3 level and activity through the extrinsic pathway, as shown by the increased caspase-8 level and activity. On the other hand, the intrinsic pathway evaluated by measuring caspase-9 expression was silent. The selected non-dioxin-like congeners either increased (PCB 180) or reduced (PCB 153) pituitary cell apoptosis, affecting the extrinsic pathway (PCB 180), or both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways (PCB 153), respectively. In contrast, the dioxin-like congeners (PCB 77 and PCB 126) did not affect apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of PCB 153 was counteracted by a TR or a CYP1A1 antagonist, whereas the pro-apoptotic effect of PCB 180 was counteracted by an AhR antagonist. The induced apoptosis of Aroclor 1254 or PCB 180 was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, whereas the decreased apoptosis due to PCB 153 increased cell proliferation by 30%. In conclusion, our data suggest that non-dioxin-like PCBs may modulate apoptosis and the proliferation rate of pituitary cells that have either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the specific congeners

  12. Integrated Forensics Approach to Fingerprint PCB Sources using Rapid Sediment Characterization (RSC) and Advanced Chemical Fingerprinting (ACF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    the heavier “ Deca ” source, but the majority is still Aroclor 1248. There are only sporadic indications of the 22 Figure 7. HPS EM source...Yosemite Creek area. At the Ashtabula River dredge site the probable sources of the Aroclor 1248 (and dechlorinated Aroclor 1248) and Deca -rich

  13. Cytochrome c Adducts with PCB Quinoid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pope, R. Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy- metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and thereby cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study synthetic PCB quinones (2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’, 5’-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’,4’, 5’-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone) were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by LC-MS and MALDI TOF. SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-para-quinone was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to be in the reduced form after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent binding of PCB quinone metabolites to cytochrome c may be included among the toxic effects of PCBs. PMID:26062463

  14. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; French, J.B.; McNabb, F.M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverills. Several characteristics of plumage. including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0. 6.0. and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 min. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing. and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  15. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael J; French, John B; McNabb, F M Anne; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverius. Several characteristics of plumage, including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g., communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0, 6.0, and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 nm. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing, and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EnviroGard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

  17. Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

  18. The Belgian PCB and dioxin incident of January-June 1999: exposure data and potential impact on health.

    PubMed Central

    van Larebeke, N; Hens, L; Schepens, P; Covaci, A; Baeyens, J; Everaert, K; Bernheim, J L; Vlietinck, R; De Poorter, G

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, 500 tons of feed contaminated with approximately 50 kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1 g of dioxins were distributed to animal farms in Belgium, and to a lesser extent in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. This study was based on 20,491 samples collected in the database of the Belgian federal ministries from animal feed, cattle, pork, poultry, eggs, milk, and various fat-containing food items analyzed for their PCB and/or dioxin content. Dioxin measurements showed a clear predominance of polychlorinated dibenzofuran over polychlorinated dibenzodioxin congeners, a dioxin/PCB ratio of approximately 1:50,000 and a PCB fingerprint resembling that of an Aroclor mixture, thus confirming contamination by transformer oil rather than by other environmental sources. In this case the PCBs contribute significantly more to toxic equivalents (TEQ) than dioxins. The respective means +/- SDs and the maximum concentrations of dioxin (expressed in TEQ) and PCB observed per gram of fat in contaminated food were 170.3 +/- 487.7 pg, 2613.4 pg, 240.7 +/- 2036.9 ng, and 51059.0 ng in chicken; 1.9 +/- 0.8 pg, 4.3 pg, 34.2 +/- 30.5 ng, and 314.0 ng in milk; and 32.0 +/- 104.4 pg, 713.3 pg, 392.7 +/- 2883.5 ng, and 46000.0 ng in eggs. Assuming that as a consequence of this incident between 10 and 15 kg PCBs and from 200 to 300 mg dioxins were ingested by 10 million Belgians, the mean intake per kilogram of body weight is calculated to maximally 25,000 ng PCBs and 500 pg international TEQ dioxins. Estimates of the total number of cancers resulting from this incident range between 40 and 8,000. Neurotoxic and behavioral effects in neonates are also to be expected but cannot be quantified. Because food items differed widely (more than 50-fold) in the ratio of PCBs to dioxins, other significant sources of contamination and a high background contamination are likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of the Belgian population. PMID:11333188

  19. Chronic oral exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to a polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254): pathological effects.

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, H; Budd, J

    1975-01-01

    Groups of eight rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were fed rations containing 0 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm of the polychlorinated biphenyl, Aroclor 1254, over a period of up to 330 days. Growth rates were unaffected by these levels. Pathological changes were found in the kidneys of 13 fish on the polychlorinated biphenyl ration. Foci of nephrosis with cellular or granular cast formation were seen. The greatest number of cases occured in fish at the 10 ppm concentration. An increase in the number of hepatocytes per unit area was related to the greater concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in the diet. A reduction in the amount of white pulp in the spleen was observed in 23 of 27 fish on the 10 ppm and 100 ppm diets. The fish with nephrosis had reduced splenic white pulp and lowered white cell counts. Fish fed the 1 ppm and 10 ppm levels had mean tissue residues of 1.4 and 2.3 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl respectively. Fish on the 100 ppm ration had a mean value of 80.1 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl content. Images Fig. 1. PMID:804980

  20. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysulfide caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but they were not spiked with PCBs. The dust was weighed and spread on the panels as evenly as possible. The dust on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The dust data collected from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with a primary source, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. Unlike the dust/air partition, the dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the volatility of the congener. This research is important to decision makers, environmental engineers, and researchers who are concerned with risk assessment and risk management for PCB contamination.

  1. Recognizing different impacts of human and natural sources on the spatial distribution and temporal trends of PAHs and PCBs (including PCB-11) in sediments of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Silvia; Piazza, Rossano; El Moumni, Bouchta; Polo, Fabio Paolo; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Zambon, Stefano; Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The Nador Lagoon holds a major interest in present-day Moroccan socioeconomic development. This environment is exposed to a number of potential polluting sources, such as mine tailings, urban and industrial dumping, and untreated wastewater inputs from surrounding cities. The aim of this study was to assess concentrations and trends of persistent contaminants such as PCBs and PAHs and to identify their origin. The non-Aroclor PCB-11 was determined for the first time in the lagoon sediments. Chronology and source assessment helped identifying the timing and nature of inputs and post-depositional processes controlling the two classes of contaminants: PAHs present a typical mixed petrogenic signature, with the exception of sediments deposited in the period 1930-1960 near the city of Nador, when pyrogenic inputs prevailed; PCBs show signs of microbial anaerobic degradation from 1950 to 1990, probably linked to changing hydrodynamic conditions in the South-Western part of the lagoon where agricultural inputs are dominant. The presence of PCB-11 is linked to specific productions and might be affected by degradation processes. Presently, different land uses (e.g., urban and agricultural areas) appear to be the key factors in controlling the level and composition of PAHs and PCBs in lagoon sediments. Total PAH and PCB levels are low (from 21.6 to 108 ng g(-1) and from 2.50 to 20.7 ng g(-1), respectively) but recent increasing values and the potential threat to humans and biota require continuous and constant monitoring.

  2. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB-153) and (PCB-77) absorption in human liver (HepG2) and kidney (HK2) cells in vitro: PCB levels and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Somiranjan; De, Supriyo; Chen, Yongqing; Sutton, Darryl C.; Ayorinde, Folahan O.; Dutta, Sisir K.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of congener specific cellular absorption of PCBs is important to the study of the organ specific body burden of an individual and to their toxic effects. We have previously demonstrated that single PCB congeners induce cytotoxicity, as evidenced by decreased cellular viability and accelerated apoptotic death. There is very little, if any, information available on the differences in toxicity due to the nature of absorption of PCBs in different cells. To obtain such information human liver (HepG2) cells (in medium with 10% FBS) were exposed to 70μM of both PCB-153 (non-coplanar hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB-77 (coplanar tetrachlorobiphenyl), and human kidney (HK2) cells in serum free medium were exposed to 80 and 40 μM of PCB-153 and PCB-77 respectively, according to their LC50 values in these cells. Medium and cells were collected separately at each time interval from 30 minutes to 48 hours, and PCB concentrations were analyzed in both by GC-MS using biphenyl as an internal standard following hexane: acetone (50:50) extraction. We also performed trypan blue exclusion, DNA fragmentation and fluorescence microscopic studies in assessing cell viability and apoptotic cell death. About 40% of PCB-153 (35 μM, 50% of the maximum value) was detected in HepG2 cells within 30 minutes, and it reached its highest concentration at 6 hours (60 μM), concomitant with the PCB depletion in the medium (5μM). For PCB-77, the highest concentrations within the cells were reached at 3 hours. However, the absorption levels of PCB-153 and PCB-77 in HK2 cells reached their peaks at 3 and 6 hours respectively. Exposure of human liver and kidney cells to PCB-153 and PCB-77 caused accelerated apoptotic cell death in a time-dependent manner. The studies demonstrated that (1) liver cells initiate the absorption of PCBs much faster than kidney cells; however, the concentration reaches its maximum level much earlier in kidney cells; (2) both PCB-153 and PCB-77 induced enhanced

  4. Aroclor 1254 increases the genotoxicity of several carcinogens to liver primary cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Lopez-Revilla, R.; Villa-Trevino, S.

    1985-01-01

    The genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals was evaluated in liver primary cell cultures (LPCC) from untreated and Aroclor 1254 (Ar) pretreated rats. Hepatocytes were isolated from partially hepatectomized rats and their DNA was labeled in vitro with (/sup 3/H) dThd; the molecular weight of single-stranded DNA was determined by alkaline sucrose sedimentation. Two parameters of DNA damage were defined: 1) the mean effective dose (ED50), i.e., the carcinogen concentration that decreased the DNA molecular weight to half the original, and 2) the DNA breaking potency (DBP), i.e., the number of breaks per DNA molecule produced by 2 h exposure to 1mM concentration of the chemical. Two hours exposure of LPCC from untreated rats to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) (6.8-340..mu..M) and to the precarcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (0.05-0.33 mM) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (0.45-16 mM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the molecular weight of DNA. Pretreatment of rats with Ar decreased significantly the sedimentation velocity of DNA and increased five, three, and two times the DBP of MNNG, BaP, and DMN, respectively. These results show that Ar-pretreatment of rats increases the genotoxicity of both direct-acting and precarcinogenic chemicals and suggest that Ar might increase the genotoxicity of chemical carcinogens perhaps by enhancing their metabolic activation, by producing direct genotoxic effects, or both. Our results also emphasize the carcinogenic risk that the environmental pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls might represent to humans.

  5. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  6. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  7. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms...

  8. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  9. PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

  10. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  11. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  12. Development of toxic equivalency factors for PCB congeners and the assessment of TCDD and PCB mixtures in rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsted, John L.; Jones, Paul D.; Giesy, John P.; Crawford, Robert A.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gooch, Jay W.; Denison, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between mammalian and piscine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, based on induction of CYP1A enzyme activity, catalytic protein, and mRNA. Rainbow trout administered a single i.p. injection of TCDD had an average (±SD) ED50 of 0.91 ± 0.14 μg TCDD/kg for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Ortho-substituted PCB congeners 2,3,3′,4,4′-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 2,3,3′4,4′5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB !56), and 2,2′3,4,4′,5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138) did not induce CYP1A activity in rainbow trout. Only three non-ortho-substituted PCBs, i.e., 3,3′4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,3′4,4′5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) induced CYP1A enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA. The ED50s for induction of EROD activity were calculated as 134, 5.82, and 93.7 μg/kg for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. The TCDD-TEFs based on EROD activity were 0.0006, 0.0014, and 0.0003 for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. Binary mixtures of TCDD and three PCBs were also evaluated. Based on EROD activity and CYP1A protein, mixtures of TCDD and PCB 77 were slightly greater than additive. Mixtures of TCDD-PCB 156 and TCDD-PCB 126 were slightly less than additive. Results from these studies indicate that mammal-derived TEFs will underestimate the potency of planar chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures to induce the CYP1A catalytic activity in rainbow trout. Also, while interactions among PCB congeners and TCDD were somewhat equivocal, they did not greatly differ from predicted additive responses.

  13. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) do not uniformly produce agonist actions on thyroid hormone responses in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to interfere with TH action in the developing brain. Thus, it is possible that the observed neurotoxic effects of PCB exposure in experimental animals and humans are mediated in part by their ability to interfere with TH signaling. PCBs may interfere with TH signaling by reducing circulating levels of TH, acting as TH receptor analogs, or both. If PCBs act primarily by reducing serum TH levels, then their effects should mimic those of low TH. In contrast, if PCBs act primarily as TH agonists in the developing brain, then they should mimic the effect of T(4) in hypothyroid animals. We used a two-factor design to test these predictions. Both hypothyroidism (Htx) and/or PCB treatment reduced serum free and total T(4) on postnatal d 15. However, only Htx increased pituitary TSHbeta expression. RC3/neurogranin expression was decreased by Htx and increased by PCB treatment. In contrast, Purkinje cell protein-2 expression was reduced in hypothyroid animals and restored by PCB treatment. Finally, PCB treatment partially ameliorated the effect of Htx on the thickness of the external granule layer of the cerebellum. These studies demonstrate clearly that PCB exposure does not mimic the effect of low TH on several important TH-sensitive measures in the developing brain. However, neither did PCBs mimic T(4) in hypothyroid animals on all end points measured. Thus, PCBs exert a complex action on TH signaling in the developing brain.

  15. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  16. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5−8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  17. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste...

  18. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  19. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lina; Sun, Liyun; Lu, Liqin; Qin, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24711995

  20. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods:...

  1. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB...

  2. AN IP3 RECEPTOR-SENSITIVE CALCIUM STORE MEDIATES DISTURBANCES IN INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM UPON EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED PCBS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An IP3 Receptor-Sensitive Ca2+ Store Mediates Disturbances In Intracellular Ca2+ Upon Exposure To Aroclor 1254 And Ortho-Substituted PCBs JR Inglefield, WR Mundy, and TJ Shafer. Neurotoxicol. Div., NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: L Birnbaum

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  3. Organochlorine and PCB residues in Lake Erie mink populations

    SciTech Connect

    Proulx, G.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Elliott, J.E.; Teeple, S.; Anghern, P.A.M.; Mineau, P.

    1987-12-01

    PCB poisoning has been found in mink (Mustela vison) fed on Great Lakes fish but is poorly know for wild mink populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether mink from the Lake Erie basin were accumulating levels of PCB and organochlorine residues high enough to cause health effects

  4. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  5. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  6. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  7. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  9. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  10. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  11. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  12. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  13. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., <50 ppm PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the...

  14. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in...

  15. Predicting and controlling downwind concentrations of PCB from surface impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Angiola, A.J.; Soden, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over 227,000 kv of PCB were discharged into the Hudson River from two capacitor manufacturing plants at Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Much of the discharged PCB was absorbed by the bottom sediments of the river and accumulated behind the Fort Edward Dam. A large amount of the contaminated sediments migrated dowstream when the dam was removed. An effort has been made to dredge PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River and to deposit those sediments in a secure containment site. Part of this project was an air quality impact analysis which addressed the effect of PCB volatilization from the proposed containment site on ambient 24-hour concentrations of PCB downwind of the site. An estimate of the volatilization rate was made and a dispersion modeling analysis was performed in order to calculate the potential impact on residences. 4 references, 1 table.

  16. Aroclor 1254 pretreatment effects on DNA repair in rat hepatocytes elicited by in vivo or in vitro exposure to various chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.; Dietz, D.

    1985-01-01

    Inducers of liver mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities have profound effects on the genotoxicity of substances that undergo metabolic activation by the MFO system. The polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 is a broad-spectrum inducer of liver MFO activities that has been employed as a pretreatment to augment the metabolic activation capabilities of rat liver fractions used in a number of short-term tests for genotoxicity, including the Ames Salmonella/bacterial mutagenicity assay. The present study was designed to characterize the effects of Aroclor pretreatment of rats on the DNA repair responses elicited by various chemicals in the in vitro hepatocyte primary culture/DNA repair (HPC/DR) assay as well as the in vivo/in vitro HPC/DR assay. The amount of DNA repair produced in vitro by diethylnitrosamine (DEN), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P0, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), o-aminoazotoluene (o-AT), and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was significantly greater in hepatocytes derived from Aroclor-pretreated rats than in control rat hepatocytes. The pretreatment-related potentiation of DNA repair observed for 6 out of 12 compounds tested in vitro was considered to be due to enhanced metabolic activation. These results suggested that pretreatment with Aroclor may increase the sensitivity of the in vitro HPC/DR assay to certain compounds. In contrast, Aroclor pretreatment had little effect on the amount of hepatocellular DNA repair elicited by in vivo administration of DMN, DEN, o-AT, 2-AFF, 3-MC, or AFB1, which indicated that this pretreatment regimen may have little utility for improving the sensitivity of the in vivo/in vitro HPC/DR assay.

  17. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  18. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    PubMed Central

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified PCB sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4’-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7 derived cells at 100 μM – 1 pM concentrations. Only 4’-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4’-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100 fold different concentrations, i.e. 1 μM and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2’PCB 3, 4’PCB 3, 4PCB 39, 4PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3’PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4’PCB 3 sulfate (para-para’ substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3’PCB 3, 4PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4’HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2’PCB 3 and 3’PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen at

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  20. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's).

  1. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  2. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  3. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... assume that transformers with transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume... be PCB-Contaminated. (3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2,...

  4. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assume that transformers with transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume... be PCB-Contaminated. (3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2,...

  5. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assume that transformers with transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume... be PCB-Contaminated. (3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2,...

  6. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assume that transformers with transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume... be PCB-Contaminated. (3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2,...

  7. ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

  8. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  9. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  10. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  11. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  12. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mitigate migration to the environment of PCBs or PCB remediation waste. (a) Self-implementing on-site... people or animal life in or at that area could reasonably be expected to increase, resulting in a...

