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Sample records for pcb aroclor 1254-induced

  1. Protective role of alpha lipoic acid against polychlorobiphenyl (Aroclor 1254)-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Güleş, Özay; Eren, Ülker

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant, biochemical, and histological effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. The rats were divided into five groups: In the control group, the rats were not administered any chemicals for 30 days. In the sham group, the rats were administered corn oil for 30 days. In the PCB group, the rats were administered with Aroclor 1254 for 30 days. In the ALA group, the rats were treated with ALA for 30 days. In the ALA+PCB group, the rats were treated with ALA 24 hours before Aroclor 1254 was administered for 30 days. The total oxidant status (TOS) level in the serum and testis, number of apoptotic cells, vacuolization at the basal membrane, immature spermatids in the tubular lumen, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) staining density, and abnormal spermatozoa were significantly increased in the PCB group. Moreover, in the PCB group, the seminiferous tubule diameter (STD) was decreased in stage VII-VIII and XII-XIV tubules. The TOS level in the serum and testis, vacuolization at the basal membrane, immature spermatids in the tubular lumen, and apoptosis were significantly decreased in the ALA+PCB groups. These findings suggested that ALA has a protective role against PCB-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27516018

  2. Extracellular signal-related kinase 2/specificity protein 1/specificity protein 3/repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor pathway is involved in Aroclor 1254-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Boscia, Francesca; Esposito, Alba; Secondo, Agnese; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause a wide spectrum of toxic effects in the brain through undefined mechanisms. Exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254) increases the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, leading to neuronal death. This study sought to understand the sequence of some molecular mechanisms to determine whether A1254 could increase REST expression and the cytoprotective effect of the phorbol ester tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) on A1254-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. As shown by Western blot analysis, A1254 (10 µg/ml) downregulates extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner, thereby triggering the binding of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp3 to the REST gene promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. This chain of events results in an increase in REST mRNA and cell death, as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and dimethylthiazolyl-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide assay, respectively. Accordingly, TPA prevented both the A1254-induced decrease in ERK2 phosphorylation and the A1254-induced increase in Sp1, Sp3, and REST protein expression. After 48 hr, TPA prevented A1254-induced cell death. ERK2 overexpression counteracted the A1254-induced increase in Sp1 and Sp3 protein expression and prevented A1254-induced Sp1 and Sp3 binding to the REST gene promoter, thus counteracting the increase in REST mRNA expression induced by the toxicant. In neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, ERK2/Sp1/SP3/REST is a new pathway underlying the neurotoxic effect of PCB. The ERK2/Sp1/Sp3/REST pathway, which underlies A1254-induced neuronal death, might represent a new drug signaling cascade in PCB-induced neuronal toxicity. PMID:25093670

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) induced changes in femur morphometry calcium metabolism and nephrotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. Fischer 344 rats were dosed daily IG for 5, 10, or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, liver weight and liver-to-body weight ratio were increased at the two higher dose levels. Overt toxicity was observed at the highest dose level after 10 and 15 weeks as evidenced by significantly smaller body weight. Urinary alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were elevated at 5, 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure and the kidney-to-body weight ratios were elevated at the 10 and 25 mg/kg dose levels after 10 and 15 weeks of exposure indicating nephrotoxicity. Hypercalcemia was present at the highest dose level after 5 and 10 weeks of exposure but serum calcium concentration was normal at 15 weeks. Serum triglycerides were significantly elevated after 5 weeks of exposure but were significantly decreased after 10 and 15 weeks of PCB exposure. Serum cholesterol was significantly elevated at the two higher dose levels at all three periods. The results demonstrate that PCB exposure effects calcium metabolism and bone morphometry and is nephrotoxic.

  4. EFFECT OF AROCLOR 1254 ON THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CREB AND CELL VIABILITY IN A PRIMARY CULTURE OF IMMATURE CORTICAL CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable work indicates that elevations in Ca2+ levels and kinase activity are sensitive responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are developmental neurotoxicants. In cortical cells in vitro the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces temporally and mechanistica...

  5. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-06-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (ΣPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure. PMID:23538476

  6. Repeated exposure of adult rats to Aroclor 1254 induces neuronal injury and impairs the neurochemical manifestations of the NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Hilgier, Wojciech; Łazarewicz, Jerzy W; Strużynska, Lidia; Frontczak-Baniewicz, Małgorzata; Albrecht, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Aroclor 1254 is a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of environmental toxins which cause a wide spectrum of neurotoxic effects. Learning and memory deficits are the profound effects of PCBs which may be related to hippocampal dysfunction. To get insight into the underlying neurochemical mechanisms, we employed the microdialysis technique to investigate the effect of repeated exposure of adult male Wistar rats to Aroclor 1254 (10mg/kg b.w., daily, ig., for 14days), on the neurochemical parameters of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus in vivo assessed using the microdialysis technique. The results demonstrated that exposure to Aroclor 1254, which was associated with substantial neuronal damage and loss in the hippocampus, markedly decreased the NMDA-induced extracellular accumulation of newly loaded (45)CaCl(2), cGMP and glutamate, and reduced the basal content of the NO precursor, arginine, indicating inhibition of the NMDA/NO/cGMP pathway. Aroclor 1254 exposure also decreased the basal microdialysate content of glutamate and glutamine, which may cause inadequate supply of the neurotransmitter glutamate, while the level of two other neuroactive amino acids, aspartate or taurine was not affected by the exposure. The results underscore neuronal lesion and inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic signaling in hippocampus as a potential major contributor to the cognitive deficits associated with exposure to PCB.

  7. GENERATING THE RIGHT PCB DATA DETERMINATION OF AROCLORS VERSUS PCB CONGENERS

    SciTech Connect

    NARQUIS CT; PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate. as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors'. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs. has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2.3.7.8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy. a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented.

  8. Generating the Right PCB Data: Determination of Aroclors Versus PCB Congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Prignano, A.L.; Narquis, C.T.; Hyatt, J.E.

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate, as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs, has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy, a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented. (authors)

  9. Uptake, retention, and elmination of PCB (Aroclor 1254) by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, R.J.; O'Conner, J.M.; Peters, L.S.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:Experiments to determine the rates of uptake and clearance of the PCB Aroclor 1254 in larvae of striped bass (Morone saxatilus) from the Hudson River in New York are described. Larval striped bass removed Aroclor 1254 from Hudson River water rapidly and nearly completely. More than 80% of the final Aroclor concentration was attained during the first 12 hr of exposure to contaminated water. However, Aroclor elimination from the fish was slow; less than 1% of the total Aroclor was released after 24 hr. (14 references, 1 table)

  10. L-Theanine alleviates the neuropathological changes induced by PCB (Aroclor 1254) via inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Asha, Deivasigamani; Nagarajan, Ganesan; Sreenivas, Arivazhagan; Nivedha, Rajendran

    2016-03-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective role of L-theanine on aroclor 1254-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Intraperitoneal administration of Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days) caused oxidative stress in rat brain and also caused neurobehavioral changes. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining the levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), protein carbonyl content, and changes in activities of creatine kinase (CK), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and ATPases in the hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex of control and experimental rats. Histopathological results showed that PCB caused neuronal loss in all three regions. PCB upregulated the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines. Oral administration of L-theanine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) increased the status of antioxidants, decreased the levels of LPO, nitric oxide (NO) and increased the activities of CK, AchE and ATPases. L-Theanine restored normal architecture of brain regions and downregulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, L-theanine shows a protective role against PCBs-induced oxidative damage in rat brain.

  11. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Lawson, W.G.

    1981-10-01

    Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.

  12. Lethal and sublethal effects of the sediment-associated PCB Aroclor 1254 on a meiobenthic copepod

    SciTech Connect

    DiPinto, L.M.; Coull, B.C.; Chandler, G.T. . Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Marine Science Program, and Belle W. Baruch Inst. for Marine Biology and Coastal Research)

    1993-10-01

    Acute toxicity tests were performed on field-collected copepods (Microarthridion littorale) using the sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 (i.e., PCB concentrations in bulk sediments in the bound and/or unbound states). Three replicates of 50 adult copepods were exposed to five levels of PCB-contaminated sediments for 96 h and compared to untreated controls and solvent controls. LC50 concentrations were nearly twice as high for females as for males. To determine the effects of the PCB on reproductive output of the copepods, copulating pairs of Microarthridion littorale were allowed to reproduce in concentrations of Aroclor 1254-contaminated sediments below LC50 values. Two experimental trials with 10 and 15 replicates, each with one pair of Microarthridion littorale in copulus, were conducted for 12 d, the normal time needed for females to produce one set of nauplii and carry a second clutch of eggs. In both experiments, a significant decrease in number of nauplii was found with Aroclor contamination. Although NOECs were not determined, high concentrations of the sediment-associated Aroclor NOECs were required to affect mortality significantly, whereas lower levels impaired reproduction.

  13. Speciation and quantitation of Aroclors based on PCB congener data: Application to California mussels and white croaker. [Mytilus californianus; Genyonemus lineatus

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, W.M. ); Koszdin, S. )

    1991-08-01

    A procedure for speciation and quantitation of Aroclors in capillary gas-liquid chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) chromatograms is described. Four pentachlorobiphenyls (IUPAC no. PCB-87, -110, -118, and -105) and three heptachlorobiphenyls (PCB-183, -180, and -170) are used as markers of Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260, respectively. The Aroclor content of samples is estimated by comparing the cogener composition with USEPA Aroclor reference materials. In this study, the selected congener approach to Aroclor determination is applied to both California marine mussels (Mytilus californianus and M. Edulis) and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) muscle. Both Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260 were present in these species, and the congener patterns matched the Aroclor reference materials closely. In cases where reporting Aroclors is not appropriate, e.g., highly weathered samples, the method also provides PCB congener data.

  14. Congener-based analysis of the weathering of PCB Aroclor 1242 in paper mill sludge.

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Boehm, Paul D

    2011-02-01

    Aroclor 1242 contains a high percentage of lightly chlorinated congeners, which makes it susceptible to congener profile alterations as a result of physical-chemical environmental weathering by water washing, evaporation, and volatilization. The analysis of the variability of congener profiles in paper sludge samples using PCA, mixing models, and correlation (R(2)) analysis, provided an integrated description of the behavior of Aroclor 1242 after its release in the environment. The results showed that the total PCB concentration decreased as the sample experienced weathering, with the congener profile of Aroclor 1242 shifting towards resembling heavier Aroclors as lighter congeners were lost. Mixing model analysis confirmed that a sample containing weathered Aroclor 1242 could easily be misidentified by laboratories as containing a mix of heavier Aroclors. The R(2) analysis showed that the profile of the congeners within a homologue group remained the same after weathering. This analysis showed that congeners that belong to the same level of chlorination behave similarly in such a manner that retains their overall profile when exposed to physical weathering.

  15. Uptake, retention, and elimination of PCB (Aroclor 1254) by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, R.J.; O'Connor, J.M.; Peters, L.S.

    1980-03-01

    Larval striped bass removed PCB from Hudson River water rapidly and nearly completely. The final whole-body concentration resulting from 48 h exposure to a single dose of /sup 14/C-Aroclor 1254 was 5.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry weight (HRW) and 5.0 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry weight (FHRW). Final concentrations in fish exposed to PCB in HRW and FHRW were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The transfer of PCB from water to fish was at a maximum at 48 h in HRW, at which time the fish had accumulated about 60% of the PCB available in the system (600 ng).

  16. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  17. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms for PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. In order to understand the role of these proposed mechanisms and to identify other mechanisms in PCB-induced neurotoxicity, we have chosen a global approach utilizing oligonucleotide microarrays to examine gene expression profiles in the brain following developmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 (0 or 6 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21) in Long-Evans rats. Gene expression levels in the cerebellum and hippocampus from PNDs 7 and 14 animals were determined on Affymetrix rat 230A{sub 2}.0 chips. In the cerebellum, 87 transcripts were altered at PND7 compared to 27 transcripts at PND14 by Aroclor 1254 exposure, with only one transcript affected at both ages. In hippocampus, 175 transcripts and 50 transcripts were altered at PND7 and PND14, respectively, by Aroclor 1254 exposure with five genes commonly affected. Functional analysis suggests that pathways related to calcium homeostasis (Gng3, Ryr2, Trdn, Cacna1a), intracellular signaling (Camk2d, Stk17b, Pacsin2, Ryr2, Trio, Fert2, Ptk2b), axonal guidance (Lum, Mxd3, Akap11, Gucy1b3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling (Nfia, Col1a2), and transcripts involved in cell proliferation (Gspt2, Cdkn1c, Ptk2b) and differentiation (Ifitm31, Hpca, Zfp260, Igsf4a, Hes5) leading to the development of nervous system were significantly altered by Aroclor 1254 exposure. Of the two brain regions examined, Aroclor 1254-induced genomic changes were greater in the hippocampus than the cerebellum. The genomic data suggests that PCB-induced neurotoxic effects were due to disruption of normal ontogenetic pattern of nervous system growth and development by altering intracellular signaling pathways

  18. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. CHANGES IN ENANTIOMERIC FRACTIONS DURING MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF PCB132, PCB149, AND AROCLOR 1254 IN LAKE HARTWELL SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantioselectivity of microbial reductive dechlorination of chiral PCBs in sediments from Lake Hartwell, SC, was determined by microcosm studies and enantiomer-specific GC analysis. Sediments from two locations in the vicinity of the highest levels of PCB contamination were used...

  20. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  1. Aroclor 1016

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1016 ; CASRN 12674 - 11 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Aroclor 1254

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1254 ; CASRN 11097 - 69 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Aroclor 1248

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1248 ; CASRN 12672 - 29 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Development of an oral cancer slope factor for Aroclor 1268.

    PubMed

    Warren, D Alan; Kerger, Brent D; Britt, Janice K; James, Robert C

    2004-08-01

    Rodent cancer bioassays indicate that substantial differences exist among PCB mixtures in terms of tumorigenic response, although no bioassay has been conducted with Aroclor 1268. The USEPA has used data from these studies to develop three sets of PCB cancer slope factors (CSFs) ranging from 0.07 to 2.0(mg/kg-day)(-1). Selection of the appropriate CSF for risk assessment purposes is largely a function of the exposure circumstances rather than the PCB mixture involved. Since the congener composition of Aroclor 1268 differs substantially from that of the predominant PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) used to derive the CSFs, the validity of applying existing CSFs to Aroclor 1268 is questionable. We have therefore undertaken the task of developing cancer potency estimates specifically for Aroclor 1268. Potency estimation approaches for Aroclor 1268 were based in part on existing potency estimates for other PCB mixtures, coupled with the relative 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) content and bioaccumulation potential of PCB mixtures. As such, both Ah-dependent and independent mechanisms of tumorigenesis were considered relevant. Both empirical evidence and mechanistic considerations indicate Aroclor 1268 is substantially less toxic and carcinogenic than the PCB mixtures that have been used by the USEPA to develop CSFs. The present analysis indicates that Aroclor 1268 is likely to be 1-2 orders of magnitude less potent than Aroclor 1254 in terms of potential tumorigenicity. Therefore, we suggest an upper-bound cancer potency factor of 0.27(mg/kg-day)(-1) for Aroclor 1268, a value that is 7- to 8-fold lower than the USEPA's current default, but nonetheless adequately conservative.

  5. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  7. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  8. PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Are polychlorinated biphenyl residues adequately describe by aroclor mixture equivalents. Isomer-specific principal components analysis of such residues in fish and turtles

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L.; Rice, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues from fish and turtles were analyzed with SIMCA (Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy), a principal components analysis technique. A series of technical Aroclors were also analyzed to provide a reference data set for pattern recognition. Environmental PCB residues are often expressed in terms of relative Aroclor composition. In this work, we assessed the similarity of Aroclors to class models derived for fish and turtles to ascertain if the PCB residues in the samples could be described by an Aroclor or Aroclor mixture. Using PCA, we found that these samples could not be described by an Aroclor or Aroclor mixture and that it would be inappropriate to report these samples as such. 18 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present. PMID:23862721

  11. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  12. Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    SciTech Connect

    Brieger, G.; Hunter, R.D. )

    1993-10-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

  13. Uptake and depuration of PCB 77, PCB 169, and hexachlorobenzene by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Brieger, G; Hunter, R D

    1993-10-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were examined for their ability to take up and depurate hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) in the laboratory. The intent was to investigate response to acute exposure at high contaminant levels and to observe the time course of depuration. Tissue loads of all three compounds taken up from food increased rapidly and peaked after 10 (PCB 169), 14 (PCB 77), and 21 (HCB) days followed by rapid depuration to equilibrium levels. Peak tissue loads were 3.7, 3.4, and 3.6 micrograms/g for PCB 169, PCB 77, and HCB, respectively (wet weight basis). Equilibrium levels were approximately 1.0 microgram/g for both PCB 169 and HCB. Uptake rate of PCB 77 followed the order: sediment > food > water. Dreissena sampled from five Great Lakes field sites had tissue Aroclor loads ranging from 120 to 530 ng/g for Aroclor 1242 and 33 to 270 ng/g for Aroclor 1254 (wet weight basis). PCB 77 was detected at 1.9 ng/g at one site. Tissue levels for both Aroclors in Dreissena were approximately 10 times those of Lampsilis siliquoidea, a unionid bivalve to which they were attached. Where Dreissena reaches high densities, it is likely to play a significant role in contaminant dynamics.

  14. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclors 1254 and 1016) on fertilization efficiency in Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, R.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure of the eggs of the purple sea urchin Arbacia punctulata to two of the commonly-occurring commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors 1254 and 1016. Eggs were exposed to PCB's 25 minutes prior to insemination and continuously thereafter. The PCB's were administered as a component of a filtered-sea-water medium (FSW). Since Arbacia eggs cleave synchronously following insemination, the percentage of eggs cleaving at 1.75 hr post-insemination was used to determine the fertilization efficiency. Toxicant concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L were employed for both Aroclors. A FSW control and a FSW-acetone control was employed since acetone was used in a 49:1, acetone:PCB ratio, to emulsify the PCB's. Differences in control and PCB exposed groups were tested using Chi square at a 95% level of confidence. Both PCB's affected the fertilization efficiency once the threshold was achieved. The Aroclor 1016 proved to be much more toxic than Aroclor 1254. These results agree with the data previously achieved using Hydraologactis as the experimental organism.

  15. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  16. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on oxidative stress in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Gillardin, Virginie; Silvestre, Frédéric; Divoy, Céline; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Kestemont, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decades, amphibians decline has been reported worldwide. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is one of the possible causes in addition to climate changes, UV-radiation or habitat destruction. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PCBs could induce oxidative stress in young tadpoles. Developing Xenopus laevis were exposed from 2- to 5-d postfertilization (pf) to 0.1 or 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx, GR activities and t-GSH level) were investigated in whole organisms. Exposure to both concentrations did not impact on the survival and development whereas the average body weight decreased. Exposure to 1 mg/l of Aroclor 1254 induced a significant (p<0.05) increase of GST activity when compared to controls 0 and DMSO. The other antioxidant enzymes and LPO evaluation remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate that exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254 interfere with normal growth. They also highlight that very young X. laevis tadpoles express antioxidant systems. PMID:18407353

  17. PCB biodegradation: Laboratory studies transitioned into the field

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    Two distinct bacterial systems are known to be involved in PCB biotransformations. Both aerobic PCB biodegradation (Oxidative attack) and anaerobic PCB dechlorination (reductive attack) have been demonstrated in the laboratory. These results have been successfully reproducted in recent experiments performed in aquatic sediments. In 1991, GE performed a large scale test of in situ aerobic PCB biodegradation in the Upper Hudson River. The experiments involved six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into Aroclor 1242 contaminated sediments that had already undergone extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Stimulation of indigenous PCB-degrading microorganisms resulted in >50% biodegradation over 10 weeks. A large scale stimulation of in situ anaerobic PCB dechlorination in Housatonic River sediments contaminated with untransformed Aroclor 1260 was initiated in 1992. The experiments similarly involve six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into contaminated sediments to investigate new methods developed to accelerate PCB dechlorination in the field. Preliminary results from this ongoing field test will be discussed.

  18. Biomagnification of Aroclor 1242 in Decomposing Spartina Litter †

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, Andrew C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1242) in the process of detritus formation by a shredded marshgrass (Spartina alterniflora) under aerobic conditions was monitored in percolators for 4 months at 20°C. Dissolved PCB in the influent solution was 14 to 16 μg/liter. Parameters monitored in addition to PCB accumulation were CO2 evolution, NH4+ uptake, NO3− production, and total organic nitrogen and carbon in the effluent. An NaN3− poisoned control served to assess nonbiological PCB absorption. Up to 90% of the PCB dissolved in the influent water was removed by the biologically active detritus. Biomagnification resulted in three to four times higher PCB concentrations in the active detritus than in the abiotic control. Evolution of CO2 was slightly depressed by PCB, but the overall quality (C:N ratio) of the detritus was not affected. The results indicate that bioaccumulation of PCB in detritus is an important means of entry for this pollutant into estuarine food webs. PMID:16346096

  19. Biomagnification of Aroclor 1242 in decomposing Spartina litter

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, A.C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-09-01

    The accumulation of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1242) in the process of detritus formation by a shredded marshgrass (Spartina alterniflora) under aerobic conditions was monitored in percolators for 4 months at 20/sup 0/C. Dissolved PCB in the influent solution was 14 to 16 ..mu..g/liter. Parameters monitored in addition to PCB accumulation were CO/sub 2/ evolution, NH/sub 4//sup +/ uptake, NO/sub 3//sup -/ production, and total organic nitrogen and carbon in the effluent. An NaN/sub 3//sup -/ poisoned control served to assess nonbiological PCB absorption. Up to 90% of the PCB dissolved in the influent water was removed by the biologically active detritus. Biomagnification resulted in three to four times higher PCB concentrations in the active detritus than in the abiotic control. Evolution of CO/sub 2/ was slightly depressed by PCB, but the overall quality (C:N ratio) of the detritus was not affected. The results indicate that bioaccumulation of PCB in detritus is an important means of entry for this pollutant into estuarine food webs.

  20. Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Lindell, Angela H; Schweitzer, Sara H; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2015-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and the rare PCB mixture Aroclor 1268 in least terns (Sternula antillarum), a colonially-nesting, piscivorous seabird, in the Turtle River estuary and other coastal sites in Georgia, USA, were investigated. The Turtle River estuary is the location of the Linden Chemical Plant (LCP) Superfund site, a site prioritized by USA law for immediate remediation, where industries released effluent containing these contaminants until 1994. Aroclor 1268 is a highly-chlorinated PCB mixture that was used and released exclusively at the LCP site and nowhere else in the south eastern USA. High concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners and mercury have been documented in biota local to LCP, but no studies report concentrations in high trophic level, piscivorous birds such as least terns. We collected feathers and feces from chicks, and eggs from adults, at nesting colonies along the Georgia coast to analyze contaminant loads (in dry weight ppb). Mean Aroclor 1268 mixture concentrations in eggs (≤16,329 ppb) were highest at colonies in and just outside LCP, and decreased with increasing distance (up to 110 km) from LCP, but the Aroclor 1268 signature congener mixture was present at all sites. Mercury concentrations in eggs (≤3370 ppb), feathers (≤5950 ppb), and feces (≤417 ppb), were present at all sites, but did not vary significantly among sites. This report confirms the extensive dispersal of Aroclor 1268 congeners (approximately 110 km north and 70 km south of its point source) via bioaccumulation and trophic transfer. PMID:26166752

  1. gamma. Irradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N. )

    1990-09-01

    {gamma}Irradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied.

  2. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  3. Alkoxyresorufin metabolism in white-footed mice at relevant environmental concentrations of Aroclor 1254

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.; McKee, M.J. )

    1992-10-01

    Recent investigations have detected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens in wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) captured at hazardous waste sites. Insufficient information is currently available to interpret the toxicological significance of these body burdens. In an effort to provide this information, we investigated hepatic changes and PCB body burdens in white-footed mice following a 21-day dietary exposure to a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. Dietary concentrations tested were 0, 2.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg diet (reported as ppm). Liver weights were significantly increased at all concentrations except 2.5 ppm. Ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, an aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase-type substrate, was significantly increased at all PCB concentrations, but the dose-response tended to plateau above 25 ppm. Pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity, a putative phenobarbital-type substrate, was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner at 25 ppm PCB and above, with no plateau response. Pentobarbital sleep time was significantly decreased at 25 ppm, but not at 2.5 ppm. Results indicate white-footed mice undergo a mixed-type induction pattern following exposure to Aroclor 1254, with EROD the most sensitive indicator of PCB exposure. This investigation identified a no observed effect concentration for liver weights and PROD activity at 2.5 ppm in the diet which is equivalent to a body burden of 2.0 mg Aroclor 1254/kg wet wt of mice; the no observed effect concentration for EROD is below these levels. These results support the use of EROD, PROD, and liver weight as biomarkers of PCB exposure in field-captured rodents.

  4. Uptake and concentration factor af Aroclor 1254 in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, J.A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1983-10-01

    There are several factors that affect PCB bioaccumulation. These include: concentration in the surrounding environment; duration of exposure; temperature; solubility of the pollutant; species age, weight, feeding habits and lipid content; trophic level variations; and adsorption. Bioaccumulation can occur either through ingestion of contaminated food organisms or by direct absorption through the integument. Higher concentrations of PCBs have been found in plankton than in fish, indicating that direct absorption is the primary route of accumulation. This investigation was conducted to follow the uptake and concentration factor (CF) of Aroclor 1254 in selected organisms representing a simple aquatic ecosystem.

  5. Catalytic dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Sai; Baig, Shams Ali; Tang, Jie; Xu, Xinhua

    2012-11-01

    Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized for treatment of Aroclor 1242, in order to evaluate their applicability for in situ remediation of groundwater and soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our experimental results indicate that the total PCB concentration changed during the reduction of 3,5-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 14), and biphenyl was produced as the final product. Initially, the concentration of 3-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 2) was increased in the prophase reaction and then slowly decreased, suggesting that Aroclor 1242 was first adsorbed by Ni/Fe nanoparticles, and then, the higher chlorinated congeners were converted gradually to the lower chlorinated congeners, and finally to biphenyl. The dechlorination efficiency of Aroclor 1242 reached approximately 80% at 25°C in just 5h, then 95.6% and 95.8% in 10h and 24h, respectively. The study revealed that high Ni/Fe nanoparticle dosage and high Ni content in Ni/Fe nanoparticles favor the catalytic dechlorination reaction. Moreover, a comparison of different types of catalysts on the dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 indicated that Ni/Mg and Mg powders showed a greater reactivity than Ni/Fe and Fe nanoparticles, respectively.

