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Sample records for pcbs pcdds pcdfs

  1. Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ochi, Yoko; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Takahashi, Shin; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209pg/g).

  2. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were investigated in a simplified marine benthic food chain. Polychaetes, Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and depuration measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and depuration rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas, showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues.

  3. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the surface of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, being formed during the fabrication process of the TiO2. Thereby, the samples comprise PCBs with higher congener numbers or, in the absence of PCBs, a high concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs. This new class of POPs on an active catalytic surface and the great range of applications of nanoparticular TiO2, such as in color pigments, cosmetics, and inks, give rise to great concern due to their potential toxicity.

  4. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  5. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    Polychaetes Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and deputation measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and deputation rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBS, PCDDS, and PCDFS. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDS, PCDFS, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl (UPAC No. 153) reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues. Biomagnification factors (BMFS) were calculated for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas on a lipid weight basis using steady-state concentrations. BMFs for lobster hepatopancreas were generally higher than those for muscle. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were biomagnified in lobster hepatopancreas and muscle compared with levels in the polychaetes. Selected PCB congeners were also biomagnified in both tissues. PCB congeners with log{sub 10} K{sub ow} values > 6.5 had higher BMFs for hepatopancreas tissue than compounds with lower K{sub ow`s}. No trend was evident regarding log{sub 10} K{sub ow} of PCBs and BMFs for lobster muscle.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Dioxins (PCDDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    true hazard presented by PCBs. It has proved to be no trivial task. As this bulletin will describe, the analytical methods employed for PCB...in "PCB" industrial accidents. Since all PCB solutions contain some degree of furan and dioxin contamination, researchers need a method of recording...matter. Filtration methods , to remove particulate matter from water reservoirs, can be utilized to lower PCB contamination to acceptable levels. 13 0

  7. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  8. Determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and their eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Burns, S.A. ); Chang, R.R.; Stephens, R.D. ); Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M. ); Linthicum, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine compounds; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including nonortho congeners; polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in seven California peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus) collected form five sites between the years 1983 to 1988; one immature falcon was analyzed for PCDDs and PCDGs only. All of the identified PCDDs and PCDFs were 2,3,7,8-substituted. The major PCDD and PCDF congeners identified in the eggs were 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD) at a geometric mean value of 11 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD) at a mean value of 11 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at a mean value of 6.2 ng/kg, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF) at a level of 6.5 ng/kg. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was present at a mean value of 5.7 ng/kg. Values of p,p[prime]-DDE in the eggs ranged from 7,100 to 26,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 12,000 [mu]g/kg. [Sigma]PCB levels ranged from 1,400 to 13,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 4,800 [mu]g/kg. The mean values of the non-ortho congeners 3,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 37); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126); and 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) were 0.18, 0.93, 1.0, and 0.14 [mu]g/kg, respectively. TCDD equivalents (TEQs) were calculated for the mean values of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Total TEQs in the eggs was 120 ng/kg; PCB 126 accounted for 83% of the TEQs.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEPATIC MICROSOMAL THYROXINE GLUCURONIDATION AND TOTAL SERUM THYROXINE CONCENTRATIONS IN RATS TREATED WITH PCDDS, PCDFS AND PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEPATIC MICROSOMAL THYROXINE GLUCURONIDATION AND TOTAL SERUM THYROXINE CONCENTRATIONS IN RATS TREATED WITH PCDDs, PCDFs AND PCBs. D G Ross, K M Crofton, M J DeVito, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.
    Many PHAHs decrease thyroxine (T4), possibly due to inducti...

  10. Levels of toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in biotic and abiotic samples from Galveston Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gardinali, P.; Wade, T.

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of di-, mono-, non-ortho PCB congeners as well as the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were measured in American oyster, blue crab, hardhead catfish liver and sediment samples collected from five sites in the Galveston Bay System. In general, when measuring sediments and sentinel organisms, a geographical gradient of contaminant load is observed between the heavily industrialized and the open bay sites. Although sediment concentrations are relatively low at most stations, toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs are strongly bioconcentrated in all three organisms analyzed. Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD ranged from 1.15 to 16.4 pg/g in the oysters, 1.10 to 138 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 11.0 to 101 pg/g in the catfish livers. 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations in sediments ranged from non-detected to 4.44 pg/g. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDF ranged from 2.31 to 50.6 pg/g in the oysters, 5.77 to 385 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 5.57 to 8.04 pg/g in the catfish livers, while sediment concentrations were between 0.65 to 7.46 pg/g. When the toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) approach was used to estimate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), the non-ortho PCB congeners were the major TEQ contributors for the all organisms (29 to 74%). In contrast, the TEQ for the sediment samples were largely dominated by the contribution from PCDDs and PCDFs. The results also suggest that oysters, in spite of their lower concentrations, are more valuable for biomonitoring the availability of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants.

  11. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Berg, M; Birnbaum, L; Bosveld, A T; Brunström, B; Cook, P; Feeley, M; Giesy, J P; Hanberg, A; Hasegawa, R; Kennedy, S W; Kubiak, T; Larsen, J C; van Leeuwen, F X; Liem, A K; Nolt, C; Peterson, R E; Poellinger, L; Safe, S; Schrenk, D; Tillitt, D; Tysklind, M; Younes, M; Waern, F; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. [Chemosphere 28:1049-1067 (1994)]. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties. PMID:9831538

  12. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Birnbaum, L.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Brunstrom, B.; Cook, P.; Feeley, M.; Giesy, J.P.; Hanberg, A.; Hasegawa, R.; Kennedy, S.W.; Kubiak, T.; Larsen, J.C.; Van Leeuwen, F. X. R.; Liem, A.K.D.; Nolt, C.; Peterson, R.E.; Poellinger, L.; Safe, S.; Schrenk, D.; Tillitt, D.; Tysklind, M.; Younes, M.; Waern, F.; Zacharewski, T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, occachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties.

  13. TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS (TEFS) FOR PCBS, PCDDS, PCDFS FOR HUMANS AND WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held ih Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive cohsensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated didbenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dio...

  14. Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in human milk among Hong Kong mothers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tze Wai; Wong, Andromeda H S; Nelson, E Anthony S; Qiu, Hong; Ku, Susanna Y K

    2013-10-01

    Dioxins are a family of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed under the Stockholm Convention, and include PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs. These toxic chemicals are carcinogenic, widely dispersed, and have long half-lives. They have contaminated the food web and, being fat-soluble, accumulate in adipose tissues and milk in the human body. To assess human exposure, we collected breast milk samples from 137 first-time mothers recruited from around Hong Kong. Samples were analysed by HRGC-HRMS in four pools, according to the subject's age and length of residency. Exposure was related to age, duration of stay, and possibly diet. Generally, older mothers, and mothers with a longer stay in Hong Kong, had higher levels of dioxins in their milk. This pattern was clearest for the PCBs, although deviations were observed for some of the PCDD/Fs. Mean concentrations, measured per gram of lipid weight in terms of WHO toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs), were 7.48 pg/g for PCDD/Fs and 3.79 pg/g for PCBs, giving a total of 11.27 pg/g for PCDD/Fs and PCBs combined. Compared to an earlier Hong Kong study we conducted in 2002, the mean WHO-TEQ values in our latest findings were about 9% lower overall for PCDD/Fs and 19% lower for PCBs, with the mean total WHO-TEQ for PCDD/Fs and PCBs being around 13% lower in this study. This indicates a general declining trend in the levels of POPs in Hong Kong. However, our levels were still high when compared to those in some other Asian-Pacific countries. More stringent policies on reducing and eliminating POPs should help to lower these. Continued surveillance for POPs in human milk, as well as in common foodstuffs, will provide us with important information on human exposures that will be necessary for tracking our progress, and making future health risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human blood in relation to consumption of crabs from a contaminated Fjord area in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, H R; Alexander, J; Rossland, O J; Planting, S; Løvik, M; Gaarder, P I; Gdynia, W; Bjerve, K S; Becher, G

    1996-01-01

    Consumption of fish and shellfish from contaminated areas may be an important source of human exposure to persistent organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). We determined concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and 19 PCB congeners in whole blood samples from three groups of men, 40-54 years of age, with different consumption levels of crabs from a fjord area in southern Norway polluted with organochlorine compounds from a magnesium production plant. A significant increase of many PCDD/PCDF congeners was found in the blood when comparing the referents, moderate-, and high-intake groups. The greatest difference was observed for several of the PCDFs that are characteristic for the contamination of the marine biota of the fjord. PCBs, in general, play a minor role in the contamination of the fjord by the magnesium production process, except for the highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB-209. Nevertheless, almost all PCBs increased from the referents to the high-intake group. However, the relative concentrations of several highly chlorinated PCBs (particularly PCB-209) in blood are unexpectedly low compared to their abundance in crabs, indicating low uptake of these congeners. The exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs from crab consumption calculated from individual body burdens of these compounds were in good agreement with the intake estimated from previously measured concentrations in crabs, reported fishing sites, and consumption. Almost all subjects in the high-intake group exceeded the tolerable weekly intake of 35 pg TEQ/kg body weight/week proposed by a Nordic Expert Group. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8841762

  16. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  17. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  18. A survey of dioxins (PCDDs and PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs in sheep and goat milk from Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Serpe, F P; Cavallo, S; Pellicanò, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; D'ambrosio, R; Baldi, L; Iovane, G; Serpe, L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, after the crisis of buffalo dairy fields in Campania, Italy, an assessment of the contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was also necessary for other animal species bred in the region. The contents of PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dl-PCBs were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-GC/MS) (according to USEPA method 1613) in 69 sheep and goat milk samples from 63 farms. In eleven samples from six sheep farms, the PCDD/Fs levels exceeded the maximum limit of 3.0 pg g(-1) fat established by the European Commission, in particular the concentrations ranged between 3.89 and 12.90 pg g(-1) fat. Statistical treatment of the results for the congener profiles of the non-compliant and compliant samples has been used to identify the sources of contamination.

  19. Contamination levels and congener distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in buffalo's milk from Caserta province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Neugebauer, Frank; Cavallo, Stefania; Gallo, Pasquale; Colarusso, Germana; Baldi, Loredana; Iovane, Giuseppe; Serpe, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    An extraordinary plan of official control was carried out in 2008 in Campania (Italy) with the aim to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) levels in buffalo milk and to detect the contaminated farms, most of which are located in Caserta province. For these companies has been ordered seizure and execution of additional analyses has been requested in farms falling in the nearness, within a distance of 3km, for a total of 304 farms examined. Moreover, all non-compliant farms were subjected to a periodic sampling in order to monitor trends in the levels of contamination. In this paper the distribution and the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs in 460 samples of buffalo milk collected in the province of Caserta (Italy) are presented. The range of WHO-TEQ values for the PCDD/Fs in milk was 0.17pgTEQg(-1)fat and 87.0pgTEQg(-1)fat with a mean value 3.63pgTEQg(-1)fat and medium value 2.25pgTEQg(-1)fat. The concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the analysed samples ranged from 0.21pgTEQg(-1)fat to 15.9pgTEQg(-1)fat and the WHO-TEQ values of sum of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs ranged from 0.45pgTEQg(-1)fat to 103.0pgTEQg(-1)fat. The geo-referencing analysis allowed to individuate a restricted area of the region object of the present study where is located the majority of the non-compliant farms. The study of the congeners distribution has finally suggested that the likely cause of contamination is to be attributed to the illegal burning of waste.

  20. Nanoparticular surface-bound PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs-a novel class of potentially higher toxic POPs.

    PubMed

    Schön, Peter; Ctistis, Georgios; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-03-04

    In a previous study, Env Sci Poll Res:1-7, 2015 showed that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzo furanes (PCDFs) are found in commercially available (nano) particular titanium dioxide as a result of the fabrication. Here, we give a brief perspective and reason the toxicity of these new classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by reviewing also their nanoparticular properties, such as surface-to-volume ratio, photocatalytic activity, polarity shifts, and stealth effect. These insights point towards a new class of POPs and toxicologic effects, which are related to the size but not a result of nanotechnology itself. We pave the way to the understanding of until now unresolved very complex phenomena, such as the indoor exposure, formation, and transformation of POP and sick-building syndrome. This is a fundamental message for nanotoxicology and kinetics and should be taken into account when determining the toxicity of nanomaterials and POPs separately and as a combination.

  1. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010, including DDT. The objective was to identify global quantitative differences and provide baseline information for 52 countries or provide time-trends for countries with previous data. Individual human milk samples were collected following a WHO-designed procedure and combined to form a national pooled sample. Here, we report global levels for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and the sum of o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDD (ΣDDTs). A concise risk-benefit evaluation related to human milk contamination with these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was also done. Large global and regional differences were observed. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were highest in India and some European and African countries. PCB levels were highest in East and West Europe. The highest levels of ΣDDTs were found in less industrialized countries. A temporal downward trend for PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs is indicated. A risk-benefit assessment indicates that human milk levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs are still significantly above those considered toxicologically safe, while ΣDDTs are below or around those considered safe. With respect to potential adverse health effects, a more dominant role of in utero exposure versus lactational exposure is indicated. If potential adverse effects are balanced against positive health aspects for (breastfed) infants, the advantages of breastfeeding far outweigh the possible disadvantages. Our observations provide a strong argument to plea for further global source-directed measures to reduce human exposure further to dioxin-like compounds.

  2. Serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in non-occupationally exposed population groups living near two incineration plants in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Abballe, Annalisa; Casalino, Francesco; di Domenico, Alessandro; Domenici, Pierangela; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Pretolani, Elisabetta; Spagnesi, Maurizio

    2008-05-01

    A pilot study was carried out in Tuscany, Italy, to provide preliminary information on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), and selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in groups of subjects living in the vicinity of two incineration plants. Seventy-four volunteers were enrolled from areas identified as under a potential impact from incinerator emissions and from not exposed areas. No significant differences were observed between subjects living in the two types of areas. Total concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs resulted to be in the range 23-30 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1), lipid base, for subjects in the 27-54 year age groups, while concentrations increased to 40-44 pgTEQ g(-1) for the two 55-67 year age groups. The levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were in good agreement with those observed for unexposed population groups in Italy, while the contribution to total TEQ from DL-PCBs was appreciably higher than those currently observed in the general population in Italy and other countries. As to NDL-PCBs, serum levels of the six "indicator" congeners were in the range 240-300 ng g(-1), lipid base, for subjects in the 27-54 year age groups. A raise in NDL-PCB body burden (430-470 ng g(-1), lipid base) was observed for the two 55+ year age groups, in agreement with the expected age-dependent increase. The findings from this study do not show an incremental exposure to PCDDs and PCDFs in the samples from subjects living around the two incineration plants, whereas PCB congener profiles in all samples suggest a possible impact on the area of interest of industrial activities from near industrial settlements.

  3. Effects of oxygen, catalyst and PVC on the formation of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in pyrolysis products of automobile residues.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hyun-Tae; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Ki-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chan

    2006-11-01

    End-of-life vehicles are dismantled to recover reusable parts and then sent to a shredding facility for steel material recovery. The residue generated from the shredding process, so-called automobile shredder residue, is now being mostly disposed in landfill, however landfill will be prohibited in the near future. More recycling and energy recovery must be made by the regulation. The most appropriate method is the thermal treatment that will produce various forms of fuels and less volume of vitrified residue. In this research, an automobile shredder residue was simulated with considering the residue from a shredding factory based on the new vehicle and thermally treated by pyrolysis or gasification to observe the yields of gas, oil and char. In the temperature range of 400-800 degrees C, the yields of gas, oil, and char were 38.7-45.8%, 12.3-18.2%, and 36.0-49.0%, respectively. The optimum pyrolyzing temperature for more oil production was around 600 degrees C. Emission characteristics of the byproducts, PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs were studied at the temperature of 600 degrees C. The analysis on the concentration and distribution of the isomers in various forms of the products were completed with and without oxygen, PVC, and catalytic metals, in order to observe how the existence of oxygen, PVC, and catalytic metals affect the formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs from pyrolysis or gasification process. Without PVC, no PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs were found in any products. PCDFs were predominant in any conditions. Catalyst and oxygen were found to affect to form more PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs. Effects of catalyst and oxygen on the byproduct formation seemed to be similar in oil and gas while that was different in char.