  13. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  14. PCB dechlorination enhancement in Anacostia River sediment microcosms.

    PubMed

    Krumins, Valdis; Park, Joong-Wook; Son, Eun-Kyeu; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E

    2009-10-01

    In situ treatment of PCB contaminated sediments via microbial dechlorination is a promising alternative to dredging, which may be reserved for only the most contaminated areas. Reductive dechlorination of low levels of weathered PCB mixtures typical of urban environments may occur at slow rates. Here, we report that biostimulation and bioaugmentation enhanced dechlorination of low concentration (2.1 mg PCBs/kg dry weight) historical PCBs in microcosms prepared with Anacostia River, Washington, DC, sediment. Treatments included electron donors butyrate, lactate, propionate and acetate (1 mM each); alternate halogenated electron acceptors (haloprimers) tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB, 25 microM), pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB, 25 microM), or 2,3,4,5,6-PCB (PCB116, 2.0 microM); and/or bioaugmentation with a culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195 (3 x 10(6)cells/mL). Dechlorination rates were enhanced in microcosms receiving bioaugmentation, PCNB and PCNB plus bioaugmentation, compared to other treatments. Microcosm subcultures generated after 415 days and spiked with PCB116 showed sustained capacity for dechlorination of PCB116 in PCNB, PCNB plus bioaugmentation, and TeCB treatments, relative to other treatments. Analysis of Chloroflexi 16S rRNA genes showed that TeCB and PCNB increased native Dehalococcoides spp. from the Pinellas subgroup; however this increase was correlated to enhanced dechlorination of low concentration weathered PCBs only in PCNB-amended microcosms. D. ethenogenes strain 195 was detected only in bioaugmented microcosms and decreased over 281 days. Bioaugmentation with D. ethenogenes strain 195 increased PCB dechlorination rates initially, but enhanced capacity for dechlorination of a model congener, PCB116, after 415 days occurred only in microcosms with enhanced native Dehalococcoides spp.

  15. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  16. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    PubMed

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  17. Laser direct imaging of the printed electrical circuits on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozioł, G.; Borecki, J.

    2005-09-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Imaging of HDI boards poses a rapid increasing challenge on PCB manufactures due to line width and space getting smaller and mainly to tighter registration requirements. Existing technologies are unable to offer the acceptable solution. Nowadays the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging circuitry pattern directly on the PCB without the use of a phototool. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates the UV line, which is suitable for the commonly available photoresists. In this paper we present an introduction to LDI technology as well as an experiment consisted in an attempt to use a UV Nd:YAG laser (λ=355 nm) for direct imaging of conductive pattern on the PCB covered by photosensitive resist.

  18. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  19. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  20. Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S A; Yang, B Z; Fitzgerald, E F; Bush, B; Cook, K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec. The similarity is defined by the weighted Euclidean distance between two congener patterns. Ninety-seven Mohawk mothers participated and provided samples of breast milk. One hundred fifty-four nursing women from the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) of Warren and Schoharie counties, New York, who gave birth during the same time period, were used as the comparison group. Results revealed that the breast milk of the Mohawk women, who ate the most local fish, had a congener pattern that more closely resembled that of perch caught near the waste site or average sampled fish caught in the Reserve than Mohawk women who ate less fish or the controls. The outcome demonstrates how PCBs may be "fingerprinted" as they migrate offsite from industrial sources and ultimately result in human exposure.

  1. The greening of PCB analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

  2. Magnetic markers detection using PCB fluxgate array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janosek, M.; Ripka, P.; Platil, A.

    2009-04-01

    We used an array of race-track fluxgate sensors, manufactured with printed circuit board (PCB) technology, forming a sensor head for detection of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic markers. The sensors were arranged perpendicularly to the measuring plane and we measured the difference of their output, giving us the horizontal gradient of normal component of the measured field. Due to the close match of the sensor's parameters, subtraction of the fluxgate output signals could be done directly at the input of a lock-in amplifier, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio for small gradients. When moving the sensor head, we were able to map field gradients smaller than 6 nT/mm, which was verified while measuring the magnetic markers on a dollar bill, while suppressing the background field by a factor of 5. In a line-scanning mode, we scanned a marker formed by a 0.2 mm diameter Permalloy wire in a distance of up to 10 mm. With the help of perpendicular ac excitation at 30 Hz, we were able to detect a 0.1 ml Endorem iron-oxide superparamagnetic marker at 2 mm; volume of 0.6 ml was detectable at 10 mm.

  3. Mechanochemical remediation of PCB contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haizhu; Hwang, Jisu; Huang, Jun; Xu, Ying; Yu, Gang; Li, Wenchao; Zhang, Kunlun; Liu, Kai; Cao, Zhiguo; Ma, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Quhui

    2017-02-01

    Soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a ubiquitous problem in the world, which can cause significant risks to human health and the environment. Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) has been recognized as a promising technology for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other organic molecules in both solid waste and contaminated soil. However, few studies have been published about the application of MCD technology for the remediation of PCB contaminated soil. In the present study, the feasibility of destroying PCBs in contaminated soil by co-grinding with and without additives in a planetary ball mill was investigated. After 4 h milling time, more than 96% of PCBs in contaminated soil samples were destroyed. The residual concentrations of PCBs decreased from 1000 mg/kg to below the provisional Basel Convention limit of less than 50 mg/kg. PCDD/F present in the original soil at levels of 4200 ng TEQ/kg was also destroyed with even a slightly higher destruction efficiency. Only minor dechlorinations of the PCBs were observed and the destruction of the hydrocarbon skeleton is proposed as the main degradation pathway of PCBs.

  4. Aroclor 1254 treatment and fasting influences on rat liver mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthesis with ADP and ATP.

    PubMed

    Ebner, K; Couri, D

    1988-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture, Aroclor 1254 (ARO), -induced wasting in male rats is associated with increased permeability of hepatic mitochondria. This was correlated with hyperuremia and stimulated urea synthesis, hypoglycemia and suppressed glucogenesis after an ammonium acetate injection, and decreased retention of assimilated nitrogen and food intake. For ARO-toxic rats (100 mg/kg, ip, for 1, 2, and 4 days) versus Tween 80-treated, ad libitum-fed controls, mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate (CP) formation (the initial step in urea synthesis from NH4+) was progressively stimulated for the duration of treatment from NH4+ and ATP but not from NH4+ and ADP. ARO maximal stimulation of CP formation also correlated with significant loss in body weight. Mitochondrial ornithine transcarbamoylase synthesis of citrulline from ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate was also stimulated. In comparison to fasted rats (24 hr), mitochondrial CP synthesis from NH4+ was enhanced with ADP but not with ATP. This ARO uncoupling of mitochondrial NH4+ metabolism and stimulation of CP formation with exogenous ATP and citrulline synthesis may have resulted from increased availability of substrates and cofactors in the matrix space, leakage of enzymes from the matrix, or a combination of these effects. These results are consistent with an increased inner membrane permeability and fragility during isolation and assays. In agreement with our previous studies, the data show that ARO exposure poises hepatic mitochondria toward the synthesis of urea intermediates.

  5. Differential effects of long-term exposure to Aroclor 1254 on lipid secretion by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; Lopez, L.

    1992-06-01

    PCBs produce hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation (fatty liver) in experimental animals and humans exposed accidentally and occupationally. It has been suggested that this effect could be due to a block in TG secretion. On the other hand, increased levels of plasmatic TG and cholesterol have been described in rats after dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 (Aro) and other PCBs; hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension have been also described in humans exposed for long periods to low concentrations of PCBs. Since the study of hepatic lipid metabolism and its alteration by toxic chemicals is complicated in the whole animal, short term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes have been used. We have described a system for the long term culture of adult rat hepatocytes which for several weeks maintain differentiated functions, like fatty acid and TG synthesis and their export to the culture medium. In this paper we used this culture system to study the effect of long-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aro on the secretion of lipids by cultured hepatocytes. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kristine L; Schlenk, Daniel

    2011-05-16

    The rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A substrate PCB, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. Sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), a meta-para unsubstituted rodent P450 family 2 substrate PCB, at rates ranging from less than 0.5 to 53 pmol/min/mg protein. The P450 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited hydroxylation of PCB 52, supporting the role of P450 catalysis. Sea turtle PCB 52 hydroxlyation rates strongly correlated with immunodetected P450 family 2-like and less so with P450 family 3-like hepatic proteins. Testosterone 6β-, 16α-, 16β-hydroxylase activities were also significantly correlated with the expression of these enzymes, indicating that P450 family 2 or P450 family 3 proteins are responsible for PCB hydroxylation in sea turtles. This study indicated species-specific PCB biotransformation in sea turtles and preferential elimination of meta-para unsubstituted PCB congeners over ortho-meta unsubstituted PCB congeners consistent with PCB accumulation patterns observed in tissues of sea turtles.

  7. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.

  8. 5th International PCB Workshop--summary and implications.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, L S; Staskal-Wikoff, D S

    2010-11-01

    A summation of new and novel findings presented at "The Fifth PCB Workshop: New Knowledge Gained from Old Pollutants" workshop is provided in this overview, along with discussion of data gaps and research needs in the future. Relative to the previous workshop, the scientific presentations had a decreased emphasis on toxicology; rather, more than half of the sessions dealt with environmental sources, fate and transport, or transformations. Approximately 100 presentations in the form of talks and posters were included in the workshop. The presentations were generally divided into: emissions and transport of PCBs in natural and urban settings; chiral aspects of PCB transport; metabolism and distribution; new aspects of environmental metabolism of PCBs--from microbes to plants to animals; reproduction, developmental and cardiovascular effects of PCBs; updates on Anniston--the most highly exposed PCB community in the U.S. to date; and new and novel approaches for evaluating PCB mixtures (e.g., PCB toxic equivalency factors, and TEFs)--and the implications of such for risk assessment. An overarching state-of-the-science view is important to the goal of preventing negative health consequences. Currently, there are still many roadblocks to evaluating risk associated with this large group of 209 congeners--all of which have different physiochemical properties, variable fate and transport mechanism in the environment, and a range of ability for persistence, bioaccumulation, and biological activity.

  9. Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.˚ge

    2012-12-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 Ångstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

  10. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Kögler, P.; Friedrich, C.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings. The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation. An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition. The experimental results showed PCB removal of 96.8% from the concrete surface and PCB decomposition of 88.8% in the laser decontamination process. Significant PCDD/F formation was thereby avoided. A surface ablation rate of approx. 7.2 m2/h was realized.

  11. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  12. Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

  13. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  14. Differential retention of PCB congeners in cockroaches Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingmei; Gandini, Carlo; Sabuneti, Andrew; Fasola, Mauro; Lambiase, Simonetta; Grigolo, Aldo

    2007-05-01

    Organisms differ widely in their ability to metabolize and eliminate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We evaluated the retention of PCB congeners, reference standard mixture, experimentally injected into cockroach Blattella germanica, in relation to sex and time, and its elimination through the feces, exuviae and oothecae. The nymphs that died prematurely had a higher average PCB retention than those with a longer lifetime, 88% of the injected dose for those that died within 1 to 10 days, and 76% for those within 11-20 days. Diverse PCB congeners showed differential retention, and particularly the more volatile, low weight congeners were recovered in lower concentrations, the medium-weight ones were intermediate, while the high-weight congeners attained the highest concentration. PCBs were also detected in the excrements and in exuviae, which may therefore act as detoxification paths, and in the oothecae, thus showing that PCBs can be transferred from mother to progeny.

  15. Reduced cytotoxicity in PCB-exposed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells pretreated with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Murati, Teuta; Šimić, Branimir; Pleadin, Jelka; Vukmirović, Maja; Miletić, Marina; Durgo, Ksenija; Kniewald, Jasna; Kmetič, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of vitamin E (50 -150 μM) in ovary cells upon cytotoxic effects induced by two structurally distinct PCB congeners - planar "dioxin-like" PCB 77 and non-planar di-ortho-substituted PCB 153 with an emphasis on identifying differences in the mechanism of vitamin E action depending on the structure of congeners. Application of three bioassays confirmed that PCBs decrease ovarian cell proliferation with slightly profound effects of PCB 77. PCB - induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significant for both congeners with also more noticeable effect for PCB 77. Vitamin E pre-incubation has improved viability of cells, reduced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation induced by PCBs' treatment. Preincubation with vitamin E was more effective when cells where treated with non-planar PCB 153. Altogether, vitamin E action was protective, congener specific and more effective when ovary cells were exposed to ortho-substituted PCB congener.

  16. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  17. Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shou Jen; Yen, Yea Yin; Chen, Eng Rin; Ko, Ying Chin ); Lan, Joung Liang )

    1990-02-01

    Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher than in control babies. Because of high risk of infection, it is presumed that these babies might suffer immunosuppression to a certain extent. According to these findings, investigations into the immune functions of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies are needed.

  18. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  19. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 104

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.A.

    1998-03-27

    A sample of solids was obtained from tank 104 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprenel tubing (Phthalate free). The sample obtained in a glass jar with Teflon 2 lid, was analyzed for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used to extract the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). The extraction method closely follows SW-846 method 3540C and the analysis follows SW-846 method.

  1. Polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample for 219S tank 102

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.A.

    1997-12-05

    One waste sample was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Extraction follows closely method 354 C of SW-846, analysis follows SW-846 method 8082. A cross reference of laboratory sample number to the customer identification is given in a table.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 101

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.A.

    1998-02-04

    One waste sample that was obtained with solids from tank 101 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprene tubing (Phthalate free) was obtained in a glass jar with teflon lid was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Results are presented.

  3. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  4. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  5. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  6. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  7. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  8. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  9. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  10. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  11. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  12. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

  14. Characterizing PCB contamination in Painted Demolition Debris: The Painted History at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    as PCB Bulk Product Waste (i.e. no samples; waste disposed in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill). EPA requests paint and substrate samples be...OR PCB remediation waste?  EPA TSCA guidance states painted demolition debris is PCB bulk waste product and may be disposed of in a municipal solid waste  EPA

  15. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation...

  16. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  17. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  18. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, PK; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants with carcinogenic, immune- and developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiate to granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to the PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were down-regulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT were upregulated in granulocytes, TRF2 was up- and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs reduced telomerase activity in undifferentiated cells and further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Long term treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153 the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days exposure. With each PCB no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell type and PCB congener specific effects on telomeres/telomerase-related genes and, although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they could influence the longevity of stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health. PMID:26330309

  19. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  20. Does living near a Superfund site contribute to higher polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure?

    PubMed

    Choi, Anna L; Levy, Jonathan I; Dockery, Douglas W; Ryan, Louise M; Tolbert, Paige E; Altshul, Larisa M; Korrick, Susan A

    2006-07-01

    We assessed determinants of cord serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels among 720 infants born between 1993 and 1998 to mothers living near a PCB-contaminated Superfund site in Massachusetts, measuring the sum of 51 PCB congeners (capital sigmaPCB) and ascertaining maternal address, diet, sociodemographics, and exposure risk factors. Addresses were geocoded to obtain distance to the Superfund site and neighborhood characteristics. We modeled log10(capital sigmaPCB) as a function of potential individual and neighborhood risk factors, mapping model residuals to assess spatial correlates of PCB exposure. Similar analyses were performed for light (mono-tetra) and heavy (penta-deca) PCBs to assess potential differences in exposure pathways as a function of relative volatility. PCB-118 (relatively prevalent in site sediments and cord serum) was assessed separately. The geometric mean of capital sigmaPCB levels was 0.40 (range, 0.068-18.14) ng/g serum. Maternal age and birthplace were the strongest predictors of capital sigmaPCB levels. Maternal consumption of organ meat and local dairy products was associated with higher and smoking and previous lactation with lower capital sigmaPCB levels. Infants born later in the study had lower capital sigmaPCB levels, likely due to temporal declines in exposure and site remediation in 1994-1995. No association was found between capital sigmaPCB levels and residential distance from the Superfund site. Similar results were found with light and heavy PCBs and PCB-118. Previously reported demographic (age) and other (lactation, smoking, diet) correlates of PCB exposure, as well as local factors (consumption of local dairy products and Superfund site dredging) but not residential proximity to the site, were important determinants of cord serum PCB levels in the study community.

  1. Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

  2. PCB congener accumulation by periphyton, herbivores, and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hill, W R; Napolitano, G E

    1997-05-01

    The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in stonerollers and shiners than in periphyton. Normalizing PCB concentrations by lipid mass reduced concentration differences between periphyton and stonerollers, but PCBs per unit lipid in stonerollers were still 50-350% higher than those in periphyton. Shiners had significantly higher lipid-specific PCB concentrations than did stonerollers, so a trophic hierarchy of primary producer < herbivore < omnivore was evident in lipid-specific PCB concentrations. Differences in lipid type, exposure duration, and exposure sources may account for the trophic-level differences in total PCBs. Congener profiles were roughly similar in periphyton, stonerollers, and shiners: five congeners (IUPAC numbers 101, 110, 138, 153, and 180) constituted >60% of the total mass of PCBs analyzed in all three trophic levels. However, stoneroller and shiner tissue was enriched in congeners 153, 118, and 187 relative to periphyton; congeners 153 and 187 are resistant to metabolic breakdown by monooxygenases found in fish liver. Principal component analysis of congener percentages separated periphyton from fish and distinguished between sampling locations.