  6. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. PMID:26313468

  7. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  8. YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunsung; Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Lim, Yong Kwang; Jung, Jong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ha, Jong Ryul; Chae, Jong Seok; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by Aroclor1254, because both components have been suggested to modulate oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may be critical targets for understanding the pathogenesis of ADHD. YY162 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in BDNF levels induced by Aroclor1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. YY162 significantly attenuated Aroclor1254-induced ADHD-like behavior and oxidative stress in ICR mice. Furthermore, YY162 attenuated reductions in p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression. These attenuating effects of YY162 were comparable to those of MP. Importantly, K252a, a TrkB antagonist, counteracted the protective effects of YY162. Our results suggest that YY162 possesses significant protective activities against ADHD-like conditions with negligible behavioral side effects, and that interactive signaling between antioxidant potential and BDNF/TrkB receptor for the positive modulation of the DAT and NET is important for YY162-mediated neuroprotective activity. PMID:24394491

  9. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  10. Environmental and health hazards from recycling PCB sources

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, foliage, earthworms, and small rodents from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of PCB's. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCB's were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCB's found to be present in the contaminated areas and in the waste oil closely resembled Aroclor 1260. Soil samples taken from depths of 2-4 in showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were 0.05 ppm, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppm. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas. (10 references, 2 tables)

  11. Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, K M; Principe, J M

    1994-01-01

    A microcosm system to physically model the fate of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River sediment was developed. In the dark at 22 to 25 degrees C with no amendments (nutrients, organisms, or mixing) and with overlying water being the only source of oxygen, the microcosms developed visibly distinct aerobic and anaerobic compartments in 2 to 4 weeks. Extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was observed in 140 days. Autoclaved controls were unchanged throughout the experiments. In the surface sediments of these microcosms, the PCBs were biologically altered by both aerobic biodegrading and reductive dechlorinating microorganisms, decreasing the total concentration from 64.8 to 18.0 micromol/kg of sediment in 1140 days. This is the first laboratory demonstration of meta dechlorination plus aerobic biodegradation in stationary sediments. In contrast, the primary mechanism of microbiological attack on PCBs in aerobic subsurface sediments was reductive dechlorination. The concentration of PCBs remained constant at 64.8 micromol/kg of sediment, but the average number of chlorines per biphenyl decreased from 3.11 to 1.84 in 140 days. The selectivities of microorganisms in these sediments were characterized by meta and para dechlorination. Our results provide persuasive evidence that naturally occurring microorganisms in the Hudson River have the potential to attack the PCBs from Aroclor 1242 releases both aerobically and anaerobically at rapid rates. These unamended microcosms represent a unique method for determining the fate of released PCBs in river sediments. PMID:7811068

  12. Aroclor 1254 residues in birds: Lethal levels and loss rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Lethal residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm of Aroclor 1254) until one-half had died, sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. For all species, residues of 310 ppm or higher in the brain showed increasing likelihood of death from PCB poisoning. Residues in dead birds did not differ among species except for starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ), which averaged slightly lower than the others. However, the species differed in the length of time to 50% mortality and in the levels of PCBs in brains at sacrifice.

  13. Formulation and characterization of an experimental PCB mixture designed to mimic human exposure from contaminated fish.

    PubMed

    Kostyniak, Paul J; Hansen, Larry G; Widholm, John J; Fitzpatrick, Rich D; Olson, James R; Helferich, Jennifer L; Kim, Kyung Ho; Sable, Helen J K; Seegal, Rich F; Pessah, Isaac N; Schantz, Susan L

    2005-12-01

    Each environmental exposure matrix contains a unique mixture of PCB congeners. Since several congener types have multiple and distinct biological actions, it is important to characterize congener profiles in exposure sources. The Fox River Environment and Diet Study (FRIENDS) is assessing the human health effects of consumption of PCB-contaminated fish from the Fox River in northeastern Wisconsin. Concurrent laboratory studies required the formulation of a dosing solution which closely mimicked the human PCB exposure from fish. PCB congener profiles from Fox River walleye were compared to profiles for various theoretical mixtures having different relative percentages of Aroclors by weight. The theoretical mixture which provided the best approximation of the Fox River fish PCB profile contained 35% 1242, 35% 1248, 15% 1254, and 15% 1260. A PCB mixture was formulated to match this theoretical construct, and the congener profile for the mixture of Aroclors was determined by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD). The relative percent of each congener was compared to the PCB congener profile of the theoretical Aroclor mixture and that for Fox River walleye. The specific congeners differed on average by 17% from the theoretical Aroclor mixture predicted values, and the specific congeners measured in the mixture were on average within 71% of those reported for Fox River fish. The mixture was found to have relatively low AhR activity but high RyR activity. Indirect comparisons suggest that in vivo toxicity was slightly greater than that for Aroclor 1254. This illustrates that Aroclor mixtures are useful for formulating dosing solutions which closely approximate actual environmental exposures.

  14. Differential effects of two lots of aroclor 1254: congener-specific analysis and neurochemical end points.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, P R; Kannan, N; Yamashita, N; Derr-Yellin, E C; Ward, T R; Burgin, D E; Tilson, H A; Birnbaum, L S

    2001-01-01

    Aroclor 1254 is a widely studied commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture which, by definition, contains 54% chlorine by weight. Recent reports indicate substantial differences in the congener composition among Aroclor lots and hence their biologic effects. We designed the current study to compare the effects of two lots of Aroclor 1254 (lots 6024 and 124-191). We analyzed these two lots for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). We used previously established techniques for analyzing intracellular Ca(2+) buffering and protein kinase C (PKC) translocation to test their biologic activity in neuronal preparations. PCB congener-specific analysis indicated that ortho and non-ortho congeners in these two lots varied in their percent contribution. Among all congeners, the percentages of non-ortho congeners (PCBs 77, 81, 126, and 169) were higher in lot 6024 (2.9% of total) than in lot 124-191 (0.02% of total). We detected no dioxins in these two lots (< 2 ppb). Although there are some differences in the congener composition, total PCNs were similar in both lots: 171 ppm in lot 6024 and 155 ppm in lot 124-191. However, total PCDFs were higher in lot 6024 (38.7 ppm) than in lot 124-191 (11.3 ppm). When we tested these two Aroclors on Ca(2+) buffering and PKC translocation in brain preparations, the effects were significantly different. Although lot 124-191 was more potent on PKC translocation than lot 6024, lot 6024 was slightly more active on Ca(2+) buffering than lot 124-191. These effects could not be attributed to the differences in the percentage of non-ortho congeners or PCDFs because they were inactive on these two parameters. The effects could not be attributed to PCNs because the levels were almost similar. The effects seen with two lots of Aroclor 1254 in neuronal cells were also not predicted based on the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), although TEQs predicted

  15. Metabolism of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1254, by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    SciTech Connect

    Sansur, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the role of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, often associated with polluted aquatic ecosystem, in metabolizing the PCBs Aroclor 1254. The results indicated the ability of the fungus in mineralizing Aroclor 1254 into CO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/O at a rate of 0.053%-0.111% in seven days. PCBs with five or more chlorine atoms were incorporated into the fungal biomass by 48 hours after incubation. Lower chlorinated isomers were preferentially degraded after seven days of incubation. The presence of 1 gl/sup -1/D-dextose enhanced PCB degradation. Total soluble protein concentration was 24% below the controls after seven days of incubation in the presence of 5 mg l/sup -1/ Aroclor 1254. Protein analysis by 10% SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of Cytochrome P-450 like proteins at concentrations 40% above the control at 24 hours decreasing to levels below the controls by seven days. In contrast, Cytochrome P-448 like proteins gradually increased to 692% of the controls by seven days. Changes in the electrophoretic patterns and concentration of many proteins were also evident after treatment with Aroclor 1254.

  16. Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls isolated from Aroclor and Clophen technical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2008-03-01

    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) is promising as a novel and powerful method for monitoring in situ degradation of organochlorines in the environment and for source fingerprinting purposes. In order to apply CSIA-Cl in field studies of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorine isotopic composition (delta(37)Cl) of individual PCB congeners in source materials must be known. In the present study, we determined delta(37)Cl of 18 congeners isolated from three widely produced technical mixtures. All congeners provided delta(37)Cl ranging between -1.9 per thousand and -3.5 per thousand. Although the comparable products Aroclor 1242 (-2.0 per thousand to -2.5 per thousand) and Clophen A30 (-1.9 per thousand to -3.0 per thousand) were synthesized by different industries, they provided similar delta(37)Cl for the same type of congeners. On the contrary, the more chlorinated congeners present in Aroclor 1254 (-2.1 to -3.5 per thousand) were more (37)Cl depleted compared to Aroclor 1242 manufactured by the same company. Overall, delta(37)Cl of PCB congeners decreased by -0.26 per thousand for each additional chlorine atom.

  17. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  18. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  19. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression ({>=} 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans.

  1. Accumulation of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1242 from contaminated detritus and water by the saltmarsh detritivore, Uca pugnax

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, A.C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-09-01

    The uptake of Aroclor 1242 from ingested detritus and in contaminated water is compared in the fiddler crab. Analysis was by gas chromatography. Results show that uptake from water was about one-half that of the uptake from PCB-laden (85 ng/g dry wt) detritus after 34 days. Respiration and egestion rates may not be the only factors controlling accumulation and concentration. The concentration of PCBs in detritus may have a major effect. (JMT)

  2. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  3. Preliminary assessment of PCB risks to human and ecological health in the lower Passaic River.

    PubMed

    Finley, B L; Trowbridge, K R; Burton, S; Proctor, D M; Panko, J M; Paustenbach, D J

    1997-10-10

    Concentrations of Aroclor mixtures and specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in surface sediments and aquatic biota (striped bass fillet, mummichog, and blue crab muscle and hepatopancreas) collected from the lower Passaic River. Several of the 47 surface sediment samples contained Aroclor concentrations that exceeded a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) benchmark level for "total PCBs" (22.7 micrograms/kg). Each of the 18 PCB congeners analyzed in aquatic biota was detected in one or more tissue samples, and numerous congeners were detected in every sample (IUPAC numbers 77, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, and 189). PCB congener concentrations were similar to those that have been reported in fish from other waterways that contain elevated levels of PCBs. Congener 118 was present at the highest concentration in almost all samples, and constituted 14-60% of the total PCB mass (sum of all congener masses) measured in any given tissue sample. In spite of the prevalence of PCB congeners in biota tissues (up to 1314 micrograms/kg total PCBs), Aroclors were not detected in bass or crab samples at a limit of detection of 33-55 micrograms/kg. This anomaly may be due to selective degradation of certain PCB congeners that are used to analytically recognize and quantitate Aroclors. Using the measured sediment concentrations, a food web model accurately predicted blue crab muscle concentrations of individual PCB congeners (typically within a factor of two) and was also fairly accurate for mummichog (typically within an order of magnitude). Concentrations in striped bass fillet were underestimated by factors of approximately 20-140. Increased cancer risk estimates associated with fish and crab consumption were obtained using four different methods. Using Aroclor tissue concentrations (one-half the limit of detection) and an Aroclor slope factor, total risks were 2.6 x 10(-6); using the "total PCB" measurements and an Aroclor

  4. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; States, J. Christopher; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:24998970

  5. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m−3 to 5500 pg m−3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

  6. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2010-04-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m -3 to 5500 pg m -3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like or neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

  7. EVIDENCE THAT CA2+ SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (CREB) ACTIVITIES STIMULATED BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARE LOCALIZED TO DEVELOPING NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a mixed culture of neonatal cortical cells, we have demonstrated that the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces complex Ca2+i signals involving multiple receptors/channels (Inglefield and Shafer, J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 295:105) and also activates/ p...

  8. Treatment of Aroclor 1016 contaminated soil by hydrogen peroxide: laboratory column study.

    PubMed

    Viisimaa, Marika; Veressinina, Jelena; Goi, Anna

    2012-09-01

    The potential and feasibility of treating soil contaminated with electrical insulating oil, Aroclor 1016, containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with stabilized hydrogen peroxide were evaluated using columns packed with soils of two different matrixes. The column experiments showed that PCBs degraded by the stabilized hydrogen peroxide treatment in both soil matrixes, although the efficacy of the treatment depended strongly on the soil characteristics. The removal of PCB-containing oil was higher in sandy silt soil than in sandy soil. While a higher iron content promoted hydrogen peroxide oxidation of the contaminant in sandy silt soil, lower permeability and higher organic matter content contributed to an oxidation decrease as a function of depth. Dehydrogenase activity measurements indicated no substantial changes in microbial activity during the treatment of both sandy and sandy silt soils, thus offering opportunities to apply the hydrogen peroxide treatment to the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  9. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Bacterial degradation of Aroclor 1242 in the mycorrhizosphere soils of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming; Feng, Youzhi

    2014-11-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species Acaulospora laevis, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus mosseae, on the soil bacterial community responsible for Aroclor 1242 dissipation. The dissipation rates of Aroclor 1242 and soil bacteria abundance were much higher with the A. laevis and G. mosseae treatments compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. The biphenyl dioxygenase (bphA) and Rhodococcus-like 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase (bphC) genes were more abundant in AM inoculated soils, suggesting that the bphA and Rhodococcus-like bphC pathways play an important role in Aroclor 1242 dissipation in the mycorrhizosphere. The soil bacterial communities were dominated by classes Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the relative proportion of Actinobacteria was significantly (F=2.288, P<0.05) correlated with the PCB congener profile in bulk soil. Our results showed that AM fungi could enhance PCB dissipation by stimulating bph gene abundance and the growth of specific bacterial groups.

  11. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, D.T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread aquatic contaminant and are present in both wild and hatchery raised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The possible sub-lethal alterations in smolt physiology and behavior due to PCB exposure of salmon have not been widely examined. In this study, we examined the effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 on survival and smolt development of Atlantic salmon. In separate experiments, fish were exposed as yolk-sac larvae or as juveniles just prior to the parr-smolt transformation in April to 1 ??g l-1 (PCB-1) or 10 ??g l-1 (PCB-10) aqueous Aroclor 1254 (A1254), or vehicle for 21 days. After exposure, yolk-sac larvae were reared at ambient conditions for 1 year, until the peak of smolting the following May. Juveniles were sampled immediately after exposure. Both groups were assessed for behavioral, osmoregulatory, and endocrine disruption of smolt development at the peak of smolting. PCB-1 and PCB-10 treated yolk-sac larvae exhibited significant increases in the rate of opercular movement after 14 and 21 days of exposure. At the peak of smolting, prior exposure as yolk-sac larvae to PCB-1 did not affect behavior, while PCB-10 dramatically decreased volitional preference for seawater. Neither concentration of A1254 had long-term effects on the osmoregulatory or endocrine parameters measured in animals exposed as yolk-sac larvae. Juvenile fish exposed to PCB-1 or PCB-10 during smolting exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in preference for seawater. Fish treated with the higher dose of A1254 also exhibited a 50% decrease in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and a 10% decrease in plasma chloride levels in freshwater. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine was reduced 35-50% and plasma cortisol 58% in response to exposure to either concentration; whereas plasma thyroxine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to A1254 may vary according to

  12. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  13. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival.

  14. Aroclor 1254 inhibits the chemiluminescence response of peritoneal cavity cells from sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo).

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Mirella; Reas, Gabriele; Cammarata, Matteo; Arizza, Vincenzo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2014-08-01

    Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect the immune system of fish and could lead to a decreased disease resistance. The effects of Aroclor 1254, PCB mixtures, on the Diplodus puntazzo innate immunity were examined by assaying the zymosan stimulated chemiluminescence response (CL) of peritoneal cavity cells (PCCs) at various times (1, 24, 48 h and 1-4 weeks) from intraperitoneal injection of the xenobiotic (1 mg kg(-1) body weight). Controls were performed by assaying cells from medium-treated fish. Since the kinetic of the chemiluminescence response showed the highest peak at 25 min after the zymosan stimulation of the cells, the values found at that time were considered. The CL enhancement observed at 1 h after the treatment with xenobiotic was followed by a decreased response at 24 h and appeared to be lower at 1-4 weeks when compared to the CL response of the control, suggesting a protracted effect of PCBs on the peritoneal cavity. Since PCCs incubated in vitro for 1 h with 0.05 and 0.1 μg ml(-1) Aroclor showed an enhanced CL, the effect of the xenobiotic could be exerted on the cell responsiveness to zymosan. It is known that fish CL response of PCCs can be imputed to phagocyte (macrophages and neutrophils) activation, these cells and their responsiveness to zymosan can be used in immunotoxicology assay to monitor the fish health in polluted environment. PMID:24945575

  15. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival. PMID:25893686

  16. Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

  17. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous arctic char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  18. Effect of dose on the inhibition of carcinogenesis/mutagenesis by aroclor 1254 in rainbow trout fed aflatoxin B/sub 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.W.; Hendricks, J.D.; Coulombe, R.A.; Bailey, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that Aroclor 1254 (PCB) differentially alters the incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) induced hepatocellular carcinomas in trout, depending upon the time of PCB administration relative to AFB/sub 1/ exposure. When fed simultaneously with AFB/sub 1/, PCB inhibits carcinoma incidence. The effect of AFB/sub 1/ and PCB dose on this inhibition was investigated. Duplicate tanks of 100 rainbow trout were fed AFB/sub 1/ at concentrations of 1, 4, or 8 ppb, either with or without the addition of 50 ppm PCB. Other groups were fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB, 50 ppm PCB alone, or control diet alone. After 9 and 12 mo, 40 and 60 fish per tank, respectively, were sampled to determine the incidence of liver tumors. The results show a parallel inhibition of the AFB/sub 1/-tumor dose-response curve by the presence of 50 ppm PCB. Fish fed 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ + 5 ppm PCB showed slight inhibition in response when compared with 4 ppb AFB/sub 1/ alone. Also, livers from fish fed 50 ppm PCB were used to prepare S20 for use in the Salmonella mutagenesis assay. These livers were less efficient in converting AFB/sub 1/ to a mutagen, when compared to control S20. The AFB/sub 1/-mutagenesis dose-response curve was again shifted parallel to the right of the curve generated using control S20. These results suggest that the inhibitory action is at least partly at the level of carcinogen activation. The finding of parallel, as opposed to proportional, inhibition with varying carcinogen exposure for certain classes of inhibitors may have important implications for inhibition of environmental carcinogenesis at low levels of carcinogen exposure. 26 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor< 1254) residues in rainbow trout: effects on sensitivity to nine fishery chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Mauck, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of background polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on the susceptibility of the fish to nine chemicals routinely or occasionally used in fishery operations was evaluated. Rainbow trout fry were divided into three groups: one was exposed to 0.01 ppb and another to 0.1 ppb of the PCB Aroclor (R) 1254; the third (control) group was unexposed. After 30 days of exposure, whole body residues were 0.28 and 2.31 ppm for fish exposed to 0.01 and 0.1 ppb, respectively; control fish had residue concentrations of 0.04 ppm. Acute toxicity tests showed that both groups of exposed fish were more sensitive to rotenone and 2,4-D. Exposure did not significantly affect sensitivity to 2-[digeranylamino]-ethanol (GD-174), 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), nifurpirinol (Furanace), tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222), or copper sulfate. Fishery managers should be aware that sensitivity of fish to control chemicals may be altered by the presence of contaminants in the water or residues of contaminants in the fish.

  1. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  2. The Three-Species Consortium of Genetically Improved Strains Cupriavidus necator RW112, Burkholderia xenovorans RW118, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes RW120 Grows with Technical Polychlorobiphenyl, Aroclor 1242

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Verónica; Lang, Elke; Wittich, Regina-Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Cupriavidus necator H850, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 are bacterial strains able to mineralize biphenyl and to co-oxidize many of its halogenated derivatives (PCBs). Only strain LB400 also mineralizes a few mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, due to the presence of a functioning chlorocatechol pathway. Here, we used a Tn5-based minitransposon shuttle system to chromosomically introduce genes tcbRCDEF, encoding the chlorocatechol pathway into KF707, and genes cbdABC encoding a 2-chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase into KF707 and LB400, as well as transposon Tn4653 from the TOL plasmid, providing genes xylXYZL, encoding a broad-range toluate (methylbenzoate) dioxygenase and its dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, to extend the range for the mineralization of halogenated benzoates in LB400 and in KF707 through co-oxidation of halobenzoates into chlorocatechols. The engineered derivatives of LB400 and KF707 thus gained the ability for the mineralization of all isomeric monochloro- and bromobenzoates of the so-called lower pathway which, consequently, also allowed the mineralization of all monochlorobiphenyls and a number of di- and trichlorobiphenyls, thus preventing the accumulation of halobenzoates and of catabolites thereof. LB400 and KF707 also grow with the two commercial PCB formulations, Aroclor 1221 and Aroclor 1232, as the sole carbon and energy sources, but not with higher halogenated PCB mixtures, similar to the already published strain RW112. Repeated exposition of the modified LB400 to short pulses of UV light, over a prolonged period of time, allowed the isolation of a derivative of LB400, termed RW118, capable of growth with Aroclor 1016 still containing only traces of biphenyl, and in co-culture with modified KF707 termed RW120, and modified H850 (RW112) with Aroclor 1242, the commercial mixture already void of biphenyl and monochlorobiphenyls. PMID:23658554

  3. Effects of Aroclor 1254 and No. 2 fuel oil, singly and in combination, on predator-prey interactions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    SciTech Connect

    Folmar, L.C.; Hodgins, H.O.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of No. 2 fuel oil on predator-prey interactions of coho salmon were examined. Since aquatic organisms under natural conditions are simultaneously exposed to more than one toxicant, the effects of fuel oil plus polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also evaluated. Experimental fish were either injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 g/kg Aroclor 1254, exposed to fuel oil in seawater, or injected with PCB and then exposed to fuel oil. Most of the fish subjected to the fuel oil or PCB treatment began to show behavioral modifications after 5 days of exposure. Those fish were, in general, lethargic and did not attempt to capture the prey presented to them. PCB content of the livers from fish sacrificed at the termination of the predator-prey evaluations were as follows: PCB injected, 329 +/- 98 ..mu..g/kg: oil exposed, 58 +/- 21 ..mu..g/kg; PCB injected plus oil exposed 309 +/- 83 ..mu..g/kg. Concentrations of all hydrocarbons detected by gas chromatography were significantly higher in the livers of the fish exposed to fuel oil only then in the fish which were injected with PCB seven days prior to the fuel oil exposure. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations detected were those of the naphthalenic compounds. (JMT)

  4. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  5. Monitoring of PCBs at facilities related with PCB-containing products and wastes in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang-Zhu; Fang, Ming-Liang; Kang, Jung-Ho; Park, Hyokeun; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-11-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents were analyzed in samples collected from facilities related to PCB-containing products or wastes in South Korea. Average concentrations of the atmospheric Σ(209) PCBs were 7420 (37.0-104,048)pgm(-3) and 16.8 (ND-34.2 )fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in indoor air samples; and 1670 (106-13,382)pgm(-3) and 5.64 (ND-36.0) fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) in outdoor air samples. The highest levels were observed in indoor air samples from disposal facilities (7336-104,048 pg m(-3)), followed by production (330-25,057 pg m(-3)), recycling, and storage facilities, indicating that PCB emissions from PCB-containing products and wastes remains very high and the facilities related with those may be an important source to atmospheric PCBs. Principal component analysis of PCB profiles showed that the homologue patterns of PCBs in outdoor and indoor air samples collected from the facilities were similar to those of boundary air samples and PCB commercial products, e.g. Aroclor 1016, 1221, 1232 and 1242. Evaluation of the PCB mass balance in a facility, dismantling and solvent-washing PCB-contaminated transformers, showed that of the total PCBs treated in this facility, approximately 0.0022% was emitted to the atmosphere, and most was transferred to waste oil for disposal by incineration or chemical methods.

  6. Uptake of dietary PCB by pregnant big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and their fetuses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In a previous study (CLARK and LAMONT 1976), 26 pregnant big brown bats were captured, caged, and fed uncontaminated mealworms until their litters were born. Immediately after parturition, female bats and litters were frozen. Five litters included at least one dead young, and these five litters contained significantly more of the PCB, Aroclor 1260, than did the 21 litters with only living young....The present study attempted to verify that Aroclor 1260 could cause stillbirths. I fed 18 of 36 pregnant big brown bats mealworms containing 6.36 ppm of Aroclor 1260 prior to birth of their litters. Both carcasses and litters of dosed females contained approximately 10 times more PCB than their respective controls, but no additional stillbirths resulted. Three of 18 control litters included dead young, whereas the comparable ratio among litters from dosed females was one of 18. Additional comparisons involving means of litter weight, adult female weight, parturition date, days in captivity, tooth wear, and percentage fat also failed to show any effect of the PCB....The association found earlier between PCB and dead young (CLARK and LAMONT 1976) was not one of cause and effect. In both studies, bats that had not been dosed showed greater PCB residues among younger females. Among control bats in the present series, females that produced dead young were significantly younger (that is, showed significantly less tooth wear) than other females. In sum, whereas dead young seemed to have been caused by greater residues, these two factors were actually independent of each other but associated with a third factor--age of the female parent bat.

  7. Earthworm metabolomic responses after exposure to aged PCB contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison

    2012-10-01

    (1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of exposure. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant aging have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of exposure, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils.

  8. The effects of repeated planting, planting density, and specific transfer pathways on PCB uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Rutter, Allison; Reimer, Kenneth J; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2008-11-01

    An in situ field investigation into the potential of PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo (pumpkin) plants was continued for a second year at a field site known to be contaminated with a mixture of Aroclors 1254 and 1260 (average soil [PCB]=21 microg/g). Plant stem and leaf PCB concentrations in this second field season (11 and 8.9 microg/g, respectively) were observed to increase significantly from the stem and leaf PCB concentrations reported in the previous year (5.7 and 3.9 microg/g, respectively) while the total biomass produced as well as soil and plant root PCB concentrations did not change. Furthermore, the lower stems of some plants exhibited PCB concentrations as high as 43 microg/g, resulting in bioaccumulation factors (where BAF(plant part)=[PCB](plant part)/[PCB](soil)) for parts of the plant shoot as high as 2. Increased planting density was observed to significantly decrease both plant biomass and plant stem PCB concentrations (to 7.7 microg/g), but did not change plant root PCB concentrations. Finally, the results from this study provided further evidence that that under realistic field conditions, PCB transfer to pumpkin plants was primarily via root uptake and translocation. Other contaminant transfer pathways such as direct soil contamination, atmospheric deposition and volatilization from soil and subsequent redeposition on shoots appeared to have negligible contributions to overall pumpkin plant PCB burdens.

  9. Proteomic strategy for the analysis of the polychlorobiphenyl-degrading cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 exposed to Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Lu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). These proteins were involved in (i) PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase); (ii) transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii) energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase); (iv) electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein); (v) general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable); (vi) carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta); and (vii) nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase). The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  10. Protein Expression Profiling in the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis Tadpoles Exposed to the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture Aroclor 1254S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gillardin, Virginie; Silvestre, Frédéric; Dieu, Marc; Delaive, Edouard; Raes, Martine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Kestemont, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is now taken into account to partly explain the worldwide decline of amphibians. PCBs induce deleterious effects on developing amphibians including deformities and delays in metamorphosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which they express their toxicity during the development of tadpoles are still largely unknown. A proteomics analysis was performed on developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed from 2 to 5 days postfertilization to either 0.1 or 1 ppm Aroclor 1254, a PCB mixture. Two-dimensional DIGE with a minimal labeling method coupled to nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect and identify proteins differentially expressed under PCBs conditions. Results showed that 59 spots from the 0.1 ppm Aroclor 1254 condition and 57 spots from the 1 ppm Aroclor 1254 condition displayed a significant increase or decrease of abundance compared with the control. In total, 28 proteins were identified. The results suggest that PCBs induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (peroxiredoxins 1 and 2), adaptative changes in the energetic metabolism (enolase 1, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain types), and the implication of the unfolded protein response system (glucose-regulated protein, 58 kDa). They also affect, at least at the highest concentration tested, the synthesis of proteins involved in normal cytogenesis (α-tropomyosin, myosin heavy chain, and α-actin). For the first time, proteins such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 7A1, CArG binding factor-A, prolyl 4-hydroxylase β, and nuclear matrix protein 200 were also shown to be up-regulated by PCBs in developing amphibians. These data argue that protein expression reorganization should be taken into account while estimating the toxicological hazard of wild amphibian populations exposed to PCBs. PMID:19011258

  11. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Prouty, R M

    1977-03-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, ant the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  12. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  13. Comparison of rat liver S-9 activity induced with aroclor-1254 and phenobarbital/{beta}-naphthoflavone in microbial and CHO/HGPRT mutation assays

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Pant, K.