  4. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Approach to highly efficient dechlorination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs using metallic calcium in ethanol under atmospheric pressure at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Uda, Taizo; Egashira, Naoyoshi; Simion, Cristian; Tashiro, Hideki; Tashiro, Masashi; Fan, Xiaobo

    2004-02-15

    Detoxification of highly toxic polychlorinated aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like compounds such as coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) under mild conditions (atmospheric pressure and room temperature) was achieved by a simple stirring operation for 24 h using metallic calcium in ethanol, without any tedious decomposition procedures and harsh conditions such as high temperature and/or high pressure. Metallic calcium can be kept stable under atmospheric conditions for a long period as compared to metallic sodium since the surface is coated with CaCO3, which is formed in the contact with air. Moreover, ethanol, which is one of the safest solvents for humans, acts not only as a solvent but also as an accelerator due to its ablility to remove the carbonated coating. This decomposition method for PCDDs, PCDFs, and co-PCBs therefore is one of the most economical and environmentally friendly detoxification methods with respect to the input energy and safety of reagents used. Concentration for each isomer of PCDDs, PCDFs, and co-PCBs was reduced in 98.32-100% conversions by treatment in ethanol at room temperature. The toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ), which was measured by the HRGC-HRMS analysis, for the total residues of isomers was reduced from 22,000 to 210 pg TEQ/mL of hexane (conversion: 99.05%) at room temperature. By refluxing over 24 h, the conversion increased up to 99.45%.

  6. Contamination levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs in several fast foods in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-12-01

    We determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in three types of fast foods [(1) seventeen hamburgers and two hot dogs, (2) six portions of fried potatoes and (3) three chicken products] obtained from fast food shops or convenience stores in Japan. All samples tested showed low toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) levels of dioxins in the range of 0.001-0.083 pg-TEQ/g wet weight (0.006-0.053 pg-TEQ/g for hamburgers and hot dogs, 0.001-0.083 pg-TEQ/g for fried potatoes and 0.053-0.065 pg-TEQ/g for chicken products). The congener profile in hamburgers and hot dogs suggested that the total TEQ was mainly determined by Co-PCBs, especially by 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (#126), which accounted for 44% of the total TEQ value. Findings for animal foods such as beef and cheese were consistent with this result. For fried potatoes, PCDD/Fs accounted for 94% of the total TEQ value, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF accounted for 32% of PCDD/Fs. Dioxins in the chicken products consisted of 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (#126) and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, which accounted for 23% and 21% of the total TEQ, respectively. If an adult (50 kg weight) eats 150 g of hamburger, 100 g of potatoes and 150 g of chicken, the daily intake is estimated to be 0.299 pg-TEQ/kg b.w./day using the average values (0.022, 0.028 and 0.059 pg-TEQ/g, respectively) obtained in this study. This value corresponds to 7.5% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs in Japan.

  7. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  8. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) after in ovo exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Van Den; Craane, B.L.H.J.; Sinnige, T. . Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1994-05-01

    Ecological investigation revealed differences in breeding success of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) between two colonies in the Netherlands. In this study the possible role of organohalogen pollutants was investigated. Thirty-nine cormorant eggs were collected from two colonies with marked differences in contamination. Seventeen cormorant eggs were hatched in an incubator. The respiration rate was monitored regularly during the incubation. Hatchlings were euthanized at day 1. Several morphological parameters were measured. PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analyzed in the yolk sac. Blood and liver were collected for analysis of cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation (PROD) activities, vitamin A, and thyroid hormone levels. Residue levels differed two- to five-fold for PCBs and 25% for PCDDs and PCDFs between both colonies. Birds from the most contaminated colony showed an increase in ovo respiration rate, increased cytochrome P450 and EROD activity, and reduced plasma thyroid hormone and hepatic retinyl palmitate levels. Large interindividual differences were observed for all parameters. The data were compared on an individual basis (n = 17) to detect any concentration-effect relationships. Significant concentration-effect relationships were observed for EROD induction, plasma free thyroxine reduction, yolk sac weight, relative liver weight, and head size. It is concluded these compounds may, at least in part, have played a role in the observed low breeding success of cormorants.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of US Air Force veterans in 2002

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, Marian; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Ketchum, Norma S.

    2016-01-01

    We measured levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho, and mono-ortho substituted PCBs in 106 US Air Force Vietnam veterans, participants of the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) who attended the final medical examination in 2002. Twelve veterans were Ranch Hands involved in aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam (1962–1971), and 94 were Comparisons who flew transport missions in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same time period. These veterans had no previous 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) measurement because they had not attended any of the previous AFHS examinations, or their previous measurements were missing or not valid. The mean TCDD levels in 2002 were 1.7 pg/g lipid in Comparisons and 5.5 pg/g lipid in Ranch Hands. The mean PCDD toxic equivalent – TEQ (1997) in Comparisons was 12.6 pg/g lipid, 5.4 pg/g lipid for PCDFs, 5.2 pg/g lipid for non-ortho PCBs, and 9.4 pg/g lipid for mono-ortho PCBs, with a total mean TEQ (1997) of 32.6 pg/g lipid. Corresponding mean TEQs in Ranch Hands were 15.5 pg/g lipid for PCDDs, 4.6 pg/g lipid for PCDFs, 2.2 pg/g lipid for non-ortho PCBs, and 9.3 pg/g lipid for mono-ortho PCBs, yielding the total mean TEQ (1997) of 31.6 pg/g lipid. Using the re-evaluated 2005 WHO TEFs, the total mean TEQs (2005) decreased by about 28% in both Comparisons and Ranch Hands, to 23.6 pg/g lipid and 22.8 pg/g lipid, respectively. This was mainly due to changes of TEFs for the group of mono-ortho PCBs, which decreased the mono-ortho PCBs TEQs by almost 90% in both Ranch Hands and Comparisons. PMID:17280705

  11. Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in fruit and vegetables from an industrial area in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Paola; Fattore, Elena; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Arvati, Massimo; Zuccato, Ettore

    2010-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in fruit and vegetables (n=113) harvested in different parts of the Mantua district, in northern Italy, and levels were used for assessing the exposure of the population to the contaminants through these food items. Concentrations in fruit and vegetables were in the range 33.39-10130pgg(-1)fresh weight (fw) for the sum of the 26PCBs analyzed (Sigma(26PCBs)), 14.86-4504pgg(-1)fw for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (Sigma(6 NDL-PCBs)), and 0.0004-1.398pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)g(-1)fw for the dioxin-like PCBs (SigmaTEQ(DL-PCBs)). Altogether fruit and vegetables made only a limited contribution to total dietary PCB intake, as the estimated total mean daily intake (TMDI) of Sigma(26PCBs) through these food items was 10.1% in children and 10.4% in adults of the minimal risk level (MRL) for PCBs, while the TMDI of SigmaTEQ(DL-PCBs) was 3.3% in children and 3.7% in adults of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for dioxin-like compounds. The contribution of fruit and vegetables to total PCDD and PCDF dietary intake could not be assessed because concentrations of these congeners were almost all below the limit of detection in most of the crops analyzed. This study also found that PCB levels in rosemary were much higher than in any other crop, suggesting that rosemary leaves accumulate PCBs and that this plant might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of 1999-2004 dietary daily intake of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs by a total diet study in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Takeo; Ushio, Fusao; Kikutani, Norihisa; Saitoh, Yuki; Yamaki, Yumiko; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Horii, Shozo; Nakagawa, Jun-ichi; Ibe, Akihiro

    2006-07-01

    A study of the dietary intake of dioxins, consisting of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) through foods retailed in the metropolitan Tokyo area from 1999 to 2004 was carried out by the total diet-market basket method on the basis of food classification (14 groups) and the data on food consumption in the Tokyo region obtained from the Japan Nutrition Survey. The daily intake of dioxins per kg of body weight for a 50 kg average adult body was 2.18 pg TEQ/kg/day in 1999, 1.87 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2000, 1.25 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2001, 1.60 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2002 and 2003 and 1.55 pg TEQ/kg/day in 2004, respectively. These amounts were less than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 4 pg TEQ/kg/day for dioxins established in Japan. The dioxins taken daily through fish and shellfish (group 10) accounted for more than 50% of sum WHO-TEQs. In addition, more than 90% of the daily intake of dioxins was taken through fish and shellfish (group 10), meat and eggs (group 11), milk and dairy products (group 12). Also, this study clearly showed that the ratio of dioxin-like PCBs in the daily intake of dioxins was increasing yearly because the reduction rate of dioxin-like PCBs was lower than that of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods.

  13. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p'-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 microg/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., SigmaPCBs 688 to 245 to 182 microg/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 microg/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and

  14. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  15. Contamination status and accumulation features of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Hee-Gu; An, Yong-Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Moon, Dae-Yeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-11-15

    Data on the concentrations and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in cetaceans are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were measured in the blubber of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected from Korean coastal waters. Total dioxin-like toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations (6.5-31 pg/g lipid weight) in finless porpoises were lower than those reported for cetaceans and pinnipeds from other countries. Significant gender-specific differences were found in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs and this difference was associated with maternal and lactation transfer of contaminants from mature females to their fetus. All of the PCDD/F homologue groups were detected in all of the samples and the proportions of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs. The dominant congeners found in finless porpoise blubber were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and OCDD for PCDD/Fs and PCB 118 for DL-PCBs. The accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs in finless porpoise in our study were different from those found for cetaceans from other countries. Total TEQ levels in finless porpoises in Korea were below the suggested threshold values for adverse health effects in marine mammals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs from free-range hens in Campania (southern Italy) and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Sara; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Cavallo, Stefania; Rosato, Guido; Baldi, Loredana; Neri, Bruno; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Hens' eggs collected in home-producing farms located in different areas of the Campania region of southern Italy were analysed for six NDL-polychlorobiphenyls (PCB indicators), 17 polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 12 congeners of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). In the investigated area, waste from civil, industrial and hospital activities was illegally dumped and in many cases burned, so the area is called the 'Land of fire'. This illicit practice has been considered the main source of pollution in this territory and the cause of the persistent organic pollutants' (POPs) contamination in the neighbouring lands intended for agricultural use and livestock. The results, which were obtained from the analysis of 56 samples of eggs, showed levels of contamination by dioxins and PCBs that have often exceeded the action levels set by European Union Recommendation 711/2013 and sometimes even exceeded the maximum levels set by Commission Regulation (EU) 1259/2011. The median PCDD/Fs was 0.41 pg TEQ g(-1) fat (range = 0.01-6.18 pg TEQ g(-1) fat) and the median concentration of DL-PCBs was 0.70 pg TEQ g(-1) fat (range = 0.01-14.60 pg TEQ g(-1) fat), whereas NDL-PCBs median was 7.35 ng g(-1) fat (range = 0.48-67.55 ng g(-1) fat). Nevertheless, the estimated weekly intake (EWI) calculated for consumers of eggs home produced in Campania is lower than the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF).

  17. Results and evaluation of the first study of organochlorine contaminants (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs), heavy metals and metalloids in birds from Baja California, México.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Begoña; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Merino, Rubén; Gómez, Gema; Rivera, Laura; José González, María; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2005-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p-p'-DDE), heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu), and arsenic were measured in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and common ground doves (Columbina passerina) from Baja California Sur, México. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, with 21 pg/g for house sparrows, and 7.7 pg/g for common ground doves. Non-ortho-PCB concentrations in house sparrow and common ground doves were 58 and 254 pg/g, respectively, and are within the highest concentrations reported in species that are in the low levels of food webs. The major differences in organochlorine levels between species were found for ortho-PCBs and DDTs. ortho-PCB levels were higher in the seedeater species, whereas DDT levels were higher in the omnivorous species. Heavy metal levels were far below those associated with negative effects.

  18. Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Bentley, V Raymond; Elliott, John E

    2003-06-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in western Oregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determine contaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrations in fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, and Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish species eaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samples of fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric mean residues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 microg g(-1) wet weight (ww), sigma PCBs 0.69 microg g(-1), 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg(-1), and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presented by River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggs from the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the Cascade Mountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and Northern Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fish biomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fish eaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed), and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the large series of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification (0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for the migratory

  19. Biomagnification factors (fish to osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDS, PCDFS, PCBS, and OC pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Grove, Robert A.; Bentley, V.R.; Elliot, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in westernOregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determinecontaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrationsin fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, andBiomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish specieseaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samplesof fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC)pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinateddibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric meanresidues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 g g-1 wet weight (ww), PCBs 0.69 g g-1, 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg-1, and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presentedby River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggsfrom the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the CascadeMountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and NorthernPikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fishbiomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fisheaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed),and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the largeseries of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification(0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for themigratory Osprey were compared to BMFs for the resident

  20. Assessment of human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs using hair as a human pollution indicator sample I: Development of analytical method for human hair and evaluation for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Teruyuki; Aozasa, Osamu; Ohta, Souichi; Miyata, Hideaki

    2002-09-01

    Dioxins including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) are highly toxic. Even at environmental pollution levels, they cause hormonal damage in women, and they have been shown to induce immunosuppression and genital function damage in humans. In this study, a new method using isotope dilution was established to detect PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs in human hair. This method, comprised of washing and cutting of hair, alkaline decomposition, hexane extraction, multilayer silica gel column chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography with a porous graphite carbon column and analysis by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry, enabled us to analyze PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs at trace levels of less than pg/g with good reproducibility. In addition, there was a correlation between some isomers in human hair and blood collected from identical donors. Human hair analysis is useful to evaluate human risk assessment including that due to environmental pollution.

  1. Ambient air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs, and PAHs at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hardy, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. Two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the Refuge during May?September 1991. The sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. Composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, residue concentrations were low. The toxic PCDD isomer 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD was not detected, nor was penta-CDD. There was no difference (P>0.05) in residue concentrations between stations or over time and meteorological parameters were not correlated with residue concentrations. Because contaminant levels and patterns may differ seasonally, we recommend that air samples collected during winter months also be analyzed for these same chemical groups.

  2. Effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in common tern (Sterna hirundo) breeding in estuarine and coastal colonies in The Netherlands and Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Bosveld, A.T.C.; Gradener, J.; Berg, M. van den; Kampen, M. van ); Murk, A.J.; Brouwer, A. . Dept. of Toxicology); Evers, E.H.G. )

    1995-01-01

    In 1991, eggs of the common tern (Sterna hirundo) were collected at eight different locations and incubated artificially. The residual yolk sacs of the hatchlings from the highly polluted colonies, located in the main sedimentation area of the Rhine and Meuse rivers, contained on average 16 ng TEQ (toxicity equivalency) per gram lipid, which was fivefold higher than the concentrations in the reference colony. The hepatic EROD activity was induced fourfold compared to the reference colony. At the individual level, a significant relationship was found between log TEQ and both log EROD and log PROD. Average TEQ concentration in chicks that hatched after 23 d of incubation were twice the concentration of those that hatched after 21 d. No concentration-related effects on morphology and physiology were found The non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs were predominant regarding the total TEQ, while the PCDDs and PCDFs contributed less than 10%. The PCB patterns were highly similar among the individual birds and among different locations. In contrast, PCDD and PCDF patterns were not similar at all locations, and two distinct patterns could be recognized and related to sediments that were deposited during different time periods.

  3. Development of a method for simultaneous analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, PBDEs, PCNs and PAHs in Antarctic air.

    PubMed

    Piazza, R; Gambaro, A; Argiriadis, E; Vecchiato, M; Zambon, S; Cescon, P; Barbante, C

    2013-01-01

    The development of a unique analytical method for the determination of five classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in atmospheric gas and the particle phase through gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry is presented. Every step of the pre-analytical and analytical optimization process is described. Great effort was put into simplifying the traditional techniques, with reference to EPA and literature methods. Automated instruments were used for sample extraction and cleanup in order to enhance repeatability and reduce contamination risks. Unlike most common approaches, no separation of the analytes was performed before the GC analysis in order to avoid sample fractionation and to save time and materials. This allowed low instrumental and method detection limits (pg to sub-pg) to be achieved. Accuracy and precision were tested by fortifying the matrix and analysing standard reference materials (NIST SRM 1649b Urban Dust and 2585 Organic Contaminants in House Dust). The method was applied to five samples from Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are presented. Lighter compounds dominate the distribution and are mainly present in the gaseous phase. The observed pattern may be attributable to long-range transport. Results are in general agreement with literature data, where available.