  3. Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

    1999-04-19

    Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

  4. The Effect of Intrauterine PCB Exposure on Visual Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Measures of prenatal exposure in 123 infants to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cord serum PCB level, and maternal report of contaminated fish consumption predicted less preference for a novel stimulus on Fagan's test of visual recognition memory (VRM) at 7 months. Preference for novelty decreased in a dose-dependent fashion and postnatal…

  5. The Toxicology of PCB's—An Overview for Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Letz, Gideon

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have low acute toxicity but are of public health concern because of their persistence in the environment, the bioaccumulation in human and animal tissues, and their potential for chronic or delayed toxicity. Although many questions remain unanswered, it is clear that occupational exposure, at a minimum, can produce dermatologic effects and liver dysfunction. The long half-life of PCB's and their presence in various human tissues leaves open the possibility of substantial chronic and delayed effects analogous to those seen in animals. PCB's are potent inhibitors of reproductive function in both rodents and nonhuman primates and produce liver tumors in animal cancer bioassays. As potent inducers of hepatic enzyme systems, PCB's may have additional unpredictable long-term health effects. These effects have only recently begun to be studied in a rigorous manner, and although the epidemiological evidence is neither complete nor entirely consistent, there can be no question of the necessity to keep human exposures to the lowest feasible levels. PMID:6223449

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  7. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in...). Report surface sampling results as µg/100 cm2. Divide 100 cm2 by the surface area and multiply...

  8. Sustained expression of CYPs and DNA adduct accumulation with continuous exposure to PCB126 and PCB153 through a new delivery method: Polymeric implants

    PubMed Central

    Aqil, Farrukh; Xin, Xing; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    A new delivery method via polymeric implants was used for continuous exposure to PCBs. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received subcutaneous polymeric implants containing PCB126 (0.15% load), PCB153 (5% load), or both, for up to 45 days and release kinetics and tissue distribution were measured. PCB153 tissue levels on day 15 were readily detected in lung, liver, mammary and serum, with highest levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 was detected only in liver and mammary tissues. However, a completely different pharmacokinetics was observed on co-exposure of PCB153 and PCB126, with a 1.8-fold higher levels of PCB153 in the liver whereas a 1.7-fold lower levels in the mammary tissue. PCB126 and PCB153 caused an increase in expression of key PCB-inducible enzymes, CYP 1A1/2 and 2B1/2, respectively. Serum and liver activities of the antioxidant enzymes, PON1 and PON3, and AhR transcription were also significantly increased by PCB126. 32P-Postlabeling for polar and lipophilic DNA-adducts showed significant quantitative differences: PCB126 increased 8-oxodG, an oxidative DNA lesion, in liver and lung tissues. Adduct levels in the liver remained upregulated up to 45 days, while some lung DNA adducts declined. This is the first demonstration that continuous low-dose exposure to PCBs via implants can produce sustained tissue levels leading to the accumulation of DNA-adducts in target tissue and induction of indicator enzymes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that this exposure model is a promising tool for long-term exposure studies. PMID:25530946

  9. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  10. THYROID HORMONES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SITE-OF-ACTION AND RELEVANCE OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPYOTHYROXINEMIA-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research demonstrated that perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) resulted in both hypothyroxinemia (HPX) and a low-frequency ototoxicity (hearing loss). We hypothesized that the ototoxicity resulted from A1254- induced HPX during the postnatal critical period of c...

  11. CEREBROVASCULAR TOXICITY OF PCB153 IS ENHANCED BY BINDING TO SILICA NANOPARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Chen, Lei; Choi, Jeong June; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are frequently bound onto nanoparticles (NPs). However, the toxicity and health effects of PCBs assembled onto nanoparticles are unknown. The aim of this study was to study the hypothesis that binding PCBs to silica NPs potentiates PCB-induced cerebrovascular toxicity and brain damage in an experimental stroke model. Mice (C57BL/6, males, 12-week-old) were exposed to PCB153 bound to NPs (PCB153-NPs), PCB153, or vehicle. PCB153 was administered in the amount of 5 ng/g body weight. A group of treated animals was subjected to a 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain infarct volume, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, and inflammatory mediators were assessed. As compared to controls, a 24 h exposure to PCB153-NPs injected into cerebral vasculature resulted in significant elevation of the BBB permeability, disruption of TJ protein expression, increased proinflammatory responses, and enhanced monocyte transmigration in mouse brain capillaries. Importantly, exposure to PCB153-NPs increased stroke volume and potentiated brain damage in mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. A long-term (30 days) oral exposure to PCB153-NPs resulted in a higher PCB153 content in the abdominal adipose tissue and amplified adhesion of leukocytes to the brain endothelium as compared to treatment with PCB153 alone. This study provides the first evidence that binding to NPs increases cerebrovascular toxicity of environmental toxicants, such as PCB153. PMID:23081707

  12. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  13. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. For sedimenttreated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 microm size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 microm size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility.

  15. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  16. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  17. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  18. PCB UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) EXPOSED VIA A CONTAMINATED ALGAL DIET. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g algal paste containing 0, 0.1, and 1.0 small mu, Greekg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (1:1:1 mixture of Aroclor 1242, 1...

  19. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    PubMed

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Stefania; Secondo, Agnese; Del Viscovo, Adelaide; Procaccini, Claudio; Formisano, Luigi; Franco, Cristina; Esposito, Alba; Scorziello, Antonella; Matarese, Giuseppe; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254) in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml) reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase), measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  1. Alterations in geometry, biomechanics, and mineral composition of juvenile rat femur induced by nonplanar PCB-155 and/or planar PCB-169.

    PubMed

    Brankovič, Jana; Jovanovski, Sašo; Jevnikar, Peter; Hofmeister, Alexander; Reininger-Gutmann, Birgit; Jan, Janja; Grošelj, Maja; Osredkar, Joško; Uršič, Matjaž; Fazarinc, Gregor; Pogačnik, Azra; Vrecl, Milka

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to widespread lipophilic and bioaccumulative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces diverse biochemical and toxicological responses in various organs, including the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in growth rate, geometry, serum, and bone biochemical parameters and biomechanics of juvenile rat femur induced by lactational exposure to nonplanar PCB-155 and planar PCB-169 individually and in combination. Fifteen lactating Wistar rats were divided into four groups (PCB-169, PCB-155, PCB-155+169, and control), and PCBs were administered intraperitoneally at different time points after delivery. Femurs from 22-day-old offspring were analyzed by microCT, three-point bending test and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to obtain data on bone geometry, biomechanics and mineral composition. The serum levels of calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. Lactational exposure to planar PCB-169 resulted in shorter and thinner femurs, reduced endosteal and periosteal perimeters, smaller total cross-sectional and medullary areas, and lowered serum bone marker levels and calcium levels in the bone, while femur mechanical properties were not significantly altered. The changes observed in the combination exposure (PCB-155+169) group were similar to those observed in the PCB-169 group but were less pronounced. In summary, our results demonstrate that alterations in lactationally exposed offspring were primarily induced by planar PCB-169. The milder outcome in the combined group suggested that the PCB-169-mediated toxic effects on the bone might be reduced by a nonplanar PCB-155 congener. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1135-1146, 2017.

  2. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  3. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  4. PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. )

    1994-10-01

    Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  6. [Occurrence and health aspects of PCB congeners in freshwater fish].

    PubMed

    Kruse, R

    1990-07-01

    6 PCB-Congeners, being ruled by the regulatory limits from 23. 3. 1988, are considered to be representative under analytical aspects. The additional consideration of the two further congeners 77 and 118 is recommended under toxicological aspects. A widespread survey is given over the pollution status of marine fish, freshwater fish, and belonging to products. In the years between 1986 to 1988 2229 specimens were analysed for their contents of 8 PCB-Congeners and 6 important chlorinated hydrocarbons. Contents in marine fish were at least 10 times, mostly 100 times lower than regulatory limits. In this area contamination is more influenced by species than by catching grounds. Regulatory limits can however be exceeded in freshwater fish from severely polluted main rivers, where contents are more influenced by catching grounds than by species.

  7. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Audiogenic Seizures in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Bandara, Suren B.; Allen, Jont B.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes auditory deficits. Thus, we recently conducted a study to investigate if developmental PCB exposure would exacerbate noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood. Unexpectedly, some PCB-exposed rats exhibited seizure-like behaviors when exposed to loud noise. Therefore, we conducted the current experiment to determine if adult rats perinatally exposed to PCBs are more susceptible to audiogenic seizures when tested in a standard audiogenic seizure paradigm. Adult male and female rats exposed to PCBs during gestation and lactation (0, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) and previously tested in the noise-induced hearing loss study were presented with a 100dB noise stimulus. If they did not exhibit clonus in response to the 100dB noise, they were exposed to a 105dB stimulus 24-48 hours later. This was followed by an 110dB stimulus 24-48 hours later if they did not exhibit clonus at 105 dB. Female and male rats exposed to either 3 or 6 mg/kg PCBs exhibited a significantly higher incidence of audiogenic seizures, shorter latency to onset of seizures, and greater severity of seizures compared to controls. Thyroxine measured in littermates at weaning was significantly lower in all PCB groups compared to controls, suggesting a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of audiogenic seizures. This is the first study to show that developmental PCB exposure increases the susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in adulthood. PMID:25543072

  8. Integrated Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Active Cooling With Piezoelectric Actuator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    or nichrome (NiCr) resistors which are fabricated on the surface of a PCB substrate. The heater coil has an area of 0.25 centimeters squared and a...control the heater, a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal (generated by the DAQ board) controls a constant current source to a transistor between the...Cycle Heater Voltage Heater Lowpass Filter Current Source 9 There are three RTDs embedded in the unit under test. To make a measurement, constant

  9. Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional profile of an individual can influence the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), prevalent environmental pollutants, are highly lipid soluble toxic compounds that biomagnify through trophic levels and pose cancer, neuro-cognitive, and atherosclerotic risk to human populations. There is a growing body of knowledge that PCBs can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, and this inflammation can be either exacerbated or ameliorated by nutrition. Data indicate that diets high in certain dietary lipids such as omega-6 fatty acids can worsen PCB-induced vascular toxicity while diets enriched with bioactive food components such as polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve the toxicant-induced inflammation. There is evidence that bioactive nutrients protect through multiple cell signaling pathways, but we have shown that lipid raft caveolae and the antioxidant defense controller Nrf2 both play a predominant role in nutritional modulation of PCB-induced vascular toxicity. Interestingly, there appears to be intimate cross-talk between caveolae-related proteins and cellular Nrf2, and focusing on the use of specific bioactive food components that simultaneously alter both pathways may produce a more effective and efficient cytoprotective response to toxicant exposure. The use of nutrition as a protective tool is an economically beneficial means to address the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants and may become a sensible means to protect human populations from PCB-induced vascular inflammation and associated chronic diseases. PMID:23417440

  10. Liberation characteristic and physical separation of printed circuit board (PCB).

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Fu, Jiangang; Yi, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Recycling of printed circuit board (PCB) is an important subject and to which increasing attention is paid, both in treatment of waste as well as recovery of valuable material terms. Precede physical and mechanical method, a good liberation is the premise to further separation. In this study, two-step crushing process is employed, and standard sieve is applied to screen crushed material to different size fractions, moreover, the liberation situation and particles shape in different size are observed. Then metal of the PCB is separated by physical methods, including pneumatic separation, electrostatic separation and magnetic separation, and major metal contents are characterized by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Results show that the metal and nonmetal particles of PCB are dissociated completely under the crush size 0.6mm; metal is mainly enriched in the four size fractions between 0.15 and 1.25 mm; relatively, pneumatic separation is suitable for 0.6-0.9 mm size fraction, while the electrostatic separation is suitable for three size fractions that are 0.15-0.3mm, 0.3-0.6mm and 0.9-1.25 mm. The whole process that involves crushing, electrostatic and magnetic separation has formed a closed cycle that can return material and provide salable product.

  11. High accumulation of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners in marine mammals from Brazil: a serious PCB problem.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Sanz, Paloma; Eppe, Gauthier; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Martínez, María A; Secchi, Eduardo R; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta; Alonso, Mariana B; Torres, João P M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Das, Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, Guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (DRCs). Samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (Southeast and Southern Brazilian regions). Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 83% of the total TEQ for all cetaceans. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs, for franciscanas (82%), and mono-ortho PCBs (up to 80%), for delphinids, constituted the groups of highest contribution to total TEQ. Regarding franciscana dolphins, significant negative correlations were found between total length (TL) and three variables, ΣTEQ-DRCs, ΣTEQ-PCDF and ΣTEQ non-ortho PCB. An increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal may be a plausible explanation for these findings. This hypothesis is reinforced by the significant negative correlation found between TL and PCB126/PCB169 concentration ratio. DRC concentrations (ng/g lipids) varied from 36 to 3006, for franciscana dolphins, as well as from 356 to 30,776, for delphinids. The sum of dioxin-like and indicator PCBs varied from 34,662 to 279,407 ng/g lipids, for Guiana dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state, which are among the highest PCB concentrations ever reported for cetaceans. The high concentrations found in our study raise concern not only on the conservation of Brazilian coastal cetaceans, but also on the possibility of human health problem due to consumption of fish from Brazilian estuaries.

  12. Chromate Film Used for Chemical Corrosion Control on Gold-Plated PCB connectors,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    PCB CONNECTORS I E.G. SAFRN, 1.S. MURDAY Naval Research Laboratory, Washington. DC 203 75, USA Sand i J.D. GUTTENPLAN, L.N. HASHIMOTO Q Autonetics...tarnish, It ,.0 bi;-. -7 E. G. Shafrin et al/ Chemical corrosion control 457 corrosion products and organic contaminants accumulating at the male ( PCB )/fe...sputter profile of the insulating film which developed during field application of the chromating process to used, male PCB connectors. 464 E. G

  13. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  14. Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hegde, R.S.; Donnelly, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    Flavonoid and coumarin compounds produced by plants supported the growth of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria, and the bacteria retained their PCB-degrading properties. Root leachates and washings from mulberry trees also supported the growth of a PCB-degrading bacterium. These results indicate that chemicals released by some plant roots may serve as cometabolites for PCB-degrading bacteria. Identification of the right plant species and development of appropriate cultivation practices promises to lead to an ecologically sound means to achieve sustained in situ degradation of PCBs at contaminated terrestrial sites.

  15. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  16. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants.

  17. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.

  18. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  19. EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  1. Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  3. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  4. Contamination of silos in Switzerland by PCB residues in coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Alencastro, L.F.; Prelaz, V.; Tarradellas, J.

    1984-09-01

    From the end of 1982 to the beginning of 1983 some Swiss Cantonal Laboratories for Food Control have detected high levels of PCBs in the milk output from several dairy farms at Laufental, in the northwest of Switzerland. These investigations showed that the silo coatings and consequently the silage from these silos were at the origin of the milk contamination. Four farms which produced the most polluted milk were investigated, specifically to determine PCB migration from coating material into the concrete walls and silage. This paper presents the results of this investigation.

  5. Remediation Versus Prevention of PCB Contamination: A Comparison Based on Risk and Cost Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    REFERENCES 74 . By OD,t it: t, ’ IOist 1 A-11i LIST OF FIGURES (Figures in Appendices not included) Figure 1. Human Risk Comparison (Base vs. Background Risk...Costs (Uncertainty Case 5) Figure 11. Human Risk Comparison (Risk Range) Figure 12. Cost Range with Base Risk ii * LIST OF TABLES (Tables in appendices...Study of Newly Hatched Fathead Minnows (Aroclor 1248) Table 6. FDA Regulations for PCBs Table 7. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements

  6. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    characterization of samples of whole sediment included analyses of grain size, TOC, and nutrients. Organic chemical characterization of samples of whole sediment included PCB homologs and select (13) PCB congeners, parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; and dibenzofurans. The PCB aroclors analyzed included 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 and 1268. Analyses of whole sediment also included total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, and acid volatile sulfide. Chemical characterization of samples of pore water isolated from samples of whole sediment at the start of the sediment toxicity exposures or at the start of the sediment bioaccumulation exposures included metals, major cations, major anions, dissolved organic carbon, and additional water-quality characteristics. Concentrations of metals or PCBs in pore water during the sediment toxicity exposures or during sediment bioaccumulation exposures also were determined using peeper samples (for metals) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplers (for PCBs). The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of PCBs in 14 sediment samples were investigated using SPME passive samplers and the 28-d L. variegatus whole-sediment bioaccumulation exposures In general the accumulation of PCBs consistently was predicted through the use of organic carbon normalization and equilibrium partitioning. In these sediments, PCB homologs were accumulated differently based on bioavailability and potential to accumulate in oligochaetes. As part of this assessment homolog specific biota sediment accumulation factor values were developed that could be applied across the larger site to predict tissue levels of PCBs. The whole-sediment toxicity tests done with H. azteca and C. dilutus met the established ASTM and USEPA test acceptability criteria. The most responsive H. azteca endpoints were day 42 survival normalized young per female and day 28 biomass and

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  8. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  9. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to simulate leachate generation. (2) Any person may dispose of PCB bulk product waste other than... presumed to leach waste regulated... waste is known or presumed to leach ≥10 µg/L PCBs. (5) Any person disposing of PCB bulk product...

  10. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  11. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  12. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  13. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  14. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  15. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  16. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  17. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  18. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  19. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  20. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  1. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  2. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  3. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  4. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  5. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  6. Enrichment of marine sediment colloids with polychlorinated biphenyls: Trends resulting from PCB solubility and chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M. |; McKinney, R.A.; Brown, W.A.

    1996-08-01

    In this study, the three phase distributions (i.e., dissolved, colloidal, and particulate) of approximately 75 PCB congeners were measured in a marine sediment core from New Bedford Harbor, M.A. These distributions are the first report of colloid-PCB interactions in an environmentally contaminated sediment. Colloids <1.2 {mu}m in size were isolated from interstitial waters using reverse-phase chromatography with size-selected C{sub 18}. Regardless of solubility or chlorination, the majority of PCBs were associated with the particulate phase. PCBs were distributed in filtered interstitial waters between colloidal and dissolved phases as a function of solubility and degree of chlorination. Interstitial dissolved PCB concentrations generally agreed with literature-reported solubilities. The magnitude of colloid-PCB interactions increased with decreasing PCB solubility and increasing PCB chlorination. Di- and trichlorinated PCBs were approximately 40% and 65% colloidally bound, respectively, while tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octachlorinated PCBs were about 80% colloidally bound. As core depth increased, the magnitude of PCB-colloid interactions also increased. The relationships of organic carbon-normalized colloidal partitioning coefficient(K{sub coc}) to K{sub ow} for several PCB congeners were not linear and suggest that interstitial waters were not equilibrated. 62 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. TLR4 Signaling Is Involved in Brain Vascular Toxicity of PCB153 Bound to Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Daunert, Sylvia; Toborek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. As compared to exposure to PCB153 alone, treatment with PCB153-NP potentiated the brain infarct volume in control mice. Importantly, this effect was attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice. Similarly, PCB153-NP-induced proinflammatory responses and disruption of tight junction integrity were less pronounced in TLR4-deficient mice as compared to control animals. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that TLR4 mediates toxicity of PCB153-NP via recruitment of tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The results of current study indicate that binding to seemingly inert nanoparticles increase cerebrovascular toxicity of PCBs and suggest that targeting the TLR4/TRAF6 signaling may protect against these effects. PMID:23690990

  8. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments on...