    1995-11-01

    There is an intense interest in alternatives to Aroclor-1254 (PCB) for induction of S-9. Manufacturers no longer produce PCB, and are selling PCB, in stock, with a 30% increase in price. One substitute, a combination of phenobarbital (PB) and {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF), has been suggested to be a suitable replacement for PCB. In order to compare the activity of PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 with PCB-induced S-9, the two kinds of S-9 were prepared and tested in both Microbial and CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assays. One group of CD rats was treated with PB at 75 mg/kg by I.P. injection for 4 consecutive days and a single dose of {beta}-NF at 80 mg/kg 2 days prior to sacrifice. A second group of CD rats was treated with a single dose of Aroclor-1254 at 500 mg/kg on Day 1 by I.P. injection. All animals were sacrificed on Day 5. A Plate Incorporation Mutation Assay was performed with five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and one Escherichia coli tester strain. A single dose of 2-Amino-anthracene (2-AA) at 1.25 {mu}g/plate for the five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and 10 {mu}g/plate for the WP2uvrA tester stain was used as a positive control. DMSO at 0.1 mL/plate was used as a solvent control. In the CHO/HGPRT Gene Mutation Assay, 7, 12-Dimethylbenz ({alpha})anthra-cene (DMBA) was used at 5.0 {mu}g/mL as a positive control. Acetone at 10 {mu}L/mL was used as a solvent control. The results from the Microbial Assay showed that the increase in mean reversion frequency of 2-AA over that of the corresponding solvent control with the PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 was greater than the increase from the PCB-induced S-9 for all of the six tester strains. In the CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assay, the results showed that DMBA gave a similar positive response for both the PCB- and PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9s. The data obtained from these comparative studies supports the suggestion of the authors listed above that PB/{beta}-NF is a suitable substitute for PCB for induction of S-9.

  14. Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr.; Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W.; Spadone, J.; Pires, L.

    1995-12-31

    The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

  15. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  16. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  17. Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, C.R.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, T.L. . Environmental and Resource Studies)

    1993-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-zooplankton PCB concentration (lipid), or BAS, ratios were calculated as markers of the transport of PCBs through food webs. The lakes ranged from a shallow, well-mixed lake with a historic input of Aroclor technical mixtures to deeper, oligotrophic systems in which atmospheric deposition was the only known source. BSF ratios ranged from approximately one in cyprinids and zooplankton in all lakes to 30 in yellow perch in one lake. A significant correlation between lake maximum depth and combined BSF ratios for all biota indicated that PCBs were generally more available for accumulation in the shallower lakes, regardless of the PCB source. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the biota in the shallower lakes had higher ratios of higher chlorinated congeners, suggesting that predictions of equal concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants on a lipid basis in sediment and lower trophic levels may significantly underestimate the accumulation of very hydrophobic compounds in the organisms of some lake systems. BAF ratios ranged from approximately one in the lower trophic levels to approximately 10 in lake trout.

  18. Effect of plant age on PCB accumulation by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo.

    PubMed

    Low, Jennifer E; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake and translocation from soil over time in pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden). Plants were grown in weathered soil collected from a former industrial site contaminated with Aroclor 1248 (mean [PCB](soil) = 6.5 mg kg(-1)). Plants were harvested five times over 42 d and analyzed for total PCB concentration in the root and shoot tissues. The concentration of PCBs in the root was not significantly different between harvests (mean [PCB](root) = 21.5 mg kg(-1)). The concentration of PCBs in the shoots was also relatively stable over time (mean [PCB](shoot) = 3.5 mg kg(-1)) despite increases in shoot biomass (fresh weight of 4.3 g at Day 12 to 59 g at Day 42). This suggests that PCBs were continuously accumulated throughout the growth period. The trends found in this study indicate the optimal time to harvest C. pepo ssp pepo plants to maximize PCB phytoextraction is when the plant shoot has reached its maximum biomass.

  19. Atmospheric dispersion of PCB from a contaminated Lake Michigan harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andres; Spak, Scott N.; Petrich, Nicholas T.; Hu, Dingfei; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-12-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago is an industrial waterway on Lake Michigan and a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan and the overlying air. We hypothesized that IHSC is an important source of airborne PCBs to surrounding communities. We used AERMOD to model hourly PCB concentrations, utilizing emission fluxes from a prior study and hourly meteorology provided by the State of Indiana. We also assessed dispersion using hourly observed meteorology from a local airport and high resolution profiles simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We found that emissions from IHSC waters contributed about 15% of the observed ∑PCB concentrations close to IHSC when compared on an hourly basis and about 10% of observed annual concentrations at a nearby school. Concentrations at the school due to emissions from IHSC ranged from 0 to 18,000 pg m-3, up to 20 times higher than observed background levels, with an annual geometric mean (GSD) of 19 (31) pg m-3. Our findings indicate that IHSC is an important source of PCBs to East Chicago, but not the only source. Four observed enriched PCB3 samples suggest a nearby non-Aroclor source.

  20. PCB recordkeeping and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  1. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  2. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  3. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  4. Immunoassay-based screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in sediments: requirements for a new generation of test kits.

    PubMed

    Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been proposed for the inclusion in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority list, currently under revision. Various screening methods have been employed for PCB determination in different environmental matrixes in the last decades, immunoassays being one of the most employed. A literature review reveals that the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most commonly applied immunoassay for PCB determination in the environment. However, its application to sediments is very limited. A suitability assessment of immunoassay-based analysis for PCB screening in sediments is presented in this work. The significance of available immunoassay-based test kits under the current environmental pollution scenario and their performance against the sensitivity and specificity requirements dictated by the WFD for PCB analysis in sediments is discussed. For example, current detection limits of available test kits for PCB determination in sediments may not be enough for compliance checking under the WFD. In addition, concentration expressed as Aroclor equivalents does not seem to be the way forward. A proposal for adapting available test kits in order to become more suitable tools for PCB screening in sediments is also presented in this study.

  5. Promotion of thyroid tumors in rats by pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

    PubMed

    Vansell, Nichole R; Muppidi, Jagan R; Habeebu, Sultan M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2004-09-01

    Pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and Aroclor 1254 (PCB) both reduce serum thyroid hormone levels in rats, but only PCN consistently produces an increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH). PCN-mediated increases in TSH result in increased thyroid follicular cell proliferation and hyperplasia, which may represent early events on a morphological continuum leading to neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether PCN, a compound that increases serum TSH, and PCB, which does not increase TSH, promote thyroid tumors in a two-stage carcinogenesis model. Male SD rats were administered the thyroid tumor initiator diisopropanolnitrosamine (2.5 g/kg, sc), and after seven days were fed control diet, diet containing 1000 ppm PCN, or diet containing 100 ppm PCB for 19 weeks. Body weights were unaffected by PCN treatment, but were reduced 21% after 19 weeks of PCB treatment compared to control. PCN treatment significantly reduced serum T4 through week 3 before returning to control concentrations, whereas T4 levels following PCB treatment fell below detection limits by week 3 and remained drastically reduced through week 19. TSH concentrations in PCN-treated rats increased three-fold at week 2, then declined to near control values at week 19. After one week of PCB treatment, TSH concentrations reached nearly twice that of controls, and were sustained until week 6. The incidence of thyroid follicular cell proliferative lesions, including cystic and follicular hyperplasia, cystic and follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma, was significantly increased following PCN treatment, but not following PCB treatment. PCB treatment caused an increase in thyroid carcinomas (4 of 22 rats) not associated with the proliferative-type lesions produced by PCN, despite an increase in TSH serum concentrations. In conclusion, PCN appears to promote thyroid tumors in a manner consistent with known effects of excessive TSH stimulation. However, thyroid carcinomas stemming from PCB

  6. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: analysis of the food chain contamination and health risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alfred; Broeckaert, Fabrice; De Poorter, Geert; De Cock, Ann; Hermans, Cédric; Saegerman, Claude; Houins, Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB incident occurred at the end of January 1999 when a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with dioxins was accidentally added to a stock of recycled fat used in the production of animal feeds. Although signs of poultry poisoning were noticed by February, 1999, the source and the extent of the contamination were discovered only in May 1999, when it appeared that more than 2500 farms could have been supplied with contaminated feeds. This resulted in a major food crisis, which rapidly extended to the whole country and could be resolved only by the implementation of a large PCB/dioxin food monitoring program. Screening for PCB contamination was based on the determination of the seven PCB markers. When PCB concentrations exceeded the tolerance levels of 0.1 (milk), 0.2 (poultry, bovine, and pig meat), or 1 (animal feed) microg/g fat, dioxins (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) were also determined. At the end of December 1999, the database contained the results of more than 55,000 PCB and 500 dioxin analyses. The study of PCB levels and profiles in contaminated feeds delivered to poultry or pig farms confirmed that the Belgian PCB incident was due to a single source of PCB oil introduced into the food chain at the end of January 1999. This PCB oil had a congeners pattern closely matched to a mixture of Aroclor 1260/1254 in the proportion 75/25. The total amount of PCBs added to recycled fats was estimated at 50 kg (sum of the seven markers) or approximately 150 kg total PCBs, which corresponds to about 100 liters of PCB oil. This PCB mixture contained about 1g TEQ dioxins (more than 90- contributed by PCDFs) and about 2g TEQ dioxin-like PCBs. The proportions of PCB 52 and 101 congeners were fairly constant in animal feeds, excluding the possibility of secondary contamination due to fat recycling from contaminated animals. The highest concentrations of PCBs and dioxins were found in poultry and especially in the reproduction animals (hens and chicks

  7. Solvent extraction of PCB-contaminated soils using the Terra-Kleen system

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, S.W.; Kosco, B.; Cash, A.; Meckes, M.

    1994-12-31

    Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from soils has been difficult to implement on a full-scale, cost-effective basis. The Terra-Kleen solvent extraction system has overcome many of the soil handling, contaminant removal, and regulatory restrictions which have made implementing a cost-effective PCB soil treatment system difficult. The Terra-Kleen system uses a proprietary solvent to extract organic contaminants from soils. This batch process operates at ambient temperatures and employs a solvent regeneration system which concentrates the extracted contaminants and permits reuse of the extraction solvent. Following treatment, the treatment soils are returned to the land, and concentrated contaminant is removed off site for disposal. Terra-Kleen demonstrated the technology during a treatability study in October 1993 and a pilot-scale demonstration in May 1994. In October 1993, PRC obtained 1-ton batches of soil from each of three PCB-contaminated sites and shipped them to Terra-Kleen`s testing facility in Okmulgee, Oklahoma. Two sites were located at Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) near San Diego, California. The third site was located in Anchorage, Alaska. Analysis of all demonstration soils revealed that Aroclor 1260 was the only PCB mixture present. Successful removal of PCBs below target treatment levels during the treatability study lead to a pilot-scale demonstration in May 1994 at NASNI.

  8. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  9. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks fed Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to nine-month-old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least a month before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of first egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87?7%) than among controls (73?2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 weeks of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14?17 of incubation.

  10. Reproductive success and nest attentiveness of mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos fed aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Heinz, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A dietary dosage of 25 ppm Aroclor 1254 fed to 9 mo. old mallards Anas platyrhynchos for at least 1 mo. before egg-laying had no detrimental effect on reproductive success or nest attentiveness when hens were allowed to incubate their own eggs. The treatment caused no effect on number of hens laying, date of 1st egg laid or clutch size. Fertility of eggs was greater among Aroclor-treated birds (87.7%) than among controls (73.2%). Aroclor may have stimulated males to come into reproductive condition sooner than controls. Hatching of fertile eggs and survival of ducklings to 3 wk of age were similar in treated and control groups. The number of times off the nest per day and total time off the nest per day were the same for control and Aroclor-treated hens in days 14-17 of incubation.

  11. Effects of PCB exposure on biochemical and hematological findings in capacitor workers.

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, R W; Ross, M R; Feingold, J; Brown, J F

    1985-01-01

    Certain former operations in capacitor manufacturing resulted in extensive direct contact of the workers with electrical grade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A study group of 194 such individuals, all exposed to Aroclor 1016 and many previously exposed to Aroclors 1242 and/or 1254, was examined before (1976) and after (1979) discontinuance of PCB use in the operations (1977). At the two examinations, the approximate geometric mean serum levels (in ppb) and 5 to 95% ranges were for lower PCBs (LPCB), 363 (57-2270) and 68 (12-392); and for higher PCBs (HPCB), 30 (6-142) and 19 (4-108), respectively. The statistical associations among 42 measured clinical chemical and hematological parameters, five different measures of PCB exposure, and seven confounding variables observed in the two examinations were determined by three regression procedures. Similar regressions were performed with DDE, which was present at background levels. The principal statistical findings were a depression in serum bilirubin and elevations in serum GGTP and lymphocyte levels at the time of the first examination, and only an elevation in monocytes at the second. Appraisal of the results suggested an induction of microsomal enzymes which appeared to be subsiding after the cessation of direct exposure to PCBs. The statistical association between serum levels of PCBs and lipids reported by others was confirmed, but shown to be explained by the partitioning behavior of PCB in the body, rather than to changes in liver function. No evidence for health impairment related to PCBs was found, despite the high serum levels of PCBs in the study population. PMID:2863133

  12. An improved clean-up strategy for simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fatty food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De, Pauw Edwin

    2002-01-01

    The study and extension of a simple automated clean-up method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) to a broad range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is described. The isolation of seven PCDD, ten PCDF, and three coplanar PCB (cPCB) is extended to eight monoortho substituted PCB and seven so-called "marker PCB" (Aroclor 1260) for fatty food samples. This enables quantification of 35 compounds - including all congeners with a WHO toxic equivalent factor (TEF)--in a single extraction and single purification step. The chromatographic behaviour of mono-ortho PCB and marker PCB on a variety of adsorbents, including basic alumina, has been studied. Partitioning of analytes through multi-column sequences is described and correlated with their structural and electronic properties, by use of molecular modelling calculations. The fractionation process available with the Power-Prep automated clean-up system enables rapid independent analysis of the different groups of compounds. Gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is used for the PCDD/F and cPCB fraction and quadrupole ion-storage tandem in time mass spectrometry (GC-QISTMS) for analysis of the remaining PCB. A comparison study was performed on quality-control samples and real fatty food samples to evaluate the robustness of the new strategy compared with a reference method. On the basis of this simultaneous clean-up, a rapid simplified strategy for PCDD/F and selected PCB analysis determination is proposed for fatty food samples.

  13. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  14. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P.

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  15. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  16. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  17. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm responses to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in soil.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-06-01

    (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the metabolic profile of D(2)O-buffer extracted tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms exposed for 2 days to an artificial soil spiked with sub-lethal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254). Univariate statistical analysis of the identified metabolites revealed a significant increase in ATP concentration in earthworms exposed to the highest soil PCB concentration, but detected no significant changes in other metabolites. However, a multivariate approach which considers alterations in multiple metabolites simultaneously, identified a significant linear relationship between earthworm metabolic profiles and PCB concentration (cross-validated PLS-regression with 7 components, R(2)X = 0.99, R(2)Y = 0.77, Q(2)Y = 0.45, P < 0.001). Significant changes in pair-wise metabolic correlations were also detected as PCB concentration increased. For example, lysine and ATP concentrations showed no apparent correlation in control earthworms (r = 0.22, P = 0.54), but were positively correlated in earthworms from the 25 mg/kg treatment (r = 0.87, P = 0.001). Overall, the observed metabolic responses suggest that PCBs disrupted both carbohydrate (energy) metabolism and membrane (osmolytic) function in E. fetida. The ability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to detect these responses suggests that this method offers significant potential for direct assessment of sub-lethal PCB toxicity in soil. PMID:21424327

  18. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromosome damage in wild rodents inhabiting a site contaminated with Aroclor 1254

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw-Allen, P.L.; McBee, K. )

    1993-04-01

    An in situ investigation of structural chromosomal damage in wild rodents from a site contaminated with Aroclor 1254 was undertaken to compare effects observed in nature to those documented in previous laboratory studies. Laboratory assays indicate that Aroclor 1254 does not cause structural damage to chromosomes. However, the many variables at work in actual waste-site environments and receptor populations led the authors to question whether exposures under natural conditions could potentially lead to different results using the same assay systems. Individuals of three rodent species, Peromyscus leucopus, Sigmodon hispidus, and Reithrodontomys fulvescens, were collected from the contaminated site and three matched, pristine reference sites. Standard somatic metaphase chromosome preparations from bone marrow were examined for chromosomes lesions. Comparisons were made between conspecifics from the Aroclor-contaminated site and the reference sites. Significant increases in chromosome damage were not observed in animals from the Aroclor-contaminated site, indicating agreement between laboratory assays and an in situ application of this assay system.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF TWO LOTS OF AROCLOR 1254R: CONGENER ANALYSIS AND NEUROCHEMICAL ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in industry as heat transfer and dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors1. PCBs were commercially produced as AroclorR mixtures in USA by the chlorination of biphenyl. Although all 209 congeners can be syn...

  1. Reproductive and thyroid effects of low-level polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.E.; Ostby, J.; Marshall, R.; Andrews, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of subchronic administration of Aroclor 1254 on testicular gamete production and endocrine function. The thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), which is critical for reproduction and development, was also measured because of the well-documented effects of PCBs on this hormone. Weanling (31-day-old) male Fischer rats were administered 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg/day Aroclor 1254 by gavage for 5, 10, or 15 weeks and necropsied. In the high-dose group, body, seminal vesicle, cauda epididymal, and pituitary weights were depressed at 10 and 15 weeks and cauda epididymal sperm numbers were reduced after 15 weeks of dosing. In contrast, testes weights, testicular sperm numbers, sperm motility, and serum and testicular testosterone levels were unaffected, even in the highest dose group (25 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1254 administration produced histological alterations in the liver and kidney at doses of 1.0 mg/kg/day and above. These results indicate that the testis of the rat is not a specific target organ for Aroclor 1254.

  2. Domestic dogs (Canus familiaris) as sentinels of environmental health hazards: The use of canine bioassays to determine alterations in immune system function following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl aroclor 1248

    SciTech Connect

    Fadden, M.F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The principle objective of this study was to determine if domestic dogs could be used as human surrogates to monitor the immunotoxic effects of environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our first objective was to determine if PCBs, which are commonly found as pollutants in the environment, have specific and identifiable effects on the function of immunocompetent cells in the dog. Our second aim was to explore the pathogenesis of any defects and to determine the cellular and molecular basis for observed changes. Our third objective was to compare immune function in normal laboratory beagles to dogs living contiguous to a US EPA Superfund site located near the Mohawk Nation community of Akwesasne and to correlate any observed immunologic abnormalities to plasma levels of specific congeners of PCBs. To elucidate the effects of PCBs on the canine immune system, laboratory beagles were fed 20 ppm (n = 2), 25 ppm (n =9) and 50 ppm (n = 2) PCB Aroclor 1248 in their diet and compared with age/sex matched controls (n = 8). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from all dogs and submitted to in vitro testing. Within 8 weeks, many significant changes were seen in PCB fed dogs including: excessive lacrimation (p < .001), weight loss, decreased serum thyroxine (p < .004), increased serum alkaline phosphatase and increased blood leukocyte count (p < .01). In addition, PCB fed dogs had altered in vitro T and B cell proliferative response (p < .004) and serum immunoglobulin levels (p < .01). Following thyroxine supplementation (wk 8-16) many, but not all, immunologic abnormalities improved. Necropsy examination revealed decreased thymus (p < .02) and lymph node (p < .004) weight; all other organs appeared normal. Many of the immunologic abnormalities documented in PCB fed beagles were similar to those observed in dogs residing in the Mohawk Nation Community of Akwesasne.

  3. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  5. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. PMID:26552541

  6. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species.

  7. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  8. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Gestational and lactational exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 modulates retinoid homeostasis in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Javier; Elabbas, Lubna E; Borg, Daniel; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Viluksela, Matti; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-08-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic effects in mammals including alterations of the vital retinoid (vitamin A) system. The aim of this study was to characterize alterations of tissue retinoid levels in rat offspring and their dams following gestational and lactational exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) and to assess the interrelationship of these changes with other established sensitive biochemical and toxicological endpoints. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed orally to 0 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day of A1254 from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were collected from the offspring on PNDs 35, 77 and 350. Tissue and serum retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and serum thyroid hormones were analyzed. A multivariate regression between A1254 treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, hepatic CYP enzymes activities, thyroid hormone levels and body/liver weights was performed using an orthogonal partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. The contribution of dioxin-like (DL) components of A1254 to the observed effects was also estimated using the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept. In both male and female offspring short-term alterations in tissue retinoid levels occurred at PND35, i.e. decreased levels of hepatic retinol and retinoic acid (RA) metabolite 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA with concurrent increases in hepatic and renal all-trans-RA levels. Long-term changes consisted of decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate and increased renal retinol levels that were apparent until PND350. Retinoid system alterations were associated with altered CYP enzyme activities and serum thyroid hormone levels as well as body and liver weights in both offspring and dams. The estimated DL activity was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical TEQ for different endpoints, indicating significant involvement of DL congeners in the observed effects. This study shows that tissue retinoid

  10. PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

  11. Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

  12. ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  13. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium.

    PubMed

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  14. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium

    PubMed Central

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  15. Chronic Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Disrupts Glucose Homeostasis in Male Mice via Inhibition of the Insulin Receptor Signal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiqi; Wu, Tian; Chen, Meng; Guo, Zhizhun; Yang, Zhibin; Zuo, Zhenghong; Wang, Chonggang

    2015-08-18

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce diabetes and insulin resistance. However, the development of diabetes caused by PCBs and its underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, male C57BL/6 mice were orally administered with Aroclor 1254 (0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/kg) once every 3 days for 60 days. The body weight and the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly elevated; the levels of serum insulin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased, while glucagon levels decreased in the animals treated with Aroclor 1254. Pancreatic β-cell mass significantly increased, while α-cell mass was reduced. Aroclor 1254 inhibited the expression of the insulin receptor signaling cascade, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt, and protein kinase B and glucose transporter 4, both in the skeletal muscle and the liver. The results suggested that chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 disrupted glucose homeostasis and induced hyperinsulinemia. The significant elevation of serum resistin, TNFα and IL-6 indicated that obesity caused by Aroclor 1254 is associated with insulin resistance. The elevation of blood glucose levels could have been mainly as a result of insulin receptor signals pathway suppression in skeletal muscle and liver, and a decrease in pancreatic α-cells, accompanied by a reduction of serum glucagon levels, may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  17. Simultaneous quantification of Aroclor mixtures in soil samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction using partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengliang; Harrington, Peter de B

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate partial least-squares (PLS) method was applied to the quantification of two complex polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) commercial mixtures, Aroclor 1254 and 1260, in a soil matrix. PCBs in soil samples were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Decachlorinated biphenyl (deca-CB) was used as internal standard. After the baseline correction was applied, four data representations including extracted ion chromatograms (EIC) for Aroclor 1254, EIC for Aroclor 1260, EIC for both Aroclors and two-way data sets were constructed for PLS-1 and PLS-2 calibrations and evaluated with respect to quantitative prediction accuracy. The PLS model was optimized with respect to the number of latent variables using cross validation of the calibration data set. The validation of the method was performed with certified soil samples and real field soil samples and the predicted concentrations for both Aroclors using EIC data sets agreed with the certified values. The linear range of the method was from 10μgkg(-1) to 1000μgkg(-1) for both Aroclor 1254 and 1260 in soil matrices and the detection limit was 4μgkg(-1) for Aroclor 1254 and 6μgkg(-1) for Aroclor 1260. This holistic approach for the determination of mixtures of complex samples has broad application to environmental forensics and modeling.

  18. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Lerner, D.T.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 ??g L-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 ??g L-1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 ??g L-1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 ??g L-1 groups (n = 12, P < 0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n = 12, P = 0.036) only in the 10 ??g L-1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  20. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

  1. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and whose PCB concentration is not established is PCB-Contaminated Electrical Equipment (i.e., contains ≥50 ppm PCB, but pad-mounted distribution transformers... electrical equipment manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., <50 ppm PCBs). If the date...

  2. Energetic response of Chlorella vulgaris to alpha radiation and PCB stress

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This research project has evaluated the bioenergetic response of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following acute exposure to either the physical stress of radiation or the chemical stress of PCBs. After exposure, changes in survival or growth, adenylate pools (ATP, ADP, and AMP), CO/sub 2/ fixation and oxygen evolution and uptake were measured. By employing anaerobic conditions, or the electron transport inhibitor DCMU or dark conditions separately and in specific combinations, this study evaluated the response of three separate algal ATP producing mechanisms (respiration, total and cyclic photophosphorylation) to alpha radiation or PCB. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as an indicator of stress was also evaluated. The results of the radiation experiments indicated that alpha particle exposure between 25 to 275 rads caused a one-hour latent demand for ATP due to radioinduced DNA repair. In order to compensate for this ATP demand, nonessential utilization of ATP was decreased by slowing the rate of carbon fixation. The results also suggest that use of radiation as a tool to study algal physiology. The data obtained from the PCB experiments again showed each phosphorylation mechanism to be insensitive to 10, 100 and 200 ppm Aroclor 1254 exposures. Data suggest, however, that PCBs caused an increased photosynthetic rate, and total adenylate pool with decreased growth. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as a stress indicator was assessed. Because this ratio did not fluctuate at doses of radiation or PCBs that caused reduced survival and growth rates, this study concluded that for Chlorella the adenylate energy charge ration was a poor indicator of sublethal stress.

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  4. Toxicity and fetotoxicity of TCDD, TCDF and PCB isomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, W.P.

    1985-05-01

    In rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), consumption of food containing commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, some pure polychlorobiphenyl congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) caused the same clinical toxic manifestations and histopathologic lesions, although the potencies of the toxicants covered a range of five orders of magnitude. Recovery from poisoning by 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (34TCB) or TCDF was rapid, whereas recovery from poisoning by Aroclor 1242, 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (345HCB), or TCDD was protracted, if it occurred at all. 34TCB did not appreciably accumulate in body fat, but the level of 345HCB in fat rose steadily during ingestion. Among the symmetrical tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyl isomers tested, subacute oral toxicity could be demonstrated only for those without ortho chlorine substitutions. The principal demonstrable histopathological lesions, bone marrow excepted, were metaplasias in some specialized epithelial structures, such as sebaceous glands, nail beds, gastric mucosa, ameloblast, and thymic corpuscles. These changes were interpreted as toxicant-induced, reversible redirection of differentiation. this aberration was wholly reversible. TCDD and 34TCB caused abortions when given in one or a few oral doses early in pregnancy. At the total doses used (1 or 5 g/kg of body weight for TCDD, 3 or 0.6 mg/kg of body weight for 34TCB), maternal toxicity was frequently apparent subsequent to the abortion.

  5. PCB spill response and notification requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established regulations at 40 CFR 761 Subpart G for the reporting and cleanup of spills resulting from the release of any quantity of material containing PCBs at concentrations of {ge} 50 ppm. The regulations, known collectively as the TSCA Spill Cleanup Policy, contain requirements for the notification, cleanup, decontamination verification, and recordkeeping of PCB spills. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning PCB spill response and notification requirements. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  6. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  7. New Evidences of Neurotoxicity of Aroclor 1254 in Mice Brain: Potential of Coenzyme Q10 in Abating the Detrimental Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Anuradha; Kamble, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present subacute study was designed to evaluate the effect of coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ10) in the 28 days aroclor 1254 exposure induced oxidative stress in mice brain. Methods Biochemical estimations of brain lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), and histopathological investigations of brain tissue were carried out. Results Oral exposure of aroclor 1254 (5 mg/kg) led to significant decrease in levels of GSH, and activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and AChE, and increase in LPO. These aberrations were restored by CoQ10 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection [IP]). This protection offered was comparable to that of L-deprenyl (1 mg/kg, IP) which served as a reference standard. Conclusions Aroclor 1254 exposure hampers the activities of various antioxidant enzymes and induces oxidative stress in the brains of Swiss albino mice. Supplementation of CoQ10 abrogates these deleterious effects of aroclor 1254. CoQ10 also apparently enhanced acetyl cholinesterase activity which reflects its influence on the cholinergic system. PMID:24683537

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with trees in a PCB-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Mary Beth; Prouzová, Petra; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomás; Nagle, David P; Fletcher, John S

    2006-04-01

    The abundance, identities, and degradation abilities of indigenous polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with five species of mature trees growing naturally in a contaminated site were investigated to identify plants that enhance the microbial PCB degradation potential in soil. Culturable PCB degraders were associated with every plant species examined in both the rhizosphere and root zone, which was defined as the bulk soil in which the plant was rooted. Significantly higher numbers of PCB degraders (2.7- to 56.7-fold-higher means) were detected in the root zones of Austrian pine (Pinus nigra) and goat willow (Salix caprea) than in the root zones of other plants or non-root-containing soil in certain seasons and at certain soil depths. The majority of culturable PCB degraders throughout the site and the majority of culturable PCB degraders associated with plants were identified as members of the genus Rhodococcus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Other taxa of PCB-degrading bacteria included members of the genera Luteibacter and Williamsia, which have not previously been shown to include PCB degraders. PCB degradation assays revealed that some isolates from the site have broad congener specificities; these isolates included one Rhodococcus strain that exhibited degradation abilities similar to those of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. Isolates with broad congener specificity were widespread at the site, including in the biostimulated root zone of willow. The apparent association of certain plant species with increased abundance of indigenous PCB degraders, including organisms with outstanding degradation abilities, throughout the root zone supports the notion that biostimulation through rhizoremediation is a promising strategy for enhancing PCB degradation in situ.