  4. Relative potency based on hepatic enzyme induction predicts immunosuppressive effects of a mixture of PCDDS/PCDFS and PCBS

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowicz, R.J.; DeVito, M.J. Williams, W.C.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    2008-03-15

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was employed to compare immunotoxic potency of mixtures containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), using the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Mixture-1 (MIX-1) contained TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). Mixture-2 (MIX-2) contained MIX-1 and the following PCBs, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC No. 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (126), 3,3',4,4',5,5N-hexachlorobiphenyl (169), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (105), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (118), and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (156). The mixture compositions were based on relative chemical concentrations in food and human tissues. TCDD equivalents (TEQ) of the mixture were estimated using relative potency factors from hepatic enzyme induction in mice [DeVito, M.J., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Menache, M.G., Birnbaum, L.S., 1997. Dose-response relationships for polyhalogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans following subchronic treatment in mice. I .CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung and skin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130, 197-208; DeVito, M.J., Menache, G., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Birnbaum L.S., 2000. Dose-response relationships for induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung, and skin in female mice following subchronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167, 157-172] Female mice received 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TCDD/kg/day or approximately 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TEQ/kg/day of MIX-1 or MIX-2 by gavage 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Mice were immunized 3 days after the last exposure and 4 days later, body, spleen, thymus, and liver weights were measured

  5. Organic pollutants in wild ducks from New York state: I. Interspecies differences in concentrations and congener profiles of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Patrick W; Clayton, William C; Connor, Stephen; Bush, Brian; Hong, Chia-Swee

    2006-05-15

    Wild ducks of three species, common mergansers (Mergus merganser americanus), gadwalls (Anas streptera), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), were collected near industrial sites in the Massena, NY area of the St. Lawrence River (SLR) in 1988/89 and 1994. Additional samples were collected in 1994 near a former polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) capacitor plant at Fort Edward, NY (a mallard and two wood ducks (Aix sponsa)), and at control sites (common mergansers, mallards and wood ducks). On a lipid basis, PCB concentrations in liver tissue from the 1994 collection ranged from 0.1 mug/g in a control wood duck to 676 mug/g in a common merganser from the SLR area. However, the highest total polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were found in liver and fat tissues of gadwalls and mallards collected near the SLR industrial sites (2.8-12 ng/g lipid). These two species bioaccumulated non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs in addition to 2,3,7,8-PCDF isomers, whereas common mergansers preferentially bioaccumulated 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs. The mergansers from the SLR sites were the only specimens contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), which were all 2,3,7,8-substituted. The PCB and PCDF congener patterns in the duck tissues appear to have been influenced by both sampling location and species trophic level.

  6. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  7. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  8. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  9. High variation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs ratio in cooked food from the first total diet survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Su, H J; Hsu, J F; Liao, P C; Lee, C C

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 240 individual food samples, belonging to 37 different foodstuffs in first total diet study (TDS) in Taiwan. The foods were collected from markets located in eight cities or counties around Taiwan. The food was cooked in a laboratory according to recipes typically used in Taiwan. In this study, PCDD/Fs were lower than the limits proposed by the European Union (EU) regulation for commercialized food, except for a notable PCDD/Fs level in ducks (3.660 pg WHO-TEQ/g, fat) obtained from central Taiwan. We hypothesize the duck meat might be probably polluted via emission of a fly ash recycling plant located near the duck farms. In addition to fish, most foods had high PCDD/Fs to dl-PCBs ratio. Needle fish and sea perch had relatively lower PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs levels compared with those in other fish. Data from this study can be utilized for further consideration about dietary intake.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro cellular responses in the RTG-2 cell line to complex mixtures of dioxins and dioxin-like PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Babín, María del Mar; Sanz, Paloma; Concejero, Miguel Angel; Martínez, María Angeles; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2010-08-01

    High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) is the standard method for analysing dioxin, furan and polybrominated retardants in hazardous waste. Determination of dioxin-like compounds using in vitro bioassays such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) is an important tool to evaluate their Ah receptor-mediated toxic effects, because it detects all arylhydrocarbon receptor ligands in a variety of sample matrices. In the present work, we compared RTG-2 cell line EROD bioassay with HRGC/MS for assessing waste samples (liquid and solid) contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and other xenobiotics. For liquid samples, HRGC/MS-toxic equivalent (HRGC/MS-TEQ) values ranged from 273.26 to 5.84 ng TEQ l(-1) and correlated well (correlation coefficient 0.99) with values obtained by EROD-TEQ, which ranged from 128 to 2.5 ng TEQ l(-1). For solid samples, HRGC/MS-TEQ values ranged from 3.44 to 0.49 ng TEQ g(-1) and correlated less well than liquid samples (correlation coefficient 0.64) with values obtained by EROD-TEQ ranging from 2.27 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1). The overestimation of RTG-2 EROD-TEQ (1.2 +/- 0.92 of values established by HRGC/MS) and the absence of false-negative results may limit analytical costs by eliminating the need for follow-up GC/MS analysis on the negative samples. We suggest that RTG-2 EROD bioassay is an inexpensive means for preliminary dioxin and furan positive screenings of waste samples. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    PubMed

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2002-09-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFINED DATABASE OF RELATIVE POTENCY ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE BETTER CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE CURRENT MAMMALIAN TEFS FOR PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran...

  14. Occurrence, variability and human exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in dairy products from Chile during the 2011-2013 survey.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Aránguiz, N; Galbán-Malagón, C J; Ruiz-Rudolph, P; Araya-Jordan, C; Maddaleno, A; San Martin, B

    2015-05-01

    Levels, congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and human exposure for these xenobiotics never have been reported in Chile. For that purpose 102 raw cow milk samples were collected from seven different regions of Chile during 2011 until 2013. The highest mean level for PCDD/Fs, corresponds to 0.32 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2012) and for DL-PCBs 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2011), using the upper bound approach. Penta and tetra chlorinated congeners dominated PCDD/Fs profiles in a WHO-TEQ2005 basis during the survey. In the case of DL-PCBs, PCB 126 dominated the profiles with 89%. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among years only in DL-PCBs residues. Also dietary intake was estimated, and the highest level for total sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for adult was 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w d(-1) (2011) and for children correspond to 0.65 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.wd(-1) (2011). Concentrations and dietary intake for the studied compounds in milk and butter samples were below international and national regulations.

  15. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  16. Results of monitoring for PCDDs and PCDFs in ambient air at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 austral summer in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Fifteen air samples were collected from four different locations for determination of the presence and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. General Metal Works Inc. PS-1 air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam (PUF) with a sample flow rate of approximately 0.27 m{sup 3}/min. were used to collect air samples. Sampling site selection, sampling procedures, and quality assurance procedures used were consistent with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance for local ambient air quality networks. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at the predominantly upwind location and at a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 meters downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a {open_quotes}downtown{close_quotes} location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.27 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDFs from less than 0.1 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. Results from the remote Black Island site indicate that the background Antarctic air is still {open_quotes}free{close_quotes} of PCDD/PCDF compounds (not detectable at current method detection limits). The initial baseline effort demonstrated that site selection and sampling equipment performance were satisfactory, provided useful data for assessing the impact of McMurdo operations on the local ambient air quality, and provided baseline data for assessing the Antarctica continental air quality.

  17. PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air (<1 fg m(-3)) - the CTDEP long term sampling (30 d) method.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Gary T; Lihzis, Melita F

    2011-12-01

    The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) commenced monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in ambient air in 1987 and adopted the long term (30 d) sampling approach in 1993. The CTDEP method represents the first use of isotopically labeled PCDDs/PCDFs as field surrogates to monitor the behavior of native PCDDs/PCDFs present in actual ambient air samples. This feature first introduced in 1987 was later adopted by US EPA in revisions to sampling methods for PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air (EPA Method TO9A) as well as development of EPA Reference Method 23 for measurement of PCDDs/PCFDs in stationary source emissions. Results are provided here for a total of twenty-three (23) samples (reported as pairs) representing twelve (12) 30 d sampling events conducted at a site located in metropolitan Hartford CT. Samples were collected in winter months during calendar years 2002-2008. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration data (pgm(-3)) are reported as both congener sums (Cl(4)-Cl(8)) and 2378-substitued congeners. Total PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations for these twelve (12) sampling events ranged from 0.68 pg m(-3) (2003) to 4.18 pg m(-3) (2004) with a mean concentration of 2.04 pg m(-3). Method performance was monitored through use of collocated samples, in field isotopically labeled compounds, isotopically labeled laboratory applied internal standards and field blank samples. Method performance consistently exceeded goals established in USEPA Method TO9A for these same parameters. Average recoveries of in field labeled PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 97.5% to 104.2%. Average (mean) recoveries for each of the ten (10) isotopically labeled internal standards ranged from 77.0% ((13)C-OCDF) to 95.5% ((13)C-2,3,7,8-TCDF). Method precision defined as % RPD data for collocated sampler pairs ranged from 8% to 14% for PCDDs and from 5% to 12% for PCDFs. The mean RPD for all PCDDs/PCDFs combined is 9.6%. Field monitoring results

  18. PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs in tissues of yusho and yu-cheng patients.

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, H; Fukushima, S; Kashimoto, T; Kunita, N

    1985-01-01

    All five samples of oil involved in the recent yu-cheng outbreak were heavily contaminated with PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs at levels, on the average, of 62, 20 and 0.14 ppm, respectively. The samples not only had roughly one-tenth of the contamination by PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs but also three to four times lower ratios of PCQs and PCDFs to PCBs than samples of oil involved in yusho in Japan. PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs present were all composed of similar congeners to the ones found in the yusho specimens, though some variation of the component ratios of PCBs and PCDFs were observed. On the other hand, five patients with yusho who died 1 to 10 years following poisoning had markedly higher tissue levels of PCDFs and PCQs than did a worker occupationally exposed to PCBs. Taking great differences in the process of the healing and the tissue levels of PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs between the two poisoning cases into consideration, PCDFs and PCQs--especially the former--and not PCBs are deduced to be strongly associated with the development of yusho. PMID:3921367

  19. Risk factors affecting blood PCDDs and PCDFs in residents living near an industrial incinerator in Korea.

    PubMed

    Leem, J H; Lee, D S; Kim, J

    2006-10-01

    The contamination sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), such as industrial incinerators, can potentially change the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near the incinerators. In this study, we estimated whether the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near an incinerator were affected by its presence and investigated factors that characterize the risk of high exposure to PCDD/DFs in the area. We estimated the blood levels and homologue patterns of PCDD/DFs in a group of 40 residents living within 5 km of an industrial incinerator and in a group of 20 residents living 20 km away from an incinerator. We cannot assert that the operation of incinerator facilities was only cause of increased PCDD/DFs in these residents; however, the operation of incinerator facilities in agricultural areas increased PCDD/DF exposure to individuals. The group living next to the industrial incinerator especially represented the typical isomer pattern in which the proportions of OCDDs were lower and those of PCDFs higher than those in the other groups. The high-risk population with increased blood levels of PCDD/DFs included those who had lived longer in the contaminated area as well as those who frequently ate contaminated foods.

  20. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in fish and seafood from the Catalan (Spain) market: estimated human intake.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L; Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in samples from 14 fish and seafood species widely consumed by the population of Catalonia, Spain, were measured. These samples were randomly purchased independently of their geographical origin. The intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of these species was also estimated for various age and sex groups of this population. The highest and lowest levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) were found in red mullet and shrimp, respectively. For a standard adult man (70 kg body weight), the intake of PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs through consumption of fish and other seafood was estimated to be 38.0 pg WHO-TEQ/day. Tuna, hake, and sardine were the species with the highest contribution to this intake. The results of this study indicate that, in general terms, the dietary habits of the population of Catalonia (Spain) regarding fish and seafood consumption do not contribute remarkably to increase PCDD/F and DL-PCB intake.

  1. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk from populations in Madrid and Paris

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Hernandez, L.M.; Jimenez, B.

    1996-02-01

    Human breast milk represents a good substrate to examine the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) background contamination of a population and also supplies important information about the exposure risk for nursing infants. Although adipose tissue and blood samples are commonly studied in the literature milk Dioxin levels are more specifically of concern because of the facility of sampling and also the potential health damage which may be caused to the breastfed babies by those highly toxic synthetic chemicals. The occurrence of dioxins in mother milk among the general population in all countries studied until now, has confirmed a widespread pollution and intake of those compounds. Dietary and other sources such as contaminated chemicals, industrial activity, waste combustion and leaded car gasoline may be responsible for such a contamination, and also for the differences among levels found in different countries. Human contamination by PCDDs and PCDFs from the environment is clearly a multisource problem. Human milk as well as other human fluids studies up to know have only found the presence of 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD or PCDF congeners present. The reason for this congener specific retention is usually explained by the metabolic conversion on the 2,3,7, and 8 lateral positions in combination with high binding affinities for the cytosolic receptor proteins.

  2. Levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in edible marine species and human intake: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic organic compounds whose origin comes from many different sources. PCDD/Fs and PCBs are ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants with a well known potential toxicity, which were included at the 1998 UN-EC POP protocol. Although human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs can occur by various routes, food is the primary source. A number of studies have shown that the major food sources of these organic pollutants are fat-containing animal products, including fish and other seafood. Because of the frequent health recommendations concerning fish consumption, to determine the contribution to the dietary intake of chemical contaminants such as PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and other seafood consumption is an issue of special interest. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding recent literature on PCDD/F and PCB levels in marine species and human intake through fish and seafood consumption. The concentrations of these pollutants depend basically on the environment in which the respective species are caught. It is concluded that some groups of population frequently consuming high quantities of certain species could be significantly increasing health risks due to PCDD/F and PCB exposure.

  3. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  4. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs.

  5. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Nespoli, R; Stella, C; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g(-1) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g(-1) for NDL-PCBs). Without the prompt and immediately applied control strategies, the consumption of contaminated eggs may have posed [corrected] a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits.

  6. Bioavailability of PCDDs and PCDFs of fly ash after semi-chronic oral ingestion by guinea pig and Syrian golden hamster

    SciTech Connect

    van den Bery, M.; de Vroom, E.; Olie, K.; Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of guinea pigs and syrian golden hamster were fed 2.5% HCl pre-treated fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal incinerator during one, two, and three months, respectively, in the diet. The livers were analyzed for tetra-, penta-, and hexa-chlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxines (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In the livers of the hamsters 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were the major isomers retained. In the livers of the guinea pigs 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDDs and PCDF congeners were retained, but also a number of otherwise substituted PCDFs. The PCDF congener which had the highest retention in the livers of guinea pigs was 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF, 11.3% after 95 days. In the livers of the hamsters highest retention was found for 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 8.4% after 95 days. For most 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs the retention in the livers of the guinea pigs and hamsters was not significantly different during the whole period, which could indicate a bioconcentration approaching a linear relationship to the administered dose. Constant relative concentrations in the livers were found for the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDF in both species during the three time periods.

  7. Passerine Exposure to Primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the River Floodplains Near Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Seston, Rita M.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Plautz, Stephanie C.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Shotwell, Melissa S.; Bradley, Patrick W.; Kay, Denise P.; Giesy, John P.

    2009-01-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (ΣPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (ΣTEQsWHO-Avian), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and ΣTEQsWHO-Avian ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of ΣTEQsWHO-Avian were positively correlated with ΣPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69–84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10

  8. Passerine exposure to primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the river floodplains near Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Plautz, Stephanie C; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Shotwell, Melissa S; Bradley, Patrick W; Kay, Denise P; Giesy, John P

    2010-05-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (SigmaPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian)), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) were positively correlated with SigmaPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69-84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs.

  9. Spatial patterns of metals, PCDDs/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs and chemical status of sediments from a coastal lagoon (Pialassa Baiona, NW Adriatic, Italy).

    PubMed

    Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Lee, Seok-Hyung; Park, No-Jin; Ok, Gon

    2014-12-15

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) establishes a framework for the protection and improvement of all water bodies including transitional waters; its final objective is to achieve at least 'good status' by 2015. In the present work, a hierarchical sampling design was applied to analyze the influence of anthropogenic inputs on the spatial distribution of metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment at four areas in Pialassa Baiona coastal lagoon. In order to assess the chemical status, levels of priority substances and other pollutants were compared with the recently developed national Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) and site specific background levels for metals. Levels of mercury and PCBs were particularly high and exceeded their national EQS values at all sampled areas, thus not contributing to the achievement of a good chemical status of this transitional water body according to the WFD classification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PCBs, PCQs and PCDFs in blood of yusho and yu-cheng patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kashimoto, T; Miyata, H; Fukushima, S; Kunita, N; Ohi, G; Tung, T C

    1985-01-01

    Individual blood samples obtained from yusho and yu-cheng patients who had been poisoned by ingesting contaminated cooking oils, from workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and from unexposed individuals were analyzed for PCBs, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. PCBs were found in the blood of all samples. PCQs were detected in the blood of 54 of 56 living yusho patients 11 years after the outbreak, and in all yu-cheng patients 6 months following poisoning. These facts indicate that the presence of PCQs in the blood was a good mark of past ingestion of the toxic oil. In the yu-cheng cases, PCDFs as well as PCBs and PCQs were detected in all blood samples. These identified isomers have been reported to be remarkably highly toxic compounds, i.e., both the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated compounds are toxicologically hundreds to thousands of times more toxic than PCB. In view of the high toxicity of PCDFs found in the yu-cheng patients' blood, we must deduce that they are the primary causal agents of yusho as well as of the yu-cheng incident. PMID:3921368

  11. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  12. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by intake of fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in patients with Yusho --with regard to PCDFs and PCDDs].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Todaka, Takashi; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2009-05-01

    Forty years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the patients with Yusho have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and PCDDs and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI*GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen patients with Yusho. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Respective mean concentrations of the three PCDF congeners, that is, 2,3,4,7,8-PenCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF in the blood on lipid weight basis just before initiating this study were as follows; group A: 413, 152 and 45.7 pg/g lipid, and group B: 151, 42.7 and 17.3 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of these PCDF congeners in group A were 2.6 to 3.6 times higher than those in group B. In respective mean concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs and PCDFs/DDs in both groups were as follows; group A: 228, 30.9 and 258 pg-TEQ/g lipid, and group B: 82.4, 19.7 and 102 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs and PCDDs were around 2 times higher in group A than in group B. Group A took around 7.0 g of spirulina HI*GENKI after each meal and tree times a day for the first one year and

  13. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion (Otaria flavescens) skin biopsies from two South-western Atlantic populations.