  9. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  10. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  11. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  12. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  13. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  14. Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  16. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section at a waste management facility not... under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product...

  17. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... bulk product waste regulated under paragraph (b)(1) of this section at a waste management facility not... under paragraph (b)(2) of this section at a waste management facility not having a commercial PCB... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product...

  18. Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open buring of biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies ...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PCB DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, HYBRIZYME DELFIA TM ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DELFIA PCB Assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and europium-labeled PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. In this assay, the antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip...

  20. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... hazardous only because they fail the test for the Toxicity Characteristic (Hazardous Waste Codes...

  1. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent and bioaccumulative. In this study we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77 and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal and redox cycling (i.e. sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after two weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms, and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  2. Characterizing PCB Contamination in Painted Concrete and Substrates: The Painted History at Army Industrial Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    considered to be PCB Remediation Waste, halting demolition and be disposal on in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill.  May 2010 –EPA site visit to...product and may be disposed of in a municipal solid waste  EPA region 7 claims PCB remediation waste as PCB’s from the paint may have migrated into

  3. The role of DDE, PCB, coplanar PCB and eggshell parameters for reproduction in the white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helander, Björn; Olsson, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor; Litzén, Kerstin

    2002-08-01

    The reproduction of white-tailed sea eagles was monitored in 1964-1999 in 3 differently contaminated sub-populations: Baltic Sea coast (Bp), inland central Sweden (Ip) and Lapland (Lp). 249 dead eggs from 205 clutches were obtained for analyses of DDE and PCBs and for eggshell measurements. A desiccation index (Di) value was calculated for each egg as a measure of water loss through the shell. In the highly contaminated Bp, p,p'-DDE concentrations in the eggs decreased continuously and 5-fold during the study period and PCB concentrations decreased 3-fold from the mid 1980s. The PCB pattern changed slightly over time towards more high-chlorinated congeners but the relative toxicity of the PCB mixture, expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ), remained constant and TEQ can be assumed to have decreased in a similar way as PCB over time. Productivity (P), shell thickness (St), shell index (Si) and Di increased over time in the Bp but no change in Di or productivity occurred in the Lp, where residue concentrations were 5-8 times lower. P of the Bp was not correlated to St or Si but was negatively correlated to Di, DDE and PCB. An S-shaped dose-response relationship was indicated between P and DDE. After 1988, when the PCB/DDE ratio was considerably higher than previously, PCB but not DDE concentrations were significantly higher in eggs with dead embryos as compared to undeveloped eggs, implying lethal concentrations of PCB, and a LOEL of 320 pg g-1 TEQ is suggested for embryo mortality. In a subset of 21 eggs, representing productive and unproductive females, analyzed for a selection of coplanar PCB congeners, tris(4-chlorophenyl) methanol and bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulphone, there was no evidence for a correlation between P and any of these compounds. A reduction in residue concentrations in old females did not lead to increased P or improved Di-values, indicating a remaining effect from a previous, higher exposure to contaminants. The inability

  4. The Influence of Atmospheric Transport Regimes on Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentrations Measured at Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubl, S.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of exclusively anthropogenic origin. PCBs are toxic, bioaccumulative and have a great potential of long-range transport. PCBs have been banned globally under the Stockholm convention on POPs since 2004. We analysed times series of 21 PCB congeners ranging from PCB 18 to PCB 187 that have been measured at Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) since 1993. Although primary PCB emissions have been steadily reduced, a strong decreasing trend is not observed in the PCB concentrations in the Arctic. In order to investigate the influence of atmospheric transport on the PCB concentrations and to identify the potential source regions of the PCBs, we calculated footprints for the Zeppelin measurement site using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. Footprints can be interpreted as potential source regions where PCBs may have been picked up. Based on various statistical analyses of the footprints (cluster analysis, k-medoid, silhouette), we identified the prevailing transport regimes for Zeppelin which were represented by 5 different clusters. Cluster 1 and 3 belong to transport regimes with highest residence times over Europe (cluster 1) and North-America (cluster 3); both transport regimes dominantly occur from late fall to early spring. Clusters 2 and 4 represent air masses with surface contact predominantly over the Atlantic Ocean (cluster 2), only occurring during the summer months, and the Arctic Ocean (cluster 4) mainly observed in spring and autumn, but also in summer. Cluster 5 is representative of air originating from the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia; this transport regime occurs mainly in spring and fall. We grouped the PCB concentrations measured at Zeppelin according to the 5 different clusters and calculated the median for each cluster and PCB congener. The median for medium to heavier PCBs is highest for cluster 1 and 3, which represent transport regimes over the continent, suggesting that

  5. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  6. Influence of trophic status on PCB distribution in lake sediments and biota.

    PubMed

    Berglund, O; Larsson, P; Ewald, G; Okla, L

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between trophic status and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution in 19 Swedish lakes. We analyzed PCB in water, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and sediment during two sampling periods, in spring and summer. The mass of sigma PCB in the lake sediments was positively related to lake trophy, i.e. more PCBs were accumulated and buried in the sediment of eutrophic lakes than in oligotrophic lakes. In the oligotrophic lakes a greater fraction of the total PCB load was dissolved in water. We conclude that this is a result of higher sedimentation rates in eutrophic lakes and relatively lower turnover of organic carbon in the water column of the shallow, eutrophic lakes. In the stratified lakes, the amount of PCB per cubic meter in the epilimnion decreased from spring to summer. We suggest that sedimentation of plankton beneath the thermocline during stratification act as a sink process of PCBs from the epilimnion.

  7. Bacterial strains isolated from PCB-contaminated sediments and their use for bioaugmentation strategy in microcosms.

    PubMed

    Dudášová, Hana; Lukáčová, Lucia; Murínová, Slavomíra; Puškárová, Andrea; Pangallo, Domenico; Dercová, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of 15 bacterial strains isolated from long-term PCB-contaminated sediment located at the Strážsky canal in eastern part of Slovakia, in the surroundings of a former PCB producer. PCB-degrading strains were isolated and identified as Microbacterium oleivorans, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevibacterium sp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mandelii, Rhodococcus sp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Stenotrophomonas sp., Ochrobactrum sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Starkeya novella by the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. This study presents a newly isolated bacterial strain S. novella with PCB-degrading ability in liquid medium as well as in sediment. For A. xylosoxidans, the bphA gene was identified. The best growth ability in the presence of all sole carbon sources (biphenyl and PCBs vapor) was obtained for Ochrobactrum sp. and Rhodococcus sp. Uncultured Achromobacter sp. showed the highest potential for bioaugmentation of PCB-contaminated sediment.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  9. Ultrasonic recovery of copper and iron through the simultaneous utilization of Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) spent acid etching solution and PCB waste sludge.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyuan; Xie, Fengchun; Ma, Yang

    2011-01-15

    A method was developed to recover the copper and iron from Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing generated spent acid etching solution and waste sludge with ultrasonic energy at laboratory scale. It demonstrated that copper-containing PCB spent etching solution could be utilized as a leaching solution to leach copper from copper contained PCB waste sludge. It also indicated that lime could be used as an alkaline precipitating agent in this method to precipitate iron from the mixture of acidic PCB spent etching solution and waste sludge. This method provided an effective technique for the recovery of copper and iron through simultaneous use of PCB spent acid solution and waste sludge. The leaching rates of copper and iron enhanced with ultrasound energy were reached at 93.76% and 2.07% respectively and effectively separated copper from iron. Followed by applying lime to precipitate copper from the mixture of leachate and rinsing water produced by the copper and iron separation, about 99.99% and 1.29% of soluble copper and calcium were settled as the solids respectively. Furthermore the settled copper could be made as commercial rate copper. The process performance parameters studied were pH, ultrasonic power, and temperature. This method provided a simple and reliable technique to recover copper and iron from waste streams generated by PCB manufacturing, and would significantly reduce the cost of chemicals used in the recovery.

  10. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P<0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  12. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  13. Dietary Manganese Modulates PCB126 Toxicity, Metal Status, and MnSOD in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingxuan; Klaren, William D.; Wels, Brian R.; Simmons, Donald L.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Wang, Kai; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    PCB126 (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist and induces oxidative stress. Because liver manganese (Mn) levels decrease in response to PCB126, a Mn dietary study was designed to investigate the role of Mn in PCB126 toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats received diets containing 0, 10, or 150 ppm added Mn for 3 weeks, followed by a single ip injection of corn oil or PCB126 (5 µmol/kg body weight). After 2 weeks, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in the heart, liver, and liver mitochondria, and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and metallothionein mRNA, MnSOD protein, and MnSOD activity were determined. Mn levels in liver, heart, and liver mitochondria were strongly decreased by the Mn-deficient diet. Small effects on Fe levels and a stepwise increase in MnSOD activity with dietary Mn were also visible. PCB126 caused profound changes in Cu (up), Zn, Fe, and Mn (down) in liver, but not in heart, and differing effects (Cu, Zn, and Fe up, Mn down) in liver mitochondria. Liver MnSOD and metallothionein mRNA levels and MnSOD protein were increased but MnSOD activity was decreased by PCB126. PCB126-induced liver enlargement was dose-dependently reduced with increasing dietary Mn. These changes in metals homeostasis and MnSOD activity in liver but not heart may be a/the mechanism of PCB126 liver-specific toxicity. Specifically, transport of Fenton metals (Cu, Fe) into and Mn out of the mitochondria, a probable mechanism for lower MnSOD activity, may be a/the cause of PCB126-induced oxidative stress. The role of metallothioneins needs further evaluation. Dietary Mn slightly alleviated PCB126-induced toxicities. PMID:26660635

  14. A new player in environmentally induced oxidative stress: polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yueming; Mapuskar, Kranti A; Marek, Rachel F; Xu, Wenjin; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Spitz, Douglas R; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2013-11-01

    Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O₂•⁻), as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol-conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells.

  15. A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3′-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11)

    PubMed Central

    Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O2 •−, as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol–conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:23997111

  16. Annotated bibliography of selected references on PCB and the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site, Michigan, 1982-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simard, Andreanne

    2003-01-01

    Fifty six publications pertaining to the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site Publications stored in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Environmental Response Division site files are summarized. Publications are presented chronologically within four categories: PCB releases, PCB remediation, PCB safety, and PCB testing and cleanup. The text consists of bibliographical information and brief summaries of various published documents pertaining to PCB contamination of the Kalamazoo River. Numerous investigators such as the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Pacific, and various contractors have demonstrated that multiple and at times continuous releases and re-releases of PCBs have occurred as a result of operations at papermill facilities owned and operated by the 'Potential Responsible Parties'.

  17. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  18. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Wilson, Lloyd R; Hwang, Syni-An A; Narang, Rajinder S; Gomez, Marta I; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2008-04-01

    Outdoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities of Hudson Falls and Fort Edward contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in the study municipalities were significantly higher than in the comparison municipality of Glens Falls. Total PCB concentrations in the study area ranged from 0.102 to 4.011 ng/m(3) (median: 0.711 ng/m(3)). For the comparison area, concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.366 ng/m(3) (median: 0.431 ng/m(3)). Although our sampling was not designed to identify point sources, the presence of PCB-contaminated sites in the study area likely contributed to this observed difference in concentration. While elevated relative to the comparison area, total PCB concentrations in the study area are lower than those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites, and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States.

  19. An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F.; McClean, Michael D.; Meeker, John D.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Weymouth, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation of 24 buildings in the Greater Boston Area revealed that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB levels in indoor air ranged from 111 to 393 ng/m3; and in dust taken from the building ventilation system, < 1 ppm to 81 ppm. In this building, the U.S. EPA mandated requirements for the removal and disposal of the PCB bulk product waste as well as for confirmatory sampling to ensure that the interior and exterior of the building were decontaminated. Although U.S. EPA regulations under the Toxic Substances Control Act stipulate procedures by which PCB-contaminated materials must be handled and disposed, the regulations apparently do not require that materials such as caulking be tested to determine its PCB content. This limited investigation strongly suggests that were this testing done, many buildings would be found to contain high levels of PCBs in the building materials and potentially in the building environment. The presence of PCBs in schools is of particular concern given evidence suggesting that PCBs are developmental toxins. PMID:15238275

  20. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  1. Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, WD; Flor, S; Gibson-Corley, KN; Ludewig, G; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicity. Twenty four 129S male mice (12 wild type (WT) and 12 MT knockout (MTKO)) were placed on a purified diet (AIN-93G) for 3 weeks to achieve hepatic metal equilibrium. Mice were then given a single IP injection, of either vehicle or 150 umol/kg PCB126 in vehicle. The animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later and organs processed for analysis. Liver histology, hepatic lipids, gene expression, micronutrient and ROS status were investigated. Liver weights, liver lipids, ROS, and hepatocyte vacuolation were increased with PCB126 exposure along with AhR responsive genes. The MTKO animals had more severe histological changes in the liver and elevated liver lipids than their wild type counterparts. Hepatic and renal metals levels (Cu, Zn, Se and Mn) were mostly reduced by PCB126 treatment. Renal micronutrients were more affected by PCB126 treatment in the MTKO animals. This research suggests that MT may not be the sole/primary cause of the metal disruption caused by PCB126 exposure in mice, but may provide protection against overall hepatotoxicity. PMID:26770886

  2. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  3. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs.

  4. [Binding of PCB by several types of dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Hamamura, K; Iida, T

    1995-05-01

    We investigated the binding of PCB by dietary fiber in vivo and in vitro. Forty male rats consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diet containing rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber Japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber, corn fiber and cellulose for five days. The remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. The animals were administered with 0.5 ml of the race-bran oil used by Yusho patients and kept on the same diets for five days. Fecal excretion of PCB in the group fed rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber was significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated 6.6 and 4.1 times, respectively, as compared with controls. Dietary fiber was suspended in distilled water, and methanolic solution of PCB was added to these suspensions. The mixtures were then incubated. After centrifugation, the unbound PCB in supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatograph. Rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber bount more PCB than any of the other dietary fiber. A significant correlation existed between the amounts of binding PCB in vitro and fecal PCB output in rats by eight types of dietary fiber (r = 0.986, p < 0.01).

  5. Principal component analysis of indicator PCB profiles in breast milk from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skrbić, Biljana; Szyrwińska, Katarzyna; Durišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Nowicki, Piotr; Lulek, Janina

    2010-11-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a data set containing the levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk of mothers living in the Wielkopolska region, Poland, in order to investigate the information captured in the PCB patterns and to elucidate the relationship between PCB concentrations in milk and donor characteristics. According to the obtained PCA results milk fat content was the most influential factor affecting the PCB levels in milk of the Wielkopolska cohort. The lifestyle data collected from the questionnaire completed by the donors appeared to have no influence on PCB concentrations in breast milk. The score plots revealed the PCB contents of milk were quite low and uniform with a few outliers, without discrimination observed either between the primipareous and secundipareous females or between donors from the urban and rural areas. Comparison of the PCB levels and profiles of human milk from the Wielkopolska region and from various European and Asian locations made by PCA reflected a generally low background exposure and indicated the possible reasons for the outlying of some samples. In order to enhance the chances of observing the relationship between donor habits and PCB levels in breast milk it was suggested that the questionnaire be redesigned to gather information about vegetable product consumption and indoor air exposure.

  6. Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2008-07-01

    The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

  7. Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.T.; Ma, C.I.; Hsu, S.K.H.; Wu, S.S.; Hsu, N.H.M.; Yeh, C.C.; Wu, S.B.