  10. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  11. Toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis, larval growth, survival and metamorphosis of the bivalve Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Baozhong; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls on the early development of Meretrix meretrix, the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis and larval development were investigated using static laboratory toxicity tests at nominal concentrations of 6.25-1,600 μg/L. Even at 1,600 μg/L, Bap and Aroclor1254 only caused minor reductions in embryo development rates. The 96 h LC(50) values for D-shaped larvae were 156 μg/L for Bap and 132 μg/L for Aroclor1254, respectively. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint in this study was metamorphosis, with an EC(50) value of 20 μg/L for Bap and 35 μg/L for Aroclor1254. Aroclor1254 was more toxic than Bap to embryos and larvae. Our results indicate that Bap and Aroclor1254 do not show extreme toxicity to M. meretrix embryos and larvae. These data provide information for evaluating the toxicity of Bap and Aroclor1254 on bivalve embryos, especially over the entire larval stages.

  12. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  13. Non-coplanar 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decachlorobiphenyl (PCB 209) did not induce cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in primary cultured rat hepatocytes, was not genotoxic, and did not exhibit endocrine-modulating activities.

    PubMed

    Han, Xing; O'Connor, John C; Donner, E Maria; Nabb, Diane L; Mingoia, Robert T; Snajdr, Suzanne I; Clarke, Jane J; Kaplan, A Michael

    2009-01-31

    2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decachlorobiphenyl (PCB 209) is a fully chlorinated, non-coplanar biphenyl. To demonstrate that PCB 209 is not likely to exhibit human health hazards common to coplanar PCBs it was tested for cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction potentials, genetic toxicity, and endocrine-modulating activity. PCB 209 (dose from 0.005 to 5000 ng/mL) did not significantly induce P450 CYP1A, 2A, 2B, 3A, or 4A enzyme activities in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. In contrast, Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture that contains approximately 60% chlorine by weight, showed significant induction of P450 CYP1A, 2A, 2B, and 3A within the same dose range. PCB 209 (dose from 100 to 5000 microg/plate) was negative in the bacterial mutagenicity (Ames) test in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537 or in Eschericia coli strain WP2uvrA. PCB 209 (dose from 25 to 150 microg/mL) was also negative for forward mutations at the thymidine kinase (TK+/-) locus of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. The Ames and the mouse lymphoma assays were both conducted in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 fraction. PCB 209 (dose from 500 to 2000 mg/kg by single dose oral gavage) did not induce an increase in the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow in vivo. PCB 209 did not induce estrogenic effects when administered by gavage to ovariectomized adult female rats at 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 4 days, nor did it produce alterations consistent with endocrine-modulating activity in adult intact male rats when administered by gavage at 500 and 1000 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days.

  14. Bayesian Monte Carlo updating of Hudson River PCB model using water column PCB measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Toll, J.; Cothern, K.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have developed prior probability distributions for model parameters and terms describing physico-chemical processes in sediment and water column models of PCB fate in a segment of the lower Hudson River, and performed importance analyses to identify the key uncertainties affecting the models` predictive power. In this work, the authors employ field measurements of the mean total water column PCB concentration from nearby river segments to refine the prior probability distributions for the important parameters and terms in the water column PCB model, using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The principal objectives of the current work are (1) to implement Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis, to demonstrate the technique and evaluate its potential benefits, and (2) to improve the parameterization of the water column PCB model on the basis of site-specific PCB concentration data. The Bayesian updating procedure resulted in improved estimates of PCB mass loading and re-suspension velocity terms, but posteriors for three other key parameters -- settling velocity and particulate PCB fractions in the water column and surface sediments -- were unaffected by the information extracted from the new field data. In addition, the authors found that some of the high posterior probability parameter vectors, though mathematically plausible, were physically implausible, as a consequence of the unrealistic (but common) Monte Carlo assumption that the model`s parameters are independently distributed. The implications of this and other findings are discussed.

  15. Divergent Effects of Dioxin- or Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Apoptosis of Primary Cell Culture from the Mouse Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Francesco; Russo, Dania; Urbani, Claudio; Sardella, Chiara; Manetti, Luca; Cappellani, Daniele; Lupi, Isabella; Tomisti, Luca; Martino, Enio; Marcocci, Claudio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can disrupt the endocrine function, promote neoplasms and regulate apoptosis in some tissues; however, it is unknown whether PCBs can affect the apoptosis of pituitary cells. The study evaluated the effect of PCBs on the apoptosis of normal pituitary cells and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cell cultures obtained from mouse pituitary glands were exposed to Aroclor 1254 or selected dioxin-like (PCB 77, PCB 126) or non-dioxin-like (PCB 153, PCB 180) congeners. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, and TUNEL assay. Both the expression and activity of caspases were analyzed. Selective thyroid hormone receptor (TR) or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or CYP1A1 antagonist were used to explore the mechanisms underlying PCBs action. Our results showed that Aroclor 1254 induced the apoptosis of pituitary cells as well as the final caspase-3 level and activity through the extrinsic pathway, as shown by the increased caspase-8 level and activity. On the other hand, the intrinsic pathway evaluated by measuring caspase-9 expression was silent. The selected non-dioxin-like congeners either increased (PCB 180) or reduced (PCB 153) pituitary cell apoptosis, affecting the extrinsic pathway (PCB 180), or both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways (PCB 153), respectively. In contrast, the dioxin-like congeners (PCB 77 and PCB 126) did not affect apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of PCB 153 was counteracted by a TR or a CYP1A1 antagonist, whereas the pro-apoptotic effect of PCB 180 was counteracted by an AhR antagonist. The induced apoptosis of Aroclor 1254 or PCB 180 was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, whereas the decreased apoptosis due to PCB 153 increased cell proliferation by 30%. In conclusion, our data suggest that non-dioxin-like PCBs may modulate apoptosis and the proliferation rate of pituitary cells that have either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the specific congeners

  16. Association of blood pressure and PCB level in Yusho patients

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, K.; Okumura, M.

    1985-02-01

    Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with Yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these Yusho patients.

  17. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61 PCB remediation waste. This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this...

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EnviroGard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

  19. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; French, J.B.; McNabb, F.M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverills. Several characteristics of plumage. including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0. 6.0. and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 min. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing. and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  20. The Belgian PCB and dioxin incident of January-June 1999: exposure data and potential impact on health.

    PubMed Central

    van Larebeke, N; Hens, L; Schepens, P; Covaci, A; Baeyens, J; Everaert, K; Bernheim, J L; Vlietinck, R; De Poorter, G

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, 500 tons of feed contaminated with approximately 50 kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1 g of dioxins were distributed to animal farms in Belgium, and to a lesser extent in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. This study was based on 20,491 samples collected in the database of the Belgian federal ministries from animal feed, cattle, pork, poultry, eggs, milk, and various fat-containing food items analyzed for their PCB and/or dioxin content. Dioxin measurements showed a clear predominance of polychlorinated dibenzofuran over polychlorinated dibenzodioxin congeners, a dioxin/PCB ratio of approximately 1:50,000 and a PCB fingerprint resembling that of an Aroclor mixture, thus confirming contamination by transformer oil rather than by other environmental sources. In this case the PCBs contribute significantly more to toxic equivalents (TEQ) than dioxins. The respective means +/- SDs and the maximum concentrations of dioxin (expressed in TEQ) and PCB observed per gram of fat in contaminated food were 170.3 +/- 487.7 pg, 2613.4 pg, 240.7 +/- 2036.9 ng, and 51059.0 ng in chicken; 1.9 +/- 0.8 pg, 4.3 pg, 34.2 +/- 30.5 ng, and 314.0 ng in milk; and 32.0 +/- 104.4 pg, 713.3 pg, 392.7 +/- 2883.5 ng, and 46000.0 ng in eggs. Assuming that as a consequence of this incident between 10 and 15 kg PCBs and from 200 to 300 mg dioxins were ingested by 10 million Belgians, the mean intake per kilogram of body weight is calculated to maximally 25,000 ng PCBs and 500 pg international TEQ dioxins. Estimates of the total number of cancers resulting from this incident range between 40 and 8,000. Neurotoxic and behavioral effects in neonates are also to be expected but cannot be quantified. Because food items differed widely (more than 50-fold) in the ratio of PCBs to dioxins, other significant sources of contamination and a high background contamination are likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of the Belgian population. PMID:11333188

  1. Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.

    1995-12-31

    The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

  2. Microbial PCB dechlorination in dredged sediments and the effect of moisture.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y C; Kwon, O S; Sokol, R C; Bethoney, C M; Rhee, G Y

    2001-06-01

    Evidence of reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments was investigated in Hudson River sediments dredged and encapsulated in 1978 at Moreau, NY. The effect of different moisture contents in dredged sediments on dechlorination and dechlorinating microorganisms was also determined using PCB-spiked sediments in which the moisture level was adjusted by simulating a dewatering process. The congener pattern of PCBs indicated that the dechlorination in the dredged sediments was far less advanced than that in the river sediments collected from the general area of the dredged site (Ft. Edward site). Dechlorination in encapsulated sediments at the Moreau site appeared to have stopped soon after dredging. When microorganisms eluted from the encapsulated sediments were inoculated in clean sediments spiked with Aroclor 1242, an extensive dechlorination was observed, indicating that the encapsulated sediments still harbored dechlorinating microorganisms. However, the same inoculum failed to further dechlorinate residual congeners in the dredged sediments. On the other hand, an inoculum obtained in 1990 from the dredged site in the Hudson River dechlorinated the residual congeners further. In simulated dredged sediments, the maximum level of dechlorination was lower at reduced moisture contents. The population size of dechlorinating microorganisms, as determined by the most probable number (MPN) technique, was also smaller at the lower moisture levels. There was a significant correlation between the maximum extent of dechlorination and the specific death rate of dechlorinating populations. These results indicate that the underlying mechanism of the moisture-dependent maximum dechlorination is the moisture-dependence of the death rate of dechlorinating microorganisms. PMID:11368228

  3. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  4. Disposable Electrochemical Immunosensors for Pcb Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, S.; Mascini, M.; Fránek, M.

    2000-12-01

    We realised an electrochemical enzyme immunoassay for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using carbon-based screen-printed disposable electrodes as solid-phase for reagent immobilisation and as signal transducer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate with Ag or Ab as enzyme label was used; hydrogen peroxide and ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid (FCA) as mediator were employed in order to evaluate the HRP activity in the range 10-8-10-10 M. Indirect and direct competitive assays for PCB were performed and a detection limit of 0.01 μg/mL was obtained in direct competitive format. The advantage of this approach is the relatively fast analysis (30 min) in comparison with a test based on microtiter assay plates (14h); moreover, the use of disposable screen-printed electrodes eliminates the problems of fouling and surface regeneration of electrochemical device.

  5. PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

  6. PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, J.M.; Rickert, D.A.; Siegel, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

  7. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  8. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  9. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  10. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  11. PCB with fully integrated optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Gregor; Satzinger, Valentin; Schmidt, Volker; Schmid, Gerhard; Leeb, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for miniaturization and design flexibility of polymer optical waveguides integrated into electrical printed circuit boards (PCB) calls for new coupling and integration concepts. We report on a method that allows the coupling of optical waveguides to electro-optical components as well as the integration of an entire optical link into the PCB. The electro-optical devices such as lasers and photodiodes are assembled on the PCB and then embedded in an optically transparent material. A focused femtosecond laser beam stimulates a polymerization reaction based on a two-photon absorption effect in the optical material and locally increases the refractive index of the material. In this way waveguide cores can be realized and the embedded components can be connected optically. This approach does not only allow a precise alignment of the waveguide end faces to the components but also offers a truly 3-dimensional routing capability of the waveguides. Using this technology we were able to realize butt-coupling and mirror-coupling interface solutions in several demonstrators. We were also manufacturing demonstrator boards with fully integrated driver and preamplifier chips, which show very low power consumption of down to 10 mW for about 2.5 Gbit/s. Furthermore, demonstrators with interconnects at two different optical layers were realized.

  12. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms...

  13. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  14. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5−8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  15. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  16. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  17. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  18. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    characterization of samples of whole sediment included analyses of grain size, TOC, and nutrients. Organic chemical characterization of samples of whole sediment included PCB homologs and select (13) PCB congeners, parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; and dibenzofurans. The PCB aroclors analyzed included 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 and 1268. Analyses of whole sediment also included total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, and acid volatile sulfide. Chemical characterization of samples of pore water isolated from samples of whole sediment at the start of the sediment toxicity exposures or at the start of the sediment bioaccumulation exposures included metals, major cations, major anions, dissolved organic carbon, and additional water-quality characteristics. Concentrations of metals or PCBs in pore water during the sediment toxicity exposures or during sediment bioaccumulation exposures also were determined using peeper samples (for metals) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplers (for PCBs). The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of PCBs in 14 sediment samples were investigated using SPME passive samplers and the 28-d L. variegatus whole-sediment bioaccumulation exposures In general the accumulation of PCBs consistently was predicted through the use of organic carbon normalization and equilibrium partitioning. In these sediments, PCB homologs were accumulated differently based on bioavailability and potential to accumulate in oligochaetes. As part of this assessment homolog specific biota sediment accumulation factor values were developed that could be applied across the larger site to predict tissue levels of PCBs. The whole-sediment toxicity tests done with H. azteca and C. dilutus met the established ASTM and USEPA test acceptability criteria. The most responsive H. azteca endpoints were day 42 survival normalized young per female and day 28 biomass and

  19. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  20. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  1. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  2. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  3. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  4. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  5. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable, environmental contaminants. PCB's are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  6. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (i.e., contains ≥50 ppm PCB, but pad-mounted distribution... that electrical equipment manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., i.e., ≥ 500 ppm). If the date of manufacture and the type...

  7. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (i.e., contains ≥50 ppm PCB, but pad-mounted distribution... that electrical equipment manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., i.e., ≥ 500 ppm). If the date of manufacture and the type...

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the food therein by a functional barrier which is impermeable to migration of PCB's. (b) A compilation... functional for purposes of paragraph (a)(9) of this section if the barrier limits migration of PCB's from the packaging material to food to a level not exceeding the migration which occurs under the same...

  9. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  10. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  11. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  12. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  13. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  14. PCB remediation in schools: a review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen W; Minegishi, Taeko; Cummiskey, Cynthia Campisano; Fragala, Matt A; Hartman, Ross; MacIntosh, David L

    2016-02-01

    Growing awareness of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in legacy caulk and other construction materials of schools has created a need for information on best practices to control human exposures and comply with applicable regulations. A concise review of approaches and techniques for management of building-related PCBs is the focus of this paper. Engineering and administrative controls that block pathways of PCB transport, dilute concentrations of PCBs in indoor air or other exposure media, or establish uses of building space that mitigate exposure can be effective initial responses to identification of PCBs in a building. Mitigation measures also provide time for school officials to plan a longer-term remediation strategy and to secure the necessary resources. These longer-term strategies typically involve removal of caulk or other primary sources of PCBs as well as nearby masonry or other materials contaminated with PCBs by the primary sources. The costs of managing PCB-containing building materials from assessment through ultimate disposal can be substantial. Optimizing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of remediation programs requires aligning a thorough understanding of sources and exposure pathways with the most appropriate mitigation and abatement methods. PMID:25994266

  15. Developmental exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB74 and PCB95) in rats: effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials and catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Korkalainen, Merja; Andersson, Patrik L; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are well described, less is known about non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), including influences on the nervous system and related behavioral effects after developmental exposure. Following the examination of the highly purified NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180, we report here the results of experiments with PCB74 and PCB95. Rat dams were orally exposed to equimolar doses of either congener (40μmol/kg bw - 11.68mg PCB74/kg bw or 13.06mg PCB95/kg bw) from gestational day (GD) 10 to postnatal day (PND) 7. Control dams were given the vehicle. Adult offspring were tested for cataleptic behavior after induction with haloperidol, a classical neuroleptic drug, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), using clicks and tone pips of different frequencies for stimulation. Results revealed slight effects on latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB74, whereas PCB74 males and offspring exposed to PCB95 were not affected. Pronounced changes were observed in BAEPs at low frequencies in PCB74 offspring, with elevated thresholds in both sexes. PCB95 increased thresholds in males, but not females. Small effects were detected on latency of the late wave IV in both sexes after developmental exposure to PCB74 or PCB95. Compared with the other NDL-PCB congeners tested, PCB74 caused the most pronounced effects on BAEPs.

  16. Predicting and controlling downwind concentrations of PCB from surface impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Angiola, A.J.; Soden, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over 227,000 kv of PCB were discharged into the Hudson River from two capacitor manufacturing plants at Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Much of the discharged PCB was absorbed by the bottom sediments of the river and accumulated behind the Fort Edward Dam. A large amount of the contaminated sediments migrated dowstream when the dam was removed. An effort has been made to dredge PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River and to deposit those sediments in a secure containment site. Part of this project was an air quality impact analysis which addressed the effect of PCB volatilization from the proposed containment site on ambient 24-hour concentrations of PCB downwind of the site. An estimate of the volatilization rate was made and a dispersion modeling analysis was performed in order to calculate the potential impact on residences. 4 references, 1 table.

  17. Characterization of dose-response relationships in the induction of liver drug metabolizing enzymes in F344 rats by graded doses of Aroclor 1254

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.R.; Nims, R.W.; Stockus, D.L.; Lubet, R.A. )

    1990-02-26

    The use of induced levels of drug metabolizing enzymes in liver as a potential biomarker for environmental exposure to contaminants has both theoretical and practical appeal. The authors have examined the ability to graded doses of Aroclor 1254 (from 1 to 1,000 ppm) to induce a variety of drug metabolizing enzymes in F344 rat liver. They found that the O-dealkylation of ethoxyresorufin (ETR), mediated by cytochrome P450IA1, was induced > 40-fold by doses of Aroclor >33 ppm. In fact, ETR O-dealkylase was induced {approx} 7-fold by 3 ppm. In contrast, the O-dealkylation of benzyloxy- or pentoxy-resorufin (mediated by cytochrome P450IIB1) was induced {approx} 12-fold by a dose of 33 ppm. Specific hydroxylation of testosterone at the 6{beta} or 15{beta} positions was induced > 6-fold at an Aroclor dose of 333 ppm. Examination of other drug metabolizing enzymes (epoxide hydrolase, DT-diaphorase, glutathione transferase) showed limited < 6-fold induction even at 1,000 ppm Aroclor, while aldehyde dehydrogenase (benzaldehyde, NADP) showed high induction (> 80-fold) at 1,000 ppm it revealed limited induction at lower doses ({approx} 3-fold at 33 ppm). These results support the potential use of induced cytochrome P450 levels as biomarkers for exposure to environmental contaminants.

  18. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Schrank, Candy S; Begnoche, Linda J; Elliott, Robert F; Quintal, Richard T

    2010-03-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994-1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  20. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase.

  1. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  2. Biogeochemical controls on PCB deposition in Hudson Bay.

    PubMed

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Macdonald, Robie W; Johannessen, Sophia C; Stern, Gary A

    2010-05-01

    PCB concentrations, congener patterns, and fluxes were examined in 13 dated and organically characterized (C, N, delta(13)C, delta(15)N) marine sediment cores from Hudson Bay, Canada, to investigate the importance of organic matter (OM) supply and transport to PCB sequestration. Drawdown of PCBs, supported by marine primary production, is reflected in elevated summation operatorPCB concentrations and more highly chlorinated PCB signatures in surface sediments underlying eutrophic regions. Sediments in oligotrophic regions, which are dominated by "old" marine OM, have lower PCB concentrations and weathered signatures. For the surface of Hudson Bay, average atmospheric deposition appears to be very low (ca. 1.4 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)) compared to fluxes reported for nearby lakes (ca. 44 pg summation operatorPCBs cm(-2) a(-1)). (210)Pb fails to provide a means to normalize the fluxes, highlighting important differences in the biocycling of (210)Pb and PCBs. Unlike (210)Pb, atmospheric PCB exchange with the water's surface is partially forced by the aquatic organic carbon cycle. The extremely low atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the surface of Hudson Bay is likely a reflection of the Bay's exceptionally low productivity and vertical carbon fluxes. If future marine production and vertical flux of carbon increase due to loss of ice cover or change in river input as consequences of global warming, PCB deposition would also increase. PMID:20392087

  3. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  4. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  5. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assume that transformers with transformers manufactured before July 2, 1979, must be assumed to be mineral-oil filled. Any person may assume... be PCB-Contaminated. (3) Any person must assume that a transformer manufactured prior to July 2,...

  6. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  7. Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

    2003-03-01

    In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most

  8. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  9. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  10. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  11. PCB-resistant diatoms in the Hudson River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosper, Elizabeth M.; Wurster, Charles F.; Bautista, Mark F.

    1988-02-01

    Diatom cells that are resistant, as well as sensitive, to the toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are widespread throughout the highly polluted Hudson River estuary. A study of the distribution of PCB resistance among populations of the diatoms, Thalassiosira nordenskioldii and Asterionella glacialis, revealed few spatial or temporal patterns for the trait during spring and summer. The number of estuarine clones of A. glacialis tolerant of more than 25 ppb of PCB was greater than twice the number of clones isolated from nearshore waters at Sandy Hook, NJ. This suggests that selection pressure for PCB resistance is greater in the estuary than in the New York Bight apex. If specific sites of selection exist, the mixing of cells within the estuary may be rapid enough to distribute resistant clones throughout the estuary, or the selection process may involve a generalized response to a multitude of pollutants. Several clones of both species tested were not only tolerant of PCB, but were actually enhanced in their growth in the presence of PCB. Such clones were distributed throughout the estuary during both seasons. Selection in the estuary favours not only resistant strains of diatoms, but forms that may utilize organic pollutants.

  12. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  13. The greening of PCB analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

  14. Fingerprinting PCB patterns among Mohawk women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S A; Yang, B Z; Fitzgerald, E F; Bush, B; Cook, K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the association of contaminated fish consumption and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden by comparing the similarity of the congener pattern in yellow perch, caught near the point source of industrial pollution, and in other local fish to the pattern found in the breast milk of Mohawk women from Akwesasne, a Native American community located along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec. The similarity is defined by the weighted Euclidean distance between two congener patterns. Ninety-seven Mohawk mothers participated and provided samples of breast milk. One hundred fifty-four nursing women from the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) of Warren and Schoharie counties, New York, who gave birth during the same time period, were used as the comparison group. Results revealed that the breast milk of the Mohawk women, who ate the most local fish, had a congener pattern that more closely resembled that of perch caught near the waste site or average sampled fish caught in the Reserve than Mohawk women who ate less fish or the controls. The outcome demonstrates how PCBs may be "fingerprinted" as they migrate offsite from industrial sources and ultimately result in human exposure.

  15. Biochemistry and genetics of PCB metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Kurukawa, Kensuke; Kimura, Nobutada

    1995-06-01

    Biphenyl(BP)-utilizing bacteria, which include both Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains, are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. These bacteria co-metabolically degrade a variety of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the corresponding chlorobenzoic: acids through 2,3-dioxygenation. Certain strains degrade even highly chlorinated PCBs through 3,4-dioxygenation. The ring meta-cleavage dioxygenase purified from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 is a homo-octamer containing ferrous ions as the essential cofactor. Transposon mutants revealed that the bph-encoded enzymes possess a wide range of substrate specificity for various aromatic hydrocarbons. The bphABCXD gene cluster coding for the degradation of PCBs to chlorobenzoic acids was first cloned from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and sequenced and then was cloned from a number of BP-utilizing strains and sequenced. Some strains possess a bph operon that is very similar, if not identical, to that of KF707. Some bph genes share homologies with different degrees. Deletion and shuffling of bph genes are also found. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Comparison of mutagenicities in a Salmonella reversion assay mediated by uninduced hepatocytes and hepatocytes from rats pretreated for 1 or 5 days with Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Hass, B S; Heflich, R H; Shaddock, J G; Casciano, D A

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytes prepared from rats pretreated for 5 days with 500 mg/kg Aroclor 1254 were found to be unsuitable for use in a modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay. These hepatocytes exhibited low viability, did not readily attach to plastic culture dishes, and produced mutagenicity responses with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 2-aminofluorene (2AF) that were greatly enhanced by the addition of an NADPH-regenerating system (NADPH-RS). Shortening the Aroclor pretreatment time to 1 day resulted in hepatocytes that exhibited high viability and readily attached to plastic culture dishes. These hepatocytes produced higher numbers of revertants when used to assay the mutagenicities of B[a]P and 2AF than were produced using hepatocytes from animals that were pretreated for 5 days. These reversion frequencies were also higher than those produced using uninduced hepatocytes and were much less affected by the addition of NADPH-RS than were the reversions mediated by the 5-day preinduced hepatocytes. Liver homogenate postmitochondrial fractions (S9s), which were prepared from rats pretreated with Aroclor for 1 or 5 days, were nearly equal in their ability to mediate the mutagenicity of B[a]P and 2AF in the Salmonella/microsome reversion assay. Qualitative differences between the S9- and hepatocyte-mediated mutagenicity of 2AF were found, however. These results indicate that employing hepatocytes from rats pretreated with Aroclor for 1 day, rather than 5 days, results in an enzymatically induced, more-intact cell population that is capable of detecting the mutagenicity of B[a]P and 2AF in a modified Salmonella reversion assay.

  17. Biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kristine L; Schlenk, Daniel

    2011-05-16

    The rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (Chelonia mydas), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A substrate PCB, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. Sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), a meta-para unsubstituted rodent P450 family 2 substrate PCB, at rates ranging from less than 0.5 to 53 pmol/min/mg protein. The P450 inhibitor ketoconazole inhibited hydroxylation of PCB 52, supporting the role of P450 catalysis. Sea turtle PCB 52 hydroxlyation rates strongly correlated with immunodetected P450 family 2-like and less so with P450 family 3-like hepatic proteins. Testosterone 6β-, 16α-, 16β-hydroxylase activities were also significantly correlated with the expression of these enzymes, indicating that P450 family 2 or P450 family 3 proteins are responsible for PCB hydroxylation in sea turtles. This study indicated species-specific PCB biotransformation in sea turtles and preferential elimination of meta-para unsubstituted PCB congeners over ortho-meta unsubstituted PCB congeners consistent with PCB accumulation patterns observed in tissues of sea turtles.

  18. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken.

  19. Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.˚ge

    2012-12-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 Ångstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

  20. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  1. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process.

  2. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IMMUNOASSAY KIT, ENVIROLOGIX, INC., PCB IN SOIL TUBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCB's in soi...

  4. Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shou Jen; Yen, Yea Yin; Chen, Eng Rin; Ko, Ying Chin ); Lan, Joung Liang )

    1990-02-01

    Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher than in control babies. Because of high risk of infection, it is presumed that these babies might suffer immunosuppression to a certain extent. According to these findings, investigations into the immune functions of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies are needed.