    PubMed

    Jimènez, B; Gonzàlez, M J; Hernández, L M; Eljarrat, E; Rivera, J; Fossi, M C

    1999-02-01

    Congener specific 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs were determined in skin biopsies taken from sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living in two areas of the South-western Atlantic on the coast of Argentina (Mar del Plata and Punta Bermeja). This is the first report on PCDDs and PCDFs in sea lion skin biopsies from the southern hemisphere. Differences were found in the congener pattern according to the sampling area. Animals living in the polluted area (Mar del Plata harbour) had detectable levels of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. Sea lions living in a control environment (Punta Bermeja, Patagonia) only exhibited 5 detectable congeners out of all seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. However, total levels were low in both colonies studied. These data are consistent with previous work which has indicated that dioxins occur at relatively low levels in marine mammals, possibly due to rapid catabolism or elimination.

  14. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  16. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility.

  17. Monitoring temporal and spatial trends in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in eggs of great blue heron (Ardea herodias) on the coast of British Columbia, Canada, 1983-1998.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Harris, M L; Wilson, L K; Whitehead, P E; Norstrom, R J

    2001-11-01

    Eggs from 21 resident great blue heron (Ardea herodias) rookeries were monitored from 1983 to 1998 along the coast of British Columbia, Canada, for contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Dominant congeners (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF) fell markedly in the early 1990s after pulp mills changed from molecular chlorine bleaching to alternative bleaching technologies, and the use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives and anti-sapstains was severely restricted. Strong positive linear regressions between prey fish and heron egg contaminant levels suggested that local dietary uptake was an important route of exposure for herons. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) sufficient to produce embryotoxicity in great blue heron chicks were measured in eggs from 1985 to 1991 at some colonies. Despite reduction in PCDD/Fs, estimated TEQs remained elevated throughout the 1980s at some urban colonies due to contributions from PCBs.

  18. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Timothy B.; Giesy, John P.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Seston, Rita M.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Roark, Shaun A.; Kay, Denise P.; Newsted, John L.; Zwiernik, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005–2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site. PMID:21804755

  19. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Giesy, John P; Coefield, Sarah J; Seston, Rita M; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005-2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site.

  20. Patterns of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in chicken and pork fat following a Belgian food contamination incident.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Ryan, John Jake; Schepens, Paul

    2002-04-01

    A food contamination incident involving polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and PCDD/Fs occurred in 1999 in Belgium. On heavily affected farms, concentrations of PCBs in chicken or pork fat exceeded the Belgium tolerance limit of 200 ng/g lipid weight for the sum of seven marker PCBs. Analysis of contaminated samples showed that the patterns for PCB and PCDD/F congeners differed among feed, chicken fat and pork fat. Lower chlorinated PCBs and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) including those with high TEFs (PCBs 105, 118, 126 and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) were shown to either bioaccumulate more in chicken fat or to be eliminated more readily in pork. This leads to the possibility that consumption of chicken would result in a higher TEQ human body burden than that from the same consumption of pork. In addition, PCDF congeners with non-2,3,7,8-substitution (e.g., 1,2,4,7,8-PeCDF) were present in chicken fat but absent in pork fat. Since the residue pattern in this commercial episode changes less in the avian species, these results reinforce the value of birds rather than mammals as markers of the source of contamination with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

  1. Risk assessment of PCDD/PCDFs and indicator PCBs contamination in Spanish commercial baby food.

    PubMed

    Lorán, S; Bayarri, S; Conchello, P; Herrera, A

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous highly toxic environmental pollutants which exhibit a potential risk for human health. PCDD/Fs and PCBs contamination has been measured in samples of commercial baby food products: processed cereal and meat-and-fish-based baby food, which were made of individual samples collected from Spanish markets and pharmacies. They all presented a low dioxin content with a mean concentration ranging between 0.014 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) product for fish-based baby food and 0.089 pg WHO PCDD/Fs-TEQ g(-1) product for processed cereal containing gluten. The mean concentration of the sum of the seven indicator PCBs was between 0.03 ng g(-1) product for fish-based baby food and 0.29 ng g(-1) product for gluten-free cereals. The estimated PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs mean daily intake through the consumption of this kind of food has been calculated taking into account body weight and food consumption data for children aged 6-12 months. In order to assess the health risk derived from the exposure to these pollutants in children during the first year of life, data concerning infant formulae contamination has been also considered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil with copper dichloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Zhifu; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang

    2015-12-01

    Copper dichloride is an important catalyst both in the dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the formation of PCDD/Fs. The effect of copper dichloride on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was studied in treated soil and off gas after thermal desorption of PCB-contaminated soil at 300, 400, 500, 600 °C. The presence of copper dichloride clearly enhances thermal desorption by promoting PCBs removal, destruction, and dechlorination. After thermal treatment at 600 °C for 1 h, the removal efficiency and destruction efficiency for PCBs reached 98.1 and 93.9%, respectively. Compared with the positive influence on PCBs, copper dichloride catalyzed large amount of PCDFs formation at 300 °C, with the concentration ratio of 2.35. The effect of CuCl2 on PCDFs formation weakened with the rising temperature since PCDFs destruction became dominant under higher temperature. Different from PCDFs, PCDDs concentration in treated soil and off gas decreased continuously with the increasing temperature.

  3. Temporal and spatial trends of pesticides, PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in Great Lakes fish communities: 1977--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, D.M.; Kiriluk, R.M.; Carswell, A.A.; Keir, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) have been monitored for whole body contaminant burdens at several open lake sites throughout the Great Lakes annually since 1977. Lake trout, representing a top predator species, were analyzed on an individual basis and all fish were aged. Smelt, as a representative forage species, were analyzed as composites of 5 similar sized fish. There was a consistent basin wide downward trend in whole body burdens of pesticides and total PCBs in both indicator species through to the early 1980`s. This trend was followed by a 2 to 3 year period of modest increases in organic contaminant concentrations at a majority of the monitoring sites. Most recently, significant fluctuations in body burdens have occurred over a shorter time cycle. Supporting data indicate that a reduction in loadings was directly responsible for early declines. Recent fluctuations are now closely linked to alterations of the aquatic community composition and in particular changes in the fish and invertebrate forage base. Analysis of the 17 year database indicates that lake wide total PCB and pesticide concentrations are directly proportional to both industrial and agricultural activities. Thus, fish communities from the lower Great Lakes consistently have body burdens from 2 to 5 times greater than similar communities in the upper lakes. This is consistent with input from potential sources within the various lake basins. PCDD/PCDF congener concentrations and profiles between lake basins are reflective of the significance of either historical pulp and paper mill inputs or chlorophenol production within the system. Both cohort analysis and foodchain contaminant dynamics of pesticides, PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs display significant interlake differences.

  4. Congener profiles and source-wise phase partitioning analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-do ambient air, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-10-24

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m(-3)) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m(-3)), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m(-3) and 274.2 pg·m(-3), respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle-gas partition coefficient Kp (m(3)·ug(-1)) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log-log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle-gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs.

  5. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. PMID:25347194

  6. PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in fishery products: occurrence, congener profile and compliance with European Union legislation.

    PubMed

    Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Garofalo, Rita; Castiglia, Domenico; Storelli, Maria M

    2014-12-01

    PCB and PCDD/F concentrations and congener specific profiles were determined in seafood (fish, cephalopods, crustaceans) purchased in supermarkets in Southern Italy. The results intended to assess and compare the levels and congener profiles among the various organisms and evaluate whether the pollutant concentrations exceed the maximum permitted levels according to European Union guidelines. Contaminant accumulation followed the order PCBs > PCDFs > PCDDs in all samples. Species-specific bioaccumulation of contaminants and differences in PCB and PCDD/F profiles among the three different groups of seafood were noted. Pollutant concentrations, given as sum of WHO-TEQ, in all samples (fish: 0.28 pg g(-1) wet wt; cephalopods: 0.01 pg g(-1) wet wt; crustaceans: 0.03 pg g(-1) wet wt) did not exceed the maximum limits for human consumption. Also the sum of six indicator PCBs (fish: 0.07-16.7 ng g(-1) wet weight; cephalopods: 0.05-0.21 ng g(-1) wet weight; crustaceans: 0.07-0.57 ng g(-1) wet weight) was below the level prescribed by the legislation in all the species tested. The estimated dietary intakes (fish: 0.52 TEQs/kg bw/week; cephalopods: 0.01 TEQs/kg bw/week; crustaceans: 0.02 TEQs/kg bw/week) were below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) proposed by the European Commission. Therefore, the samples analyzed can be considered safe considering the levels obtained and the in-force legislation.

  7. Reduction of PCDDs/PCDFs in MSWI fly ash using microwave peroxide oxidation in H2SO4/HNO3 solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Min; Dai, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Kao-Shen; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Chen, Jyh-Herng; Kao, Jimmy C M

    2013-05-01

    Microwave peroxide oxidation (MPO) is an energy-efficient and low GHG emission technology to destroy the hazardous organic compounds in solid waste. The objective of this paper is to explore the reduction feasibility of PCDDs/Fs in MSWI fly ash using the MPO in H2SO4/HNO3 solution. Nearly all PCDDs/Fs, 99% in the original fly ash, can be reduced in 120min at the temperature of 150°C using the MPO treatment. It was also found that a change occurred in the content distribution profiles of 17 major PCDD/F congeners before and after MPO treatment. This provides the potential to reduce the actual PCDDs/Fs content more than I-TEQ contents of PCDDs/Fs. The percentile distribution profile has a tendency of higher chlorinated PCDDs/Fs moving to the lower ones. It concludes that a significant reduction efficiency of I-TEQ toxicity was achieved and showed sufficient reduction of toxic level to lower than 1.0ngI-TEQ(gdw)(-1). The treatment temperature would be a critical factor facilitating the dissolution because higher temperature leads more inorganic salt (parts of fly ash) dissolution. Some problems caused by the MPO method are also delineated in this paper.

  8. Journal Article: Atmospheric Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Rural and Remote Locations of the U.S. for the Years 1998-2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine background air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cp-PCBs in rural and remote areas of the United States. Background is defined as average ambient air concentrations inferred from long-term a...

  9. Journal Article: Atmospheric Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Rural and Remote Locations of the U.S. for the Years 1998-2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine background air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cp-PCBs in rural and remote areas of the United States. Background is defined as average ambient air concentrations inferred from long-term a...

  10. Declining trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and non-ortho PCBs in Canadian Arctic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as the non-ortho PCBs (nPCBs) persist in the environment despite international measures to ban their emissions. We determined congener patterns and temporal trends for PCDDs, PCDFs, nPCBs as well as their toxic equivalents (TEQs) in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) sampled from Prince Leopold Island in the Canadian Arctic between 1975 and 2014. The dominant PCDD congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, and the dominant PCDF congener was 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF. The nPCB profile was dominated by PCB-126. The TEQ profile in the murre eggs was dominated by nPCB-TEQ whereas in the fulmar eggs, the PCDF-TEQ contribution to ΣTEQ was slightly greater than that of nPCB-TEQ. Concentrations of ΣPCDD, ΣPCDF, ΣnPCB and ΣTEQ declined between 1975 and 2014 in both murre and fulmar eggs. Based on TEQ thresholds in the literature for other species, and taking into account the trend towards declining TEQ levels, it is unlikely that current levels of PCDDs, PCDFs or nPCBs are affecting the reproductive success of thick-billed murres or northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic.

  11. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins.

  12. Occurrence of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil and comparison with CYP1A response in PLHC-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Della Torre, Camilla; Mariottini, Michela; Malysheva, Anzhela; Focardi, Silvano Ettore; Corsi, Ilaria

    2013-08-01

    The responsiveness of CYP1A (gene transcription and EROD enzyme activity) in the cell line Poeciliopsis lucida hepatoma (PLHC-1) upon exposure to extracts of contaminated soil samples was investigated and compared to levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs including non-ortho obtained by GC/MS analysis. Soil samples A and B were collected in sites A and B. Two fractions, not purified (np) and purified (p), were obtained from each sample and analyzed for PCDD/PCDF and PCB content by GC/MS; in parallel they were tested for 24 h with PLHC-1. CYP1A response was investigated at gene (RT-qPCR) level and as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) enzyme activity. Chem-TEQs and Bio-TEQs were then calculated. ∑TEQ calculated for PCDD/Fs and PCBs was 0.081 pg/g and 20.32 pg/g for samples A and B, respectively. PLHC-1 showed less up-regulation of cyp1a gene on exposure to the two purified fractions (Ap 2.1-fold and Bp 1.8-fold) than to non-purified fractions (up to 15-fold for Anp and 13-fold for Bnp). EROD was also induced 2.38- and 9.44-fold in the two purified fractions (Ap and Bp) compared to model inducer 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and up to 16.03-fold for non-purified Anp and 33.79-fold for Bnp. The combination of CYP1A response, obtained in a PLHC-1 cell-based bioassay, with contaminant residue analysis provided a better description of the presence and toxicity of dioxin-like compounds in an environmental matrix. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived < 2 km from Khimprom had higher total TEQs (picograms per gram lipid) [adjusted mean = 30.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 26.8–35.0] than boys who lived > 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  14. Levels and congener profiles of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in blue shark (Prionace glauca) liver from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Storelli, Arianna; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2011-01-01

    Liver of blue shark (Prionace glauca) specimens from the South-Eastern Mediterranean Sea were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including coplanar congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). PCBs were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. The pattern of PCB congener concentrations in the hepatic tissue was dominated by higher chlorinated compounds. The specific profile of toxic PCDD/F congeners was characterized mainly by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDD, followed by 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF. The total 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent (TEQs) was 149 pg g⁻¹ lipid wt. The profile of TEQ shows that PCDDs present the greatest risk to this species contributing to total toxicity with a percentage approximately of 60%, while the contribution of PCDFs and DL-PCBs is almost the same being 22.4% and 21.6%, respectively. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize the PCDD/Fs contamination levels not only in elasmobranch fish but in all Mediterranean marine biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS), DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS), AND RELATED COMPOUNDS: ENVIRONMENTAL AND MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS WHICH SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS (TEFS). (R823881)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine; Brunak, Søren; Antignac, Jean Philippe; le Bizec, Bruno; Juul, Anders; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Main, Katharina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated total toxic equivalent (total TEQ). SDS and SDS changes over time (ΔSDS) were calculated for height, weight, BMI, and skinfold fat percentage at 0, 3, 18, and 36 months of age. Serum IGF1 was measured at 3 months. We adjusted for confounders using multivariate regression analysis. Estimates (in parentheses) correspond to a fivefold increase in total TEQ. TEQ levels in breast milk increased significantly with maternal age and fish consumption and decreased with maternal birth year, parity, and smoking. Total TEQ was associated with lower fat percentage (-0.45 s.d., CI: -0.89; -0.04), non-significantly with lower weight and length at 0 months, accelerated early height growth (increased ΔSDS) (ΔSDS 0-18 months: +0.77 s.d., CI: 0.34; 1.19) and early weight increase (ΔSDS 0-18: +0.52 s.d., CI: 0.03; 1.00), and increased IGF1 serum levels at 3 months (+13.9 ng/ml, CI: 2.3; 25.5). Environmental exposure to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth).

  17. Spatial patterns of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFS) in sediments of a non-industrialized but densely populated coral atoll/small island state (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross J

    2011-06-01

    There is a recognized dearth of standard environmental quality data in the wider Caribbean area, especially on coral atolls/small island states. Extensive surveys of sediment contamination (n=109 samples) in Bermuda revealed a wide spectrum of environmental quality. Zinc and especially copper levels were elevated at some locations, associated with boating (antifouling paints and boatyard discharges). Mercury contamination was surprisingly prevalent, with total levels as high as 12mg kg(-1)DW, although methyl mercury levels were quite low. PAH, PCB and PCDD/PCDF contamination was detected a several hotspots associated with road run-off, a marine landfill, and a former US Naval annexe. NOAA sediment quality guidelines were exceeded at several locations, indicating biological effects are possible, or at some locations probable. Overall, and despite lack of industrialization, anthropogenic chemicals in sediments of the atoll presented a risk to benthic biodiversity at a number of hotspots suggesting a need for sediment management strategies.