    1985-02-01

    An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factor workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

  8. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls target Notch/Dll and VEGF R2 in the mouse placenta and human trophoblast cell lines for their anti-angiogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    Kalkunte, Satyan; Huang, Zheping; Lippe, Eliana; Kumar, Sunil; Robertson, Larry W.; Sharma, Surendra

    2017-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures. We previously established a mouse model that provided evidence for pregnancy complications and placental anti-angiogenesis in response to Aroclor 1254 (A-1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Importantly, these effects were observed in IL-10−/−, but not wild type, mice, suggesting that IL-10 deficiency predisposes to pregnancy disruptive effects of environmental toxicants. However, the mechanisms by which PCBs cause anti-angiogenic effects are unclear. Here, we evaluated PCB-mediated anti-angiogenic effects by diverse but complementary approaches, including HUVEC-mediated trophoblast invasion in nude mice, in vitro three-dimensional capillary tube formation involving HUVEC and/or HTR8 trophoblasts, and aortic ring endothelial cell outgrowth/sprouting. Taken together, our data suggest that PCBs act as potent anti-angiogenic agents. Importantly, we show that treatment of pregnant IL-10−/− mice with A-1254 resulted in placental activation of the Notch/Delta-like ligand (Dll) pathway, a master regulator of cell-cell interaction and vascular patterning. Similar results were obtained with HUVEC and HTR8 trophoblasts. Rescue of A-1254-induced disruption of HUVEC-based tube formation by γ-secretase inhibitor L1790 confirmed the critical role of the Notch/Dll pathway. Our data suggest that PCBs impart pregnancy disruptive functions by activating the Notch/Dll pathway and by inducing anti-angiogenic effects at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:28071720

  10. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  11. Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Paul; Fitzgerald, Susan; Reihman, Jacqueline; Gump, Brooks; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, Jim; Hauser, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a pathway implicated in the regulation of response inhibition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated a dose-dependent association between cord blood PCBs and errors of commission. Splenium size but not other brain areas predicted errors of commission (r(2) = 0.20), with smaller size associated with more errors of commission. There was an interaction between splenium size and PCB exposure. The smaller the splenium, the larger the association between PCBs and errors of commission. If the association between PCBs and response inhibition is indeed causal, then children with suboptimal development of the splenium are particularly vulnerable to these effects. These data await replication. PMID:14527849

  12. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Polly P; Mills, Marc A; Kraus, Johanna M; Walters, David M

    2017-03-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by PCBs. Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here, we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any 2 sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from 2 different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209 PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include 1) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and 2) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:227-232. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alter PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1−/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1−/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1−/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:24709675

  14. Laboratory investigation of PCB bake-out from tertiary contaminated concrete for remediation of buildings.

    PubMed

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Frederiksen, Marie; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2017-03-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in flexible construction products from the 1950s to the 1970s. Despite a relatively low vapour pressure, PCBs have over the years emitted to the indoor air and adsorbed to other surfaces, creating tertiary sources. While necessary to protect the environment and health of building occupants, remediation of the contaminated buildings is an expensive and difficult process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bake-out as a method for removing PCB from contaminated indoor surfaces. Four painted and four sandblasted samples of concrete wall were kept at 50 or 65 °C for 10 or 20 days in small scale chambers, which were ventilated with clean air at area specific rates comparable to full scale rooms. The air concentrations were measured several times during the bake-out. Concentrations of PCB in paint, plaster and concrete were measured before and after the experiment. For the painted samples, PCB28 and PCB52 followed by PCB138 and PCB153 were the predominant congeners measured in air. A significant reduction of the PCB concentration was only found for more volatile congeners in paint, while no significant effects were observed in the plaster or concrete. For the most effective setting (65 °C, 20 days), the concentration of PCB∑7 in the paint was reduced by 40%. For the sandblasted samples, the less volatile congeners PCB138 and PCB153 were predominant in the air during bake-out. No effect was observed on the initially low concentrations of the sandblasted samples, possibly due to analytical limitations.

  15. Developmental exposure to an environmental PCB mixture delays the propagation of electrical kindling from the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Suren B; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L; Gilbert, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle 4 weeks prior to mating and continued through gestation and up until postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200μA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression in the amygdala stands in contrast to our previous finding of increased susceptibility to brainstem-mediated audiogenic seizures in PCB-exposed animals in response to a an intense auditory stimulus. These seemingly divergent results are not unexpected given the distinct source, type, and mechanistic underpinnings of these different seizure models. A delay in epileptogenesis following focal amygdala stimulation may reflect a decrease in neuroplasticity following developmental PCB exposure consistent with reductions in use-dependent synaptic plasticity that

  16. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  17. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  18. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved Swedish emission inventories. Consequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, three fuel oil samples and three lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different "real-world" operating conditions. The determined emissions corresponded reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggest however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are somewhat higher than those measured here. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37-0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly, HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  19. Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Marsili, L.; Focardi, S. )

    1992-11-01

    Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water repartition coefficient, making them easily accumulated by living organisms. Their persistence and low degradability means that they are now present throughout the global ecosystem. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants also include heavy metals like Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr, of which Cd, an element causing functional damage to the kidney and liver in which it preferentially accumulates, is of special ecotoxicological importance. The WHO has defined an accumulation of 60 mg/kg (fresh weight), beyond which damage occurs. Cd occurs [open quotes]naturally[close quotes] in high concentrations in certain animal species including molluscs. Birds and marine mammals feeding largely on cephalopods show high levels of this metal. Many monitoring studies have also revealed high concentrations of PCBs in the same animals. The vast majority of studies on contaminants in experimental animals consider the short-, medium- and long-term effects of a single pollutant. However, the presence of synergisms and antagonisms between compounds makes it necessary to adopt a more holistic approach to the problem of environmental pollution. In order to understand if the effect of xenobiotic compounds like PCBs may be potentiated by the natural presence of cadmium in bird population, we sought preliminary information on how the presence of cadmium in the diet may influence the accumulation and metabolization of PCB congeners. The influence of Cd on PCB accumulation was investigated in Japanese quail treated experimentally with Cd and PCBs. Particular attention was paid to final congener accumulation and qualitative differences in congener composition between controls and treated birds. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Development and evaluation of the mallard duck as a model to investigate the immunotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos) as a model for evaluating the immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals. A battery of immunotoxicity tests was validated for the mallard, including natural killer cell (NKC) activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, antibody titers to sheep erythrocytes, peripheral differential leukocyte counts, macrophage phagocytosis and prostaglandin-E[sub 2] (PGE2) production. To investigate potential hormonal-immune axes, dexamethasone (DEX), methimazole, and thyroxine (T4) were used to study the influence of glucocorticoid excess, hypo-, and hyperthyroidism on immunity, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1254) on immune, endocrine, and hepatic cytochrome-P450 function were evaluated and interpreted using results from the endocrine/immune studies. Results of these studies showed that antibody production was susceptible to suppression by DEX at doses which also caused significant changes in clinical plasma biochemistry values. NKC activity was enhanced by exposure to DEX in vivo, a phenomenon due to the inhibition of PGE2 production by adherent peripheral blood cells by DEX and mimicked in vitro with addition of indomethacin or DEX. Macrophage phagocytosis was significantly suppressed by DEX in vitro. Macrophage production of PGE2 ex vivo was suppressed in birds treated with DEX. In contrast to DEX, T4 or methimazole treatment elicited only slight physiologic changes in plasma albumin and cholesterol levels. No immune/thyroid axis was observed in mallards. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 induced significant hepatic microsomal ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activities in addition to increasing total cytochrome P450 content, but did not affect immune function, plasma corticosterone, or clinical biochemistry values. Total triiodothyronine, but not T4, was dose-dependently suppressed by PCB treatment.

  1. [Analysis of PCB- and PCT-methylsulfones in the blood in yusho patients].

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, K; Masuda, Y; Kuroki, H; Ohma, M

    1989-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)- and terphenyl (PCT)-methylsulfones were isolated from the blood of yusho patients sampled in 1987 and characterized by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and flame photometric detection (GC/FPD). GC/MS analysis for PCB-methylsulfones showed that all the blood tested (nine samples) contained the tri- and tetrachloro congeners. The concentrations of PCB-methylsulfones were estimated to be 15-120 ppb. PCT-methylsulfones detected in the same fraction, which were confirmed by GC/MS comparison with authentic samples as well as by GC/ECD and GC/FPD, consisted of tetra-, penta- and hexachloroterphenyl methylsulfone congeners. The levels of PCT-methylsulfones in six samples detected were preliminarily estimated to be 10-270 ppb, on the basis of a PCB-methylsulfone standard. Their origins and biological effects are unclear at present.

  2. A Feasibility Study On Pd/Mg Application In Historically Contaminated Sediments And PCB Spiked Substrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vast majority of literature on bimetals deals with aqueous contaminants, very little being on organics strongly adsorbed on sediments and hence very challenging to remediate. Having previously reported materials, mechanistic and parametric aspects of PCB dechlorination with Pd...

  3. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  4. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With §...

  5. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With §...

  6. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With §...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL VERIFICATION REPORT - L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCBs in soil...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT - STRATEGIC DIAGNOSTICS INC

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCBs in soil...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - RAPID ASSAY SYSTEM FOR PCB ANALYSIS - STRATEGIC DIAGNOSTICS INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The demonstration design was subjected to extensive review and comment by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Envi...

  10. Effect of intrauterine PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) exposure on visual recognition memory

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.W.; Fein, G.G.; Jacobson, J.L.; Schwartz, P.M.; Dowler, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse neonatal outcomes have been associated with intrauterine exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In a follow-up study of exposed and nonexposed infants, 123 infants tested at birth were administered Fagan's test of visual recognition memory at 7 months. Two measures of prenatal PCB exposure, cord serum PCB level and maternal report of contaminated fish consumption, predicted less preference for a novel stimulus. Preference for novelty decreased in a dose-dependent fashion with increasing levels of prenatal PCB exposure. Postnatal exposure from nursing was not related to visual recognition memory. The relation between prenatal exposure and visual recognition was not mediated by the neonatal deficits, suggesting that intrauterine PCB exposure may have a delayed effect on central nervous system functioning.

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PCB SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PROCESS-SELECTION FOR TEST AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a report describing the assessment of seven alternative treatment processes that show potential for decontaminating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments. The processes are KPEG, MODAR Supercritical Water Oxidation, Bio-Clean, Ultrasonics/UV, C...

  12. Relative potency of PCB126 to TCDD for sublethal embryotoxicity in the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus).

    PubMed

    Rigaud, Cyril; Couillard, Catherine M; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Légaré, Benoît; Gonzalez, Patrice; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-03-15

    The relative potency (ReP) of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for sublethal responses was assessed in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos. Eggs were treated with intravitelline injections of graded sublethal doses of PCB126 (312-5000 pg g(-1) wet weight, ww) or TCDD (5-1280 pg g(-1) ww). At 16 days post-fertilization (DPF), craniofacial deformities were observed in larvae hatched from eggs treated with the two highest doses of PCB126 (2500-5000 pg g(-1) ww). Both compounds caused a dose-responsive reduction of larval growth and prey capture ability (at ≥1250 pg g(-1) ww), and induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity (at ≥80 pg g(-1) ww). The dose-response relationships for EROD activity for PCB126 and TCDD had similar slopes and the ReP of PCB126 to TCDD for EROD activity was estimated at 0.71. This is 140-fold higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) TCDD equivalency factor (TEF) of PCB126 for fish (0.005), which is based on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryolethality data. The slope of the dose-response relationship for prey capture ability for PCB126 was steeper than for TCDD, suggesting different mechanisms of action. Expression levels of several genes were also studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) following exposure to single doses of TCDD or PCB126 (1280 and 1250 pg g(-1) ww, respectively) causing similar EROD induction. A different pattern of responses was observed between PCB126 and TCDD: PCB126 appeared to induce antioxidant responses by inducing sod2 expression, while TCDD did not. These results suggest that relative potencies are species-specific and that the current ReP for PCB126 underestimates its toxicity for some fish species. It is recommended to develop species-specific RePs for a variety of sublethal endpoints and at environmentally relevant doses.

  13. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  14. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals.

  15. PCB dry and wet weather concentration and load comparisons in Houston-area urban channels.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nathan L; Lakshmanan, Divagar; Rifai, Hanadi S; Koenig, Larry

    2011-04-15

    All 209 PCB congeners are quantified in water in both dry and wet weather urban flows in Houston, Texas, USA. Total water PCBs ranged from 0.82 to 9.4ng/L in wet weather and 0.46 to 9.0ng/L in dry. Wet weather loads were 8.2 times higher (by median) than dry weather with some increases of over 100-fold. The majority of the PCB load was in the dissolved fraction in dry weather while it was in the suspended fraction in wet weather. Dissolved PCB loads were correlated with rain intensity and highly developed land area, and a multiple linear regression (MLR) equation was developed to quantify these correlations. PCA generated five PCB components with nearly all positive loadings. They were interpreted as DOC-associated A1248, wet weather primarily suspended fraction A1254/A1260 likely from building sealants, truly dissolved-associated wastewater dechlorination, watershed-sourced PCB 11, and monochlorinated PCBs (likely connected to a different state or source of dechlorination). The PCB 11 component was statistically higher in wet versus dry weather when no other component showed such clear distinctions. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) did not always group dry and wet weather samples from the same location together illustrating the different congener composition that often exists between dry and wet conditions. Four wet weather samples from high percentage developed land (>90%) watersheds had nearly the same fingerprint suggesting a generic "urban" signature in runoff, which in this case was caused by residual A1254/A1260 PCB stocks and currently produced PCB 11 in consumer goods.

  16. Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) on the Thyroid Gland of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William T.; Capen, Charles C.; Kasza, Louis; Carter, Celester; Dailey, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions in thyroid follicular cells and reductions in serum thyroxine levels in rats that were time- and dose-dependent. The acute effects (4 week) of PCB (50 and 500 ppm) consisted of an accumulation of lysosomal bodies and colloid droplets in follicular cells with abnormalities of microvilli on the luminal surface. The chronic administration (12 week) of PCB (50 and 500/250 ppm) resulted in a striking distention of many follicular cells with large lysosomal bodies with strong acid phosphatase activity and colloid droplets, blunt and abnormally branched microvilli, and mitochondrial vacuolation. These ultrastructural alterations in follicular cells were associated with a highly significant reduction in serum thyroxine with both the low and the high dose of PCB. Follicular cells remained responsive to the lowered thyroxine level after feeding PCB for 4 and 12 weeks and underwent moderate compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Thyroid follicles were smaller than in controls and were lined by more columnar cells that occasionally formed papillary projections into the colloid. Residual ultrastructural alterations persisted for 12 weeks following cessation of feeding the compound, and serum thyroxine levels were significantly lower than in control rats. However, 35 weeks after discontinuing PCB, thyroid follicular cells were similar to those in controls and serum thyroxine levels had returned to normal. The striking ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells produced by feeding PCB to rats appeared to contribute to the lowering of serum thyroxine levels, in combination with the known stimulation of peripheral thyroxine metabolism by these compounds. Certain metabolic alterations produced by PCB intoxication in experimental animals and human beings may be related to an alteration in thyroid function. ImagesFigure 7Figure 8Figure 11Figure 12Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 9Figure 10 PMID

  17. Methyl sulfone PCB and DDE metabolites in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1995-12-31

    An important Arctic marine food chain is polar bear, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). The Arctic is relatively uncontaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs). However, high levels of CHCs are bioaccumulated through the marine food web. Methyl sulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-PCB and -DDE metabolites are major CHCs in polar bear, although the proportion of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs derived from PCB metabolism and/or MeSO{sub 2}-PCB bioaccumulation from the diet is unknown. For this reason, the structure and concentration of MeSO{sup 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, PCBs and DDE were determined in whole body Arctic cod, the liver, adipose, lung and muscle of ringed seal and ten tissues of polar bear from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic. Preliminary analysis of the ratios of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in bear fat and liver to their parent PCBs in seal blubber suggested that CB-49 and CB-87 result in a higher proportion of metabolites in bear than the other PCB congeners, assuming that the MeSO{sup 2}-PCBs are not themselves accumulated from the diet. Bio-availability of the precursor PCBs for subsequent metabolism may also be a factor. The absence in bears of MeSO{sub 2}-metabolites of other metabolizable PCBs in seal may indicate that some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs are not formed or that they are formed and further metabolized. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE levels and congener patterns among seal and bear tissues and the difference in tissue distribution between species will also be compared. In polar bear, the s-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to S-PCB and s-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE to DDE ratios were highest in liver, indicating preferred storage.

  18. Trends in PCB Contamination in Fishes from Wisconsin Waters of Lake Michigan, 1978-1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    non- normality of the data, correlations between PCB concentration and lipid content, total length, and weight were determined using Spearman’s rank...However, the net result could be ei- ther a decrease or an increase in the PCB tissue concentrations of the fe- males , depending upon the species...250. Kinemann, H., and van Leeuwen, K. 1980. Toxicokinetics in fish: Accumulation and elimination of six chlorobenzenes by guppies . Chemosphere 9:3-19

  19. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  20. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (−)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (−)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (−)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149. PMID:26786282

  1. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (‑)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (‑)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (‑)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  2. Why are the PCB concentrations of salmonine individuals from the same lake so highly variable?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Rand, Peter S.

    1994-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was applied to the Lake Michigan rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population, with the objectives of explaining the observed variation in growth and in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration within the population. When variation in prey PCB concentration was incorporated into the model, variability in PCB concentration among individual rainbow trout was fully explained by the IBM. Although number of spawnings and number of years spent in a stream prior to first entering the lake were factors in determining growth, these life history characteristics appeared to have only a minor impact on PCB accumulation rate in rainbow trout. The IBM application to the rainbow trout population was compared with an application to the Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population. Modeling results indicated that the lower observed PCB concentrations in rainbow trout compared with lake trout were chiefly due to greater longevity in lake trout. The IBM simulations identified gross growth efficiency, assimilation efficiency of PCBs from food, and diet as other important sources of variability in salmonine PCB concentrations.

  3. Determination of PCB congeners in sediments: Solutions to an old problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Shane, L. |

    1995-12-31

    Sonication has been evaluated and compared with Soxhlet extraction and solvent steam distillation for extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediments and soil. A gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni-63 electron-capture detector using a 5% phenyl methyl silicone fused silica capillary column was used to determine 68 PCB congeners. The influence loss of PCB during drying was found to be considerable. Recoveries of PCBs from three river sediments, a soil and a standard US EPA sediment have been determined for different solvent systems with the sonication procedure. PCB recovery as a function of sonication time was evaluated 3 minutes was the optimum sonication time. The higher recovery and precision were obtained with wet samples and using hexane-acetone (1:1) as solvent, and a 3 min. sonication period. The average MDL was 1 ng/g dry weight. Results utilizing GC/EC were compared with those obtained by GC/MS with one US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) quality control sediment the sand, silt and clay fractions from a river sediments from Fort Miller, NY. Effects of aging on PCB congener extraction efficiency were investigated, less chlorinated PCB were more difficult to extract than more chlorinated PCB, mechanisms accounting for this phenomenon will be discussed.