  5. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  6. Polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample for 219S tank 102

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.A.

    1997-12-05

    One waste sample was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Extraction follows closely method 354 C of SW-846, analysis follows SW-846 method 8082. A cross reference of laboratory sample number to the customer identification is given in a table.

  7. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment. PMID:26490526

  8. The dioxin-like PCB 77 but not the ortho-substituted PCB 153 interferes with chicken embryo thyroid hormone homeostasis and delays hatching.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Simon A; Beck, Veerle; Maervoet, Johan; Aerts, Goele; Reyns, Geert E; Schepens, Paul; Darras, Veerle M

    2005-08-01

    The effects of the dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 77 and the ortho-substituted PCB 153 on thyroid hormone availability were investigated during the last week of embryonic development in chicken. High doses of these PCBs (1microg PCB 77 and 20microg PCB 153) were injected into chicken eggs at day 4 of incubation. Blood and tissue samples were collected from day 14 of incubation until 1 day after hatching. We did not observe influences of PCB 153 on thyroid hormone (TH) levels. Treatment with PCB 77, on the other hand, decreased plasma total T(4) concentrations but increased hepatic T(4) levels at day 14 of incubation. Later in development, at stages near the process of hatching, severe decreases of T(4) and T(3) levels were observed in the PCB 77 group, both in plasma and tissues. PCB 77 severely reduced the TH peak that normally coincides with the stage of internal pipping. This reduction was accompanied by a considerable delay in the moment of hatching. We conclude that the dioxin-like PCB 77, but not the ortho-substituted PCB 153, can decrease TH availability towards the end of embryonic development and hence disturb the process of hatching.

  9. Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure.

  10. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  11. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  12. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk... EPA approves another sampling plan under paragraph (c) of this section. (a) Performance-based...

  13. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk... EPA approves another sampling plan under paragraph (c) of this section. (a) Performance-based...

  14. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk... EPA approves another sampling plan under paragraph (c) of this section. (a) Performance-based...

  15. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  16. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  17. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  18. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

  20. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  2. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  3. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  4. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  5. Subchronic Exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: Effect on Hepatic Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vezina, Chad M.; Walker, Nigel J.; Olson, James R.

    2004-01-01

    We employed DNA microarray to identify unique hepatic gene expression patterns associated with subchronic exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 13 weeks to toxicologically equivalent doses of four different HAHs based on the toxic equivalency factor of each chemical: TCDD (100 ng/kg/day), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF; 200 ng/kg/day), 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126; 1,000 ng/kg/day), or 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; 1,000 μg/kg/day). Global gene expression profiles for each exposure, which account for 8,799 gene probe sets contained on Affymetrix RGU34A GeneChips, were compared by principal components analysis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands TCDD, PeCDF, and PCB126 produced very similar global gene expression profiles that were unique from the nonAhR ligand PCB153, underscoring the extensive impact of AhR activation and/or the resulting hepatic injury on global gene expression in female rat liver. Many genes were co-expressed during the 13-week TCDD, PeCDF, or PCB126 exposures, including classical AhR-regulated genes and some genes not previously characterized as being AhR regulated, such as carcinoembryonic-cell adhesion molecule 4 (C-CAM4) and adenylate cyclase-associated protein 2 (CAP2). Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed the increased expression of these genes in TCDD-, PeCDF-, and PCB126-exposed rats as well as the up- or down-regulation of several other novel dioxin-responsive genes. In summary, DNA microarray successfully identified dioxin-responsive genes expressed after exposure to AhR ligands (TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126) but not after exposure to the non-AhR ligand PCB153. Together, these findings may help to elucidate some of the fundamental features of dioxin toxicity and may further clarify the biologic role of the AhR signaling pathway. PMID:15598615

  6. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  7. Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviah, David R.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the research in the Â#1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for fabricating polymer multimode waveguides from several polymers, some formulations of which are being developed within the project. The challenge is to develop low cost waveguide manufacturing techniques compatible with commercial PCB manufacturing and to reduce their alignment cost. The project aims to take the first steps in making this hybrid optical waveguide and electrical copper track printed circuit board disruptive technology widely available by establishing and incorporating waveguide design rules into commercial PCB layout software and transferring the technology for fabricating such boards to a commercial PCB manufacturer. To focus the research the project is designing an optical waveguide backplane to tight realistic constraints, using commercial layout software with the new optical design rules, for a demonstrator into which 4 daughter cards are plugged, each carrying an aggregate of 80 Gb/s data so that each waveguide carries 10 Gb/s.

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  9. Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

  10. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is... capacitor contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of...

  11. PCB congener accumulation by periphyton, herbivores, and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hill, W R; Napolitano, G E

    1997-05-01

    The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in stonerollers and shiners than in periphyton. Normalizing PCB concentrations by lipid mass reduced concentration differences between periphyton and stonerollers, but PCBs per unit lipid in stonerollers were still 50-350% higher than those in periphyton. Shiners had significantly higher lipid-specific PCB concentrations than did stonerollers, so a trophic hierarchy of primary producer < herbivore < omnivore was evident in lipid-specific PCB concentrations. Differences in lipid type, exposure duration, and exposure sources may account for the trophic-level differences in total PCBs. Congener profiles were roughly similar in periphyton, stonerollers, and shiners: five congeners (IUPAC numbers 101, 110, 138, 153, and 180) constituted >60% of the total mass of PCBs analyzed in all three trophic levels. However, stoneroller and shiner tissue was enriched in congeners 153, 118, and 187 relative to periphyton; congeners 153 and 187 are resistant to metabolic breakdown by monooxygenases found in fish liver. Principal component analysis of congener percentages separated periphyton from fish and distinguished between sampling locations.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  13. Thermal desorption of PCB-contaminated soil with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Zhifu; Zhao, Zhonghua; Li, Xiaodong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang

    2015-12-01

    The thermal desorption was combined with sodium hydroxide to remediate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil. The experiments were conducted at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 °C with three NaOH contents of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 %. The results showed that thermal desorption was effective for PCB removal, destruction, and detoxication, and the presence of NaOH enhanced the process by significant dechlorination. After treatment with 0.1 % NaOH, the removal efficiency (RE) increased from 84.8 % at 300 °C to 98.0 % at 600 °C, corresponding to 72.7 and 91.7 % of destruction efficiency (DE). With 1 % NaOH content treated at 600 °C, the RE and DE were 99.0 and 93.6 %, respectively. The effect of NaOH content on PCB removal was significant, especially at lower temperature, yet it weakened under higher temperature. The interaction between NaOH content and temperature influenced the PCB composition. The higher temperature with the help of NaOH effectively increased the RE and DE of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (based on WHO-TEQ).

  14. Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

    1999-04-19

    Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

  15. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  16. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  17. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  18. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  19. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  20. Mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-poisoned rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kamohara, K.; Yagi, N.; Itokawa, Y.

    1984-06-01

    To clarify the mechanism of lipid peroxide formation in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-poisoned rats, the following two experiments were carried out. Experiment No. 1: Rats were separated into three groups. Group 1 was fed a normal diet, group 2 was fed a PCB-supplemented diet, and group 3 was fed a dichlorodiphyltrichloroethane (DDT)-supplemented diet. After 5 months, the rats were killed. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values in livers of the PCB- and DDT-exposed rats had increased. The activity of catalase was increased in the PCB-fed rats but decreased after the administered of DDT. The glutathione peroxidase activity was decreased only in the PCB-administered rats. These results indicate that PCB and DDT have some effects to enhance lipid oxidation. It is probable that the decrease in glutathione peroxidase is the major reason for the increase of lipid oxidation in PCB-poisoned rats. The mechanism of lipid peroxidate production in DDT-poisoned rats could be different from the case of PCB poisoning. Experiment No. 2: Rats were separated into two groups. To one group, normal diet was given and to the other group PCB-supplemented diet was given. After 1 month, the rats were killed. In PCB-exposed rats, activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were increased. The increase in glutathione reductase could be compensation for a decrease in glutathione peroxidase. It is probable that PCB is metabolized to make glutathione conjugates by the action of glutathione S-transferase.

  1. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  3. THYROID HORMONES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SITE-OF-ACTION AND RELEVANCE OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPYOTHYROXINEMIA-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research demonstrated that perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) resulted in both hypothyroxinemia (HPX) and a low-frequency ototoxicity (hearing loss). We hypothesized that the ototoxicity resulted from A1254- induced HPX during the postnatal critical period of c...

  4. PCB UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) EXPOSED VIA A CONTAMINATED ALGAL DIET. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g algal paste containing 0, 0.1, and 1.0 small mu, Greekg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (1:1:1 mixture of Aroclor 1242, 1...

  5. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  6. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    PubMed

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  7. Effects of long-term maternal exposure to low doses of PCB126 and PCB153 on the reproductive system and related hormones of young male goats.

    PubMed

    Oskam, Irma C; Lyche, Jan L; Krogenaes, Anette; Thomassen, Ragnar; Skaare, Janneche U; Wiger, Richard; Dahl, Ellen; Sweeney, Torres; Stien, Audun; Ropstad, Erik

    2005-11-01

    In this study, female goats were orally exposed to PCB126 or PCB153, at 49 ng/kg body weight per day and 98 microg/kg body weight per day respectively, from gestational day 60 until delivery at approximately day 150. Exposure of the offspring continued via lactation until postnatal day 40. Reproductive toxicity in the male offspring was studied by the evaluation of conventional reproductive endpoints as well as flow cytometric analyses of spermatogenesis and sperm chromatin structure. PCB153-treated animals showed a significant smaller testis diameter in comparison to the control group. Neither of the treated groups showed differences for plasma FSH in comparison to controls. PCB153-treated animals differed significantly from the control group with respect to plasma LH and testosterone levels, whereas PCB126-treated animals only differed from the controls in plasma testosterone concentrations. Neither the PCB126 nor the PCB153 group differed from the controls with respect to the conventional sperm parameters or testis histology. A significant lower ratio of interstitium area to seminiferous tubules area and proportion of diploid testis cells were observed for the PCB153 group. Sperm from PCB153-treated animals showed a significantly higher percentage of sperm with damaged DNA. From the results of the present study it was concluded that PCB153 was able to induce alterations in reproductive endpoints related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis as well as to the testis. The effects observed in male kids after a long-term maternal exposure to PCB153 support the concept that exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds during foetal development may lead to adverse reproductive effects in adult life.

  8. Effects of chronic dietary exposure to a low-dose of Malathion, Aroclor-1254 and 3-methylcholanthrene on three biomarkers in male mice.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, B K; Jarić, Davorka; Hackenberger, Dubravka; Stepić, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the applicability of some chronic toxicological tests in the determination of exposure to xenobiotics present in concentrations below No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) and below the detection limit of analytical instruments. In the present experiment tested chemicals (Malathion, Aroclor-1254 and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)) were mixed with wheat grains and given to male mice as feed over a period of 12 months. 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity with the 3-MC and Aroclor-1254 treatments reached the peak at 9th month of exposure (26.7 and 42.4 pmol⁻¹ mg(prot)-⁻¹, respectively), while malathion did not have significant influence. Glutathione (GSH) level depletion was highest after three months of exposure. Unexpectedly, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity increased after treatment with malathion, an organophosphorous insecticide. In conclusion, low-level concentrations chronically administered exert certain effects on the levels of selected enzymes, e.g. biomarkers.

  9. PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. )

    1994-10-01

    Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  11. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Audiogenic Seizures in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Emily; Bandara, Suren B.; Allen, Jont B.; Sadowski, Renee N.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes auditory deficits. Thus, we recently conducted a study to investigate if developmental PCB exposure would exacerbate noise-induced hearing loss in adulthood. Unexpectedly, some PCB-exposed rats exhibited seizure-like behaviors when exposed to loud noise. Therefore, we conducted the current experiment to determine if adult rats perinatally exposed to PCBs are more susceptible to audiogenic seizures when tested in a standard audiogenic seizure paradigm. Adult male and female rats exposed to PCBs during gestation and lactation (0, 1, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day) and previously tested in the noise-induced hearing loss study were presented with a 100dB noise stimulus. If they did not exhibit clonus in response to the 100dB noise, they were exposed to a 105dB stimulus 24-48 hours later. This was followed by an 110dB stimulus 24-48 hours later if they did not exhibit clonus at 105 dB. Female and male rats exposed to either 3 or 6 mg/kg PCBs exhibited a significantly higher incidence of audiogenic seizures, shorter latency to onset of seizures, and greater severity of seizures compared to controls. Thyroxine measured in littermates at weaning was significantly lower in all PCB groups compared to controls, suggesting a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of audiogenic seizures. This is the first study to show that developmental PCB exposure increases the susceptibility to audiogenic seizures in adulthood. PMID:25543072

  12. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  13. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  14. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  15. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  16. Influence of nutrition in PCB-induced vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional profile of an individual can influence the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), prevalent environmental pollutants, are highly lipid-soluble toxic compounds that biomagnify through trophic levels and pose cancer, neurocognitive, and atherosclerotic risk to human populations. There is a growing body of knowledge that PCBs can initiate inflammatory responses in vivo, and this inflammation can be either exacerbated or ameliorated by nutrition. Data indicate that diets high in certain dietary lipids such as omega-6 fatty acids can worsen PCB-induced vascular toxicity while diets enriched with bioactive food components such as polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can improve the toxicant-induced inflammation. There is evidence that bioactive nutrients protect through multiple cell signaling pathways, but we have shown that lipid raft caveolae and the antioxidant defense controller nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) both play a predominant role in nutritional modulation of PCB-induced vascular toxicity. Interestingly, there appears to be an intimate cross-talk between caveolae-related proteins and cellular Nrf2, and focusing on the use of specific bioactive food components that simultaneously alter both pathways may produce a more effective and efficient cytoprotective response to toxicant exposure. The use of nutrition as a protective tool is an economically beneficial means to address the toxicity of persistent environmental toxicants and may become a sensible means to protect human populations from PCB-induced vascular inflammation and associated chronic diseases.

  17. Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

  18. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates.

  19. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates. PMID:27126866

  20. Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

  1. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:23098163

  2. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants.

  3. Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hegde, R.S.; Donnelly, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    Flavonoid and coumarin compounds produced by plants supported the growth of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria, and the bacteria retained their PCB-degrading properties. Root leachates and washings from mulberry trees also supported the growth of a PCB-degrading bacterium. These results indicate that chemicals released by some plant roots may serve as cometabolites for PCB-degrading bacteria. Identification of the right plant species and development of appropriate cultivation practices promises to lead to an ecologically sound means to achieve sustained in situ degradation of PCBs at contaminated terrestrial sites.

  4. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  5. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  7. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

  8. Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

  9. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  10. Contamination of silos in Switzerland by PCB residues in coatings

    SciTech Connect

    de Alencastro, L.F.; Prelaz, V.; Tarradellas, J.

    1984-09-01

    From the end of 1982 to the beginning of 1983 some Swiss Cantonal Laboratories for Food Control have detected high levels of PCBs in the milk output from several dairy farms at Laufental, in the northwest of Switzerland. These investigations showed that the silo coatings and consequently the silage from these silos were at the origin of the milk contamination. Four farms which produced the most polluted milk were investigated, specifically to determine PCB migration from coating material into the concrete walls and silage. This paper presents the results of this investigation.

  11. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  12. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    characterization of samples of whole sediment included analyses of grain size, TOC, and nutrients. Organic chemical characterization of samples of whole sediment included PCB homologs and select (13) PCB congeners, parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; and dibenzofurans. The PCB aroclors analyzed included 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 and 1268. Analyses of whole sediment also included total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, and acid volatile sulfide. Chemical characterization of samples of pore water isolated from samples of whole sediment at the start of the sediment toxicity exposures or at the start of the sediment bioaccumulation exposures included metals, major cations, major anions, dissolved organic carbon, and additional water-quality characteristics. Concentrations of metals or PCBs in pore water during the sediment toxicity exposures or during sediment bioaccumulation exposures also were determined using peeper samples (for metals) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplers (for PCBs). The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of PCBs in 14 sediment samples were investigated using SPME passive samplers and the 28-d L. variegatus whole-sediment bioaccumulation exposures In general the accumulation of PCBs consistently was predicted through the use of organic carbon normalization and equilibrium partitioning. In these sediments, PCB homologs were accumulated differently based on bioavailability and potential to accumulate in oligochaetes. As part of this assessment homolog specific biota sediment accumulation factor values were developed that could be applied across the larger site to predict tissue levels of PCBs. The whole-sediment toxicity tests done with H. azteca and C. dilutus met the established ASTM and USEPA test acceptability criteria. The most responsive H. azteca endpoints were day 42 survival normalized young per female and day 28 biomass and

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PCB DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, HYBRIZYME DELFIA TM ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DELFIA PCB Assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and europium-labeled PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. In this assay, the antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip...

  14. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Hanchin, Patrick A; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J

    2009-07-15

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  15. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  16. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  17. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  18. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  19. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  20. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  1. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  2. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  3. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  4. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  5. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  6. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  7. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  8. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

  10. Long-term simulation of PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velleux, M.L.; Endicott, Douglas; Steuer, Jeffrey; Patterson, Dale; Jaeger, Steven

    1995-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to model long-term PCB transport in the Fox River (Wisconsin) from Lake Winnebago to Green Bay. The objectives of this research were to (1) extend the modeling approach for the Fox River to permit realistic long-term simulations of contaminant transport and fate, (2) forecast long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay, and (3) develop a rational approach for evaluating sediment remediation alternatives. Field data collected as part of the Green Bay Mass Balance Study during 1988-90 and additional data collected by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey during 1992-93 were used to develop the model. A 10-year hindcast was conducted to confirm long-term model predictions. A series of 25-year forecasts were then conducted to explore the potential effects of hydrograph structure, extremely high flows, and sediment remediation on long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay. PCB export from the Fox River is forecast to decrease, and most (75%) of the PCB reservoir in Fox River sediment is expected to remain in place. However, extremely high flows in future years are forecast to cause significant PCB resuspension and export. Model forecasts suggest that long-term PCB export is only mildly sensitive to changes in hydrograph structure. Sediment remediation is forecast to reduce but not eliminate PCB export.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  12. Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open buring of biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies ...

  13. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  14. Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

  15. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  16. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  17. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  19. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  20. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  1. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  2. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  3. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  4. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  5. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  6. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  7. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation...

  8. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and disposal. 761.63 Section 761.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal....

  9. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  10. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  11. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL... foods and animal feeds, principally those of animal and marine origin, contain PCB's as unavoidable... animals ingesting PCB contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper...

  12. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  13. PCB 77 dechlorination products modulate pro-inflammatory events in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Eske, Katryn; Newsome, Bradley; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with detrimental health outcomes including cardiovascular diseases. Remediation of these compounds is a critical component of environmental policy. Although remediation efforts aim to completely remove toxicants, little is known about the effects of potential remediation byproducts. We previously published that Fe/Pd nanoparticles effectively dechlorinate PCB 77 to biphenyl, thus eliminating PCB-induced endothelial dysfunction using primary vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we analyzed the toxic effects of PCB congener mixtures (representative mixtures of commercial PCBs based on previous dechlorination data) produced at multiple time points during the dechlorination of PCB 77 to biphenyl. Compared with pure PCB 77, exposing endothelial cells to lower chlorinated PCB byproducts led to improved cellular viability, decreased superoxide production, and decreased nuclear factor kappa B activation based on duration of remediation. Presence of the parent compound, PCB 77, led to significant increases in mRNA and protein inflammatory marker expression. These data implicate that PCB dechlorination reduces biological toxicity to vascular endothelial cells.

  14. PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S

    2010-09-01

    Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation.

  15. TLR4 signaling is involved in brain vascular toxicity of PCB153 bound to nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bei; Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Daunert, Sylvia; Toborek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. As compared to exposure to PCB153 alone, treatment with PCB153-NP potentiated the brain infarct volume in control mice. Importantly, this effect was attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice. Similarly, PCB153-NP-induced proinflammatory responses and disruption of tight junction integrity were less pronounced in TLR4-deficient mice as compared to control animals. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that TLR4 mediates toxicity of PCB153-NP via recruitment of tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The results of current study indicate that binding to seemingly inert nanoparticles increase cerebrovascular toxicity of PCBs and suggest that targeting the TLR4/TRAF6 signaling may protect against these effects.

  16. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent and bioaccumulative. In this study we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77 and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal and redox cycling (i.e. sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after two weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms, and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. A size-based probabilistic assessment of PCB exposure from Lake Michigan fish consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Qian, S.S.

    1998-08-01

    The state of Wisconsin has recently issued a fish consumption advisory that includes suggested consumption rates for Lake Michigan fish, based on fish size and PCB concentration. To evaluate the size-based exposure risk from Lake Michigan fish consumption, the authors estimated PCB exposure probabilities for five Lake Michigan fish species using two Bayesian models. The models confirm that very few individuals of any of the five species are likely to have PCB concentrations low enough to fall into the category in which consumption is unrestricted. Among smaller fish (<50 cm), brown trout have the highest PCB levels, while lake trout are the most contaminated among larger fish (>60 cm). Eating meals from multiple individuals of some species results in a high probability that at least one of the meals will exceed 1.9 mg/kg, the upper PCB concentration recommended for consumption in the advisory.

  19. The Fate of Inhaled 14C-labelled PCB11 and its Metabolites In Vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Thorne, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The production ban of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) technical mixtures has left the erroneous impression that PCBs exist only as legacy pollutants. Some lower-chlorinated PCBs are still being produced and contaminate both indoor and ambient air. Objectives To inform PCB risk assessment, we characterized lung uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion of PCB11 as a signature compound for these airborne non-legacy PCBs. Methods After delivering [14C]PCB11 to the lungs of male rats, radioactivity in 34 major tissues and 5 digestive matter compartments was measured at 12, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 720 min postexposure, during which time the excreta and exhaled air were also collected. [14C]PCB11 and metabolites in liver, blood, digestive matter, urine and adipose tissues were extracted separately to establish the metabolic profile of the disposition. Results [14C]PCB11 was distributed rapidly to all tissues after 99.8% pulmonary uptake and quickly underwent extensive metabolism. The major tissue deposition of [14C]PCB11 and metabolites translocated from liver, blood and muscle to skin and adipose tissue 200 min postexposure, while over 50% of administered dose was discharged via urine and feces within 12 h. Elimination of the [14C]PCB11 and metabolites consisted of an initial fast phase (t½ = 9-33 min) and a slower clearance phase to low concentrations. Phase II metabolites dominated in liver, blood and excreta after 25 min postexposure. Conclusions This study shows that PCB11 is completely absorbed after inhalation exposure and is rapidly eliminated from most tissues. Phase II metabolites dominated with a slower elimination rate than the PCB11 or phase I metabolites and thus can best serve as urine biomarkers of exposure. PMID:24275706

  20. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  2. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  3. High PCB residues in birds from the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Swineford, D.M.; Katsma, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were measured in the carcasses and, in some cases, brains and stomach contents of four species of birds collected along the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin during the years 1976 to 1980. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were high in all samples and were the contaminants of greatest concern. Carcass residues ranged from 23 to 218 ppm PCBs on a wet weight basis; these are levels associated with reproductive impairment in laboratory studies with some birds. Food items in the stomachs of collected birds contained from 12 to 58 ppm PCBs, indicating a heavy contamination of food sources. The brain of one bird contained 220 ppm PCBs, a level that is not in the lethal range but is very high. Birds feeding in the contaminated portions of the Sheboygan River may have been harmed by high PCB levels.

  4. ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  5. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  6. Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Marsili, L.; Focardi, S. )

    1992-11-01

    Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water repartition coefficient, making them easily accumulated by living organisms. Their persistence and low degradability means that they are now present throughout the global ecosystem. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants also include heavy metals like Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr, of which Cd, an element causing functional damage to the kidney and liver in which it preferentially accumulates, is of special ecotoxicological importance. The WHO has defined an accumulation of 60 mg/kg (fresh weight), beyond which damage occurs. Cd occurs [open quotes]naturally[close quotes] in high concentrations in certain animal species including molluscs. Birds and marine mammals feeding largely on cephalopods show high levels of this metal. Many monitoring studies have also revealed high concentrations of PCBs in the same animals. The vast majority of studies on contaminants in experimental animals consider the short-, medium- and long-term effects of a single pollutant. However, the presence of synergisms and antagonisms between compounds makes it necessary to adopt a more holistic approach to the problem of environmental pollution. In order to understand if the effect of xenobiotic compounds like PCBs may be potentiated by the natural presence of cadmium in bird population, we sought preliminary information on how the presence of cadmium in the diet may influence the accumulation and metabolization of PCB congeners. The influence of Cd on PCB accumulation was investigated in Japanese quail treated experimentally with Cd and PCBs. Particular attention was paid to final congener accumulation and qualitative differences in congener composition between controls and treated birds. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Annotated Bibliography of Selected References on PCB and the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site, Michigan, 1982-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simard, Andreanne

    2003-01-01

    Fifty six publications pertaining to the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site Publications stored in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Environmental Response Division site files are summarized. Publications are presented chronologically within four categories: PCB releases, PCB remediation, PCB safety, and PCB testing and cleanup. The text consists of bibliographical information and brief summaries of various published documents pertaining to PCB contamination of the Kalamazoo River. Numerous investigators such as the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Pacific, and various contractors have demonstrated that multiple and at times continuous releases and re-releases of PCBs have occurred as a result of operations at papermill facilities owned and operated by the 'Potential Responsible Parties'.

  8. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  9. Exposure to PCB 77 affects partner preference but not sexual behavior in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J A; Clemens, L G; Nunez, A A

    2008-10-20

    In rats, exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl congener 3, 4, 3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) affects the brain and behavior of the offspring as well as the maternal behavior of the dams. In the present study, a cross-fostering design was used to examine the effects of pre- and/or postnatal exposure to PCB 77 on sexual behavior and partner preference in female rats, and to determine the role of altered maternal behavior in the mediation of these effects. Pregnant rats were treated with oil or PCB dissolved in oil (2 mg/kg b.w.) on gestation days 6-18 and then given pups that had been exposed to either the oil vehicle or PCB during gestation. As adults, the female offspring were tested for partner preference (that is, whether they preferred to spend time with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male) and sexual behavior. None of the treatments affected female sexual behavior. However, both double exposure and postnatal exposure diminished the animals' preference for a male over a female stimulus, but partner preference was not affected by prenatal exposure alone. There were no significant correlations between the changes in partner preferences due to PCB exposure and the amount of maternal grooming and licking received by the treated litters. Thus, female partner preference is affected by early PCB exposure, and the effects depend upon whether the exposure is in utero or via lactation and may be independent of any effects of the PCB on maternal care.

  10. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  11. Locating and quantifying PCB sources in Chicago: receptor modeling and field sampling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Kuang; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K

    2003-02-15

    Potential source contribution function (PSCF) modeling using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations measured in the Chicago area resolved three PCB source sectors. They were (i) the direction northwest of Chicago, (ii) the direction southwest of Chicago, and (iii) the south side of Chicago in the neighborhood of Lake Calumet. The area south of Chicago was further examined by taking upwind/ downwind samples near a landfill and sludge drying beds. Results identified the sludge drying beds and a large landfill as PCB sources to the atmosphere. Another PCB source identified in Chicago was a transformer storage yard. This site had the highest upwind/downwind concentration increments in this study (downwind PCB concentrations were more than 5 times those in the upwind air). These PCB sources were characterized in terms of inventories, emission rates, contributions, and PCB congener profiles (fingerprints). Preliminarily results indicate that the sludge may emit up to 90 kg/yr of PCBs to the air. This amount is probably not a significant contribution of PCBs to the Chicago atmosphere on the basis of dispersion modeling results and a simple box model.