  18. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppression of PCDD/Fs during thermal desorption of PCBs-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhonghua; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-12-01

    Thermal treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soil was shown in earlier work to generate new PCBs, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In this study, this thermal desorption was conducted with addition of three distinct inhibitors, including ammonium sulphate, urea and calcium oxide, to inhibit the formation of PCDDs and PCDFs when remediating PCBs-contaminated soil. Experiments were conducted for 40 min at 400 °C after adding 1 wt.% of inhibitor. Both the total PCDD/Fs and international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ) reduced when inhibitors were introduced. Of the three compounds tested, CaO shows the highest inhibition efficiency, 92.2 % for total PCDD/Fs and 95.6 % for I-TEQ. The amount of CaO added also influences the suppression efficiency of PCDD/Fs. These results suggest that promoting desorption and destruction of precursors is probably the mechanism of suppression.

  20. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  1. Certification of SRM 1589a PCBs, pesticides, PBDEs, and dioxins/furans in human serum.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan; Patterson, Donald G; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Stapleton, Heather M; Swarthout, Robert; Turner, Wayman E; Wise, Stephen A

    2007-10-01

    The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 1589a PCBs, Pesticides, PBDEs, and Dioxins/Furans in Human Serum has been updated to include certified concentration values for 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, three chlorinated pesticides, and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners as well as reference concentration values for 27 additional PCB congeners, six additional chlorinated pesticides, three additional PBDE congeners, and selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). This represents an addition of concentration values for 29 PCB congeners and for PBDE congeners that were not quantified in the previous issue of SRM 1589a. With the increased number of certified and reference concentration values for PCBs and the inclusion of certified and reference concentration values for PBDEs, this serum material will be more useful as a reference material for contaminant monitoring in human tissues and fluids.

  2. Partial removal of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBS, and PCBS from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by a column flotation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has recently attracted much attention because of its large quantity and enrichment of high toxic combustion generating organohalogen contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since the organohalogen contaminants in MSWI fly ash are known to be enriched in the unburnt carbon (UC) fraction, the organohalogen contaminants can therefore be removed by the removal of UC. In this research, we used a modified column flotation technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash. UC was removed for 27.7% under the flotation condition without chemical flotation aids. The removal efficiencies of UC, PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs, and PCBs are further improved by adding flotation aids during the flotation process. UC was removed for 49.0% by adding a collector assistant with a HLB value of 13.5 and a concentration in the kerosene of 3% during the flotation process. In addition,the UC removal efficiencies are increased with the decrease of the diameter of the micropores in the gas spargers. By optimizing the flotation condition, 41.9% total PCDD/Fs, 40.8% coplanar PCBs, and 44.1% PCBs with 64.0% UC have been successfully removed from MSWI fly ash. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the fly ash was decreased from 6.2 ng/g to 4.2 ng/g in the residue.

  3. Development and validation of prediction models for blood concentrations of dioxins and PCBs using dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Stigum, Hein; Thomsen, Cathrine; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Knutsen, Helle K

    2012-12-01

    Dioxins and PCBs accumulate in the food chain and might exert toxic effects in animals and humans. In large epidemiologic studies, exposure estimates of these compounds based on analyses of biological material might not be available or affordable. To develop and then validate models for predicting concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in blood using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and blood concentrations. Prediction models were built on data from one study (n=195), and validated in an independent study group (n=66). We used linear regression to develop predictive models for dioxins and PCBs, both sums of congeners and 33 single congeners (7 and 10 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho), sum of all the 29 dioxin-like compounds (total TEQ) and sum of 4 non dioxin-like PCBs (∑ CB-101, 138, 153, 183=PCB(4)). We used the blood concentration and dietary intake of each of the above as dependent and independent variables, while sex, parity, age, place of living, smoking status, energy intake and education were covariates. We validated the models in a new study population comparing the predicted blood concentrations with the measured blood concentrations using correlation coefficients and Weighted Kappa (К(W)) as measures of agreement, considering К(W)>0.40 as successful prediction. The models explained 78% (sum dioxin-like compounds), 76% (PCDDs), 76% (PCDFs), 74% (no-PCBs), 69% (mo-PCBs), 68% (PCB(4)) and 63% (CB-153) of the variance. In addition to dietary intake, age and sex were the most important covariates. The predicted blood concentrations were highly correlated with the measured values, with r=0.75 for dl-compounds 0.70 for PCB(4), (p<0.001) and 0.66 (p<0.001) for CB-153. К(W) was 0.68 for sum dl-compounds 0.65 for both PCB(4) and CB-153. Out of 33 congeners 16 (13dl-compounds and 3 ndl PCBs) had К(W)>0.40. The models developed had high power to

  4. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010.

    PubMed

    Consonni, Dario; Sindaco, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed. The studies published in 1989-2010 reporting information on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-PCBs (nPCBs), mono-ortho-PCBs (mPCBs) levels and Toxic Equivalencies (TEQs, a summary weighted measure of their combined toxicity) were reviewed. TEQs were calculated using as standard the most recent WHO 2005 reevaluation of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Weighted multiple regression analyses adjusted for year, subject's age, type of sample analyzed, method used for values below detection limit, and central tendency measure used were performed for each congener and standardized TEQs (log-transformed). We identified 187 studies regarding 29,687 subjects of 26 countries. Year of blood collection ranged from 1985 to 2008. The studies reporting congener levels 161. In adjusted analyses, European countries showed higher levels of most dioxin-like congeners and TEQs. A strong positive association of subjects' age with most congeners and with TEQ values was found, confirming previous findings. Significant decreases over time (1985-2008) were documented for PCCDs, PCDFs, and TEQs including their contributions. No significant decrease was found for non-ortho-PCBs, notably PCB 126. Only some mono-ortho-PCBs showed clear significant declines. Accordingly, TEQs including only PCB contribution did not decrease over time. In interpreting these findings, it should be considered that for dioxin-like PCBs the analysis period was shorter (17 years), since these compounds were first measured in 1992. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the EPA Dioxin-like Compounds 2013 Final Report In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the Nation...

  6. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the EPA Dioxin-like Compounds 2013 Final Report In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the Nation...

  7. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E. ); Nantel, A.; Weber, J.P. ); Meyer, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last twenty years polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as major contaminants of the natural environment. More recently, the presence of such toxic compounds was described in arctic regions. In this regions, PCBs have been found in water, snow, ice and air. The level of PCB contamination was significantly lower than that found at midlatitudes. PCB levels are often monitored because they could also reflect exposure to several other chemical contaminants such as other organochlorines. Other highly toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were found in the blubber from arctic ringed seals caught near the west coast of Spitzbergen. Since the closest known sources of PCDD and PCDF were several thousands of kilometers away, these results were surprising. The consumption of fish and marine mammals by the Inuit people is markedly higher than in the rest of the Canadian population and in some communities, sea mammals represent a significant part of the diet. It is possible that Inuit are exposed to an undesirably high of PCBs and other organochlorinated compounds. Levels of PCBs in the Inuit diet were assessed in Broughton Island, North West Territories, Canada. The present study was designed to assess the PCB levels in the breast milk of lactating Inuit women from the Hudson Bay region of Northern Quebec and of women from Southern Quebec.

  9. Quantitative source identification of dioxin-like PCBs in Yokohama, Japan, by temperature dependence of their atmospheric concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Isamu; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2004-06-15

    The source and environmental behavior of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) together with other PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were evaluated based on analysis of variations in their atmospheric concentrations in Yokohama, Japan. Potential factors responsible for variations in the atmospheric concentrations of the congeners were investigated by principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis of the data. Two major variations were seen: one had strong temperature dependence, while the other had no significant temperature dependence. A possible explanation for this difference is that the former is related to congeners released by volatilization (e.g., volatilization from commercial PCB products and past polluted environments), while the latter is related to congeners emitted from thermal processes. The relative contributions of dioxin-like PCBs released by volatilization and those emitted from thermal processes were estimated based on the temperature dependence of the atmospheric concentrations. The results suggest that both dioxin-like PCBs emitted from thermal processes and those released by volatilization are significant sources of air pollution in this area in terms of the toxic equivalent (TEQ) for dioxin-like PCBs. We demonstrated that the present approach based on variations in atmospheric concentrations can be useful in providing a qualitative as well as quantitative understanding of source information.

  10. Assessment of PCBs and PCDD/Fs along the Chinese Bohai Sea coastline using mollusks as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Zheng, M; Liang, L; Zhang, Q; Wang, Y; Jiang, G

    2005-08-01

    Mollusk samples such as bivalves and gastropods were collected from eight sampling sites along Bohai Sea coastline from northeastern China. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) to elucidate bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in benthon. Residue levels of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCDD/Fs were in the ranges of 66.1 to 583.6 ng/g and 0.9 to 15317 pg/g on a lipid-weight basis, respectively, The pollution source was identified using principal component analysis (PCA) in some coastal areas. It indicated that the typical pollution sources were characterized by PCB3, which was one Chinese technical product of PCBs. PCA also revealed the similarity patterns of PCBs between identical species collected from the different sites. The higher gastropod PCB concentrations were related to a former capacitor factory and the paint factories in some coastal areas, but this was not the case with the bivalves. The results of this study suggest that some gastropod species may be a potential bioindicator or "sentinel" organism for marine PCBs monitoring.

  11. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in surface sediments from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Kiremire, Bernard T; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Wasswa, John; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Surface sediments (<60 cm) from the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay on the northern shore of Lake Victoria were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Fifteen PCDD/Fs and eleven dl-PCBs were found in 75.5% of the samples. The maximum concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 44.1 and 136 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was the predominant PCDD/F congener at the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay area. Regarding the dl-PCBs, a variation in levels was observed between the mono-ortho PCBs and non-ortho PCBs, with the former having higher levels than the latter. The PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels, in the sediments of Napoleon Gulf, which is near urban centers and industrial areas were markedly higher (α ≤ 0.05) than those from the Thurston Bay, which is offshore, suggesting that human activities could be sources of the pollutants to the surrounding water resources. World Health Organization-toxic equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQs) lay in the range of 0.07-5.53 pg g(-1) dw for PCDD/Fs and 0.01-0.23 pg g(-1) dw for dl-PCBs. 23.1% of samples from the Napoleon Gulf had their results above the set WHOPCDD/Fs-TEQ value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their trends in Canadian human milk from 1992 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-05-01

    More than 300 samples of human milk were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada in the years 1992 to 2005. The milks were taken from the main populated areas east to west in southern Canada as well as from the region of Nunavik in northern Quebec and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations, expressed in ng kg(-1) milk lipid, show an overall decrease of virtually all compounds examined including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQ) PCDD/PCDFs, WHO2005-TEQ dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs), and total PCBs. Median values of 2,3,7,8-TCDD changed from about 1.5 ng kg(-1) milk lipid in 1992 to 0.8 ng kg(-1) in 2005 while the median WHO2005-TEQ PCDD/F fell from about 14-7 ng kg(-1) milk lipid in the same period. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in samples from Nunavik, which is in Arctic Quebec, were higher than those observed in milk from southern Quebec although this difference was not large. Over two time periods, milk samples from Hamilton, Ontario showed slightly higher levels of PCBs than Austin, Texas, USA--a North American city of similar size and development but with more than twice the PBDE exposure. When compared with earlier human milk data going back to the early 1980s, this large data set shows a steady decline of human exposure to POPs in Canada by a factor of about four times. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SW-846 Test Method 4025: Screening for Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) by Immunoassay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    a procedure for the analysis of (PCDDs/PCDFs) in soil at 500 ppt (pg/g) using a simple onestep liquid phase oxidative cleanup or, at mid to low ppt levels, using a two step coupled column cleanup (oxidation and activated carbon binding)

  14. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and seasonal variations in mussels from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Leo, Antonella; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Giandomenico, Santina; Conversano, Michele; Castellano, Giacomo; Basile, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Walter; Scortichini, Giampiero; Spada, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    The levels and specific profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto were determined during the extensive monitoring plan of Local Health Authority to assess PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination in food and farm products, within 20 km from the industrial areas of Taranto, between March and December 2011. The average Total Toxicity Equivalence (TEQ) values for the sum of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs ranged from 1.61 to 5.63 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) wet weight basis, with the highest in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo. In particular, DL-PCBs were the dominant chemicals in all samples, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. Congener patterns in mussels were similar, indicating a homogeneous behavior in studied areas and, probably, the same type of source. The seasonal concentrations trend showed a relevant increase of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs TEQs during the summer months, exceeding the limits set by the European Community for food and foodstuff. Reducing PCDD/Fs and PCBs is necessary to decrease contamination levels in order to safeguard marine ecosystem and human health in the Taranto area.

  15. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs, and PBDEs) in health supplements on the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Martí, M; Ortiz, X; Gasser, M; Martí, R; Montaña, M J; Díaz-Ferrero, J

    2010-03-01

    During the last years, consumption of health supplements has increased in our society. They are recommended as an additional source of minerals, vitamins, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, in the diet. A lot of these supplements contain oils among their components (fish oils or vegetable oils), especially those recommended for their omega-3 content. Due to their persistence and lipophilic characteristics, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) bioaccumulate in fat tissues, especially in those animals, as fish, which show low metabolic capability. Therefore, the consumption of nutritional supplements with oil components can increase the intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through the diet. The aim of this study was to analyse 15 of these supplements commercialized in Spain to determinate their POPs concentrations and their intake for their consumers. Concentrations of POPs in the dietary supplements studied (PCDD/Fs: 0.04-2.4 pg TEQ g(-1); dl-PCBs: 0.01-12.1 pg TEQ g(-1); marker PCBs: 0.17-116 ng g(-1); and PBDEs: 0.07-18.2 ng g(-1)) were in the low-medium range of those reported in literature for other countries. Vegetable oil and mineral-based supplements showed concentrations of POPs clearly lower than those based on fish oil. Among these, those based on cod liver oil presented the highest concentrations detected in the study, exceeding the maximum levels established in European regulations for marine oils for human consumption. In general, the intake of POPs via the consumption of these supplements would be lower than the intake derived from fish consumption. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in camel milk (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius) from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin; Focant, Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    To date, despite the fact it represents a very important part of the national dairy production, no data are available concerning the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in camel milk from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Selected PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were measured in pools of milk from camels (n=15) located in various places of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Atyrau, Aralsk, Shymkent) and sampled at two different seasons for two different species (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius). Non-dioxin-like (NDL-)PCB concentrations (6.3±2.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 5.1 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.6-17.4 ng g(-1) fat) were far below the maximum value of 40 ng g(-1) fat proposed by the EU. Dioxin-like (DL-)PCB concentrations (1.7±0.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 1.5 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.3-4.2 ng g(-1) fat) and the NDL-PCB to DL-PCB ratio (4.3) were similar to what is reported in EU for cow-based dairy products. PCB 52 and PCB 101 appeared to be proportionally more present in Kazakh camel milk samples (>60% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs) than in European cow milk samples (<10% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs), indicating possible differences in the route of exposure to PCBs in Kazakhstan. PCB 105 and PCB 118 appeared to be present at higher concentrations in camel milk (>80% of the sum of the 12 DL-PCBs). PCB 105, PCB 118 and PCB 156 were the major congeners for DL-PCBs, accounting for 92% of the sum of concentrations of DL-PCBs (88% for Belgian cows). In terms of TEQ, PCB 126 and PCB 118 are the major contributors and represent, respectively, 80% and 14% of the DL-PCB TEQWHO05 concentrations. No significant interracial or geographical trends were observed for NDL- and DL-PCB profiles. However, concentrations of all DL-PCBs appeared to be significantly higher for samples collected in Atyrau region. 2,3,7,8-TCDD level (mean 0.08±0.07 pg g(-1) fat, median 0.08 pg g(-1) fat, range 0

  18. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 gene expression in blood.

    PubMed

    Wimmerová, Soňa; van den Berg, Martin; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Jusko, Todd A; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Canton, Rocio F; van Ede, Karin I; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    In the risk assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, regulatory authorities support the use of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-scheme derived from a heterogeneous data set of the relative effect potency (REPs) estimates. We sought to determine REPs for dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) using expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 mRNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells representing two different pathways. We used a sex and age adjusted regression-based approach comparing the strength of association between each DLC and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 mRNA expression in 320 adults residing in an organochlorine-polluted area of eastern Slovakia. We calculated REPs based on CYP1A1 expression for 4 PCDDs, 8 PCDFs, and 1 PCB congener, and based on CYP1B1 expression for 5 PCDFs and 11 PCB congeners. REPs from CYP1A1 correlated with REPs previously derived from thyroid volume (ρ=0.85; p<0.001) and serum FT4 (ρ=0.77; p=0.009). The 13 log REPs from CYP1A1 correlated with log WHO-TEFs (r=0.63; p=0.015) and 11 log PCB REPs with PCB consensus toxicity factors (CTFs) for compounds with WHO-TEFs (r=0.80; p=0.003). The complete set of derived 56 log REPs correlated with the log CTFs (r=0.77; p=0.001) and log WHO-TEFs (r=0.81; p<0.001). REPs calculated from thyroid and cytochrome P450 endpoints realistically reflect human exposure scenarios because they are based on human chronic and low-dose exposures. While the CYP 1A1 seems more suitable for toxicity evaluation of PCDD/Fs, the CYP 1B1 is more apt for PCDFs and PCBs and reflects different pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  20. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  1. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.; Meyburg, B-U.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  2. Morphometric abnormalities in brains of great blue heron hatchlings exposed in the wild to PCDDs.