  4. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  5. Can fisheries management make substantial progress towards further reductions in sport fish PCB concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Great Lakes managers continue to be concerned by PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sport fish. A reduction in sport fish consumption advisory levels would heighten public concern and increase pressure on managers to reduce contaminant levels in sport fish. PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sediments remain high and exchange with the water column is significant. Atmospheric inputs help maintain PCB availability in the Great Lakes. However, it is not technically feasible to control sediment and atmospheric inputs. Here the author uses a detailed age-structured simulation model of chinook salmon, alewife and rainbow smelt to examine the potential for fish management actions to make progress towards reducing PCB concentrations of sport fish consumed by humans. Chinook salmon PCB concentrations were found to be more affected by prey PCB concentrations than chinook salmon growth rates. Salmonid predators selectively attack the largest prey, but these prey are likely the oldest and most contaminated. The interaction between size selective predation by chinook salmon and their growth rates suggests that there is an ideal stocking level of sport fish that should keep the average prey fish small, and therefore have relatively low PCE concentrations, but not reduce the age structure of the alewife population to include few reproductive individuals. These results are applicable to other stocked salmonids too, (e.g., lake trout, brown trout, coho salmon, steelhead) because they also exhibit size selective predation and their recruitment is primarily by stocking.

  6. Foodchain bioaccumulation patterns of pesticides, PCB isomers and dioxin/furan congeners in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, D.M.; Kiriluk, R.M.; Carswell, A.; Keir, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lake Ontario is one of the most contaminated Great Lakes. A detailed analysis of whole body concentrations of organic contaminants was conducted on a simple 4 compartment coldwater foodchain consisting of 7 species including several invertebrate diet items, prey fish species and the top predator lake trout. Sediment samples from the same site were analyzed for a similar suite of contaminants. Analyses were performed using a combination of HRMS/MS and GC/MS. All concentrations were reported on a whole animal wet weight basis and lipid weight concentrations. Total Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFS) were calculated for both dioxin and furan isomers and coplanar PCBs. PCB 110 (pentachlorobiphenyl) was the dominant congener in sediment samples as well as samples of benthic invertebrates. On the other hand, PCB 138 and 153 (hexachlorobiphenyls) were found at the highest concentration in the top predator lake trout and a prey species that feeds primarily in the water column. Mysis relicta, a zooplankton species that migrates diurnally through the water column, had similar levels of both PCB 110 and PCB 138/153. PCB 77 was consistently the highest coplanar PCB found in all samples. In all biological samples analyzed 2,3,7,8 substituted tetrachlorodioxin and furan isomers were consistently found at the highest levels. Lipid normalization of all whole body data did not significantly change the bioaccumulation factors calculated using wet weight concentrations.

  7. Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs.

  8. Exercise Protects against PCB-Induced Inflammation and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Margaret O.; Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB- induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE−/− mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12 week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 hours before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12 week exercise intervention significantly reduced these pro-atherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. Keywords: exercise, polychlorinated biphenyl, endothelial function, antioxidant response, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, oxidative stress PMID:25586614

  9. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  10. Mass budget in two high altitude lakes reveals their role as atmospheric PCB sinks.

    PubMed

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Malet, Emmanuel; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    A mass budget of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was constructed for two altitude lakes located in the French Alps to (i) quantify inward and outward PCB flux over the entire year of 2012, (ii) hierarchize the dominant pathways of PCB transfers, and (iii) evaluate to what extent these pathways vary between both lakes. The annual PCB inputs were similar, and the glacial runoff and sediment-to-water exchange were negligible sources of PCBs to the water column relative to atmospheric deposition. The annual inputs were primarily introduced by snow deposition and transferred into the lakes during the few weeks of spring thaw. While the dominant deposition pathways were similar, the main processes by which the water column lost pollutants differed between the two lakes. Despite these differences, the mass budget revealed that PCB inputs exceeded outputs for both studied lakes and that the lakes acted as atmospheric PCB sinks for the surrounding mountain environment. The differences in the PCB distribution between the key compartments (sediment and water column) are most likely due to differences in the lacustrine internal processes.

  11. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, J Russell; Norberg-King, Teresa; Billa, Nanditha; Hawthorne, Steven B; Miller, David J; Grabanski, Carol B

    2013-07-01

    Review of data from several contaminated sediment sites suggested that biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) declined with increasing contaminant concentrations in the sediment. To evaluate the consistency and possible causes of this behavior, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox River Superfund sites were used in sediment bioaccumulation tests with the freshwater oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with PCB concentrations in interstitial water (IW) quantified using polyoxymethylene passive samplers. Measured BSAFs tended to decrease with increasing PCB concentration in sediment, especially for the more highly chlorinated congeners. Measures of partitioning between sediment, IW, and oligochaetes showed that measured sediment-IW partition coefficients (KTOC ) tended to increase slightly with increasing sediment contamination, whereas the ratio of tissue PCB to IW PCB tended to decrease with increasing concentration in IW. Variation in accumulation among sediments was clearly influenced by bioavailability, as reflected by IW measurements, although the specific cause of varying KTOC was not clear. Calculated partitioning between IW and organism lipid (Klipid ) indicated that accumulation was generally 5 to 10-fold higher than would be predicted if Klipid was approximately equal to the n-octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). While affirming previous observations of decreasing BSAFs with increasing PCB contamination, the relatively shallow slope of the observed relationship in the current data may suggest that this concentration dependence is not a major uncertainty in sediment risk assessment, particularly if measurements of PCBs in IW are incorporated.

  12. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  13. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai

    2013-10-01

    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  14. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  15. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  16. Microdrilling of PCB substrate using DPSS 3rd harmonic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. G.; Chang, Won Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ku; Jeong, Sungho; Shin, Bo Sung; Whang, Kyung Hyun

    2003-02-01

    Micromachining using the DPSS 3rd Harmonic Laser (355nm) has outstanding advantages as a UV source in comparison with Excimer lasers in various aspects such as maintenance cost, maskless machining, high repetition rate and so on. It also has the greater absorptivity of many materials in contrast to other IR sources. In this paper, the process for micro-drilling of through and blind hope in Cu/PI/Cu substrate with the UV DPSSL and a scanning device is investigated by both experimental and numerical methods. It is known that there is a large gap between the ablation threshold of copper and that of PI. We use the multi path for through hole with high energy density and we use Archimedes spiral path for blind hole with different energy densities to ablate different material. Furthermore, Matlab simulations considering the energy threshold of material is performed to anticipate the ablation shape according to the duplication of pulse, and FEM thermal analysis is used to predict the ablation depth of copper. This study would be widely applicable to various laser micromachining applications including through and blind hole micro-drilling of PCB, and micromachining of semiconductor components, medical parts and printer nozzles amongst others.

  17. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated.

  18. Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucheva, Biserka; Tsonev, Tsonio; Iliev, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for recycling of lead solder dross were examined—carbothermal reduction and recycling using boron-containing substances. The influence of various factors on the metal yield was studied and the optimal parameters of the recycling process are defined. The comparison between them under the same parameters-temperature and retention time, showed that recycling of dross with a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:2 ratio provides higher metal yield (93%). The recycling of this hazardous waste under developed technology gets glassy slag and solder, which after correction of the chemical composition can be used again for production of PCB.

  19. Impact of PCB-118 and transformer oil toxicity on anaerobic digestion of sludge: anaerobic toxicity assay results.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Devrim; Imamoglu, Ipek; Dilek Sanin, F

    2013-08-01

    In this study, possible toxicity of increasing doses of PCB-118 and transformer oil (TO) on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated. For this purpose, five different sets of reactors were prepared in which four different PCB-118 concentration (1, 10, 20, and 30mgL(-1)) and three different TO concentration (0.38, 0.76, and 1.52gL(-1)) were applied. Throughout the study, biogas production and composition, pH, TS, VS, and COD as well as PCB concentration were monitored. Toxicity was investigated by anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) evaluating the reduction in methane production. A notable inhibition was observed mostly in 30mgL(-1) PCB reactors. A negative influence of PCB-118 and TO was observed on COD and solids removal. A maximum of 26.5% PCB-118 removal was attained.

  20. DIETARY ANTIOXIDANTS (SELENIUM & N-ACETYLCYSTEINE) MODULATE PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1) IN PCB126-EXPOSED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K.; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and glutathione (GSH), but also increases levels of the anti-atherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups, but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (TBARS), an indicator for lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity, but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in the controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting antioxidant activity by NAC primarily in serum. These

  1. Simulation of the effects of time and size at stocking on PCB accumulation in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    Manipulations of size at stocking and timing of stocking have already been used to improve survival of stocked salmonines in the Great Lakes. It should be possible to stock salmonines into the Great Lakes in a way that reduces the rate of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in these fishes. An individual-based model (IBM) was used to investigate the effects of size at stocking and timing of stocking on PCB accumulation by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan. The individual-based feature of the model allowed lake trout individuals to encounter prey fish individuals and then consume sufficiently small prey fish. The IBM accurately accounted for the variation in PCB concentrations observed within the Lake Michigan lake trout population. Results of the IBM simulations revealed that increasing the average size at stocking from 110 to 160 mm total length led to an increase in the average PCB concentration in the stocked cohort at age 5, after the fish had spent 4 years in the lake, from 2.33 to 2.65 mg/kg; the percentage of lake trout in the cohort at the end of the simulated time period with PCB concentration of 2 mg/kg or more increased from 62% to 79%. Thus, PCB contamination was reduced when the simulated size at stocking was smallest. An overall stocking strategy for lake trout into Lake Michigan should weigh this advantage regarding PCB contamination against the poor survival of lake trout that may occur if the trout are stocked at too small a size.

  2. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  3. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems.

  4. Comparison between conventional and laser method of imaging tracks on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozioł, G.; Borecki, J.

    2007-02-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates a UV line, which is suitable to the commonly available photoresists. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.

  5. Airborne PCB as a contamination risk on freeze-drying of sediment.

    PubMed

    Söderström, Maria; Nylund, Kerstin; Järnberg, Ulf; Alsberg, Tomas; Asplund, Lillemor

    2005-01-01

    In a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in freeze-dried sediments from Swedish lakes, the samples were found to contain unexpectedly high concentrations of PCBs. In one of the lakes (Björken), e.g. the concentration of PCB-28 was found to be 189 ng/g dw after freeze-drying compared to 7 ng/g dw after air-drying of the sediment and therefore our hypothesis was that the contamination had occurred during the freeze-drying procedure. Hence, a dry reference sediment (RS) was used in order to identify potential sources of PCB contamination. The investigation included freeze-drying of the dry RS in five different laboratories, exposure to the air in the freeze-drying room, storage at room temperature and air-drying in a certain fume hood and in a laminar flow clean bench. The pattern and concentrations of PCBs detected in the exposed RS were strongly influenced by low chlorinated PCB congeners under all of these conditions with exception for air-drying in the fume hood. Storage in the laboratory air resulted in a slight elevation in the concentrations of low chlorinated PCB congeners, whereas higher concentrations of all PCB congeners were observed after freeze-drying. In all experiments the contamination appeared to be due to adsorption of PCB from the laboratory air. On the basis of these findings we recommend that reference material be subjected to the entire procedure, including sample preparation, in order to monitor contamination and that a procedure involving solvent extraction of wet sediment samples is used, whenever possible, instead of procedures involving dry samples.

  6. Exposure to sublethal levels of PCB-126 impacts fuel metabolism and swimming performance in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Karyne; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized physiological stressors to fish which over time may impair individual performance and perhaps fitness by inducing changes that could have population-level consequences. PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) accumulates in lipids and can subsequently be released into the bloodstream during periods of high activity that involve the mobilization of stored fuels to meet with increasing energy demands. The goal of this study was to determine if a sublethal exposure to PCB-126 altered the content of tissue energy supplies (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides) and impaired swimming performance as well as oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single Low (100μgkg(-1)) or High (400μgkg(-1)) dose of PCB-126 then swimming performance and metabolic rates from 1 to 9days post-injection were compared to Control (non-dosed) fish. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was assessed as an indication of PCB-126 intoxication while plasma and white muscle tissue metabolites were analyzed as an index of physiological disturbance. Swimming performance, assessed using two successive modified critical swimming speed (Ucrit) tests, was highest for fish in the High PCB-126 treatment; however, their initial condition factor (K) was also higher, largely due to their greater body mass. Trout in the High and Low PCB-126 treatments exhibited impaired recovery following intense exercise as they swam comparatively poorly when provided a second challenge. PCB-exposed fish exhibited reduced spleen somatic indices as well as muscle glucose and glycogen contents; whereas plasma cortisol and glucose levels were elevated, indicating higher metabolic costs during recovery and muscle restoration. Overall, this research provides insights into the sublethal effects of a toxic organic compound on swimming performance in trout.

  7. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, Suren B.; Eubig, Paul A.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. PMID:26543103

  8. Stepping backward to improve assessment of PCB congener toxicities.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L G

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous global contaminants that have been intensively investigated for three decades. They are broad-acting toxicants occurring in complex mixtures and accurate risk assessment has proven to be elusive. Focusing on a limited set of end points and emphasizing a fixed set of congeners have led to more streamlined data sets that are meant to expedite hazard characterization and risk assessment for the most potent congeners--aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Unfortunately, this has made it impossible to confirm or deny significant contributions from the more prevalent components of the mixtures. PCBs may be only coincidentally present, rather than causal, in some diseases. Still, attempts to determine associations with incomplete residue data may lead to erroneous conclusions and make accurate risk assessment even more elusive. Responses not mediated through the AhR are presented and emphasize large data gaps. Dissimilar analytical reports emphasize that selection of analytes is not consistent. Collectively, these data confirm that AhR-focused objectives unintentionally created the impression that nonplanar PCBs have little if any potential for hazards to humans and wildlife. Near steady-state exposure of healthy adults are probably of minor consequence except for emerging correlations with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, pulses of exposure to more labile mixtures may contribute to developmental effects without leaving a residue record. More broadly based criteria are suggested and harmonization of data collection and presentation are desirable. A more comprehensive list of PCB congeners is proposed that would provide more adequate data upon which to base associations with adverse outcomes. PMID:9539012

  9. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  10. Investigation of Mechanism(s) of DNA Damage Induced by 4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wei; Wang, Kai; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    4-Monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3) is readily converted by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes to dihydroxy-metabolites and quinones. The PCB3 hydroquinone (PCB3-HQ; 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-hydroquinone) induces chromosome loss in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, whereas the para-quinone (PCB3-pQ; 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone) very efficiently induces gene mutations and chromosome breaks. Apparently, each of these two metabolites, which are a redox pair, has a different spectrum of genotoxic effects due to different, metabolite-specific mechanisms. We hypothesized that the HQ requires enzymatic activation by peroxidases with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as the ultimate genotoxin, whereas the pQ reacts directly with nucleophilic sites in DNA and/or proteins. To examine this hypothesis, we employed two cell lines with different myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, MPO-rich HL-60 and MPO-deficient Jurkat cells, and measured cytotoxicity, DNA damage (COMET assay), MPO activity, intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular free –SH groups (monochlorobimane assay, MCB) and free GSH contents (enzyme recycling method) after treatment with PCB3-HQ and PCB3-pQ. We also examined the modulation of these effects by normal/low temperature, pre-treatment with an MPO inhibitor (succinylacetone, SA), or GSH depletion. PCB3-p-Q increased intracellular ROS levels and induced DNA damage in both HL-60 and Jurkat cells at 37 °C and 6 °C, indicating a direct, MPO-independent mode of activity. It also strongly reduced intracellular free –SH groups and GSH levels in normal and GSH-depleted cells. Thus the ROS increase could be caused by reduced protection by GSH or non-enzymatic autoxidation of the resulting PCB3-HQ-GSH adduct. PCB3-HQ did not produce a significant reduction of intracellular GSH in HL-60 cells and reduced intracellular free –SH groups only at the highest concentration tested in GSH depleted cells. Moreover, PCB3-HQ induced DNA

  11. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  12. An Assay System for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Tuberculosis using Commercially Manufactured PCB Technology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I; Greathead, Louise; Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Pantelidis, Panagiotis; Kelleher, Peter; Morgan, Hywel; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2017-04-06

    Rapid advances in clinical technologies, detection sensitivity and analytical throughput have delivered a significant expansion in our knowledge of prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in many common infectious diseases, such as Tuberculosis (TB). During the last decade, a significant number of approaches to TB diagnosis have been attempted at Point-of-Care (PoC), exploiting a large variation of techniques and materials. In this work, we describe an electronics-based Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (eELISA), using a Lab-on-a-Printed Circuit Board (LoPCB) approach, for TB diagnosis based on cytokine detection. The test relies upon an electrochemical (amperometric) assay, comprising a high-precision bioinstrumentation board and amperometric sensors, produced exclusively using standard PCB manufacturing processes. Electrochemical detection uses standard Au and Ag electrodes together with a bespoke, low-power, multichannel, portable data-acquisition system. We demonstrate high-performance assay chemistry performed at microfluidic volumes on Au pads directly at the PCB surface with improved limit of detection (~10 pg/mL) over standard colorimetric ELISA methods. The assay has also been implemented in plasma, showing the utility of the system for medical applications. This work is a significant step towards the development of a low-cost, portable, high-precision diagnostic and monitoring technology, which once combined with appropriate PCB-based microfluidic networks will provide complete LoPCB platforms.

  13. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  14. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-03-15

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 μg kg(-1) was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using different amounts of iron nanoparticles in both setups A and B. A PCB removal of 83% was obtained in setup A compared with 58% of setup B. Setup A also showed additional advantages, such as a higher PCB dechlorination, in a shorter time, with lower nZVI consumption, and with the use of half of the voltage gradient when compared with the traditional setup (B). Energy and nZVI costs for a full-scale reactor are estimated at 72 € for each cubic meter of PCB contaminated soil treated on-site, making this technology competitive when compared with average off-site incineration (885 € m(-3)) or landfilling (231 € m(-3)) cost in Europe and in the USA (327 USD m(-3)).