  12. Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, WD; Flor, S; Gibson-Corley, KN; Ludewig, G; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicity. Twenty four 129S male mice (12 wild type (WT) and 12 MT knockout (MTKO)) were placed on a purified diet (AIN-93G) for 3 weeks to achieve hepatic metal equilibrium. Mice were then given a single IP injection, of either vehicle or 150 umol/kg PCB126 in vehicle. The animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later and organs processed for analysis. Liver histology, hepatic lipids, gene expression, micronutrient and ROS status were investigated. Liver weights, liver lipids, ROS, and hepatocyte vacuolation were increased with PCB126 exposure along with AhR responsive genes. The MTKO animals had more severe histological changes in the liver and elevated liver lipids than their wild type counterparts. Hepatic and renal metals levels (Cu, Zn, Se and Mn) were mostly reduced by PCB126 treatment. Renal micronutrients were more affected by PCB126 treatment in the MTKO animals. This research suggests that MT may not be the sole/primary cause of the metal disruption caused by PCB126 exposure in mice, but may provide protection against overall hepatotoxicity. PMID:26770886

  13. An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F.; McClean, Michael D.; Meeker, John D.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Weymouth, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation of 24 buildings in the Greater Boston Area revealed that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB levels in indoor air ranged from 111 to 393 ng/m3; and in dust taken from the building ventilation system, < 1 ppm to 81 ppm. In this building, the U.S. EPA mandated requirements for the removal and disposal of the PCB bulk product waste as well as for confirmatory sampling to ensure that the interior and exterior of the building were decontaminated. Although U.S. EPA regulations under the Toxic Substances Control Act stipulate procedures by which PCB-contaminated materials must be handled and disposed, the regulations apparently do not require that materials such as caulking be tested to determine its PCB content. This limited investigation strongly suggests that were this testing done, many buildings would be found to contain high levels of PCBs in the building materials and potentially in the building environment. The presence of PCBs in schools is of particular concern given evidence suggesting that PCBs are developmental toxins. PMID:15238275

  14. A highly selective and picomolar level photoelectrochemical sensor for PCB 101 detection in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Jinzhi; Wang, Yingling; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-07-15

    A highly selective and sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated for fast and convenient detection of PCB 101 in environmental water samples with a low detection limit of 1.0×10(-14)molL(-1) based on single crystalline TiO2 nanorods (NRs). By integration with molecular imprinting (MI) technique, the PEC sensor's selectivity towards PCB 101 was significantly improved, so that the interference caused by 100-fold excess of PCB 126 and PCB 77 which had similar structure with PCB 101 was below 37%, not to mention other coexisted pollutants. This high selectivity could be attributed to the high-quality expression of the molecular imprinting sites on the rigid and smooth surface of single crystalline TiO2 NRs on which PCB 101 could be selectively and preferentially adsorbed. The oriented and multiple halogen bonds formed between PCB 101 and the molecular imprinting sites played a critical role in improving the recognition ability of the PEC sensor. Meanwhile, the one dimensional nanorods structure of TiO2 was beneficial for the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, leading to enhanced photocurrent response and further improving the sensitivity of the PEC sensor. PMID:27016911

  15. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  16. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  17. Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.T.; Ma, C.I.; Hsu, S.K.H.; Wu, S.S.; Hsu, N.H.M.; Yeh, C.C.; Wu, S.B.

    1985-02-01

    An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factor workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

  18. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs.

  19. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Greenwell, Dale J; Roache, Nancy F; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were used in building materials and products. In this study, two types of dust, house dust and Arizona Test Dust, were tested in a 30-m(3) stainless steel chamber with two types of panels. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked primer or caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but without PCBs. The dust evenly spread on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The data from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with the PCB-containing panel, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. The dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the congener's volatility. For a given congener, the ratio between its concentration in the dust and in the source was used to estimate the dust/source partition coefficient. The estimated values ranged from 0.04 to 0.16. These values are indicative of the sink strength of the tested house dust being in the middle or lower-middle range.

  20. Dietary selenium as a modulator of PCB 126-induced hepatotoxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ian K; Chai, Yingtao; Simmons, Donald; Watson, Walter H; Tan, Rommel; Haschek, Wanda M; Wang, Kai; Wang, Bingxuan; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W

    2011-11-01

    Homeostasis of selenium (Se), a critical antioxidant incorporated into amino acids and enzymes, is disrupted by exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Here we examined the importance of dietary Se in preventing the toxicity of the most toxic polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a potent AhR agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet with differing dietary Se levels (0.02, 0.2, and 2 ppm). Following 3 weeks of acclimatization, rats from each dietary group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (vehicle), 0.2, 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB 126, followed 2 weeks later by euthanasia. PCB exposure caused dose-dependent increases in liver weight and at the highest PCB 126 dose decreases in whole body weight gains. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) activity was significantly increased even at the lowest dose of PCB 126, indicating potent AhR activation. PCB exposure diminished hepatic Se levels in a dose-dependent manner, and this was accompanied by diminished Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Both these effects were partially mitigated by Se supplementation. Conversely, thioredoxin (Trx) reductase activity and Trx oxidation state, although significantly diminished in the lowest dietary Se groups, were not affected by PCB exposure. In addition, PCB 126-induced changes in hepatic copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were observed. These results demonstrate that supplemental dietary Se was not able to completely prevent the toxicity caused by PCB 126 but was able to increase moderately the levels of several key antioxidants, thereby maintaining them roughly at normal levels. PMID:21865291

  1. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Greenwell, Dale J; Roache, Nancy F; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were used in building materials and products. In this study, two types of dust, house dust and Arizona Test Dust, were tested in a 30-m(3) stainless steel chamber with two types of panels. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked primer or caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but without PCBs. The dust evenly spread on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The data from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with the PCB-containing panel, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. The dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the congener's volatility. For a given congener, the ratio between its concentration in the dust and in the source was used to estimate the dust/source partition coefficient. The estimated values ranged from 0.04 to 0.16. These values are indicative of the sink strength of the tested house dust being in the middle or lower-middle range. PMID:26849196

  2. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  3. A Feasibility Study On Pd/Mg Application In Historically Contaminated Sediments And PCB Spiked Substrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vast majority of literature on bimetals deals with aqueous contaminants, very little being on organics strongly adsorbed on sediments and hence very challenging to remediate. Having previously reported materials, mechanistic and parametric aspects of PCB dechlorination with Pd...

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field analytical screening program (FASP) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) method uses a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCBs. Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determi...

  5. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  6. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PCB SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PROCESS-SELECTION FOR TEST AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a report describing the assessment of seven alternative treatment processes that show potential for decontaminating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments. The processes are KPEG, MODAR Supercritical Water Oxidation, Bio-Clean, Ultrasonics/UV, C...

  7. CHOL-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT, DEXSIL CORP. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY Evaluation REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents the evaluation of two field screening technologies for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. The demonstration was conducted by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), under contract to the...

  8. Variability of PCB burden in 5 fish and sharks species of the French Mediterranean continental slope.

    PubMed

    Cresson, Pierre; Fabri, Marie Claire; Miralles, Françoise Marco; Dufour, Jean-Louis; Elleboode, Romain; Sevin, Karine; Mahé, Kelig; Bouchoucha, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Despite being generally located far from contamination sources, deep marine ecosystems are impacted by chemicals like PCB. The PCB contamination in five fish and shark species collected in the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) was measured, with a special focus on intra- and interspecific variability and on the driving factors. Significant differences occurred between species. Higher values were measured in Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus and Helicolenus dactylopterus and lower values in Phycis blennoides and Lepidorhombus boscii. These differences might be explained by specific abilities to accumulate and eliminate contaminant, mostly through cytochrome P450 pathway. Interindividual variation was also high and no correlation was observed between contamination and length, age or trophic level. Despite its major importance, actual bioaccumulation of PCB in deep fish is not as documented as in other marine ecosystems, calling for a better assessment of the factors driving individual bioaccumulation mechanisms and originating high variability in PCB contamination. PMID:26874319

  9. Application of lipid extracts from Solidago canadensis to phytomonitoring of PCB126 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of lipid extracts from Solidago canadensis for phytomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 in the transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system. A lipid extract was prepared from S. canadensis and separated into simple lipid, glycolipid, and phospholipid fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Sterylglucoside (SG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and glucosyl ceramide were found in the glycolipid fraction. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with the glycolipid fraction together with PCB126, PCB126-induced GUS activity significantly increased in the whole plant. Moreover, S. canadensis-derived SG, MGDG, and DGDG also significantly increased PCB126-induced GUS activity. These results indicated that glycolipids in S. canadensis enhanced the sensitivity of this monitoring assay. PMID:24530184

  10. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    PubMed

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  11. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  12. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals. PMID:25725460

  13. Does Dietary Copper Supplementation enhance or diminish PCB126 Toxicity in Rodent Liver?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ian K.; Klaren, William D.; Li, Miao; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Wang, Kai; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Copper is essential for the function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and several antioxidant proteins. However, in its free form copper can participate in Fenton-like reactions that produce reactive hydroxyl radicals. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, including the most potent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), increase copper levels in rodent livers. This is accompanied by biochemical and toxic changes. To assess the involvement of copper in PCB toxicity, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93G diet with differing dietary copper levels: low (2 ppm), adequate (6 ppm), and high (10 ppm). After three weeks, rats from each group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (control), 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB126. Two weeks following injections, biochemical and morphological markers of hepatic toxicity, trace metal status, and hepatic gene expression of metalloproteins were evaluated. Increasing dietary copper was associated with elevated tissue levels of copper and ceruloplasmin. In the livers of PCB126-treated rats the hallmark signs of AhR activation were present, including increased cytochrome P-450 and lipid levels, and decreased glutathione. In addition a doubling of hepatic copper levels was seen and overall metals homeostasis was disturbed, resulting in decreased hepatic selenium, manganese, zinc and iron. Expression of key metalloproteins was either decreased (cytochrome c oxidase), unchanged (ceruloplasmin and CuZnSOD) or increased (tyrosinase, metallothionein 1 and 2) with exposure to PCB126. Increases in metallothionein may contribute/reflect the increased copper seen. Alterations in dietary copper did not amplify or abrogate the hepatic toxicity of PCB126. PCB126 toxicity, i.e. oxidative stress and steatosis, is clearly associated with disturbed metals homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of this disturbance may provide tools to prevent liver toxicity by other Ah

  14. PCB dry and wet weather concentration and load comparisons in Houston-area urban channels.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nathan L; Lakshmanan, Divagar; Rifai, Hanadi S; Koenig, Larry

    2011-04-15

    All 209 PCB congeners are quantified in water in both dry and wet weather urban flows in Houston, Texas, USA. Total water PCBs ranged from 0.82 to 9.4ng/L in wet weather and 0.46 to 9.0ng/L in dry. Wet weather loads were 8.2 times higher (by median) than dry weather with some increases of over 100-fold. The majority of the PCB load was in the dissolved fraction in dry weather while it was in the suspended fraction in wet weather. Dissolved PCB loads were correlated with rain intensity and highly developed land area, and a multiple linear regression (MLR) equation was developed to quantify these correlations. PCA generated five PCB components with nearly all positive loadings. They were interpreted as DOC-associated A1248, wet weather primarily suspended fraction A1254/A1260 likely from building sealants, truly dissolved-associated wastewater dechlorination, watershed-sourced PCB 11, and monochlorinated PCBs (likely connected to a different state or source of dechlorination). The PCB 11 component was statistically higher in wet versus dry weather when no other component showed such clear distinctions. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) did not always group dry and wet weather samples from the same location together illustrating the different congener composition that often exists between dry and wet conditions. Four wet weather samples from high percentage developed land (>90%) watersheds had nearly the same fingerprint suggesting a generic "urban" signature in runoff, which in this case was caused by residual A1254/A1260 PCB stocks and currently produced PCB 11 in consumer goods.

  15. Methyl sulfone PCB and DDE metabolites in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1995-12-31

    An important Arctic marine food chain is polar bear, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). The Arctic is relatively uncontaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs). However, high levels of CHCs are bioaccumulated through the marine food web. Methyl sulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-PCB and -DDE metabolites are major CHCs in polar bear, although the proportion of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs derived from PCB metabolism and/or MeSO{sub 2}-PCB bioaccumulation from the diet is unknown. For this reason, the structure and concentration of MeSO{sup 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, PCBs and DDE were determined in whole body Arctic cod, the liver, adipose, lung and muscle of ringed seal and ten tissues of polar bear from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic. Preliminary analysis of the ratios of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in bear fat and liver to their parent PCBs in seal blubber suggested that CB-49 and CB-87 result in a higher proportion of metabolites in bear than the other PCB congeners, assuming that the MeSO{sup 2}-PCBs are not themselves accumulated from the diet. Bio-availability of the precursor PCBs for subsequent metabolism may also be a factor. The absence in bears of MeSO{sub 2}-metabolites of other metabolizable PCBs in seal may indicate that some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs are not formed or that they are formed and further metabolized. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE levels and congener patterns among seal and bear tissues and the difference in tissue distribution between species will also be compared. In polar bear, the s-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to S-PCB and s-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE to DDE ratios were highest in liver, indicating preferred storage.

  16. Study of Clor-N-Oil 50 PCB screening kits on waste oil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, F.J. Jr.

    1985-11-22

    Twenty ''Clor-N-Oil 50'' PCB screening kits were tested with a variety of oil samples to determine whether they are suitable for identifying waste oils not contaminated with PCB's. Reliable results were obtained with clean transformer oils for which these kits were designed. Unreliability associated with use on waste oil samples renders them not cost-effective for use on waste oil. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals.

  18. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  19. [PCB concentration in hair, blood, tissues and secretions of chronically exposed dairy cows, fattening bulls and calves].

    PubMed

    Klein, U; Nagorny, C; Forschner, E; Johannes, B; Drochner, W

    1994-05-01

    Fattening bulls (n = 8) and cows (n = 10) affected chronically with PCB were kept in barns on PCB-free feeding (silage, straw, concentrates). The cows were dried off. The kinetics of PCB-concentrations in hair, blood and feces were examined. Fattening bulls (mean 460 kg bw, german black and white and interbreeding german black and white and Simmental) with low (320 g) and medium (730 g) daily weight gain for a period of 5 months and 3 bulls with medium (640 g) weight gain within 18 months were examined. A drying off period of 3-5 months was recorded for the cows. The distribution of PCB in the carcass of some animals was registered in addition. The following results are to be emphasized: Reduction of PCB in the studied substrates in the fattening bulls depends on a high degree on daily weight gain. This is important in order to calculate biological half life times of PCB. By standardized weight gain of 10 kg in bulls, fed PCB-free diets for a 5 months period, a reduction of PCB-concentrations from 1 to 3% was found (hair and feces: 1%, blood 3%). Within a period of 18 months and with higher weights, in the examined substrates (blood, hair, feces) mean declines of the PCB-concentrations of 2% were found. On knowledge so far this value is an essential point to estimate biological half life times, because metabolic PCB-elimination is negligible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8013297

  20. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (‑)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (‑)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (‑)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  1. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (−)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (−)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (−)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149. PMID:26786282

  2. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (-)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (-)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (-)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  3. Regulation of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in PCB 126-exposed male Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    3,3′,4,4′,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, significantly alters gene expression, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in the liver. PON1, an antioxidant and anti-atherogenic enzyme, is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood where it is incorporated into high density lipoprotein (HDL) and protects LDL and cellular membranes against lipid peroxidation. To explore the regulation of PON1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ip injections of 0, 1 or 5 μmol/kg PCB 126 and euthanized up to two weeks afterwards. Serum total and HDL-cholesterol were increased by low dose and decreased by high dose exposure, while LDL-cholesterol was unchanged. PCB 126 significantly increased hepatic PON1 gene expression and liver and serum PON1 activities. Liver and serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels were not elevated except for high dose and long exposure times. Serum antioxidant capacity was unchanged across all exposure doses and time points. This study, the first describing the regulation of gene expression of PON1 by a PCB congener, raises interesting questions whether elevated PON1 is able to ameliorate PCB 126-induced lipid peroxidation and whether serum PON1 levels may serve as a new biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. PMID:22266287

  4. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  5. Technical note monitoring native vegetation on a dumpsite of PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Macek, Tomas; Macková, Martina; Pavlík, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Composition of native vegetation on a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated soil dumpsite at Lhenice, South Bohemia (Czech Republic), was determined and species variability in the accumulation of PCBs in plant biomass was investigated. Soil stripping contaminated by PCBs originated at a factory producing electrical transformers that mostly used the commercial PCB mixture Delor 103 and 106. The PCB content of soil in the most contaminated part of the dumpsite reached 153 mg kg(-1) dry soil. Low diversity of plant species was found on the dumpsite. Results showed three grass species, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Rauschert., and Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., to be the major components of the vegetation and confirmed their high tolerance toward PCB contamination. The highest content of PCB in plant biomass--813.2 microg kg(-1) dry biomass--was determined in Festuca aboveground biomass. For phytoextraction purposes especially, Festuca can be recommended due to its high biomass yield, but its bioconcentration factor was very low (0.006). Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) Sch. Bip. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. grew mainly at the margins of the most contaminated part of the dumpsite. The PCB content determined in their aboveground biomass-278.7 and 289.5 microg kg(-1) dry biomass, respectively--was nonsignificantly lower compared to grass species Phalaroides and Calamagrostis. Salix (Salix viminalis L. and Salix caprea L.) was monitored among plant species composition at this site as a representative of woody species. PMID:18246716

  6. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  7. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  8. Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs.

  9. Exercise Attenuates PCB-Induced Changes in the Mouse Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Daunert, Sylvia; Abreu, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The gut microbiome, a dynamic bacterial community that interacts with the host, is integral to human health because it regulates energy metabolism and immune functions. The gut microbiome may also play a role in risks from environmental toxicants. Objectives: We investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and exercise on the composition and structure of the gut microbiome in mice. Methods: After mice exercised voluntarily for 5 weeks, they were treated by oral gavage with a mixture of environmentally relevant PCB congeners (PCB153, PCB138, and PCB180; total PCB dose, 150 µmol/kg) for 2 days. We then assessed the microbiome by determination of 16S rRNA using microarray analysis. Results: Oral exposure to PCBs significantly altered the abundance of the gut microbiome in mice primarily by decreasing the levels of Proteobacteria. The activity level of the mice correlated with a substantial shift in abundance, biodiversity, and composition of the microbiome. Importantly, exercise attenuated PCB-induced changes in the gut microbiome. Conclusions: Our results show that oral exposure to PCBs can induce substantial changes in the gut microbiome, which may then influence their systemic toxicity. These changes can be attenuated by behavioral factors, such as voluntary exercise. PMID:23632211

  10. Foodchain bioaccumulation patterns of pesticides, PCB isomers and dioxin/furan congeners in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, D.M.; Kiriluk, R.M.; Carswell, A.; Keir, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lake Ontario is one of the most contaminated Great Lakes. A detailed analysis of whole body concentrations of organic contaminants was conducted on a simple 4 compartment coldwater foodchain consisting of 7 species including several invertebrate diet items, prey fish species and the top predator lake trout. Sediment samples from the same site were analyzed for a similar suite of contaminants. Analyses were performed using a combination of HRMS/MS and GC/MS. All concentrations were reported on a whole animal wet weight basis and lipid weight concentrations. Total Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFS) were calculated for both dioxin and furan isomers and coplanar PCBs. PCB 110 (pentachlorobiphenyl) was the dominant congener in sediment samples as well as samples of benthic invertebrates. On the other hand, PCB 138 and 153 (hexachlorobiphenyls) were found at the highest concentration in the top predator lake trout and a prey species that feeds primarily in the water column. Mysis relicta, a zooplankton species that migrates diurnally through the water column, had similar levels of both PCB 110 and PCB 138/153. PCB 77 was consistently the highest coplanar PCB found in all samples. In all biological samples analyzed 2,3,7,8 substituted tetrachlorodioxin and furan isomers were consistently found at the highest levels. Lipid normalization of all whole body data did not significantly change the bioaccumulation factors calculated using wet weight concentrations.

  11. Can fisheries management make substantial progress towards further reductions in sport fish PCB concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Great Lakes managers continue to be concerned by PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sport fish. A reduction in sport fish consumption advisory levels would heighten public concern and increase pressure on managers to reduce contaminant levels in sport fish. PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sediments remain high and exchange with the water column is significant. Atmospheric inputs help maintain PCB availability in the Great Lakes. However, it is not technically feasible to control sediment and atmospheric inputs. Here the author uses a detailed age-structured simulation model of chinook salmon, alewife and rainbow smelt to examine the potential for fish management actions to make progress towards reducing PCB concentrations of sport fish consumed by humans. Chinook salmon PCB concentrations were found to be more affected by prey PCB concentrations than chinook salmon growth rates. Salmonid predators selectively attack the largest prey, but these prey are likely the oldest and most contaminated. The interaction between size selective predation by chinook salmon and their growth rates suggests that there is an ideal stocking level of sport fish that should keep the average prey fish small, and therefore have relatively low PCE concentrations, but not reduce the age structure of the alewife population to include few reproductive individuals. These results are applicable to other stocked salmonids too, (e.g., lake trout, brown trout, coho salmon, steelhead) because they also exhibit size selective predation and their recruitment is primarily by stocking.

  12. Development and evaluation of the mallard duck as a model to investigate the immunotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos) as a model for evaluating the immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals. A battery of immunotoxicity tests was validated for the mallard, including natural killer cell (NKC) activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, antibody titers to sheep erythrocytes, peripheral differential leukocyte counts, macrophage phagocytosis and prostaglandin-E[sub 2] (PGE2) production. To investigate potential hormonal-immune axes, dexamethasone (DEX), methimazole, and thyroxine (T4) were used to study the influence of glucocorticoid excess, hypo-, and hyperthyroidism on immunity, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1254) on immune, endocrine, and hepatic cytochrome-P450 function were evaluated and interpreted using results from the endocrine/immune studies. Results of these studies showed that antibody production was susceptible to suppression by DEX at doses which also caused significant changes in clinical plasma biochemistry values. NKC activity was enhanced by exposure to DEX in vivo, a phenomenon due to the inhibition of PGE2 production by adherent peripheral blood cells by DEX and mimicked in vitro with addition of indomethacin or DEX. Macrophage phagocytosis was significantly suppressed by DEX in vitro. Macrophage production of PGE2 ex vivo was suppressed in birds treated with DEX. In contrast to DEX, T4 or methimazole treatment elicited only slight physiologic changes in plasma albumin and cholesterol levels. No immune/thyroid axis was observed in mallards. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 induced significant hepatic microsomal ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activities in addition to increasing total cytochrome P450 content, but did not affect immune function, plasma corticosterone, or clinical biochemistry values. Total triiodothyronine, but not T4, was dose-dependently suppressed by PCB treatment.

  13. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  14. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated.

  15. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  16. Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucheva, Biserka; Tsonev, Tsonio; Iliev, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for recycling of lead solder dross were examined—carbothermal reduction and recycling using boron-containing substances. The influence of various factors on the metal yield was studied and the optimal parameters of the recycling process are defined. The comparison between them under the same parameters-temperature and retention time, showed that recycling of dross with a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:2 ratio provides higher metal yield (93%). The recycling of this hazardous waste under developed technology gets glassy slag and solder, which after correction of the chemical composition can be used again for production of PCB.

  17. Impact of PCB-118 and transformer oil toxicity on anaerobic digestion of sludge: anaerobic toxicity assay results.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Devrim; Imamoglu, Ipek; Dilek Sanin, F

    2013-08-01

    In this study, possible toxicity of increasing doses of PCB-118 and transformer oil (TO) on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated. For this purpose, five different sets of reactors were prepared in which four different PCB-118 concentration (1, 10, 20, and 30mgL(-1)) and three different TO concentration (0.38, 0.76, and 1.52gL(-1)) were applied. Throughout the study, biogas production and composition, pH, TS, VS, and COD as well as PCB concentration were monitored. Toxicity was investigated by anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) evaluating the reduction in methane production. A notable inhibition was observed mostly in 30mgL(-1) PCB reactors. A negative influence of PCB-118 and TO was observed on COD and solids removal. A maximum of 26.5% PCB-118 removal was attained.

  18. Exposure to sublethal levels of PCB-126 impacts fuel metabolism and swimming performance in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Bellehumeur, Karyne; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized physiological stressors to fish which over time may impair individual performance and perhaps fitness by inducing changes that could have population-level consequences. PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) accumulates in lipids and can subsequently be released into the bloodstream during periods of high activity that involve the mobilization of stored fuels to meet with increasing energy demands. The goal of this study was to determine if a sublethal exposure to PCB-126 altered the content of tissue energy supplies (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides) and impaired swimming performance as well as oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single Low (100μgkg(-1)) or High (400μgkg(-1)) dose of PCB-126 then swimming performance and metabolic rates from 1 to 9days post-injection were compared to Control (non-dosed) fish. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was assessed as an indication of PCB-126 intoxication while plasma and white muscle tissue metabolites were analyzed as an index of physiological disturbance. Swimming performance, assessed using two successive modified critical swimming speed (Ucrit) tests, was highest for fish in the High PCB-126 treatment; however, their initial condition factor (K) was also higher, largely due to their greater body mass. Trout in the High and Low PCB-126 treatments exhibited impaired recovery following intense exercise as they swam comparatively poorly when provided a second challenge. PCB-exposed fish exhibited reduced spleen somatic indices as well as muscle glucose and glycogen contents; whereas plasma cortisol and glucose levels were elevated, indicating higher metabolic costs during recovery and muscle restoration. Overall, this research provides insights into the sublethal effects of a toxic organic compound on swimming performance in trout.

  19. Comparison between conventional and laser method of imaging tracks on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozioł, G.; Borecki, J.

    2007-02-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates a UV line, which is suitable to the commonly available photoresists. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.

  20. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  1. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell.

  3. Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2008-07-01

    The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18407261

  4. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes.

  5. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. PMID:25841071

  6. Detection of indoor PCB contamination by thermal desorption of dust. A rapid screening method?

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Ken; Bøwadt, Søren; Larsen, Kjeld; Sporring, Sune

    2002-01-01

    Although PCB in caulking materials has been forbidden for many years in most of Europe, including Denmark, there has been continued interest to measure PCB levels in the air of contaminated buildings and blood of the occupants (Mengon and Schlatter 1993, Fromme et al. 1996, Ewers et al. 1998, Currado and Harrad 1998, Gabrio et al. 2000). The relatively low priority for investigations of this contamination is probably due to the small quantities inhaled compared to exposure via food, and the rapid metabolism of the most volatile congeners demonstrated by low concentrations of all congeners in the blood of exposed persons (Ewers et al. 1998, Gabrio et al. 2000). There is, however, evidence that PCB containing caulking materials have been used even during the '90s (Fromme et al. 1996). In Denmark, it is estimated that 75 t PCB is still in buildings (Organization of Sealant Branch's Manufacturers and Distributors 2000). During an investigation of dust from buildings with excessive microbial growth (including 35 rooms from 9 buildings), the analysis of semivolatile compounds by thermal desorption-GC/MS of samples from a single building surprisingly revealed large amounts of PCBs containing 3, 4 and 5 chlorine atoms, 10-20 times the amounts found in samples from other buildings. Extraction of the dust by SFE followed by GC/ECD analysis for 12 PCB congeners showed that there was approximately 20 times the total PCB concentrations in dust from the polluted building compared to the levels in the other buildings. Subsequent headspace analysis of caulking material from the polluted building revealed this to be the source. Shelf dust functions as a passive sampling medium and, thus, can be used as a screening method to detect PCB and other semivolatile pollution indoors.