    PubMed Central

    Henshel, D S; Martin, J W; Norstrom, R; Whitehead, P; Steeves, J D; Cheng, K M

    1995-01-01

    Great blue heron hatchlings from colonies in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada are being monitored for environmental contaminant exposure and effects by the Canadian Wildlife Service. The contaminants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), primarily derived from kraft pulp mill effluent. The levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in eggs from the most contaminated colonies peaked in 1988 and 1989 and dropped dramatically through 1990 to 1992. Brains of heron hatchlings (taken as eggs from the wild and hatched in the laboratory) were analyzed for gross morphological abnormalities. Brains from highly contaminated colonies (Crofton, British Columbia and University of British Columbia Endowment Lands) in 1988 exhibited a high frequency of intercerebral asymmetry. The frequency of this abnormality decreased in subsequent years as the levels of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs (toxic equivalence factors) decreased. The asymmetry was significantly correlated with the level of TCDD and TCDD-TEQs in eggs taken from the same nest. Yolk-free body weight negatively correlated and the brain somatic index positively correlated with the TCDD level in such pair-matched eggs. These results indicate that gross brain morphology, and specifically intercerebral asymmetry, may be useful as a biomarker for the developmental neurotoxic effects of PCDDs and related chemicals. Images Figure 1. PMID:7556025

  3. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in fish species from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Kiremire, Bernard T; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Wasswa, John; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-07-01

    Two commercially important fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) belonging to different trophic levels were collected from the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay in Lake Victoria. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were extracted from the fish muscles and livers using the (13)C isotope dilution method, followed by multiple column chromatography clean-up. Analysis was achieved by a high resolution gas chromatography coupled with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The concentrations of analytes ranged from 0.07 to 0.59pgg(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 0.3-19.0pgg(-1) in L. niloticus and 0.06-0.18 and 0.2-15.7pgg(-1) in O. niloticus, for ∑PCDD/Fs and ∑dl-PCBs, respectively. Differences in congener concentrations were observed between the two fish species and study sites, and this was attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs) were in the range 0.01-0.16pgTEQg(-1) for the PCDD/Fs and 0.001-0.74pgTEQg(-1) for the dl-PCBs. The TEQ values in the present study were lower compared to those of most fish samples reported in literature and were within permissible levels recommended by the European Union, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AN ISOMER PREDICTION MODEL FOR PCNS, PCDD/FS, AND PCBS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isomer patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) were predicted by a model based on dechlorination kinetics from the most-chlorinated species. Successfu...

  5. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in zooplankton in the Baltic Sea - spatial and temporal shifts in the congener-specific concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Heikki; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Korhonen, Markku; Kiviranta, Hannu; Flinkman, Juha; Verta, Matti

    2014-11-01

    In the marine food-webs, zooplankton is a key element in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants to higher trophic levels. We determined the congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offshore zooplankton (size from 0.2 to 20mm) collected in 2001, 2002 and 2010 in the northern and central Baltic Sea. Of the PCDD/Fs, the concentrations of 2378-TCDF were from 18 to 47 and of 23478-PeCDF from 7.9 to 29 pg g(-1)fat and showed little temporal differences. However, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were abundant in 2001-2002 especially in the eastern Gulf of Finland (average concentrations 50 and 89 pg g(-1)fat, respectively). In 2010 the concentrations of these two congeners were lower, 29 and 30 pg g(-1)fat, respectively, but still substantially higher than in the other surveyed areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) supported that area-specific patterns in pollution strongly contributed to the congener profiles particularly in surface sediment and in sediment trap material, but even in zooplankton. The concentrations of the PCBs were highest in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Bay. The concentrations of most PCBs were somewhat lower in 2010 than in 2001-2002. Of the dioxin-like PCBs, the concentrations of PCB-77 were highest (271-572 pg g(-1)fat) but PCB-126 (32-113 pg g(-1)fat) contributed from 85% to 91% of the total toxicity of PCBs due to its higher toxic potency. Of the PBDEs, the BDE47 and BDE99 were the most abundant (concentrations from 1.2 to 4.6 and from 0.4 to 3.3 ng g(-1) fat, respectively). The concentrations of most PBDEs were lower in 2010 than in 2001/2002 except in the eastern Gulf of Finland.

  6. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  7. Evidence of Spatially Extensive Resistance to PCBs in an Anadromous Fish of the Hudson River

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably

  8. Targeted Screening and Quantification of dl-PCBs and Dioxins in Various Foodstuffs by Programmed-temperature Vaporizer Large-volume Injection Coupled to GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ngoc Huy; Bugey, Aurélie; Zimmerli, Pierre; Nançoz, Joëlle; Ortelli, Didier; Edder, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In 2009, high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were found in soils located near the municipal garbage incinerator of Geneva. The matter of food contamination in this area was raised. Based on exposure criteria, a strategy of analysis of animal fats has been established with farmers in the Geneva area. Most methods of analysis of dl-PCBs, dioxins and furans, are based on gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) and considered as the reference methodology. An innovative approach was developed by programmed-temperature vaporizer large-volume injection (PTV-LV) and gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. This analytical method was validated and was found suitable for screening and quantification of target compounds in animal fats (beef, pork, sheep, etc. ). PTV-LV coupled to GC-MS/MS appeared to be a good alternative compared to the GC-HRMS strategy, offering a good compromise between sensitivity, versatility of instrumentation, and economical aspects. A survey of 121 samples was conducted.

  9. Evaluation of daily intake of PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs in formula-fed Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Loran, Susana; Conchello, Pilar; Bayarri, Susana; Herrera, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occurs predominantly via food intake. In this study, the exposure assessment of these contaminants has been estimated for infant formula-fed children up to 1 year of age. PCDD/F concentrations in the infant formulae was low, ranging between 0.09 and 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat and between 0.30 and 0.46 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat when results were calculated with the lower and medium bound values, respectively. Indicator PCB contamination levels were below 1 ng g(-1) fat in all cases. Thus, the estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs for infants has been assessed taking into account the above-mentioned contamination levels as well as different scenarios of body weight and food consumption data for babies aged 0-12 months. The results vary in the different scenarios considered but, on the whole, the daily estimated dioxin and indicator PCBs intake of the average infant population due to the consumption of infant formulae does not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food (available at http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out90_en.pdf) nor the threshold value of 10 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) proposed by the Dutch National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM) (Baars et al. 2001. Report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands).

  10. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)).

  11. Individual breast milk consumption and exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Hungarian infants: a time-course analysis of the first three months of lactation.

    PubMed

    Vigh, Éva; Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Håkansson, Helen; Berglund, Marika; Bódis, József; Garai, János

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. These compounds are transferred to breast milk, therefore breastfed infants are at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs and PCDD/Fs during this sensitive age. In the present study individual breast milk samples were collected at three time points (days 5, 12 and 84 postpartum) from 22 mothers who delivered their infants during 2007 in Baranya County, Hungary. Breast milk samples were analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like (DL) PCBs and 7 non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Each infant's daily breast milk consumptions have been measured biweekly over three months. The concentration of several PCB and PCDD congeners in breast milk decreased significantly during lactation, with a main decline between days 5 and 12. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, derived from PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, were 3.17±1.72, 2.70±1.57 and 2.41±1.47 pg TEQ/g fat at the three time points, respectively. The corresponding NDL-PCB concentrations were 33.5±29.2, 27.4±20.6 and 26.9±24.8 ng/g fat, respectively. The results highlight the importance of timing of breast milk sampling for consistent exposure assessment estimation. Levels of pollutants in Hungarian breast milk samples were at the lower concentration range when data from Europe are considered. This is the first study in Hungary where each infant's daily intakes of PCBs and PCDD/Fs via breast milk have been measured. The daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding per kg body weight were 11.79±6.42, 16.54±13.02 and 11.59±7.70 pg TEQ/kg bw on days 5, 12 and 84, respectively. The exposure was the highest on day 12 but at all three time points each infants' daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  13. Occurrence and destruction of PAHs, PCBs, CIPhs, CIBzs, and PCDD/Fs in ash from gasification of straw.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Arja H; Kuusisto, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Matti A; Ruuskanent, Juhani

    2002-05-15

    Two experiments were performed with an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier (ACFBG), the first with pelletized straw and the second with loose straw, to investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated benzenes (ClBzs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the bottom ash and fly ash formed during gasification. Only PAHs were present in large amounts, and only in the fly ash, ranging from 300 to 555 mg/kg ash in the tests with pelletized straw and from 73 to 118 mg/kg ash in those with loose straw. These amounts are so high that environmentally safe disposal or reuse of the ash would be difficult, so the development of a technique to handle the problem was included in the project. The method investigated was to burn the fly ash in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in order to destroy the PAHs. This worked surprisingly well, eliminating 99% of the PAHs, without any further formation of the other harmful organic compounds analyzed. Thus, this method could actually be useful in practice. Especially the fact that the formation of PCDD/Fs was minimal during gasification and further treatment of the ash in the CFB boiler makes the gasification technique highly competitive relative to conventional combustion methods.

  14. Study of the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs on zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Blanca; Lundin, Lisa; Aracil, Ignacio; Fullana, Andres

    2017-02-01

    Studies show that nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles enhance the formation of chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) during thermal processes. However, it is unclear whether nZVI acts as a catalyst for the formation of these compounds or contains impurities, such as PCDD/Fs, within its structure. We analyzed the presence of PCDD/Fs in nZVI particles synthesized through various production methods to elucidate this uncertainty. None of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners were found in the commercially-produced nZVI, but they were present in the laboratory-synthesized nZVI produced through the borohydride method, particularly in particles synthesized from iron (III) chloride rather than from iron sulfate. Total PCDD/F WHO-TEQ concentrations of up to 35 pg/g were observed in nZVI particles, with hepta- and octa-chlorinated congeners being the most abundant. The reagents used in the borohydride method were also analyzed, and our findings suggest that FeCl3 effectively contains PCDD/Fs at concentrations that could explain the concentrations observed in the nZVI product. Both FeCl3 and nZVI showed a similar PCDD/F patterns with slight differences. These results suggest that PCDD/Fs might transfer from FeCl3 to nZVI during the production method, and thus, care should be taken when employing certain nZVI for environmental remediation.

  15. PCDDs and PCDFs in food samples from Catalonia, Spain. An assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Schuhmacher, M; Granero, S; Llobet, J M

    1999-06-01

    Food samples from local markets and supermarkets of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed for PCDD/F concentrations. On lipid basis, PCDD/F levels in meat, fish, eggs, and fats and oils were similar or lower than those found in other countries. By contrast, in general terms PCDD/F levels in milk, vegetables, and cereals showed higher levels than those previously reported. The total dietary PCDD/F intake by the population of Tarragona was estimated to be 210 pg I-TEQ/day. This value is higher than the dietary intake of PCDD/Fs found in a number of surveys from other countries. However, when total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was calculated including only fish and seafood, meat, milk and dairy products, eggs, and fats and oils, a dietary intake of PCDD/Fs of 117 pg I-TEQ/day was obtained. This intake is in the same range than that reported for different regions and countries. The results of the present study show that food groups such as vegetables, fruits, and cereals should not be excluded to estimate the total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs by general populations, especially in those countries and/or regions in which their consumptions are notable.

  16. Separation of extracts from biological tissues into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran fractions prior to analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, P W; Miller, J; Smith, R; Connor, S; Clayton, W; Storm, R

    1997-05-30

    A low-pressure liquid chromatography method is presented for separating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from biological tissue extracts. After removing lipid from extracts, the PAHs are separated from PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs on a deactivated 13-24 microns silica gel column. The PCBs are subsequently separated from PCDDs/PCDFs by collecting the first fraction from an automated three column cleanup procedure for PCDDs/PCDFs. The complete method has been used to obtain high recoveries of the three compound classes for analysis by GC-electron capture detection (PCBs) or GC-MS (PAHs and PCDDs/PCDFs).

  17. Annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, M; Agramunt, M C; Bocio, A; Domingo, J L; de Kok, H A M

    2003-07-01

    In May 2000, the levels of a number of metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected near a cement plant from Sta. Margarida i els Monjos (Catalonia, Spain). To determine the temporal variation in the concentrations of metals and PCDD/PCDFs, in May 2001 soil and herbage samples were again collected at the same sampling points and analyzed for the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs. In general terms, metal concentrations in soils did not change between May 2000 and May 2001, while significant decreases in the levels of Cr, Ni and V were found in herbage. On the other hand, no significant differences in the mean I-TEQ values of PCDD/PCDFs were found in soil and herbage samples. The results of this survey show that according to the annual variation in the levels of metals and PCDD/PCDFs the environmental impact of the cement plant on the area under its direct influence is not relevant.

  18. Assessment of risk of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in marine and freshwater fish in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Leung, K S; Wong, M H; Giesy, J; Cai, Z W; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is known to be beneficial to human health. However since the age of industrialization, the released/disposed chemical pollutants into water systems make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. In oceanic cities with heavy industrial activities, fish products contribute the greatest proportion of exposure to pollutants. In this study, risks and potential effects of dioxins to health of coastal populations in the Pearl River Delta were assessed. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in common fish species purchased at local markets. Concentrations of total dioxins in fish ranged from 0.481 to 9.05 pg TEQ/g wet weight were similar to the lesser concentrations reported for fish from other countries. The greatest concentrations of dioxins were measured in mandarin fish, a carnivorous freshwater fish. Exposure of murine primary leydig and ovarian cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) reduced the synthesis of progesterone, testosterone and/or estrogen. The reductions were probably via inhibitory effects on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). Based on these reproductive parameters, the concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like residues represent a moderate health risk due to consumption of fish.

  19. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  20. Origin of PCDDs in ball clay assessed with compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Henry; Gadomski, Damien; Mandalakis, Manolis; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) of high concentrations in a ball clay deposit from the Mississippi Embayment were found to be consistent with a natural abiotic and non-pyrogenic origin by investigation with bulk radiocarbon analysis, compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-delta37Cl) of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and black carbon (BC) analysis. The conventional radiocarbon date of total organic carbon from a depth of approximately 10 m in three parallel cores ranged from 14 700 years to >48 000 years, indicating that the strata with elevated levels of PCDDs have remained isolated from recent anthropogenic input in these >40 Ma old clay sediments. The CSIA-delta37Cl of OCDD yielded a delta37Cl of -0.2 per thousandth, which is significantly higher than the postulated range for biotic chlorination by chloroperoxidase enzymes, -11 to -10 per thousandth, and falls within the known range for abiotic organochlorines, -6 to +3 per thousandth. The absence of correlations between concentrations of PCDDs and corresponding pyrogenic black carbon (BC), together with estimations of BC sorptive loadings and the absence of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), suggest that vegetation fires did not form these ball-clay PCDDs. Results from this study indicate that the high levels of the toxic and carcinogenic PCDDs found in kaolinite-bearing clays may result from natural abiotic formation via in situ surface-promoted reactions on the clay mineral, including a so-far unknown organic precursor, rather than being the result of anthropogenic contamination.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meeting the European Commission performance criteria for the use of triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS as a confirmatory method for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Ábalos, Manuela; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Silcock, Paul; Roberts, Dominic; Pemberthy, Diana M; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban

    2016-05-01

    Until recently, European Union (EU) legislation required the use of high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) based on magnetic sector analyzers as a standard approach for confirmatory analysis of dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in feed and food. However, recent technological advances in MS instruments enabled other alternative analytical techniques to meet the same analytical criteria as those requested for HRGC-HRMS. In this sense, triple quadrupoles (GC-MS/MS) can be a realistic alternative for the analysis of dioxins. In this work, the performance of GC-MS/MS technology was evaluated against the criteria demanded by the EU for confirmatory analysis of dioxins and PCBs in food and feed. Thus, the study comprises a number of parameters including chromatographic separation, limit of quantification, linearity, repeatability, and ion ratio precision. Analyses of solvent standards as well as sample extracts (inter-calibration extracts and certified reference materials) were also considered within the scope of this study. Additionally, direct comparisons of the results obtained by GC-MS/MS with those from GC-HRMS were made. The results of this work suggested that GC-MS/MS was highly sensitive and selective for confirmatory analysis of PCDD/Fs and related compounds in food and feed samples and meets all the criteria requested by the European Commission.