  16. The lab-on-PCB approach: tackling the μTAS commercial upscaling bottleneck.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Despina; Tserepi, Angeliki

    2017-03-15

    Commercialization of lab-on-a-chip devices is currently the "holy grail" within the μTAS research community. While a wide variety of highly sophisticated chips which could potentially revolutionize healthcare, biology, chemistry and all related disciplines are increasingly being demonstrated, very few chips are or can be adopted by the market and reach the end-users. The major inhibition factor lies in the lack of an established commercial manufacturing technology. The lab-on-printed circuit board (lab-on-PCB) approach, while suggested many years ago, only recently has re-emerged as a very strong candidate, owing to its inherent upscaling potential: the PCB industry is well established all around the world, with standardized fabrication facilities and processes, but commercially exploited currently only for electronics. Owing to these characteristics, complex μTASs integrating microfluidics, sensors, and electronics on the same PCB platform can easily be upscaled, provided more processes and prototypes adapted to the PCB industry are proposed. In this article, we will be reviewing for the first time the PCB-based prototypes presented in the literature to date, highlighting the upscaling potential of this technology. The authors believe that further evolution of this technology has the potential to become a much sought-after standardized industrial fabrication technology for low-cost μTASs, which could in turn trigger the projected exponential market growth of μTASs, in a fashion analogous to the revolution of Si microchips via the CMOS industry establishment.

  17. Laser direct imaging of high density patterns on PCB covered by photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Koziol, G.; Borecki, J.

    2007-03-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates a UV line, which is suitable to the commonly available photoresists. In this paper we present the laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging and also the recent results on imaging the circuitry pattern on the PCB covered by a photosensitive resist.

  18. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  19. PCB concentrations in plankton size classes, a temporal study in Marseille Bay, Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tiano, Marion; Tronczyński, Jacek; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Tixier, Céline; Carlotti, François

    2014-12-15

    PCB levels in plankton were investigated in the Bay of Marseille, Western Mediterranean Sea, between September 2010 and October 2011. Concentrations of PCB congeners (CB 18, CB 52, CB 101, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 180) were determined in three plankton size-classes (60-200, 200-500 and 500-1000μm) together with different parameters: chlorophyll content, plankton dry-weight biomass, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and plankton-community structure. The ∑PCB7 concentrations ranged between 14.2 and 88.1ngg(-1)d.w., for all size classes and all sampling periods. The results do not show the biomass dilution effect and indicate moderate but significant biomagnification with plankton trophic position estimated by δ(15)N signatures. Equilibrium with water phase may notably contribute in controlling the PCB levels in the plankton. More generally, presented results imply that PCB accumulation in the plankton is an effect of abiotic and trophic complex interactions in the Bay of Marseille.

  20. Exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effects of exposure to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other dioxin-like chemicals on developing vertebrates involve many organ systems, including the skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Apex predators, including those from the class Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, and rays), accumulate high body burdens of PCBs through biomagnification of chemicals moving through food webs. There are no published reports of the effects of dioxin-like chemicals on the development of sharks, skates, or rays. A study was undertaken to assess developmental effects of 3, 3’, 4, 4’, 5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure in little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, a model for oviparous elasmobranchs. Skate embryos cultured outside of their egg cases were exposed to 0.02 - 20 ng/ml PCB 126 for 6 days and then grown in clean seawater for up to 29 days. Gas chromatography was used to measure PCB 126 in the exposures water and quantify its accumulation in the embryo. Digital still and video imaging was performed to assess growth, identify developmental abnormalities, and cardiovascular function. Embryos accumulated approximately 50% of PCB 126 exposure mass in the embryonic tissues and yolk sac. All embryos in the control and 0.02 ng/ml treatment survived; mortality rates were 14, 52, and 40% of embryos exposed to 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 ng/ml, respectively. PCB 126 exposure induced yolk sac edema, deformities of the jaw, cranium, and fins, and cardiovascular system failure in

  1. Bioremediation of long-term PCB-contaminated soil by white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Stella, Tatiana; Covino, Stefano; Čvančarová, Monika; Filipová, Alena; Petruccioli, Maurizio; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this work was to test the PCB-degrading abilities of two white-rot fungi, namely Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus, in real contaminated soils with different chemical properties and autochthonous microflora. In addition to the efficiency in PCB removal, attention was given to other important parameters, such as changes in the toxicity and formation of PCB transformation products. Moreover, structural shifts and dynamics of both bacterial and fungal communities were monitored using next-generation sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The best results were obtained with P. ostreatus, which resulted in PCB removals of 18.5, 41.3 and 50.5% from the bulk, top (surface) and rhizosphere, respectively, of dumpsite soils after 12 weeks of treatment. Numerous transformation products were detected (hydoxylated and methoxylated PCBs, chlorobenzoates and chlorobenzyl alcohols), which indicates that both fungi were able to oxidize and decompose the aromatic moiety of PCBs in the soils. Microbial community analysis revealed that P. ostreatus efficiently colonized the soil samples and suppressed other fungal genera. However, the same fungus substantially stimulated bacterial taxa that encompass putative PCB degraders. The results of this study finally demonstrated the feasibility of using this fungus for possible scaled-up bioremediation applications.

  2. Green Tea Catechin, EGCG, Suppresses PCB 102-Induced Proliferation in Estrogen-Sensitive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kimberly Mantzke; Bauer, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment is of considerable concern since they accumulate in human breast tissue and may stimulate the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. Studies have shown that EGCG from green tea can modify estrogenic activity and thus may act as a cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of PCB 102 and EGCG on cell proliferation using an estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7/BOS. PCB 102 (1–10 μM) increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the proliferative effects of PCB 102 were mediated by ERα and could be abrogated by the selective ERα antagonist MPP. EGCG (10–50 μM) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of PCB 102-induced cell proliferation, with nearly complete inhibition at 25 μM EGCG. The antiproliferative action of EGCG was mediated by ERβ and could be blocked by the ERβ-specific inhibitor PHTPP. In conclusion, EGCG suppressed the proliferation-stimulating activity of the environmental estrogen PCB 102 which may be helpful in the chemoprevention of breast cancer. PMID:26783468

  3. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M.; Sever, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death.

    PubMed Central

    Mendola, P; Buck, G M; Vena, J E; Zielezny, M; Sever, L E

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. PMID:7656880

  5. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}. ► PCB

  6. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, F; Hayashi, M

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant mothers with yusho in Fukuoka, Nagasaki and Kochi Prefectures delivered babies with a peculiar clinical manifestation which will be called fetal PCB syndrome (FPS). The birth rate incidences were 3.6% (Fukuoka Prefecture), 4% (Nagasaki Prefecture), 2.9% (Kochi Prefecture) and 3.9% (total). The manifestations consisted of dark brown pigmentation of the skin and the mucous membrane, gingival hyperplasia, exophthalmic edematous eye, dentition at birth, abnormal calcification of the skull as demonstrated by X-ray, rocker bottom heel and high incidence of light for date (low birth weight) babies. We suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB. The high incidence of low birth weight among these newborns and two other similar studies indicated that PCBs suppress fetal growth. PMID:3921362

  7. Management and disposal of radioactively contaminated PCBs and PCB items at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaster, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    In order to manage and dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) properly, a federal facility placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) must establish and implement a sitewide management concept to address radioactively contaminated PCBs in soil and debris area and PCBs encountered as a result of remedial activities. Suspect PCB contamination may include areas under and former uranium processing plants and facilities, roads, buildings, and structures known to have contained or utilized different types of electric, high temperature, and/or hydraulic equipment containing PCB contaminated fluids. It is the responsibility of the Superfund site to consult with EPA regional offices for the purpose of selecting response action strategies, cleanup levels, and disposal options CERCLA by evaluating the form and concentration of the PCB contamination as well as the presence of other contaminants such as low level radionuclides. Cleanup levels, limited treatment and disposal options, and associated technologies must be determined while ensuring adequate protection to human health and the environment.

  8. PCB congeners in human milk in Germany from 1984/85 and 1990/91

    SciTech Connect

    Georgii, S.; Bachour, G.; Brunn, H.; Elmadfa, I.

    1995-04-01

    Studies of so-called bioindicators clearly show the impact of environmental legislation on PCB contamination of the environment and of the food chain in the Federal Republic of Germany. This is evident from the results of studies performed in our laboratory on samples of muscle tissue from foxes that were submitted for post-mortem examination in the years 1983, 1987 and 1991. Whereas the concentration of low-chlorinated congeners of high-chlorinated biphenyls, with the exception of PCB no. 101, decreased. This trend may also be responsible for changes in the otherwise stable PCB concentrations in human milk. Consequently, in the study describe here, milk samples from 1990/91, from women in Middle-Hesse, Germany, were examined and the results compared to samples stemming from 1984/85. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 2. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  10. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 1. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  11. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, F.; Hayashi, M.

    1985-02-01

    Pregnant mothers with Yusho in Fukuoka, Nagasaki and Kochi Prefectures delivered babies with a peculiar clinical manifestation which will be called fetal PCB syndrome (FPS). The birth rate incidences were 3.6% (Fukuoka Prefecture), 4% (Nagasaki Prefecture), 2.9% (Kochi Prefecture) and 3.9% (total). The manifestations consisted of dark brown pigmentation of the skin and the mucous membrane, gingival hyperplasia, exophthalmic edematous eye, dentition at birth, abnormal calcification of the skull as demonstrated by X-ray, rocker bottom heel and high incidence of light for date (low birth weight) babies. The authors suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB. The high incidence of low birth weight among these newborns and two other similar studies indicated that PCBs suppress fetal growth.

  12. Serum PCB and DDE levels of frequent Great Lakes sport fish consumers -- A first look

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, L.P.; Falk, C.; Anderson, H.A.; Draheim, L.; Olson, J.; Kanarek, M.S.

    1999-02-01

    Great Lakes (GL) sport fish consumption is a potential human exposure route for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE). Because of fish tissue contamination, frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport caught fish (GLSCF) may be at risk for PCB and DDE accumulation. To examine this problem, the Health Departments of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan formed a health assessment consortium. Participants were contacted by telephone to complete a detailed demographic and fish consumption survey. Frequent and infrequent GLSCF consumers were identified, and a participant subset was then asked to donate blood for PCB and DDE analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to study exposure group mean differences, while correlation and regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between demographic characteristics, GLSCF consumption, PCB, and DDE body burdens.

  13. The effect of size and sex on PCB and PAH concentrations in crab Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Hosseini, Mehdi; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the hepatopancreas of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) from the north Persian Gulf were measured. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in hepatopancreas were investigated by linear regression analysis. Among the PCBs, congeners 110 and 153 were the most frequent and abundant. The results showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between PCB and PAH levels and crab size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCB16, 44, 153, and acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and anthracene concentrations in hepatopancreas of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab.

  14. Long-lasting FR-4 surface hydrophilisation towards commercial PCB passive microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Moschou, Despina; Carta, Daniela; Morgan, Hywel; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-04-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCB) technologies are an attractive system for simple sensing and microfluidic systems. Controlling the surface properties of PCB material is an important part of this technology and to date there has been no study on long-term hydrophilisation stability of these materials. In this work, the effect of different oxygen plasma input power and treatment duration times on the wetting properties of FR-4 surfaces was investigated by sessile droplet contact angle measurements. Super and weakly hydrophilic behaviour was achieved and the retention time of these properties was studied, with the hydrophilic nature being retained for at least 26 days. To demonstrate the applicability of this treatment method, a commercially manufactured microfluidic structure made from a multilayer PCB (3-layer FR-4 stack) was exposed to oxygen plasma at the optimum conditions. The structures could be filled with deionised (DI) water under capillary flow unlike the virgin devices.

  15. Determination of PCB Elimination Coefficients in Round Goby and Tubenose Goby.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Johnson, Tim B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2016-09-01

    Whole-body elimination coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in two Great Lakes invasive fish species, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris). Elimination rates were determined for a set of model PCB congeners (n = 12 congeners) dosed to fish by intraperitoneal injection and allowed to depurate at a temperature of 21.4°C for 90 days. Eight PCBs (PCB 6, 21, 57, 62, 68, 89, 112 and 125) exhibited significant elimination by round goby and had corresponding half lives ranging from 13 to 39.8 days. For tubenose goby, four congeners (PCBs 21, 57, 62 and 68) exhibited significant elimination with half lives in the range from 18.8 to 48.8 days. Whole-body elimination rate coefficients were significantly higher for round gobies compared to tubenose goby. In both cases, PCB elimination rate coefficients were negatively related to chemical log KOW.

  16. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  17. Chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB causes reproductive toxicity in mink

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstroem, B.; Oerberg, J.; Lund, B.O.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1995-12-31

    Female mink (Mustela vison) were exposed to the technical PCB preparation Clophen A50 (0.3 or 0.1 mg/animal/day) in the feed for 18 months, including two reproduction seasons. Isomer-specific PCB-analysis of the technical mixture was made and the concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the feed were calculated. In addition, Clophen A50 was separated into two fractions, one containing the non and mono-ortho-chlorinated PCB congeners (planar fraction) and the other containing congeners with 2-4 chlorines in ortho-position (non-planar fraction). Animals in two separate groups were exposed daily to these individual fractions extracted from 0.3 mg Clophen A50. No effect on the reproduction outcome was observed during the first reproduction season. However, reduced birth weights were noted in the kits born to animals treated with 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day. The reproductive performance was seriously affected in the second season. Only 39% of the females exposed to 0.3 mg Clophen A50 per day whelped, compared with 93% in the control group. All whelps in the group exposed to the high dose of Clophen A50 died within 1 day after birth. Kit survival and growth were reduced also in the group treated with the low dose of Clophen A50. Treatment with the non and mono-orthochlorinated PCB congeners strongly reduced kit survival and body weight gain. Only 8% of the kits survived until 2 weeks of age. It is concluded that the non and monoortho-chlorinated PCB congeners were responsible for the major part of the reproductive toxicity caused by Clophen A50. PCB residue concentrations in the mink, determined at the end of the experiment, were within the range of the levels that have been observed in wild mink in Sweden.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Exposure and Diabetes: Results from the Anniston Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Bartell, Scott M.; Foushee, Herman R.; Shelton, Christie; Pavuk, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) manufactured in Anniston, Alabama, from 1929 to 1971 caused significant environmental contamination. The Anniston population remains one of the most highly exposed in the world. Objectives: Reports of increased diabetes in PCB-exposed populations led us to examine possible associations in Anniston residents. Methods: Volunteers (n = 774) from a cross-sectional study of randomly selected households and adults who completed the Anniston Community Health Survey also underwent measurements of height, weight, fasting glucose, lipid, and PCB congener levels and verification of medications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the relationships between PCBs and diabetes, adjusting for diabetes risk factors. Participants with prediabetes were excluded from the logistic regression analyses. Results: Participants were 47% African American, 70% female, with a mean age of 54.8 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 27% in the study population, corresponding to an estimated prevalence of 16% for Anniston overall; the PCB body burden of 35 major congeners ranged from 0.11 to 170.42 ppb, wet weight. The adjusted OR comparing the prevalence of diabetes in the fifth versus first quintile of serum PCB was 2.78 (95% CI: 1.00, 7.73), with similar associations estimated for second through fourth quintiles. In participants < 55 years of age, the adjusted OR for diabetes for the highest versus lowest quintile was 4.78 (95% CI: 1.11, 20.6), whereas in those ≥ 55 years of age, we observed no significant associations with PCBs. Elevated diabetes prevalence was observed with a 1 SD increase in log PCB levels in women (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.28); a decreased prevalence was observed in men (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.41). Conclusions: We observed significant associations between elevated PCB levels and diabetes mostly due to associations in women and in individuals < 55 years of age. PMID:22334129

  19. Addition of carbon sorbents to reduce PCB and PAH bioavailability in marine sediments: physicochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, John R; Ghosh, Upal; Millward, Rod N; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2004-10-15

    The addition of activated carbon as particulate sorbent to the biologically active layer of contaminated sediment is proposed as an in-situ treatment method to reduce the chemical and biological availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We report results from physicochemical experiments that assess this concept. PCB- and PAH-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, was contacted with coke and activated carbon for periods of 1 and 6 months. Sediment treated with 3.4 wt % activated carbon showed 92% and 84% reductions in aqueous equilibrium PCB and PAH concentrations, 77% and 83% reductions in PCB and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD), respectively, and reductions in PCB flux to overlying water in quiescent systems up to 89%. Adding coke to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations nor PCB or PAH availability in SPMD measurements. Coke decreased PAH aqueous equilibrium concentrations by 38-64% depending on coke dose and particle size. The greater effectiveness of activated carbon as compared to coke is attributed to its much greater specific surface area and a pore structure favorable for binding contaminants. The results from the physicochemical tests suggest that adding activated carbon to contaminated field sediment reduces HOC availability to the aqueous phase. The benefit is manifested relatively quickly under optimum contact conditions and improves in effectiveness with contact time from 1 to 6 months. Activated carbon application is a potentially attractive method for in-situ, nonremoval treatment of marine sediment contaminated with HOCs.

  20. Geographic variation of PCB congeners in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard east to the Chukchi Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, M.; Lie, E.; Derocher, A.E.; Belikov, S.E.; Bernhoft, A.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, G.W.; Skaare, J.U.; Wiig, Øystein

    2001-01-01

    We present data on geographic variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Blood samples from 90 free-living polar bears were collected in 1987–1995. Six PCB congeners, penta to octa chlorinated (PCB-99, -118, -153, -156, -180, -194), were selected for this study. Differences between areas were found in PCB levels and congener patterns. Bears from Franz Josef Land (11,194 ng/g lipid weight) and the Kara Sea (9,412 ng/g lw) had similar ΣPCB levels and were higher than all other populations (Svalbard 5,043 ng/g lw, East Siberian Sea 3,564 ng/g lw, Chukchi Sea 2,465 ng/g lw). Svalbard PCB levels were higher than those from the Chukchi Sea. Our results, combined with earlier findings, indicate that polar bears from Franz Josef Land and the Kara Sea have the highest PCB levels in the Arctic. Decreasing trends were seen eastwards and westwards from this region. Of the congeners investigated in the present study, the lower chlorinated PCBs are increasing and the high chlorinated PCBs are decreasing from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Different pollution sources, compound transport patterns and regional prey differences could explain the variation in PCB congener levels and patterns between regions.