  7. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  8. Stepping backward to improve assessment of PCB congener toxicities.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L G

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous global contaminants that have been intensively investigated for three decades. They are broad-acting toxicants occurring in complex mixtures and accurate risk assessment has proven to be elusive. Focusing on a limited set of end points and emphasizing a fixed set of congeners have led to more streamlined data sets that are meant to expedite hazard characterization and risk assessment for the most potent congeners--aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Unfortunately, this has made it impossible to confirm or deny significant contributions from the more prevalent components of the mixtures. PCBs may be only coincidentally present, rather than causal, in some diseases. Still, attempts to determine associations with incomplete residue data may lead to erroneous conclusions and make accurate risk assessment even more elusive. Responses not mediated through the AhR are presented and emphasize large data gaps. Dissimilar analytical reports emphasize that selection of analytes is not consistent. Collectively, these data confirm that AhR-focused objectives unintentionally created the impression that nonplanar PCBs have little if any potential for hazards to humans and wildlife. Near steady-state exposure of healthy adults are probably of minor consequence except for emerging correlations with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, pulses of exposure to more labile mixtures may contribute to developmental effects without leaving a residue record. More broadly based criteria are suggested and harmonization of data collection and presentation are desirable. A more comprehensive list of PCB congeners is proposed that would provide more adequate data upon which to base associations with adverse outcomes. PMID:9539012

  9. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  10. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Wang, Weixing; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  11. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources. PMID:26983809

  12. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  13. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  14. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources.

  15. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-03-15

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 μg kg(-1) was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using different amounts of iron nanoparticles in both setups A and B. A PCB removal of 83% was obtained in setup A compared with 58% of setup B. Setup A also showed additional advantages, such as a higher PCB dechlorination, in a shorter time, with lower nZVI consumption, and with the use of half of the voltage gradient when compared with the traditional setup (B). Energy and nZVI costs for a full-scale reactor are estimated at 72 € for each cubic meter of PCB contaminated soil treated on-site, making this technology competitive when compared with average off-site incineration (885 € m(-3)) or landfilling (231 € m(-3)) cost in Europe and in the USA (327 USD m(-3)).

  16. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Green Tea Catechin, EGCG, Suppresses PCB 102-Induced Proliferation in Estrogen-Sensitive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kimberly Mantzke; Bauer, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment is of considerable concern since they accumulate in human breast tissue and may stimulate the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. Studies have shown that EGCG from green tea can modify estrogenic activity and thus may act as a cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of PCB 102 and EGCG on cell proliferation using an estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7/BOS. PCB 102 (1–10 μM) increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the proliferative effects of PCB 102 were mediated by ERα and could be abrogated by the selective ERα antagonist MPP. EGCG (10–50 μM) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of PCB 102-induced cell proliferation, with nearly complete inhibition at 25 μM EGCG. The antiproliferative action of EGCG was mediated by ERβ and could be blocked by the ERβ-specific inhibitor PHTPP. In conclusion, EGCG suppressed the proliferation-stimulating activity of the environmental estrogen PCB 102 which may be helpful in the chemoprevention of breast cancer. PMID:26783468

  18. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M.; Sever, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Growth Retardation and Altered Isotope Composition As Delayed Effects of PCB Exposure in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ek, Caroline; Gerdes, Zandra; Garbaras, Andrius; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Gorokhova, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Trophic magnification factor (TMF) analysis employs stable isotope signatures to derive biomagnification potential for environmental contaminants. This approach relies on species δ(15)N values aligning with their trophic position (TP). This, however, may not always be true, because toxic exposure can alter growth and isotope allocation patterns. Here, effects of PCB exposure (mixture of PCB18, PCB40, PCB128, and PCB209) on δ(15)N and δ(13)C as well as processes driving these effects were explored using the cladoceran Daphnia magna. A two-part experiment assessed effects of toxic exposure during and after exposure; juvenile daphnids were exposed during 3 days (accumulation phase) and then allowed to depurate for 4 days (depuration phase). No effects on survival, growth, carbon and nitrogen content, and stable isotope composition were observed after the accumulation phase, whereas significant changes were detected in adults after the depuration phase. In particular, a significantly lower nitrogen content and a growth inhibition were observed, with a concomitant increase in δ(15)N (+0.1 ‰) and decrease in δ(13)C (-0.1 ‰). Although of low magnitude, these changes followed the predicted direction indicating that sublethal effects of contaminant exposure can lead to overestimation of TP and hence underestimated TMF. PMID:27367056

  20. Evolution rates and PCB content of surface films that develop on impervious urban surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rosa W.; Harner, Tom; Diamond, Miriam L.

    Surface films on impervious surfaces mediate the fate of organic contaminants in urban areas. Using sheltered 3-mm diameter glass beads as a surrogate impervious urban surface, studies in downtown Toronto showed that surface films developed at a consistent rate of ˜1.6-2.6 nm day -1. Linear film growth was observed up to and including the last day of three studies of 89-, 273-, and 84-day duration. Total PCB content (sum of 15 PCB congeners) also increased linearly, at a similar rate as the surface film. A complementary study using unsheltered beads showed that up to 80% of film mass and PCB content were removed by film wash-off during rain events. The film growth rate on beads exposed at a rural site, 200 km northeast of Toronto, was ˜12-20 times lower with PCB burdens that were ˜7-22 times lower compared to Toronto. Based on these findings, it is estimated that approximately 56-226 g of PCBs are captured by a 70 nm thick film covering just the horizontal surface area of Toronto. This is a substantial quantity of PCB that is available for rapid surface-air exchange and wash-off.

  1. Temperature selection by young lake trout after chronic exposure to PCB's and DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature selection tests were conducted with fry of Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to PCB's, DDE and a combination of these contaminants in food and water at levels 25 times the ambient levels in plankton and water in Lake Michigan. The observed effect of the contaminants was a lowering of the preferred temperature. After 98 days of exposure, mean preferred temperatures were 10.3A?C for fry exposed to PCB's, 9.8A?C for those exposed to DDE, and 8.7A?C for those exposed to PCB's + DDE, as compared with 11.2A?C for control fry. Frequency distributions of residence temperatures were significantly (P < 0.01) different among all treatments. Such a change in the preferred temperature caused by a contaminant could reduce the energetic efficiency of a fish and thereby reduce growth and survival.

  2. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, F.; Hayashi, M.

    1985-02-01

    Pregnant mothers with Yusho in Fukuoka, Nagasaki and Kochi Prefectures delivered babies with a peculiar clinical manifestation which will be called fetal PCB syndrome (FPS). The birth rate incidences were 3.6% (Fukuoka Prefecture), 4% (Nagasaki Prefecture), 2.9% (Kochi Prefecture) and 3.9% (total). The manifestations consisted of dark brown pigmentation of the skin and the mucous membrane, gingival hyperplasia, exophthalmic edematous eye, dentition at birth, abnormal calcification of the skull as demonstrated by X-ray, rocker bottom heel and high incidence of light for date (low birth weight) babies. The authors suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB. The high incidence of low birth weight among these newborns and two other similar studies indicated that PCBs suppress fetal growth.

  3. Initial Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of PCB-HASL in Typical Outdoor Environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Yi, Pan; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    A long-term (1, 3, and 6 months) outdoor exposure test was performed for lead-free hot air solder leveling printed circuit boards (PCB-HASL) in typical environments in China and the corrosion behavior and mechanism of outdoor PCB-HASL were investigated. In a dry environment PCB-HASL corroded slightly, because of the protective effect of surface oxide films. Corrosion spread from places where dust particles were deposited or mold spores were adsorbed. Under the combined effects of humidity and contamination, large amounts of granular corrosion products with a loose structure were generated, greatly reducing the protective effect of the Sn layer. Furthermore, protection of the edges of the plates was poor, and corrosion products from these regions migrated rapidly on the FR-4 board. When a 12 V electrical bias was applied, Sn and Cu migrated simultaneously. In the electrochemical migration process the effect of humidity was much more critical than that of contamination.

  4. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 1. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  5. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 2. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  6. Long-lasting FR-4 surface hydrophilisation towards commercial PCB passive microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Moschou, Despina; Carta, Daniela; Morgan, Hywel; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-04-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCB) technologies are an attractive system for simple sensing and microfluidic systems. Controlling the surface properties of PCB material is an important part of this technology and to date there has been no study on long-term hydrophilisation stability of these materials. In this work, the effect of different oxygen plasma input power and treatment duration times on the wetting properties of FR-4 surfaces was investigated by sessile droplet contact angle measurements. Super and weakly hydrophilic behaviour was achieved and the retention time of these properties was studied, with the hydrophilic nature being retained for at least 26 days. To demonstrate the applicability of this treatment method, a commercially manufactured microfluidic structure made from a multilayer PCB (3-layer FR-4 stack) was exposed to oxygen plasma at the optimum conditions. The structures could be filled with deionised (DI) water under capillary flow unlike the virgin devices.

  7. Metal-slotted hybrid optical waveguides for PCB-compatible optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Tae; Ju, Jung Jin; Park, Suntak

    2012-04-23

    For development of electro-optical printed circuit board (PCB) systems, PCB-compatible metal-slotted hybrid optical waveguide was proposed and its optical characteristics are investigated at a wavelength of 1.31 μm. To confine light in a metallic multilayered structure, a metal film with a wide trench is inserted at the center of a dielectric medium that is sandwiched between metal films of infinite width. A circularly symmetric spot of the guided mode was measured at the center of the metal-slotted optical waveguide, which is a good agreement with the theoretical prediction by using the finite-element method. The measured propagation loss is about 1.5 dB/cm. Successful transmission of 2.5 Gbps optical signal without any distortion of the eye diagram confirms that the proposed hybrid optical waveguide holds a potential transmission line for the PCB-compatible optical interconnection.

  8. The effect of size and sex on PCB and PAH concentrations in crab Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Hosseini, Mehdi; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the hepatopancreas of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) from the north Persian Gulf were measured. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in hepatopancreas were investigated by linear regression analysis. Among the PCBs, congeners 110 and 153 were the most frequent and abundant. The results showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between PCB and PAH levels and crab size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCB16, 44, 153, and acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and anthracene concentrations in hepatopancreas of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab.

  9. Solvent extraction treatment of PCB contaminated soil at Sparrevohn Long Range Radar Station, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, L.D.

    1999-07-01

    This technical paper describes an on-site soil treatment project at the Sparrevohn Long-Range Radar Station (LRRS), Alaska. The project was conducted during the summer of 1996. Sparrevohn LLRS is located approximately 200 miles west of Anchorage, Alaska and is accessible only by aircraft. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contaminated soil containing between 50 and 350 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg) was stockpiled on-site. Terra Kleen Response Group, Inc.'s (Terra Kleen's) solvent extraction process successfully treated the stockpiled PCB contaminated soil ({approximately}290 yd{sup 3}). The PCB concentrations in the treated soil were reduced below the target treatment level of 15 mg/kg. On-site solvent extraction treatment realized considerable savings ({gt}$1,000,000) to the Government over the traditional method of hauling and off-site disposal.

  10. Serum PCB and DDE levels of frequent Great Lakes sport fish consumers -- A first look

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, L.P.; Falk, C.; Anderson, H.A.; Draheim, L.; Olson, J.; Kanarek, M.S.

    1999-02-01

    Great Lakes (GL) sport fish consumption is a potential human exposure route for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE). Because of fish tissue contamination, frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport caught fish (GLSCF) may be at risk for PCB and DDE accumulation. To examine this problem, the Health Departments of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan formed a health assessment consortium. Participants were contacted by telephone to complete a detailed demographic and fish consumption survey. Frequent and infrequent GLSCF consumers were identified, and a participant subset was then asked to donate blood for PCB and DDE analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to study exposure group mean differences, while correlation and regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between demographic characteristics, GLSCF consumption, PCB, and DDE body burdens.

  11. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}. ► PCB

  12. PCB exposure and in vivo CYP1A2 activity among Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hwang, Syni-An; Lambert, George; Gomez, Marta; Tarbell, Alice

    2005-03-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of some carcinogens and is believed to be induced by xenobiotics. Very few studies, however, have investigated the association between environmental exposures and in vivo CYP1A2 activity in humans. To address this issue, a study was conducted of CYP1A2 activity among Native Americans exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the consumption of fish from the St. Lawrence River. At the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (in New York and in Ontario and Quebec, Canada), 103 adults were interviewed, and they donated blood for serum PCB analysis and underwent the caffeine breath test (CBT), a safe and noninvasive procedure that uses caffeine as a probe for CYP1A2 activity in vivo. The results supported the findings of other studies that CBT values are higher among smokers and men and lower among women who use oral contraceptives. Despite a relatively low average total PCB body burden in this population, the sum of serum levels for nine mono- or di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners showed positive associations with CBT values (p = 0.052 wet weight and p = 0.029 lipid adjusted), as did toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs; p = 0.091 for wet weight and 0.048 for lipid adjusted). Regarding individual congeners, serum levels of PCB-153, PCB-170, and PCB-180 were significantly correlated with CBT values. The results support the notion that CYP1A2 activity may be a marker of an early biological effect of exposure to PCBs in humans and that the CBT may be a useful tool to monitor such effects.

  13. PCB Exposure and in Vivo CYP1A2 Activity among Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hwang, Syni-An; Lambert, George; Gomez, Marta; Tarbell, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of some carcinogens and is believed to be induced by xenobiotics. Very few studies, however, have investigated the association between environmental exposures and in vivo CYP1A2 activity in humans. To address this issue, a study was conducted of CYP1A2 activity among Native Americans exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the consumption of fish from the St. Lawrence River. At the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (in New York and in Ontario and Quebec, Canada), 103 adults were interviewed, and they donated blood for serum PCB analysis and underwent the caffeine breath test (CBT), a safe and noninvasive procedure that uses caffeine as a probe for CYP1A2 activity in vivo. The results supported the findings of other studies that CBT values are higher among smokers and men and lower among women who use oral contraceptives. Despite a relatively low average total PCB body burden in this population, the sum of serum levels for nine mono- or di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners showed positive associations with CBT values (p = 0.052 wet weight and p = 0.029 lipid adjusted), as did toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs; p = 0.091 for wet weight and 0.048 for lipid adjusted). Regarding individual congeners, serum levels of PCB-153, PCB-170, and PCB-180 were significantly correlated with CBT values. The results support the notion that CYP1A2 activity may be a marker of an early biological effect of exposure to PCBs in humans and that the CBT may be a useful tool to monitor such effects. PMID:15743714

  14. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.

  15. PCB Exposure and in Vivo CYP1A2 Activity among Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hwang, Syni-An; Lambert, George; Gomez, Marta; Tarbell, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of some carcinogens and is believed to be induced by xenobiotics. Very few studies, however, have investigated the association between environmental exposures and in vivo CYP1A2 activity in humans. To address this issue, a study was conducted of CYP1A2 activity among Native Americans exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the consumption of fish from the St. Lawrence River. At the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (in New York and in Ontario and Quebec, Canada), 103 adults were interviewed, and they donated blood for serum PCB analysis and underwent the caffeine breath test (CBT), a safe and noninvasive procedure that uses caffeine as a probe for CYP1A2 activity in vivo. The results supported the findings of other studies that CBT values are higher among smokers and men and lower among women who use oral contraceptives. Despite a relatively low average total PCB body burden in this population, the sum of serum levels for nine mono- or di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners showed positive associations with CBT values (p = 0.052 wet weight and p = 0.029 lipid adjusted), as did toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs; p = 0.091 for wet weight and 0.048 for lipid adjusted). Regarding individual congeners, serum levels of PCB-153, PCB-170, and PCB-180 were significantly correlated with CBT values. The results support the notion that CYP1A2 activity may be a marker of an early biological effect of exposure to PCBs in humans and that the CBT may be a useful tool to monitor such effects. PMID:15743714

  16. Long-term trends of continental-scale PCB patterns studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Stemmler, Irene; Lammel, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Continental-scale distribution and inter-continental transport of four polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (28, 101, 153, 180) from 1950 to 2010 were studied using the global multicompartment chemistry transport model MPI-MCTM. Following identical primary emissions for all PCB congeners into air, most of the burden is stored in terrestrial (soil and vegetation) compartments. Thereby, PCB-28, PCB-101 and PCB-153 show a shift of the soil burden maxima from source to remote regions. This shift is downwind with regard to the westerlies for Eurasia and upwind for North America and more prominent for the lighter PCBs than for PCB-153 or PCB-180. In meridional direction, all congeners' distributions underwent a northward migration in Eurasia and North America since the 1950s. Inter-continental transport from Eurasian sources accounts largely for contamination of Alaska and British Columbia and determines the migration of the PCB distribution in soil in North America. Trans-Pacific transport occurs mainly in the gas phase in boreal winter (December-January-February) at 3-4 km altitude and is on a multi-year time scale strongly linked to the atmospheric pressure systems over the Pacific. Inter-continental transport of the lighter, more volatile PCBs is more efficient than for the heavier PCBs.

  17. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  18. Estimation of the health risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations found onboard older U.S. Navy vessels.

    PubMed

    Still, K R; Arfsten, D P; Jederberg, W W; Kane, L V; Larcom, B J

    2003-10-01

    PCBs have been identified on surfaces and in component materials and equipment from inactive U.S. Navy nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970. Health risks associated with PCBs present onboard submarines were estimated for hypothetical crew members and shipyard workers. Median non-cancer hazard quotients for shipyard workers and submarine crew ranged between 0.4-54.6, with the highest quotients estimated for unprotected shipyard workers. Median cancer risk estimates ranged from 7.3 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-3) with the highest estimated risk calculated for unprotected shipyard workers. Our findings suggest that PCB surface concentrations found onboard inactive nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970 may be high enough to constitute a possible risk to the health of persons involved in dismantling of Navy submarines if PCB exposure is not minimized. Potential sources of uncertainty in our risk assessment include the correlation between PCB contamination levels on inactive versus active nuclear submarine vessels, the relationship between wipe sample concentrations and human exposure, dermal contact frequency with PCB-contaminated surfaces, carcinogenicity of PCBs in humans, and uncertainties inherent with the PCB cancer slope factor and oral RfD. Our findings support Navy policy that shipyard workers should wear personal protective equipment when PCB contamination is suspected or has been identified and that IH surveys should continue to identify sources of PCB contamination onboard vessels and reduce PCB contamination to concentrations that are reasonably achievable.

  19. Morphological and functional deterioration of the rat thyroid following chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Mei; Li, Wen; Xie, Yu-Chun; Guo, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Pei; Chen, Huan-Huan; Zheng, Xu-Qin; Jiang, Lin; Cui, Dai; Liu, Yun; Ding, Guo-Xian; Duan, Yu

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the synthesis and secretion of endocrine hormones. To investigate the effects of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB118) on thyroid structure and function, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal treatment groups and administered vehicle or one of three doses of PCB118. The experimental groups received intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 10, 100, or 1000μg/kg/day PCB118, 5 days per week for 13 weeks, whereas the control group was injected with corn oil (vehicle). Serum concentrations of free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured by radioimmunoassays. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the thyroid were observed under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mRNA expression levels of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin (TG) were quantified by real-time PCR. Increasing doses of PCB118 resulted in progressively lower FT3, FT4 and TSH concentrations in serum. Injection of PCB118 at all doses led to histopathological deterioration of the thyroid characterized by follicular hyperplasia and expansion, shedding of epithelial cells and fibrinoid necrosis. Follicle cells exhibited swollen or vacuolated endoplasmic reticula, as revealed by TEM. Exposure to PCB118 also caused significant decreases in NIS and TG mRNA expression levels. Chronic exposure to low-dose PCB118 and other PCB congeners may be a significant risk factor for thyroid diseases. PMID:23557935

  20. PCB Research Results Derive from a False Belief System: You've Come the Wrong Way, Baby!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the points raised by groups of scientists who were invited to respond to our initial critique of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) research in this special issue. In that article, we applied six objective criteria to more than two decades of published PCB research and concluded that much of the research was badly flawed. The…

  1. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-12-31

    This document, the {open_quotes}1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory{close_quotes} was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL`s PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL`s PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, {open_quotes}Status of the PCB Management Program{close_quotes}, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program`s policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal.

  2. PCB contamination in surface sediments in the coastal waters of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the initial investigation of PCB concentrations in four geographical regions (three on the Pacific and one in the Caribbean) of coastal Costa Rica: Bahia Culebra, Golfo Dulce, Golfo de Nicoya, and Limón. Overall total concentrations of PCB were low in all areas except around the port of Golfito (Golfo Dulce). Overall average concentration is 2.80 ng/g dw, with a standard deviation of 2.75. The low concentration could be due to lack of contamination or the subsequent degradation in the warm climate, or the low sorptive capacity of the sediment. Further investigation is ongoing.

  3. Acute toxicity of PCB congeners to Daphnia magma and Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, T.M. ); Burton, W.D.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The acute toxicity (EC50/LC50) of commercial PCB mixtures has been reported to range from 2.0 to 283 ug/L. Because PCBs are very hydrophobic most biological studies have utilized a carrier solvent to facilitate introduction of PCBs into aqueous solution. As a result, biological effects are often reported at exposure concentrations exceeding water solubility. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of selected PCB congeners without carrier solvents. These tests were conducted on early life stages of two sensitive freshwater organisms, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas.

  4. Do PCB concentration trends in Lake Michigan fishes reflect global or local patterns?

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Carpenter, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have examined the fit of three alternative, models to PCB concentration data for seven species of Lake Michigan fishes. The best fit model for all seven species indicates that, following rapid decreases through the mid-1980s, PCBs are no longer declining. The authors believe this pattern indicates PCBs are currently originating from global or local pools that are being recycled in the environment. If the current PCB source in Lake Michigan is primarily sediment or fluvial, then this may be an isolated pattern. However, a sizeable atmospheric input would suggest that this problem may be occurring in many systems.

  5. PCB contamination in surface sediments in the coastal waters of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the initial investigation of PCB concentrations in four geographical regions (three on the Pacific and one in the Caribbean) of coastal Costa Rica: Bahia Culebra, Golfo Dulce, Golfo de Nicoya, and Limón. Overall total concentrations of PCB were low in all areas except around the port of Golfito (Golfo Dulce). Overall average concentration is 2.80 ng/g dw, with a standard deviation of 2.75. The low concentration could be due to lack of contamination or the subsequent degradation in the warm climate, or the low sorptive capacity of the sediment. Further investigation is ongoing. PMID:17469231

  6. Diminished Phosphorylation of CREB Is a Key Event in the Dysregulation of Gluconeogenesis and Glycogenolysis in PCB126 Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gadupudi, Gopi S; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J; Robertson, Larry W

    2016-09-19

    The dioxin-like PCB126 elicits toxicity in various target organs. In rat liver, an alteration in the transcript levels of several genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism provides insights into the origin of its hepatotoxicity. To explore the mechanisms, male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed an AIN-93G diet, were injected with PCB126 (1 or 5 μmol/kg) or corn oil and euthanized after 2 weeks. PCB126 significantly decreased serum glucose levels and the transcript levels of genes of many gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic enzymes under the transcriptional control of a nuclear transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). As a novel finding, we show that PCB126 significantly decreases CREB phosphorylation, which is important for regulating both gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in the liver and explains CREB's integrative effects on both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in PCB126 toxicity. PMID:27509375

  7. Variability in PCB and OH-PCB serum levels in children and their mothers in urban and rural U.S. communities.

    PubMed

    Marek, Rachel F; Thorne, Peter S; DeWall, Jeanne; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2014-11-18

    Environmental exposures that affect accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans are complex and not fully understood. One challenge in linking environmental exposure to accumulation is determining variability of PCB concentrations in samples collected from the same person at different times. We hypothesized that PCBs in human blood serum are consistent from year to year in people who live in the same environment between sampling. We analyzed blood serum from children and their mothers from urban and rural U.S. communities (n = 200) for all 209 PCBs (median ∑PCBs = 45 ng/g lw) and 12 hydroxylated PCBs (median ∑OH-PCBs = 0.09 ng/g fw). A subset of these participants (n = 155) also had blood PCB and OH-PCB concentrations analyzed during the previous calendar year. Although many participants had similar levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood from one year to the next, some participants had surprisingly different levels. Year-to-year variability in ∑PCBs ranged from -87% to 567% and in ∑OH-PCBs ranged from -51 to 358% (5th-95th percentile). This is the first study to report variability of all PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people and suggests short-term exposures to PCBs may be a significant component of what is measured in human serum.

  8. A mass-balance approach for assessing PCB movement during remediation of a PCB-contaminated deposit on the Fox River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, collected water samples during the September 1 - December 15, 1999 removal of sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a reach of the Lower Fox River designated Sediment Management Unit (SMU) 56/57. Results of analyses of the samples, along with monitoring activities of several other organizations, were used to delineate and compare PCB mass pathways during the cleanup effort (fig. 1). Results indicate that the cleanup at SMU 56/57 had the following effect on PCB mass: dredging permanently removed more than 650 kg (1441 lb) of PCBs, transported 14.5 kg (32 lb) downstream, and volatilized 2.6 kg (5.7 lb) to the atmosphere; associated activities on the shore returned 0.1 kg (0.3 lb) to the river. This report documents the USGS data-collection efforts and details the mass-balance approach for PCB pathway delineation.

  9. Variability in PCB and OH-PCB Serum Levels in Children and Their Mothers in Urban and Rural U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures that affect accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans are complex and not fully understood. One challenge in linking environmental exposure to accumulation is determining variability of PCB concentrations in samples collected from the same person at different times. We hypothesized that PCBs in human blood serum are consistent from year to year in people who live in the same environment between sampling. We analyzed blood serum from children and their mothers from urban and rural U.S. communities (n = 200) for all 209 PCBs (median ∑PCBs = 45 ng/g lw) and 12 hydroxylated PCBs (median ∑OH-PCBs = 0.09 ng/g fw). A subset of these participants (n = 155) also had blood PCB and OH-PCB concentrations analyzed during the previous calendar year. Although many participants had similar levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood from one year to the next, some participants had surprisingly different levels. Year-to-year variability in ∑PCBs ranged from −87% to 567% and in ∑OH-PCBs ranged from −51 to 358% (5th–95th percentile). This is the first study to report variability of all PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people and suggests short-term exposures to PCBs may be a significant component of what is measured in human serum. PMID:25300024

  10. Contribution of PCB exposure from fish consumption to total dioxin-like dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Judd, Nancy; Griffith, William C; Faustman, Elaine M

    2004-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are the second greatest cause of fish advisories, and are often the greatest contributors to dioxin-like toxic equivalency (TEQ) in fish and seafood. Because fish consumption is associated with both contaminant risks and health benefits, incremental health risks from PCBs in fish should be considered within the context of overall TEQ associated dietary risk to enable consumers to make informed decisions about choosing to eat fish or alternate foodstuffs. In this paper, potential TEQ exposure from PCBs in fish for adults with a variety of consumption patterns and consuming fish from a variety of sources are calculated using recent consumption and fish contaminant data from the literature and compared to total TEQ exposure from all sources. For high-level consumers and individuals eating fish from relatively contaminated sites, PCB TEQ exposure from fish consumption alone may exceed the 1 pg TEQ/kg/day average adult daily intake estimated by EPA, which itself carries an upper bound cancer risk of 1 in 1000. PCB TEQ risk for average consumers of commercial fish is expected to be far less, but is highly uncertain, since there is a dearth of congener specific PCB data for commercial fish and seafood. PMID:15450716

  11. Availability of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factor Data Set and PCB Residue Effects Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sites, EPA’s Superfund program must decide how best to protect public health and the environment. This research was undertaken to better inform decision making and reduce uncertainties related to risk assessments at Superfund sites. A residue-effects database (PCB...

  12. SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF PCB ACCUMULATION IN A GREAT LAKES FOOD WEB. (R825151)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seston, sediment, settling organic matter, and food web members were
    collected from Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan, between April 1997 and
    September 1998 to examine PCB and toxaphene biomagnification. Stable isotopes of
    nitrogen and carbon were analyzed in sampl...

  13. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846,...

  14. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846,...

  15. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846,...

  16. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846,...

  17. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste. 761.358 Section 761.358 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... concentration of samples of waste. Use either Method 3500B/3540C or Method 3500B/3550B from EPA's SW-846,...

  18. Serial PBB levels, PCB levels, and clinical chemistries in Michigan's PBB cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiss, K.; Roberts, C.; Humphrey, H.E.B.