  4. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in feeding fats obtained as co-products or by-products derived from the food chain.

    PubMed

    Abalos, M; Parera, J; Abad, E; Rivera, J

    2008-04-01

    Among the tasks included in the "Quality and safety of feeding fats obtained from co-products or by-products of the food chain" Project, supported by the European Union and included in the 6th Framework Program, a number of fats and oils collected as co- or by-products from the food chain were selected for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 'dioxin-like' polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). In the majority of the cases these samples are currently employed as feed ingredients. Nevertheless, additional fats, which are forbidden for feedstuff purposes were also considered in this study. In general terms, fats and oils were classified taking into account their nature and the processes applied to obtain these co- or by-products. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were evaluated in a first group of samples composed of fish oils, animal fats and lecithins. As expected, fats and oils with an animal origin presented higher concentrations, expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g, compared to the levels found in vegetable samples like lecithins. The category of fish oils had the highest values for both PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, with some samples showing levels above the maximum established at the present legislation related to the presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in animal feed [Commission Directive 2006/13/EC of 3 February 2006 amending Annexes I and II to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed as regards dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Official Journal of the European Communities L32, 44-53]. In a second group, fats and oils with a more complex composition obtained from different transformation processes or even mixtures of fats were considered; thus, acid oils from chemical refining, acid oils from physical refining, recycled cooking oils, oils extracted from exhausted bleaching earths, hydrogenated by-products, fatty acids calcium soaps and

  5. Concentrations and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents of non-ortho coplanar PCBs in adipose fat of poles

    SciTech Connect

    Falandysz, J. ); Kannan, K.; Tanabe, S.; Tatsukawa, R. )

    1994-08-01

    The non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls, such as, 3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-T[sub 4]CB (IUPAC no. 77), 3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-P[sub 5]CB (IUPAC no. 126) and 3,3[prime]4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-H[sub 6]CB (IUPAC no. 169) are highly bioactive and toxicologically potent trace constituents in technical PCB formulations. These congener have been traced in a wide variety of environmental compartments including biota, food and human tissues. These non-ortho coplanar PCBs have been assigned a toxic equivalent factor (TEF) based on their toxicity relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) which is assigned a TEF of 1. The normalization based on the TCDD toxic equivalents has permitted a new perspective in assessing the inherent toxicity of these congeners and their likely biological impact. Since the AHH-active PCB congeners and PCDDs/PCDFs act through initial binding to the same receptor, an additive model is used to express toxicity of a mixture of these compounds. The concentrations of toxic equivalents are expressed when assessing risks associated with exposure and to identify those congeners that pose greater health risks. In our recent survey on organochlorine contamination in human adipose fat from Poland, total PCBs concentrations were found in the range of 0.75-1.9 [mu]g/g on a lipid wt basis in 1979 and 0.76-4.7 [mu]g/g in 1990. Further studies have also shown the presence of considerably high concentrations of PCBs up to 10 [mu]g/g in human adipose fat near Poland-Slovakia. These values suggested the ongoing contamination by PCBs in this region and highlighted the need for monitoring toxic PCB isomers in foodstuffs and in human tissues. The present paper provides a baseline data on the non-ortho coplanar PCB concentrations in human adipose tissue from Poland in 1979 and 1990. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  7. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  8. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIXON-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO QUANTITATIVELY WEIGHT THE UNDERLYING POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current approach for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dixoins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as "dioxin-like compoun...

  9. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIXON-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO QUANTITATIVELY WEIGHT THE UNDERLYING POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current approach for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dixoins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as "dioxin-like compoun...

  10. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 3. DEVEOPMENT OF WEIGHTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF REPS FOR PCB 126 AND 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, regulatory agencies utilize the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Th...

  11. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  12. Survey of persistent organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs), heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Hg), and arsenic in food samples from Huelva (Spain): levels and health implications.

    PubMed

    Bordajandi, Luisa R; Gómez, Gema; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Del Mar Fernández-Bastón, María; Blasco, Julián; González, María José

    2004-02-25

    Concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs, heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, and Hg), and arsenic have been determined in a great variety of food samples purchased in different markets across the city of Huelva, located in southwestern Spain and under strong industrial activity. All samples analyzed presented concentrations below the maximum allowed by the European Community regarding PCDD/Fs, with the exception of samples within the meat group. An estimation of the daily intake resulted in 1.15 pg of WHO(PCDD/Fs)-TEQ/kg of body weight/day for a 70 kg person and 2.63 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of body weight/day when PCBs were included, therefore accounting for a similar or even higher percentage than PCDD/Fs and showing the importance of their inclusion in monitoring studies. Meat and meat products, together with vegetable oils and dairy products, were the major food groups contributing to the estimated daily intake. For heavy metals and arsenic, the concentrations found were under the value proposed by European regulations, and estimated daily intakes were well below those proposed by the WHO for all metals investigated. PAHs have been analyzed in food samples from marine origin, values ranging from 8.22 to 71.4 ng/g of fresh weight. Pyrene was the most abundant compound, accounting for >80% in the samples investigated. The most carcinogenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, were in all cases below the limits of detection. Therefore, the samples analyzed in this survey can be considered as safe with regard to the levels obtained and the in-force legislation.

  13. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  14. Serum profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs, in individuals near the Escambia Wood Treating Company Superfund site in Pensacola, FL.

    PubMed

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Rao, K Ranga; Lanza, John J; Davis, Deeya A; Wilson, Patricia A

    2007-10-01

    The Escambia Wood Treating Company (ETC) Superfund site, Pensacola, FL, is contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), benzo(a)pyrene, lead and arsenic from pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, and other compounds used to treat utility poles and foundation pilings. Although ETC's operations ceased in 1982, soils in the areas surrounding the facility continue to exhibit elevated levels of contaminants attributable to ETC operations. In July 2000, individuals who may have been affected by contamination from the ETC site, including current and former residents and former workers and their household members were invited to participate in a study, which included a health and exposure history and routine blood analysis. We also conducted a toxicological health evaluation of a subset of these eligible workers/residents by analyzing serum levels of 17 PCDD/F congeners. Members of the ETC cohort exhibited elevated serum PCDD/F relative to the general population, and congener profiles in members of the cohort reflected patterns commonly observed in persons exposed to PCP. Hypertension prevalence in the cohort was found to correlate with PCDD/F levels, although no other significant relationships were identified with monitored health indices.

  15. PCBs in various Schools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  16. PCBs in various Schools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  17. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food--comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency.

    PubMed

    Gies, Andreas; Neumeier, Günther; Rappolder, Marianne; Konietzka, Rainer

    2007-04-01

    Human health risk assessments for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (with the exception of the one by US-EPA) recommend health based exposure limits within the range of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw per day. As all humans are exposed to measurable levels of dioxins and related substances, the determination of the tolerated daily intake is a very significant decision and may influence limit values guiding risk reduction measures and target levels. The proposed TDI has to protect all human subpopulations. In the case of dioxin this is particularly important as the exposure of infants through breast-feeding may exceed the exposure of adults by one or two orders of magnitude. An overview of recently recommended limit values (WHO, SCF, JECFA) for PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs using WHO-TEFs shows the common feature that the values were derived only from non carcinogenic endpoints. In November 2000 the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission published an 'Opinion of the SCF on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food' [SCF, Scientific Committee on Food 2000. Opinion of the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. European Commission, Brussels, Adopted on November 2000 http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out78_en.pdf]. On the basis of this extensive review of data and experimental results the Committee recommended a temporary tolerable weekly intake (t-TWI) of 7 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw. Only six months later the SCF carried out a re-evaluation of its t-TWI from November 2000. The reconsideration of 'pivotal studies' led to the situation that the re-assessment is now based only on rat studies which investigated only reproductive effects only on male offspring and, in addition, three of these studies are single dose studies at gestational day 15. Applying an overall uncertainty factor of 10 to the LOAEL derived estimated human daily intakes (EHDI) the SCF concluded that 14 pg/kg bw per week should be considered as a

  18. Assessment of seasonality in exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs by using long-term food-consumption data.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, M; Soler, L; Contenot, S; Verger, P

    2011-04-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance related to uncertainties in dietary exposure assessment, exposure assessment based on short-term food-consumption surveys, such as 24-h recalls or 2-day records, tend to overestimate long-term exposure because of the assumption that the dietary pattern will be similar day after day over a lifetime. The aim of this study was to make an assessment of dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), also called 'dioxins' and 'dioxin-like PCBs', using long-term household purchase and consumption survey data collected by TNS-Secodip. Weekly purchases of the major dioxins and dl-PCB vector products of these contaminants were collected for 328 single-person households, who participated at TNS-Secodip consumption surveys from 2003 to 2005 and who were single-person households in order to estimate better their consumption. These data were combined with average contamination levels of food products. Weekly gross average exposure was estimated at 10.2 pg toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) kg(-1) bw week(-1) (95% confidence interval [9.6, 10.9]). According to the typical shape of the distribution of individual weekly exposures, it is sensible to fit an exponential law to these data. The mean was therefore 12.1 pg WHO TEQ kg(-1) bw week(-1). This value is higher than the arithmetic mean because it better takes into account inter-individual variability. It was estimated that about 20% of persons in this sample were exceeding the current health-based guidance value mainly due to high consumption of seafood and/or dairy products. Thanks to long survey duration (3 years) and the weekly recording of food consumption, it was possible to demonstrate the actual seasonality of dietary exposure to dioxins and dl-PCBs with a maximum between March and September; similar seasonality is observable for fish consumption. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were

  19. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

  20. PCDDs in the water/sediment-seagrass-dugong (Dugong dugon) food chain on the Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

    PubMed

    McLachlan, M S; Haynes, D; Müller, J F

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were measured in sediment and seagrass from five locations in or adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. A full spectrum of Cl5-8DDs were present in all samples and, in particular, elevated levels of Cl8DD were found. PCDFs could not be quantified in any samples. The PCDD concentrations ranged over two orders of magnitude between sites, and there was a good correlation between sediment and seagrass levels. There were large quantities of sediment present on the seagrass (20-62% on a dry wt. basis), and it was concluded that this was a primary source of the PCDDs in the seagrass samples. The PCDD levels in the seagrass samples were compared with the levels in the tissue of three dugongs stranded in the same region. The relative accumulation of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD congeners in the dugongs decreased by over two orders of magnitude with increasing degree of chlorination. This was attributed to the reduced absorption of the higher chlorinated congeners in the digestive tract, a behaviour that has been observed in other mammals such as domestic cows.

  1. Large-scale fires and time trends of PCDDS/DFs in sediments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, S; Deguchi, S; Takatsuki, H; Uchibo, A

    2001-01-01

    Drastic increases in PCDDs/DFs concentrations were identified in the uppermost layers of a sediment core sample taken from the coastal area of Kobe City. As large-scale fires caused by the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake were deemed to be a possible cause, we performed additional sampling of sediment cores and surface sediment samples, estimating the total amount of PCDDs/DFs released from fires and presuming the load to sediments by individual transport routes, such as air and water, using an air diffusion model to investigate the influence of fires. The total amount of PCDDs/DFs released from fires was estimated at 2000 g-total PCDDs/DFs, 22 g-TEQ. Increases in PCDDs/DFs generated in fires were principally transported through water rather than air. If 20% of the total PCDDs/DFs formed in fires had entered water, it would correspond to the entire increase of PCDDs/DFs concentration in sediment cores.

  2. Is hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 expression predictive of hepatic burdens of dioxins, furans, and PCBs in Atlantic tomcod from the Hudson River estuary?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z; Wirgin, M; Courtenay, S; Ikonomou, M; Wirgin, I

    2001-10-01

    Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) expression in fishes is frequently used to evaluate bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contamination of aquatic ecosystems. In controlled laboratory experiments, CYP1A1 expression in naïve fishes is usually dose-responsive to aromatic hydrocarbons and in field studies levels of gene expression in natural populations often correspond with known levels of sediment-borne contaminants. We quantified CYP1A1 mRNA levels in juvenile Atlantic tomcod Microgadus tomcod from 42 sites in the Hudson River estuary to evaluate the correspondence between hepatic CYP1A1 expression and hepatic concentrations of persistent halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and to determine the utility of CYP1A1 expression as a biomarker in evaluating the microgeographic distribution of bioavailable contaminants within a large aquatic ecosystem. We found significant spatial heterogeneity in CYP1A1 mRNA levels among collection sites with levels of gene expression differing in some cases by 23-34 folds. CYP1A1 mRNA expression was highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex and lowest in tomcod from the most upriver collection sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. Although levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs expressed as TCDD TEQs and CYP1A1 mRNA were highest in tomcod from the Newark Bay complex, there was no relationship between hepatic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon levels and hepatic CYP1A1 mRNA in tomcod from sites in the main stem of the Hudson River. These results suggest that levels of CYP1A1 expression in fish from sites highly polluted with mixtures of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and other xenobiotics may not always be reflective of levels of bioavailable aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants. Based on these results and earlier controlled laboratory experiments, we hypothesize that elevated levels of CYP1A1 expression in tomcod from the Hudson River may be due primarily to PAHs or other contaminants not measured in this study.

  3. PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs in European catfish from a northern Italian lake: the contribution of an alien species to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Nespoli, R; Scanzio, T; Abete, M C

    2016-03-01

    PCDDs/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Humans are mainly exposed to these pollutants through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products; the consumption of fatty fish such as European catfish can contribute considerably to the intake of dioxins and PCBs. Samples of fish muscle of the top-of-the-food-chain predator Silurus glanis from the northern Italian Lake Varese were analyzed to detect the levels of 17 PCDD/F and 18 PCB congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.310pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) for Σ PCDD/Fs, 0.031 to 21.000pgg(-1) w. w. for Σ DL-PCBs, and 0.397 to 117.910ngg(-1) w. w. for Σ NDL-PCBs. One sample exceeded the maximum levels of 6.5pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs set by European regulations for fish (1259/2011 EU), while other samples exceeded the action levels of 0.75pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs, and 2pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of DL-PCBs (277/2012 EU). Consuming contaminated catfish may pose a risk for human health, especially for the subpopulation traditionally accustomed to eating this fish, as well as sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant women.

  4. Phasing out PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been shown to be environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative. Few, if any, data have been able to link them directly to serious human health effects. Some scientists believe that the problem arises when PCBs are heated in the presence of oxygen, therby enhancing toxicant formation. PCBs are used in transformers and capacitors by utilities. This has led to EPA regulations of retrofilling and replacement of these transformers and capacitors near human and animal food. The disposal of PCB-contaminated material is presented. Microbes are discussed in relation to contaminated soils of sludges which cannot be cleaned chemically.

  5. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  6. Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Stewart, Kathryn; Rantakokko, Panu; Bignert, Anders; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Qiu, Yanling; Ma, Zhijun; Bergman, Åke

    2017-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g(-1) lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  8. Biota--sediment accumulation factors for polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in southern Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

    2004-10-15

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, by use of the 13C isotopic dilution technique, in lake trout and surficial (0-2 cm) sediment samples from southern Lake Michigan. BSAFs ranged from <0.1 to 18 for PCBs and from <0.001 to 0.32 for PCDDs and PCDFs detected in the fish. PCBs with zero or one chlorine in an ortho position had smaller BSAFs than other PCBs. PCDDs and PCDFs with chlorines at the 2,3,7,8-positions had larger BSAFs than most other PCDDs and PCDFs. The fidelity of the relative bioaccumulation potential data between independent lake trout samples, within and among age classes, suggests that differences in slight rates of net metabolism in the food chain are important and contribute to the apparent differences in BSAFs, not only for PCDDs and PCDFs but also possibly for some PCBs. A complicating factor for non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs is the uncertain contribution of enhanced affinity for black carbon (and possibly volatility) acting in concert with metabolism to reduce measured BSAFs for lake trout. On the basis of the association between chemicals with apparent slight rates of metabolism and measured dioxin-like toxicity, several PCDFs with similar measured BSAFs but unknown toxicity may be candidates for toxicity testing.