  1. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-12-31

    This document, the {open_quotes}1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory{close_quotes} was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL`s PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL`s PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, {open_quotes}Status of the PCB Management Program{close_quotes}, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program`s policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal.

  2. Long-term trends of continental-scale PCB patterns studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Continental-scale distribution and inter-continental transport of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 101, 153, 180) from 1950 to 2010 were studied using the global multicompartment chemistry transport model MPI-MCTM. Following identical primary emissions for all PCB congeners into air, most of the burden is stored in terrestrial (soil and vegetation) compartments. Thereby, PCB-28, PCB-101 and PCB-153 show a shift of the soil burden maxima from source to remote regions. This shift is downwind with regard to the westerlies for Eurasia and upwind for North America and more prominent for the lighter PCBs than for PCB-153 or PCB-180. In meridional direction, all congeners' distributions underwent a northward migration in Eurasia and North America since the 1950s. Inter-continental transport from Eurasian sources accounts largely for contamination of Alaska and British Columbia and determines the migration of the PCB distribution in soil in North America. Trans-Pacific transport occurs mainly in the gas phase in boreal winter (December-January-February) at 3-4 km altitude and is on a multi-year time scale strongly linked to the atmospheric pressure systems over the Pacific. Inter-continental transport of the lighter, more volatile PCBs is more efficient than for the heavier PCBs.

  3. PCB Research Results Derive from a False Belief System: You've Come the Wrong Way, Baby!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the points raised by groups of scientists who were invited to respond to our initial critique of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) research in this special issue. In that article, we applied six objective criteria to more than two decades of published PCB research and concluded that much of the research was badly flawed. The…

  4. Estimation of the health risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations found onboard older U.S. Navy vessels.

    PubMed

    Still, K R; Arfsten, D P; Jederberg, W W; Kane, L V; Larcom, B J

    2003-10-01

    PCBs have been identified on surfaces and in component materials and equipment from inactive U.S. Navy nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970. Health risks associated with PCBs present onboard submarines were estimated for hypothetical crew members and shipyard workers. Median non-cancer hazard quotients for shipyard workers and submarine crew ranged between 0.4-54.6, with the highest quotients estimated for unprotected shipyard workers. Median cancer risk estimates ranged from 7.3 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-3) with the highest estimated risk calculated for unprotected shipyard workers. Our findings suggest that PCB surface concentrations found onboard inactive nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970 may be high enough to constitute a possible risk to the health of persons involved in dismantling of Navy submarines if PCB exposure is not minimized. Potential sources of uncertainty in our risk assessment include the correlation between PCB contamination levels on inactive versus active nuclear submarine vessels, the relationship between wipe sample concentrations and human exposure, dermal contact frequency with PCB-contaminated surfaces, carcinogenicity of PCBs in humans, and uncertainties inherent with the PCB cancer slope factor and oral RfD. Our findings support Navy policy that shipyard workers should wear personal protective equipment when PCB contamination is suspected or has been identified and that IH surveys should continue to identify sources of PCB contamination onboard vessels and reduce PCB contamination to concentrations that are reasonably achievable.

  5. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  6. Cytogenetic and viability effects of petroleum aromatic and PCB hydrocarbons, temperature and salinity, on early development of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles-Jewell, S.

    1994-01-01

    Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.1, 10 and 100 mg/l of benzene, naphthalene and Aroclor 1254 individually and in combination in seawater at temperatures and salinities of 20 and 25. Toxicity was measured as frequencies of: (1) meiotic and mitotic abnormalities in 3-hour embryos; (2) total development to the 48-hour straight-hinge larval stage; (3) mortality and abnormality at the 48-hour larval stage; (4) mean size of larvae at 48 hours; and (5) cytogenetic and cytological abnormalities in 48-hour larvae. Dose-dependent responses were observed. Overall, naphthalene and aroclor at 100 mg/l had few embryos that survived to the stage where they could be examined and scored for cytogenetic and cytological abnormality even by 3-hours post-fertilization. Abnormality of the few embryos available for examination was somewhat higher for aroclor but was significantly higher for naphthalene than for control embryos and those exposed to 0.1 mg/l. At the highest concentration of 100 mg/l, mortality was 100% by the larval stage for naphthalene and aroclor. Though total development and survival of embryos to the larval stage at the 10 mg/l dose were high, many of the larvae were dead or abnormal in the aroclor-exposed cultures. This mean incidence was significantly higher than for all other groups. Larvae developing in these cultures with 10 mg/l were also significantly smaller and cytological condition of the larvae was significantly worse. Higher temperature appeared to increase the frequency of deleterious effects, particularly for naphthalene and aroclor. Results with salinity were more variable. Overall, results showed that petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons and PCBs can have toxic effects on the development and survival of early life stages of oysters, as well as sublethal effects on growth and cytological condition, depending on dose and interactions with other compound and with environmental variables.

  7. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  8. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell superfund site: PCB dechlorination. 2. Rates and extent.

    PubMed

    Magar, Victor S; Brenner, Richard C; Johnson, Glenn W; Quensen, John F

    2005-05-15

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners. The preferential loss of meta and para chlorines with sediment depth demonstrated that PCBs in the sediments underwent reductive dechlorination after burial. Notably, ortho chlorines were highly conserved for more than 5 decades; since the first appearance of PCBs, ca. 1950-1955. These dechlorination characteristics resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners dominated by ortho chlorine substituents. Dechlorination rates were determined by plotting the numbers of meta plus para chlorines per biphenyl molecule (mol of chlorine/mol of PCB) with sediment age. Regression analyses showed linear correlations between meta plus para chlorine concentrations with time. The average dechlorination rate was 0.094 +/- 0.063 mol of Cl/mol of PCB/yr. The rates measured using the 2001 cores were approximately twice those measured using the 2000 cores, most likely because the 2001 cores were collected only at transects O, L, and I, which had the highest rates measured in 2000. An inverse of the dechlorination rates indicated that 16.4 +/- 11.6 yr was required per meta plus para chlorine removal (ranging from 4.3 to 43.5 yr per chlorine removal). The rates determined from this study were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than rates reported from laboratory microcosm studies using Hudson River and St. Lawrence River sediments, suggesting that dechlorination rates reported for laboratory experiments are much higher than those occurring in situ.

  9. Variability in PCB and OH-PCB Serum Levels in Children and Their Mothers in Urban and Rural U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures that affect accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans are complex and not fully understood. One challenge in linking environmental exposure to accumulation is determining variability of PCB concentrations in samples collected from the same person at different times. We hypothesized that PCBs in human blood serum are consistent from year to year in people who live in the same environment between sampling. We analyzed blood serum from children and their mothers from urban and rural U.S. communities (n = 200) for all 209 PCBs (median ∑PCBs = 45 ng/g lw) and 12 hydroxylated PCBs (median ∑OH-PCBs = 0.09 ng/g fw). A subset of these participants (n = 155) also had blood PCB and OH-PCB concentrations analyzed during the previous calendar year. Although many participants had similar levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood from one year to the next, some participants had surprisingly different levels. Year-to-year variability in ∑PCBs ranged from −87% to 567% and in ∑OH-PCBs ranged from −51 to 358% (5th–95th percentile). This is the first study to report variability of all PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people and suggests short-term exposures to PCBs may be a significant component of what is measured in human serum. PMID:25300024

  10. A mass-balance approach for assessing PCB movement during remediation of a PCB-contaminated deposit on the Fox River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, collected water samples during the September 1 - December 15, 1999 removal of sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a reach of the Lower Fox River designated Sediment Management Unit (SMU) 56/57. Results of analyses of the samples, along with monitoring activities of several other organizations, were used to delineate and compare PCB mass pathways during the cleanup effort (fig. 1). Results indicate that the cleanup at SMU 56/57 had the following effect on PCB mass: dredging permanently removed more than 650 kg (1441 lb) of PCBs, transported 14.5 kg (32 lb) downstream, and volatilized 2.6 kg (5.7 lb) to the atmosphere; associated activities on the shore returned 0.1 kg (0.3 lb) to the river. This report documents the USGS data-collection efforts and details the mass-balance approach for PCB pathway delineation.

  11. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  12. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  13. Two-step bioleaching of copper and gold from discarded printed circuit boards (PCB).

    PubMed

    Işıldar, Arda; van de Vossenberg, Jack; Rene, Eldon R; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-11-01

    An effective strategy for environmentally sound biological recovery of copper and gold from discarded printed circuit boards (PCB) in a two-step bioleaching process was experimented. In the first step, chemolithotrophic acidophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were used. In the second step, cyanide-producing heterotrophic Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida were used. Results showed that at a 1% pulp density (10g/L PCB concentration), 98.4% of the copper was bioleached by a mixture of A. ferrivorans and A. thiooxidans at pH 1.0-1.6 and ambient temperature (23±2°C) in 7days. A pure culture of P. putida (strain WCS361) produced 21.5 (±1.5)mg/L cyanide with 10g/L glycine as the substrate. This gold complexing agent was used in the subsequent bioleaching step using the Cu-leached (by A. ferrivorans and A. thiooxidans) PCB material, 44.0% of the gold was mobilized in alkaline conditions at pH 7.3-8.6, and 30°C in 2days. This study provided a proof-of-concept of a two-step approach in metal bioleaching from PCB, by bacterially produced lixiviants.

  14. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  15. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-05-21

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  16. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste...

  17. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste...

  18. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste...

  19. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste...

  20. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-01-01

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices. PMID:27213402

  1. PCB contamination in soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, sources, and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Wan, Hongfu

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tropical and sub-tropical areas and the associated risks have attracted great concern. A total of 69 samples representing five distinct land types were collected to assess PCB concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, including spatial distributions in soils of the area, the probable anthropogenic sources, and related potential risks. PCBs concentrations in soils of the PRD ranged from 0.3 to 202 ng g(-1). More severe PCBs contamination was presented in the western part than in the eastern part of the PRD region. The PCBs were dominated by low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, the proportion of higher-chlorinated biphenyls was elevated with the influence of industrial activities. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs contamination in soils of the PRD region was mainly associated with 1#PCBs, while 2#PCB and e-waste emission in South China also accounted for it partly, especially to the industrial activity severely impacted areas. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the dioxin-like PCBs in the soils indicated that higher risk of PCB contamination was presented in the Dongjiang River Valley (55 ng TEQ kg(-1), on average) than in the Xijiang River Valley, and were mostly contributed by the congener of PCB126.

  2. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  3. THE OCCURRENCE OF HIGH LEVELS OF LIPIDS IN FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS FROM A HIGHLY PCB CONTAIMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population model constructed by Munns et al. (1997) for Fundulus heteroclitus predicts that populations in severely impacted ecosystems such as New Bedford Harbor, a highly PCB contaminated Superfund site, should be under severe stress. However, cursory assessment of the fish p...

  4. SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PCB ACCUMULATION IN A GREAT LAKES FOOD WEB. (R825151)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seston, sediment, settling organic matter, and food web members were
    collected from Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, between April 1997 and
    September 1998 to examine PCB and toxaphene biomagnification. Stable isotopes of
    nitrogen and carbon were analyzed in sampl...

  5. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate.

  6. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Blood Pressure in Relation to Concentrations of PCB Congeners and Chlorinated Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Pavuk, Marian; Foushee, Herman R.; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Residents of Anniston, Alabama, live near a Monsanto plant that manufactured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from 1929 to 1971 and are relatively heavily exposed. Objectives The goal of this study was to determine the relationship, if any, between blood pressure and levels of total serum PCBs, several PCB groups with common actions or structure, 35 individual PCB congeners, and nine chlorinated pesticides. Methods Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between blood pressure and serum levels of the various contaminants after adjustment for age, body mass index, sex, race, smoking, and exercise in 394 Anniston residents who were not taking antihypertensive medication. Results Other than age, total serum PCB concentration was the strongest determinant of blood pressure of the covariates studied. We found the strongest associations for those PCB congeners that had multiple ortho chlorines. We found the associations over the full range of blood pressure as well as in those subjects whose blood pressure was in the normal range. The chlorinated pesticides showed no consistent relationship to blood pressure. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, serum concentrations of PCBs, especially those congeners with multiple ortho chlorines, were strongly associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:21362590

  8. Occupational and environmental lead and PCB exposure at a scrap metal dealer

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, R.

    1995-07-01

    Blood lead levels (BPb) and serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels (PCB) were obtained from 17 employees at two adjacent scrap metal dealers. One facility was located outdoors, directly on top of soil known to be contaminated with lead and PCBs, and the other was located indoors with a concrete floor. BPbs ranged from 4.0 to 39.8 {mu}g/dl (mean 19.9 {mu}g/dl, geometric mean 17.5 {mu}g/dl) and PCB levels ranged from <1 to 65.3 ppb (mean 7.5 ppb). There was no significant difference in either BPb or serum PCB between the two sites. BPb was significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked at work, and both BPb and serum PCB were significantly related to eating lunch outside the lunchroom, suggesting hand-to-mouth contact as a source of exposure. The lack of difference in BPb between employees of the two scrap metal dealers suggests an ongoing source of lead exposure at the sites, other than the soil. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. DETERMINATION OF RATES AND EXTENT OF DECHLORINATION IN PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS DURING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This "Sediment Issue" summarizes investigations carried out by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of U.S. EPA to evaluate the long-term recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments via reductive dechlorination. The magnitude, extent, an...

  10. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or... sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste... contaminated by liquid PCBs in a facility that is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to...

  11. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cable; radio, television and computer casings; vehicle parts; or furniture laminates); preformed or... sealants; caulking; Galbestos; non-liquid building demolition debris; or non-liquid PCB bulk product waste... contaminated by liquid PCBs in a facility that is permitted, licensed, or registered by a State to...

  12. Fabrication and functionalization of PCB gold electrodes suitable for DNA-based electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Salvo, P; Henry, O Y F; Dhaenens, K; Acero Sanchez, J L; Gielen, A; Werne Solnestam, B; Lundeberg, J; O'Sullivan, C K; Vanfleteren, J

    2014-01-01

    The request of high specificity and selectivity sensors suitable for mass production is a constant demand in medical research. For applications in point-of-care diagnostics and therapy, there is a high demand for low cost and rapid sensing platforms. This paper describes the fabrication and functionalization of gold electrodes arrays for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The process can be implemented to produce efficiently a large number of biosensors. We report an electrolytic plating procedure to fabricate low-density gold microarrays on PCB suitable for electrochemical DNA detection in research fields such as cancer diagnostics or pharmacogenetics, where biosensors are usually targeted to detect a small number of genes. PCB technology allows producing high precision, fast and low cost microelectrodes. The surface of the microarray is functionalized with self-assembled monolayers of mercaptoundodecanoic acid or thiolated DNA. The PCB microarray is tested by cyclic voltammetry in presence of 5 mM of the redox probe K3Fe(CN6) in 0.1 M KCl. The voltammograms prove the correct immobilization of both the alkanethiol systems. The sensor is tested for detecting relevant markers for breast cancer. Results for 5 nM of the target TACSTD1 against the complementary TACSTD1 and non-complementary GRP, MYC, SCGB2A1, SCGB2A2, TOP2A probes show a remarkable detection limit of 0.05 nM and a high specificity.

  13. How much do PCB toxic equivalents account for PHAH toxicity in predatory birds?

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Murk, A J; Van den Berg, H; Walker, Lee A; Shore, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Various diffuse polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) exert common toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Apex predators spatially and temporally integrate diffuse contamination and simultaneous exposure can cause additive toxicity. We investigated the extent to which PCBs, still amongst the most prevalent PHAHs accumulated by predators, accounted for total PHAH toxicity in raptors and fish eating birds from Britain. We analysed egg or liver extracts from six species and compared chemically determined ΣPCB-TEQs concentrations with total AhR-mediated toxicity determined using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX-TEQ). Dioxin-like PCB profiles in eggs and livers were dominated by congeners 118, 105 and 167. ΣPCB-TEQ and CALUX-TEQ concentrations were positively associated but not in a 1:1 relationship. ΣPCB-TEQ were broadly similar to CALUX-TEQ concentrations in eggs and livers with CALUX-TEQ concentrations >50-80 and 160-320 pg g(-1) lipid respectively, but were lower than CALUX-TEQ concentrations in less contaminated samples.

  14. 9 CFR 590.502 - Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment. 590.502 Section 590.502 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  15. 9 CFR 590.502 - Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment. 590.502 Section 590.502 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  16. 9 CFR 590.502 - Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Equipment and utensils; PCB-containing equipment. 590.502 Section 590.502 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  17. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... composite is the measurement for the entire area. For example, when there is a composite of 10 standard wipe... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100 cm2, not just the area in the 10 cm by 10 cm sampled areas. (c) For small surfaces having...

  18. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... composite is the measurement for the entire area. For example, when there is a composite of 10 standard wipe... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100 cm2, not just the area in the 10 cm by 10 cm sampled areas. (c) For small surfaces having...

  19. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... composite is the measurement for the entire area. For example, when there is a composite of 10 standard wipe... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20 µg/100 cm2, not just the area in the 10 cm by 10 cm sampled areas. (c) For small surfaces having...

  20. Bone mineral density in Swedish otters (Lutra lutra) in relation to PCB and DDE concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna; Rigét, Frank; Orberg, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate if DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) or PCB (polybrominated diphenyls), are responsible for the pathological alterations observed in Swedish otter bone tissues. Femurs from 86 male otters collected between 1832 and 2004 were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Some otters had very high and others fairly low concentrations of OCs (ranging between 1.4-970 mg SigmaPCB/kg l.w. and 0.0-24 mg DDE/kg l.w. in muscle tissue). Positive relationships were found between three of the four cortical bone variables analysed (area, content and thickness) and SigmaPCB concentration, while no significant relationships with DDE concentration were found. None of the trabecular variables were significantly related to PCB or DDE concentration. Three of the four trabecular bone variables showed decreasing values in the beginning and increasing values at the end of period 1974-2004. No temporal trends were found for cortical bone variables. OC concentrations decreased between 1974 and 2004.