    1982-05-01

    Half of a cohort of 3683 Michigan residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 1973 and 1974 had 2 serum PBB determinations at a 1- or 2-yr interval. The median decrease in serum PBB levels during both 1- and 2-yr intervals was 1 ..mu..g/L. The geometric mean serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) level (6.3 ..mu..g/L) exceeded that of PBB (4.1 ..mu../L), although the range of PCB levels (< 1-57 ..mu..g/L) was narrower than that of PBB levels (<1-3150 ..mu..g/L). Mean PCB and PBB levels were higher for mates, and mean PCB levels increased with age. In a subgroup with higher-than-average PBB levels, serial clinical cheimistry tests during 4 different years showed no consistent significant correlation with serum PBB levels. Tests with greater sensitivity and specificity for hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and thyroid status are needed in future evaluations of the most highly exposed subgroup of the cohort.

  19. PCB-153 AND BDE-47 INCREASE THYROXINE T4) CATABOLISM IN RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies demonstrate that in vivo exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) levels in rats. This decrease is thought to occur through the induction of hepatic metabolizing enzymes ...

  20. Effect of PCB and DES on rat monoamine oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, testosterone, and estradiol ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, D.R.; Bradshaw, W.S.; Booth, G.M.; Seegmiller, R.E.; Allen, S.D.

    1992-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been documented as potentially hazardous environmental agents. In utero exposure to DES produces human vaginal adenocarcinoma, male reproductive tract lesions in mice, and has been correlated with personality changes in human males. PCB (Kanechlor) was found to be the major toxin in the {open_quotes}Yusho{close_quotes} rice oil poisoning in Japan in 1968. Other investigators have shown in rats that PCB (Arochlor) causes liver adenofibrosis, thyroid dysfunction, atypical mitochondria, and dilation of both smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Matthews et al. (1978) also reported that 4, 4{prime} chlorinated biphenyl was the most potent inducer of monooxygenases, irrespective of chlorination at other sites. Although these compounds have been studied extensively in mammals, there is a paucity of data examining their effects when non-fetotoxic amounts are administered chronically and orally during gestation. The present study is part of a larger effort designed to establish a protocol for testing the developmental effects of xenobiotics such as DES and PCB. Levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured as an indicator of the integrity of nerve transmission in the central nervous system. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a marker for the outer mitochondrial membrane and is an important amine metabolizing enzyme. Testosterone and estradiol are important sex steroids in mammals, and effects upon levels of the two hormones may signal anomalies in development of sex characteristics. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Low PCB concentrations observed in American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in six Hudson River tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limburg, K.E.; Machut, L.S.; Jeffers, P.; Schmidt, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 73 eels, collected in 2004 and 2005 above the head of tide in six Hudson River tributaries, for total PCBs, length, weight, age, and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (??15N). Mean total PCB concentration (wet weight basis) was 0.23 ppm ?? 0.08 (standard error), with a range of 0.008 to 5.4 ppm. A majority of eels (84) had concentrations below 0.25 ppm, and only seven eels (10%) had concentrations exceeding 0.5 ppm. Those eels with higher PCB concentrations were ???12 yr; there was a weak correlation of PCB concentration with ??15N and also with weight. Compared to recent (2003) data from the mainstem of the Hudson River estuary, these results indicate that tributaries are generally much less contaminated with PCBs. We hypothesize that those tributary eels with high PCB concentrations were relatively recent immigrants from the mainstem. Given concern over the possible adverse effects of PCBs on eel reproduction, these tributaries may serve as refugia. Therefore, providing improved access to upland tributaries may be critically important to this species. ?? 2008 Northeastern Naturalist.

  2. PD/MG BIMETALLIC CORROSION SYSTEMS FOR DECHLORINATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a family of 209 compounds manufactured till mid70's, are toxic pollutants that persist in the environment. Enhanced corrosion of an active metal combined with catalytic hydrogenation properties of Pd in bimetallic cells can effectively reduce PCB...

  3. PCB-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity in human infants and its potential mediation by endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Winneke, Gerhard; Walkowiak, Jens; Lilienthal, Hellmuth

    2002-12-27

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cross the placenta and expose the fetus to the body burden of the mother. Additionally, the breastfed baby is postnatally exposed to PCBs in maternal milk. Among the broad spectrum of biological effects interaction with endocrine systems and developmental neurotoxicity are prominent features of these chemical mixtures. Associations between neurodevelopmental delay and prenatal or early postnatal PCB-exposure at environmental levels have been reported in several cohort studies. Adverse effects were found to be associated with early developmental PCB-exposure, although there are discrepancies between studies in terms of confounding, effective PCB-matrix, as well as spectrum and persistence of effects. From these cohort studies alone the causative role of PCBs in producing neurodevelopmental adversity still cannot be considered proven, but experimental findings do provide evidence for the developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs. The underlying mechanisms of this action is still unknown. However, interaction with endocrine systems, namely the estrogen/androgen and, particularly, the thyroid hormone systems are discussed as a possible explanation for PCB-induced neurodevelopmental adversity. Some evidence in this respect is being reviewed.

  4. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement.html . Email. Painter.Paula@epa.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula V. Painter at 404/562-8887. Dated: February 2,...

  5. [Symptoms and blood PCB level among chronic Yusho patients, twenty-five years after outbreak].

    PubMed

    Hirota, Y; Tokunaga, S; Kataoka, K; Shinohara, S

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the frequency of symptoms and signs and their relationships with blood PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) levels, twenty-five years after outbreak, we analyzed the data of 276 Yusho patients (male/female: 137/139) who had received health examination in 1993. For this purpose, 31 examination items which correspond or relate to the diagnostic criteria for Yusho (1976) were selected from the examination form. Mean blood PCB concentration in the subjects was 4.69 ppb with the highest value of 31.0 ppb (median : 4.0 ppb). The symptoms for which the proportion exceeded 60% were general fatigue, headache and numbness in extremities. Chronic bronchitis-like symptoms, such as cough and sputum, were observed in 50% of the subjects. Next, the subjects were classified into approximate quartiles of blood PCB: < 3.00, 3.00-4.06, 4.07-5.99, and 6.00+ppb. The distributions of subjects at four levels of blood PCBs were compared between the groups with or without each symptom or sign, using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. Significant differences were observed for comedones in the trunk (P = 0.02) and other regions (P = 0.02); acneiform eruptions in the genital regions (P = 0.01) and gluteal regions (P = 0.01); and hypersecretion in the Meibomian gland (P = 0.04). Thus, the typical skin and eye symptoms in Yusho patients still persist showing a close relation with blood PCB concentration.

  6. How much do PCB toxic equivalents account for PHAH toxicity in predatory birds?

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Murk, A J; Van den Berg, H; Walker, Lee A; Shore, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Various diffuse polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) exert common toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Apex predators spatially and temporally integrate diffuse contamination and simultaneous exposure can cause additive toxicity. We investigated the extent to which PCBs, still amongst the most prevalent PHAHs accumulated by predators, accounted for total PHAH toxicity in raptors and fish eating birds from Britain. We analysed egg or liver extracts from six species and compared chemically determined ΣPCB-TEQs concentrations with total AhR-mediated toxicity determined using the chemical-activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX-TEQ). Dioxin-like PCB profiles in eggs and livers were dominated by congeners 118, 105 and 167. ΣPCB-TEQ and CALUX-TEQ concentrations were positively associated but not in a 1:1 relationship. ΣPCB-TEQ were broadly similar to CALUX-TEQ concentrations in eggs and livers with CALUX-TEQ concentrations >50-80 and 160-320 pg g(-1) lipid respectively, but were lower than CALUX-TEQ concentrations in less contaminated samples.

  7. Effect of PCB Bioavailability Changes in Sediments on Bioaccumulation in Fish.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Hilda; Watson, Aaron; Place, Allen; Connolly, John; Ghosh, Upal

    2015-10-20

    In situ sediment amendment with sorbents such as activated carbon (AC) can effectively reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, there is limited experimental or modeling assessment of how bioavailability changes in sediments impact bioaccumulation in fish - the primary risk driver for exposure to humans and top predators in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study we performed laboratory aquarium experiments and modeling to explore how PCB sorption in sediments impacted exposure pathways and bioaccumulation in fish. Results showed that freely dissolved PCBs in porewater and overlying water measured by passive sampling were reduced by more than 95% upon amendment with 4.5% fine granular AC. The amendment also reduced the PCB uptake in fish by 87% after 90 days of exposure. Measured freely dissolved concentrations were incorporated in equilibrium and kinetic models for predicting uptake by fish. Predicted uptake using the kinetic model was generally within a factor of 2 for total PCBs measured in fish. The kinetic model output was most sensitive to overlying water PCBs, lipid fraction, and dissolved oxygen concentration (regulating gill ventilation). Our results indicate that by incorporating changes in freely dissolved PCB concentrations in bioaccumulation models it is possible to predict effectiveness of sediment remediation in reducing PCB uptake in fish. PMID:26402889

  8. Pesticide and PCB residues in the Neuse River waterdog, Necturus lewisi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Prouty, R.M.; Ashton, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Residues of 6 organochlorine contaminants were found in N. lewisi from 6 sites in the Tar and Neuse river systems. Concentrations of pesticides were low and apparently related to geographic patterns of use. Levels of PCB were higher and did not seem to vary geographically.

  9. Occupational and environmental lead and PCB exposure at a scrap metal dealer

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, R.

    1995-07-01

    Blood lead levels (BPb) and serum polychlorinated biphenyl levels (PCB) were obtained from 17 employees at two adjacent scrap metal dealers. One facility was located outdoors, directly on top of soil known to be contaminated with lead and PCBs, and the other was located indoors with a concrete floor. BPbs ranged from 4.0 to 39.8 {mu}g/dl (mean 19.9 {mu}g/dl, geometric mean 17.5 {mu}g/dl) and PCB levels ranged from <1 to 65.3 ppb (mean 7.5 ppb). There was no significant difference in either BPb or serum PCB between the two sites. BPb was significantly correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked at work, and both BPb and serum PCB were significantly related to eating lunch outside the lunchroom, suggesting hand-to-mouth contact as a source of exposure. The lack of difference in BPb between employees of the two scrap metal dealers suggests an ongoing source of lead exposure at the sites, other than the soil. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. DETERMINATION OF RATES AND EXTENT OF DECHLORINATION IN PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS DURING MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This "Sediment Issue" summarizes investigations carried out by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) of U.S. EPA to evaluate the long-term recovery of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments via reductive dechlorination. The magnitude, extent, an...

  11. Effects of historic PCB exposures on the reproductive success of the Hudson River striped bass population.

    PubMed

    Barnthouse, Lawrence W; Glaser, David; Young, John

    2003-01-15

    Scientists and regulatory agencies have expressed concern that exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) might be contributing to reductions in the abundance of fish populations exposed to these chemicals. The specific effects of concern involve impairment of fish reproduction, including both reduced egg production and decreased viability of eggs and larvae. We tested hypotheses concerning the effects of PCBs on fish populations using long-term data sets available for the striped bass population of the Hudson River, NY, a population that has long been a subject of regulatory concern because of potential effects of PCB exposures. The data sets examined include both measurements of PCB concentrations in adult female striped bass over the period from 1976 through 1997 and estimates of the numbers of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles produced annually during this same period. We found strong correlations between estimates of the abundance of spawners and the number of eggs and larvae produced by those spawners and also between independent estimates of year-class strength derived from different sampling programs. However, we found no relationships between PCB exposure and any measure of striped bass abundance or reproduction. Although inconsistent with the expected effects of PCB exposures, trends in all measures of striped bass abundance and reproductive success were consistent with the expected effects of striped bass harvest restrictions that were imposed during the 1980s. Our results demonstrate a need for caution in inferring risks to populations in nature from effects observed in laboratory studies.

  12. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate.

  13. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  14. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances §...

  15. Reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in tree swallows with high levels of PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J. |; Secord, A.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along the Hudson River forage extensively on PCB contaminated insects that emerge from the river. The authors studied the reproductive ecology and behavior of tree swallows breeding at several sites along the Hudson River. These sites vary in the severity of PCB contamination. PCB levels in both eggs and chicks were found to be among the highest ever reported in this species, with concentrations comparable to those found in aquatic organisms in the Hudson River. In 1994 reproductive success at PCB contaminated sites was significantly impaired, relative to other sites in New York. Reduced reproductive success was largely attributed to high levels of nest abandonment during incubation and reduced hatchability of eggs. Growth and development of nestlings was not significantly impaired. Abnormal nest building behavior was also noted in 1994, and this was studied in detail in 1995. Nests from contaminated areas are significantly smaller than those at a nearby reference site and at other sites in New York. The authors suggest that the reduced reproductive outputs at these sites are, in large part, a result of effects on the behavior of incubating females. The population-level implications of these patterns are unknown.

  16. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-01-01

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices. PMID:27213402

  17. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  18. Analytical Study of High Concentration PCB Paint at the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, N.J.

    1998-10-21

    This report provides results of an analytical study of high concentration PCB paint in a shutdown nuclear test reactor located at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The study was designed to obtain data relevant for an evaluation of potential hazards associated with the use of and exposure to such paints.

  19. ENGINEERING ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the increased need for Superfund decision-makers to have a working knowledge of the remedial capabilities available to treat soil and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the Superfund Engineering Forum has identified remediation of PCB-contamin...

  20. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Use a grid interval of 3 meters and the procedures in §§ 761.283 and 761.286 to sample bulk PCB... container. (1) Segregate the containers by type (for example, a 55-gallon drum and a roll-off container...

  1. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Use a grid interval of 3 meters and the procedures in §§ 761.283 and 761.286 to sample bulk PCB... container. (1) Segregate the containers by type (for example, a 55-gallon drum and a roll-off container...

  2. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from organic liquids disposed of in the landfill unit. (ii) Leachate is collected from the landfill unit and monitored for PCBs. (3) Any release of PCBs (including but not limited to leachate) from the... to simulate leachate generation. (2) Any person may dispose of PCB bulk product waste other...

  3. ACCUMULATION OF PCB CONGENERS IN NESTLING TREE SWALLOWS (TACHYCINETA BICOLOR) ON THE HUDSON RIVER, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Together, these two papers establish a quantitative linkage between PCB concentrations in nestling tree swallows and in the insects that they consume. As such, these papers provide strong support for the use of nestling swallows as a biomonitoring species for exposure assessment ...

  4. Eco-kinetic model for the accumulation of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) in marine fishes

    SciTech Connect

    O'Corror, J.M.; Pizza, J.C.

    1982-11-01

    The authors empirical and modeling data have direct application to ongoing ocean dumping studies: (1) The hypothesis that PCB burden in fishes is strongly related to diet renders the mass loading approach to ocean PCB pollution ineffective in estimating contaminant levels in fish. Both dredged material and sewage sludge must be evaluated more carefully to assess real quantities of PCBs injected into the food chain and the water column. (2) The pharmacokinetics of PCBs in fishes suggest that any isolation of contaminated materials from entry to the food chain wil have the effect of lowering PCB body burdens in the large, predatory species which often form an important part of the human diet. Thus, maintaining a surficial layer of sediments with low or nonavailable PCBs will, in all likelihood, result in a trend toward lower body burdens in all trophic levels. (3) The overall outcome of the model suggests that we shall not see increased PCB levels in fishes if input rates and input sources remain similar to those of recent years.

  5. A Novel Transient Fault Current Sensor Based on the PCB Rogowski Coil for Overhead Transmission Lines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadong; Xie, Xiaolei; Hu, Yue; Qian, Yong; Sheng, Gehao; Jiang, Xiuchen

    2016-05-21

    The accurate detection of high-frequency transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines is the basis of malfunction detection and diagnosis. This paper proposes a novel differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil for the detection of transient fault currents in overhead transmission lines. The interference mechanism of the sensor surrounding the overhead transmission line is analyzed and the guideline for the interference elimination is obtained, and then a differential winding printed circuit board (PCB) Rogowski coil is proposed, where the branch and return line of the PCB coil were designed to be strictly symmetrical by using a joining structure of two semi-rings and collinear twisted pair differential windings in each semi-ring. A serial test is conducted, including the frequency response, linearity, and anti-interference performance as well as a comparison with commercial sensors. Results show that a PCB Rogowski coil has good linearity and resistance to various external magnetic field interferences, thus enabling it to be widely applied in fault-current-collecting devices.

  6. THE OCCURRENCE OF HIGH LEVELS OF LIPIDS IN FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS FROM A HIGHLY PCB CONTAIMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A population model constructed by Munns et al. (1997) for Fundulus heteroclitus predicts that populations in severely impacted ecosystems such as New Bedford Harbor, a highly PCB contaminated Superfund site, should be under severe stress. However, cursory assessment of the fish p...

  7. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. PMID:20004933

  8. Current data on the background burden to the persistent organochlorine pollutants HCB, p,p'-DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 in plasma of the general population in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schettgen, Thomas; Alt, Anne; Esser, Andre; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite their long-term ban, persistent organochlorine compounds like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of environmental concern. For the evaluation of potential occupational or environmental exposures to these substances, it is essential to know the current background burden of the general population. As representative and up-to-date information is missing for Germany, we have analysed a large dataset generated in studies on potential exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs to fill this gap for the levels of HCB, DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. We have investigated n=2750 plasma samples of persons of the general population living in North Rhine-Westfalia and Hesse aged 6-65 years and sampled between September 2010 and March 2014. For evaluation of the age-dependent accumulation in the general population we have generated seven age groups in the collective. Our laboratory used a validated and quality controlled procedure using GC/MS for quantification of the organochlorine compounds in plasma (LOQ: 0.01μg/L). The median (95th percentile) levels for ∑ PCB 138+PCB 153+PCB 180 were 0.14 (0.73); 0.30 (0.82); 0.38 (0.88); 0.50 (1.14); 0.92; 1.58 (3.54) and 2.41 (4.82)μg/L plasma in the age groups 6-10 years (n=102), 11-17 years (n=499), 18-25 years (n=157), 26-35 years (n=710), 36-45 years (n=400), 46-55 years (n=525) and 56-65 years (n=357), respectively. Similarly, the median (95th percentile) levels of p,p'-DDE were 0.18 (1.24); 0.18 (0.74); 0.24 (0.85); 0.30 (1.20); 0.45 (1.74); 0.64 (3.25) and 0.94 (4.7)μg/L plasma. Finally, the median (95th percentile) of HCB in plasma in these age groups was 0.05 (0.10); 0.06 (0.11); 0.08 (0.15); 0.08 (0.15); 0.11 (0.22); 0.14 (0.42) and 0.20 (0.68)μg/L plasma. Our results prove an overall substantial reduction in the body burden to organochlorine compounds in Germany compared to earlier studies. However, 15% and 3.6% of the examined

  9. Comment on "Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA" by G. L. Robinson, G. L. Mills, A. H. Lindell, S. H. Schweitzer and S. M. Hernandez, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424.

    PubMed

    Fuchsman, P C; Henning, M H; Magar, V S

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper published in this journal (Robinson et al., Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2015, 17, 1424), Robinson et al. reported concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners in least tern eggs in coastal Georgia, USA. This comment describes important omissions in Robinson et al.'s interpretation of those egg concentrations that alter the overall conclusions of the least tern study. PMID:26814625

  10. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    PubMed

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  11. Concentrations of halogenated natural products versus PCB 153 in bivalves from the North and Baltic Seas.

    PubMed

    Hauler, Carolin; Rimkus, Gerhard; Risacher, Célia; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-15

    Different halogenated natural products (HNPs) have been reported to occur in marine wildlife, particularly from regions with comparably little contamination with anthropogenic pollutants. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been known as a marine site heavily polluted with organohalogen compounds, and especially with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study we wished to determine the current abundance of HNPs in comparison with 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), i.e. the major PCB congener in marine biota. For this purpose, forty blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from seven sites were analyzed on HNPs and PCB 153. Most of the samples contained HNPs in the form of polyhalogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (PMBPs including Q1) and the mixed halogenated compound MHC-1. In addition we determined several polyhalogenated 1,1'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyrroles (PDBPs), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-N-methylpyrrole and several novel homologs, as well as polybrominated N-methylindoles. The occurrence of these HNP groups were considerably different in the samples from different regions with varying sum concentrations up to 1930 μg/kg lipids in blue mussels from Heligoland (North Sea) and much lower concentrations in samples from the Baltic Sea (up to 13 μg/kg lipids). The concentrations of HNPs varied by two orders of magnitude, compared to a factor of 10 for PCB 153, suggesting that HNPs are more spatially (and perhaps temporally) variant than POPs. In the North Sea region Heligoland, HNPs were more abundant than PCB 153.

  12. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept. PMID:24167152

  13. PCB contamination from polysulphide sealants in residential areas-exposure and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Priha, Eero; Hellman, Sannamari; Sorvari, Jaana

    2005-04-01

    From the late 1950s to the early 1970s elastic polysulphide sealants were used in outdoor seams between concrete blocks in prefabricated buildings. The sealants contained 5-30% polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Due to the weathering of sealants in general and the replacement of seams with new PCB-free materials in the 1990s, PCBs have drifted to the soil adjacent to buildings. The objectives of this study were to survey PCB contamination in the surroundings of former PCB-containing buildings and to evaluate the risks to human health. Samples from soil, and also from blood serum of residents, were collected to obtain data for exposure assessment. The health risk assessment was based on deterministic and probabilistic calculations for cancer and non-cancer risks. Soil ingestion and dermal contact were considered the main routes of exposure and children the most important exposed group. The mean total PCB concentration was 6.83 mg/kg within 2m of the buildings and 0.52 mg/kg within 3-10 m from of the buildings. The deterministic risk assessment with conservative parameters resulted in lifetime cancer risk estimates on the order of 10(-6)-10(-7). The lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for PCBs was less than 10% of the reference dose (RfD) 0.02 microg/kg day, which is based on immunosupression in monkeys. The LADD corresponding to the total site attributable exposure was less than 10% of the estimated average dietary PCB intake in Finland. Children can, however, in worst cases be exposed to daily doses near the level of the RfD. Low cost measures are recommended to reduce possible exposure of children. PMID:15788176

  14. Rapid changes in PCB and OC pesticide concentrations in arctic snow.

    PubMed

    Herbert, B M J; Halsall, C J; Villa, S; Jones, K C; Kallenborn, R

    2005-05-01

    The short-term fate of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the surface snowpack was investigated by taking consecutive air and snow samples over a 12 day period at Tromsø in the Norwegian Arctic. A wide range in PCB and OC pesticide concentrations was observed in snow and was attributed to the systematic decrease in concentrations that occurred over the study period. For example, sigmaPCB concentrations ranged from 2500 to 300 pg L(-1) (meltwater) with a rapid decrease observed during the first 96 h. Rates of decline (ks) conformed to first-order kinetics, with similar rates observed for all compounds measured in this study (k5 = 0.01 +/- 0.001 h(-1)). Because the particle bound fraction accounted for <10% of the individual PCB and OC burden in the snow, then the fraction lost may be accounted for by desorption, following notable increases in snow density (and presumably, decreases in snow surface area). The fraction of chemical present in the fresh snow (phis) was found to be exponentially related to changes in snow density (deltarho). Relatively small increases in p following snowfall result in a large loss of sorbed chemical, presumably due to decreases in snow surface area. Later sampling of the same snow layer, but buried under fresh snowfall, revealed a notable increase in both PCB and OC concentrations. This would indicate a possible downward migration of these chemicals from the fresh snow into deeper snow layers, suggesting that re-emission of desorbed chemical from the interstitial pore spaces to the overlying atmosphere may be complicated by this process.

  15. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  16. Importance analysis for Hudson River PCB transport and fate model parameters using robust sensitivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Toll, J.; Cothern, K.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have performed robust sensitivity studies of the physico-chemical Hudson River PCB model PCHEPM to identify the parameters and process uncertainties contributing the most to uncertainty in predictions of water column and sediment PCB concentrations, over the time period 1977--1991 in one segment of the lower Hudson River. The term ``robust sensitivity studies`` refers to the use of several sensitivity analysis techniques to obtain a more accurate depiction of the relative importance of different sources of uncertainty. Local sensitivity analysis provided data on the sensitivity of PCB concentration estimates to small perturbations in nominal parameter values. Range sensitivity analysis provided information about the magnitude of prediction uncertainty associated with each input uncertainty. Rank correlation analysis indicated which parameters had the most dominant influence on model predictions. Factorial analysis identified important interactions among model parameters. Finally, term analysis looked at the aggregate influence of combinations of parameters representing physico-chemical processes. The authors scored the results of the local and range sensitivity and rank correlation analyses. The authors considered parameters that scored high on two of the three analyses to be important contributors to PCB concentration prediction uncertainty, and treated them probabilistically in simulations. They also treated probabilistically parameters identified in the factorial analysis as interacting with important parameters. The authors used the term analysis to better understand how uncertain parameters were influencing the PCB concentration predictions. The importance analysis allowed us to reduce the number of parameters to be modeled probabilistically from 16 to 5. This reduced the computational complexity of Monte Carlo simulations, and more importantly, provided a more lucid depiction of prediction uncertainty and its causes.

  17. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms.

    PubMed

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  18. Planar PCB Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.; Belisle, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on biologically active congeners and fish and wildlife. Subtopics include sources and uses, chemical and biochemical properties, concentrations in field collections, lethal and sublethal effects, and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources. All production of PCBs in the United States ceased in 1977. Of the 1.2 million tons of PCBs manufactured to date, about 65% are still in use in electrical equipment and 31% in various environmental compartments, and 4% were degraded or incinerated. The 209 PCB congeners and their metabolites show wide differences in biological effects. A significant part of the toxicity associated with commercial PCB mixtures is related to the presence of about 20 planar congeners, i.e., congeners without chlorine substitution in the ortho position. Toxic planar congeners, like other PCB congeners, have been detected in virtually all analyzed samples, regardless of collection locale. Planar PCB concentrations were usually highest in samples from near urban areas and in fat and liver tissues, filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, fish-eating birds, and carnivorous marine mammals. Adverse effects of planar PCBs on growth, survival, and reproduction are highly variable because of numerous biotic and abiotic modifiers, including interaction with other chemicals. In general, embryos and juveniles were the most sensitive stages tested to planar PCBs, and the chinook salmon, domestic chicken, mink, rhesus macaque, and laboratory white rat were among the most sensitive species. for protection of natural resources, most authorities now recommend (1) analyzation of environmental samples for planar and other potentially hazardous congeners; (2) exposure studies with representative species and specific congeners, alone and in combination with other environmental contaminants; (3) clarification of existing structure

  19. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  20. Cancer Mortality Following Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination of a Guam Village

    PubMed Central

    Badowski, Grazyna; Bordallo, Renata

    2011-01-01

    Beginning more than 10 years after the release of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the favored fishing grounds of Merizo village, an increase in the proportional cancer mortality rate was observed among residents of the village. This increased rate continued for approximately 20 years after which it returned to near island-wide Guam levels. Although the temporal association between PCB contamination of the environment of this village and an increase in cancer mortality is intriguing, it does not necessarily demonstrate a cause and effect relationship. Objective To investigate a possible temporal relationship between PCB contamination of the Cocos Lagoon and cancer deaths in the adjoining village of Merizo. Methods Data utilized in the study included deaths recorded by the Guam Cancer Registry (years 2000 to 2007) and data collected from original death certificates (years 1968–1999). To check whether there was a significant difference in the proportion of deaths due to cancer in Merizo compared with the rest of Guam, deaths were grouped in four 10-year periods, 1968–1977, 1978–1987, 1988–1997, and 1998–2007, and the Pearson Chi-Square test was calculated for each period separately Results While the number of new cancer cases recorded in the village of Merizo were insufficient in number to draw a statistically significant conclusion when single year incidence rates were compared to the rest of the island, a proportional mortality study showed a distinct increase for the village of Merizo compared to other villages for the period 1978–1997. Conclusion While it is not possible to conclude with certainty that PCB contamination of the Cocos Lagoon was responsible for the observed increase in the proportion of cancer deaths in Merizo village beginning during the 10-year period 1978–1987, that increase and the subsequent decrease as PCB levels also decreased presents the possibility that these trends may be related. PMID:22235158