  9. Solubility enhancement of dioxins and PCBs by surfactant monomers and micelles quantified with polymer depletion techniques.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Veronika J; Grant, Sharon C; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of super-hydrophobic organic contaminants (SHOCs) to dissolved or colloidal materials such as surfactants can alter their behaviour by enhancing apparent aqueous solubility. Relevant partition constants are, however, challenging to quantify with reasonable accuracy. Partition constants to colloidal surfactants can be measured by introducing a polymer (PDMS) as third phase with known PDMS-water partition constant in combination with the mass balance approach. We quantified partition constants of PCBs and PCDDs (log KOW 5.8-8.3) between water and sodium dodecyl sulphate monomers (KMO) and micelles (KMI). A refined, recently introduced swelling-based polymer loading technique allowed highly precise (4.5-10% RSD) and fast (<24 h) loading of SHOCs into PDMS, and due to the miniaturisation of batch systems equilibrium was reached in <5 days for KMI and <3 weeks for KMO. SHOC losses to experimental surfaces were substantial (8-26%) in monomer solutions, but had a low impact on KMO (0.10-0.16 log units). Log KMO for PCDDs (4.0-5.2) were approximately 2.6 log units lower than respective log KMI, which ranged from 5.2 to 7.0 for PCDDs and 6.6-7.5 for PCBs. The linear relationship between log KMI and log KOW was consistent with more polar and moderately hydrophobic compounds. Apparent solubility increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was highest in micelle solutions. However, this solubility enhancement was also considerable in monomer solutions, up to 200 times for OCDD. Given the pervasive presence of surfactant monomers in typical field scenarios, these data suggest that low surfactant concentrations may be effective long-term facilitators for subsurface transport of SHOCs.

  10. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  11. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  12. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  13. PCBs and the Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    Cappon, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    Pcbs are widespread environmental contaminants present in virtually every mammal on earth. Great controversy and debate has been evoked over the past two decades concerning their potential toxicity. They, along with other organochlorine compounds such as DDT, have been reasonably well studied in field and experimental situations. In general, PCBs are not very toxic, especially in concentrations to which most people are exposed, even those who work in the industrial setting or who eat contaminated fish. In terms of environmental hazards to health, PCBs should be considered as relatively low on the list. The public cannot depend on media information as a source of objective knowledge on controversial compounds like PCBs. The family physician should be able to provide to concerned individuals objective information on the definition, sources and relative toxicity of PCBs. PMID:21267326

  14. Evaluation of temporal trends of chemically and biologically generated TEQs in Lake Ontario lake trout, 1977--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huestis, S.Y.; Servos, M.R.; Whittle, D.M.; Heuve, M. van den; Dixon, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    Levels of non, mono, and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 4 year old lake trout (Salvelinus namycush) from the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, collected from 1977 to 1993, were determined. PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho substituted PCBs were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (GC)/high resolution mass spectrometry (MS); other PCB congeners were analyzed by GC/mass selective detector (MSD). Results confirm that overall levels of contaminants have decreased steadily since 1977, and that the non-ortho (coplanar) PCBs do not appear to be increasing in proportion to other PCBs. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) were calculated using TEFs from both mammalian and teleost studies, and used to compare the relative contribution of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs to the total toxic equivalency (TEQ). From 1977 to 1993, using mammalian TEQS, between 60 and 65% of the total TEQs were due to the mono-ortho substituted PCBs; 20--25% to non-ortho PCBs; and less than 10% to 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDO and PCDFs. TEQs determined from sample extracts by an H411E cell bioassay technique are weakly correlated to those determined by chemical analyses.

  15. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  17. BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

  18. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  20. Dioxin, furan, PCB, and PBDE levels in U.S. foods: Survey trends and consumer exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) have conducted statistical surveys for dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers every 5 years since the mid-1990s (mid-1990s, 2002-3, 2007-8). I...

  1. BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

  2. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TREATMENT OF PCBS, PCDDS/FS, AND METALS IN RIVER SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program selected the Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) treatment process for evaluation. The GFT was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy) as an ex situ remediation technolog...

  3. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TREATMENT OF PCBS, PCDDS/FS, AND METALS IN RIVER SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program selected the Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) treatment process for evaluation. The GFT was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy) as an ex situ remediation technolog...

  4. PCBs and the environment: Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Waid, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses: Differences Between Yusho and Other Kinds of Poisoning Involving Only PCBs. PCB Poisoning from Toxic Rice-Bran Oil. PCBs in Human Populations. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Workplace. Disposal and Destruction of Waste PCBs. Great Lakes Ecosystem Modeling of the Fate of PCBs. PCB in the Baltic Environment. Mediterranean Marine Ecosystem Case Study: The Australian Ecosystem.

  5. PCBs in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulated contaminants of great environmental concern. PCB is a tracer of wastewater, stormwater and CSOs inputs; PCBs contamination of fish is a main environmental concern for the Harlem River. PCBs in the Harlem River are from combined sewer overflows (CSOs), stormwater runoff, wastewater, as well as upper Hudson GE (General Electric at Fort Edward)'s release. PCBs affect human health mostly from contaminated fish consumption. Many research focused on PCBs in the Hudson River and New York/New Jersey Harbor. However, PCBs source, transport and environmental impact in the Harlem River-a natural straight that connects the Hudson River and the East River, had not been well studied. In this research, water sample were collected from the Harlem River and analyzed PCBs by HR GC/MS (High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer). Preliminary results showed that certain PCBs congeners in the water column. Results also indicated that nutrients (phosphorus and ammonia) as well as bacteria levels exceeded EPA standards: Total phosphorus-10μg/L, total nitrogen-0.38mg/L; E.Coli-126 MPN/100ml, Enterococcus- 104MPN/100ml, Fecal Coliform-200 MPN/100ml. This research is under process, and more results could give further detail in near future. This research will help improve water quality of the Harlem River, improve environmental health and raise environmental awareness.SO tank Nutrient and bacterial levels of selected sites in the Harlem RiverCSO: Combined Sewer OverflowWWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant

  6. EPA Slow in Controlling PCBs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-30

    SIANOARDS- 1963 A BY THE U.S. GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE SReport To The Administrator ~Environmental Protection Agency EPA Slow In Controlling PC;s In 1976 the...Congress required that the Envi- ronmental Protection Agency control the wide- ly used chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls D T IC (PCBs). Slow in...parties. Sincerely yours, Henry Eschwege Director I I " V . I GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE EPA SLOW IN CONTROLLING PCBs REPORT TO TME ADMINISTRATOR

  7. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  8. Persistent halogenated organic contaminants and mercury in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Butt, Craig M; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-12-01

    Northern fulmars from two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, Cape Vera and Prince Leopold Island, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and total mercury (Hg). Hepatic concentrations of organochlorines and Hg were highest in the male fulmars from Cape Vera. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentrations did not vary significantly between sexes or colonies. However, concentrations of the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) were higher in fulmars from Cape Vera than Prince Leopold Island. The C(11)-C(15) PFCAs averaged 90% of the PFCA profile at both colonies. Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs (NO-PCBs) were measured only in birds from Prince Leopold Island. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, NO-PCBs and Toxic Equivalents (TEQs) did not differ significantly between sexes. ΣTEQ was comprised mainly of ΣTEQ(PCDF). Concentrations of Hg and the persistent halogenated compounds reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for wild birds.

  9. Follow-up survey of dioxin concentrations in the blood of Yusho patients in 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao

    2005-05-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dizenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in blood collected from 279 Yusho patients and 92 Yusho-suspected persons living in Japan in 2002, 269 Yusho patients and 74 Yusho-suspected persons living in Japan in 2003 and 128 normal controls living in Fukuoka Prefecture, and compared with the concentrations of these compounds among the groups. The total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and Co-PCBs in the blood of Yusho patients were 3.6 times and 3.3 times higher than those in the normal controls in 2002 and 2003, respectively. In the case of Yusho-suspected persons, the concentrations were 1.1 times and 1.0 times higher in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Among the TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and Co-PCBs, the concentrations of PCDFs in the blood of Yusho patients were 10.3 times and 9.4 times higher than those of the normal controls in 2002 and 2003, respectively, whereas the concentrations of PCDDs and Co-PCBs in blood were identical in Yusho patients, Yusho-suspected persons and normal controls. Yusho patients indicated the highest concentrations ratio of PCDFs to the total TEQ concentrations. Moreover, of the PCDFs congeners for Yusho patients, the concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were about 11.0 times and 10.1 times higher in 2002 and 2003 than those in normal controls. These results indicated that Yusho patients have a much higher concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in their blood than do unaffected persons even though over 34 years have passed since the outbreak of Yusho.

  10. PCBs: Recent environmental and analytical advances

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 discrete chemical compounds, called congeners, in which one to ten chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl. This article reviews the properties, environmental occurrence, and analysis of PCBs. This review is intended to provide the environmental professional with a general background on PCBs.

  11. VARIABLES AFFECTING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uncontrolled burning of household waste in barrels has recently been implicated as a major source of airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Based on the need to generate a more accurate emission factor for burn ba...

  12. PARAMETERS INFLUENCING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results from tests that were designed to examine some of the factors influencing the emissions of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from burn barrels. Based on the wide variability of emissions within duplicate-run sets, in ...

  13. Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ratia, H; Oikari, A

    2014-03-01

    Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and naphthalenes in plasma of workers deployed at the World Trade Center after the collapse.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Jiang, Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Jansing, Robert; Aldous, Kenneth M; Mauer, Matthew P; Eadon, George A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-07-01

    Blood plasma samples (n = 43) collected retrospectively from New York State employees and National Guard personnel who had been assigned to work in the vicinity of the World Trade Center (WTC) during the week after the collapse of the buildings were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). On the basis of algorithms developed to rank individual exposures to dust and debris and to smoke, we categorized the samples as: more smoke exposure (MSE), more dust exposure (MDE), less smoke exposure (LSE), and less dust exposure (LDE). Mean concentrations of PCDDs were 1070, 223, 3690, and 732 pg/g lipid wt, and mean concentrations of PCDFs were 910, 1520, 230, and 117 pg/g lipid wt, for the MSE, MDE, LSE, and LDE groups, respectively. The concentrations of PCDFs were higher in the two "more exposure" groups than in the two "less exposure" groups. Calculated TEQ concentrations of coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in plasma samples were, on average, 1.12 and 41.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid wt, respectively. TEQ concentrations of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs in both "more exposure" groups but lower than those of PCDDs in "less exposure" groups. This result is suggestive of exposure of the WTC responders to PCDFs after the WTC collapse. PCDFs contributed the majority of TEQs and are therefore the critical dioxin-like compounds in MSE/MDE groups, whereas PCDDs are the critical compounds in the LSE/LDE groups.

  15. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered. PMID:19151430

  16. Dioxins, furans and PCBs in recycled water for indirect potable reuse.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  17. PCBs in Caulk and Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    were used in paints ►To enhance structural integrity ►Reduce flammability ►Increase antifungal properties  PCBs imparted heat resistance to the...closed Army ammunition plants has compromised and delayed the decontamination processes. BUILDING STRONG® Field Detection Technologies  Enzyme-linked...hours ► 100% within 48 hours The technology has been field demonstrated at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fl and Badger Army Ammunition Plant , WI. BUILDING

  18. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Buser, H R

    1985-01-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750 degrees C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3928352

  19. Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

  20. Rapid field-screening method for PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Gordon H.; Pal, A.; Eastwood, DeLyle; Lidberg, Russell L.

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) generally requires selectivity and sensitivity. Even after cleanup, PCBs are usually at ultratrace levels in field samples, mixed in with other halocarbons, hydrocarbons, lipids, etc. The levels of PCBs typically found in water, soil, tissue, food, biota, and other matrices of interest are in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Most current measurement techniques for PCBs require chromatographic separations and are not practical for routine analysis. There is a strong need to have rapid and simple techniques to screen for PCBs under field conditions. The use of field screening analysis allows rapid decisions in remedial actions and reduces the need for sample preparations and time- consuming laboratory analyses. Field screening techniques also reduce the cost of clean-up operations. This paper describes a simple screening technique based on room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and provides an overview of both this analytical procedure to detect trace levels of PCBs in environmental samples.

  1. Destruction kinetic of PCDDs/Fs in MSWI fly ash using microwave peroxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Min; Fang, Wen-Bin; Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Ching-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Microwave peroxide oxidation is a less greenhouse gas emission and energy-efficient technology to destroy toxic organic compounds in hazardous waste. The research novelty is to adopt the innovative microwave peroxide oxidation in H2SO4/HNO3 solution to efficiently destroy the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/Fs in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The major objective of this paper is to study dynamic destruction of PCDDs/Fs using the microwave peroxide oxidation. Almost all PCDDs/Fs in the raw fly ash can be destructed in 120 min at a temperature of 423 K using the microwave peroxide oxidation treatment. It was found that the microwave peroxide oxidation provides the potential to destruct the PCDDs/Fs content in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash to a low level as a function of treatment time. A useful kinetic correlation between destruction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in this study. The significance of this work in terms of practical engineering applications is that the necessary minimum treatment time can be solved using a proposed graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time is obtained if the desired destruction efficiency and treatment temperature are known. Because of inorganic salt dissolution, the temperature would be a critical factor facilitating the parts of fly ash dissolution. Material loss problem caused by the microwave peroxide oxidation and the effects of treatment time and temperature are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Gender-related decrease in raven`s progressive matrices scores in children prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.L.; Lai, T.J.; Chen, S.J.; Hsu, C.C.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and industrial mixtures that have been widely used throughout the world. PCBs have long environmental half lives and bioconcentrate, therefore contaminating soil, water, wild life, and human tissues. Typical human exposures come from environmental contamination of food supply, especially fresh water fish and meat, and occupational exposures. In certain uses, PCBs can partially oxidize and themselves become contaminated by extremely toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Two episodes of intoxication with heat-degraded PCBs have occurred, in Japan and Taiwan respectively. In 1979, over 2000 persons in Taiwan were intoxicated by heat-degraded PCBs that had contaminated their cooking oil. Kaneclor 500 (a Japanese PCB mixture) contained in the heating pipe was used as the heat transmitter. Leakage of the pipe introduced PCBs and heat-degraded products such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs) into the rice oil. Exposed victims developed chloracne, hyperpigmentation, peripheral neuropathy, and other signs and symptoms which were later called Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil disease{close_quotes}) in Taiwan. These symptoms were caused not only by PCBs but by their heat degraded products, PCDFs. PCBs, PCDFs and PCDDs also can cross the placenta to affect the fetus and cause significant neurodevelopmental toxicity. Raven`s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Standarized Progressive Matrices (SPM) test spatial rather than verbal capabilities in children. These test are useful for determining whether prenatal exposure to PCBs/PCDFs cause differential effects on boys and girls. This paper reports results of CPM and SPM from age six to nine year in Yu-Cheng children and their matched controls. Cognative deficits up to 9 years of age were detected n children with prenatal exposure to PCBs and PCDFs, and boys were more affected than girls. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. A General Model of Dioxin Contamination in Breast Milk: Results from a Study on 94 Women from the Caserta and Naples Areas in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rivezzi, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Prisco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Armando; Diletti, Gianfranco; Migliorati, Giacomo; Ceci, Roberta; Rivezzi, Giulia; Cirasino, Lorenzo; Carideo, Pietro; Black, Dennis M.; Garzillo, Carmine; Giani, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19–32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8–19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5–24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p < 0.01). Exposure to fires resulted in larger increases of dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A diffuse human exposure to persistent organic pollutants was observed in the Caserta and Naples areas. Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. PMID:24217180

  4. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA, reveal a combination of local and global polychlorinated biphenyl, dioxin, and furan signals.

    PubMed

    Ross, Peter S; Jeffries, Steven J; Yunker, Mark B; Addison, Richard F; Ikonomou, Michael G; Calambokidis, John C

    2004-01-01

    The harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) can serve as a useful indicator of food web contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because of its high trophic level, wide distribution in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere, and relative ease of capture. In 1996 through 1997, we live-captured 60 harbor seal pups from three regions, spanning remote (Queen Charlotte Strait, BC, Canada), moderately industrialized (Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada), and heavily industrialized (Puget Sound, WA, USA) marine basins straddling the Canada-United States border. Biopsy samples of blubber were taken and analyzed for congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by using high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Harbor seals in Puget Sound were heavily contaminated with PCBs, whereas seals from the Strait of Georgia had relatively high concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs. Pattern evaluation and principal components analysis suggested that proximity to sources influenced the mixture to which seals were exposed, with those inhabiting more remote areas being exposed to lighter PCB congeners (those with lower Henry's law constant and K(ow)) that disperse more readily through atmospheric and other processes. Total toxic equivalents to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin for the PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs suggest that Puget Sound seals are at greatest risk for adverse health effects, and that PCBs represent the class of dioxinlike contaminants of greatest concern at all sites.

  5. Combined decontamination processes for wastes containing PCBs.

    PubMed

    Kastánek, Frantisek; Kastánek, Petr

    2005-01-31

    This project has focused on the development of a complex assembly of mutually corresponding technological units: a low temperature thermal process for the desorption of PCBs and other organics from soils and other contaminated solid wastes; the extraction of PCBs from soils by an ecological friendly aqueous solution of selected surfactants; the chemical decontamination of PCBs in oils and in-oil-in-water emulsions by metallic sodium and potassium in polyethylene glycols in the presence of aluminum powder; the modified alkaline catalyzed chemical decontamination of PCBs in oil-in-water dispersions in a solid-state reactor (in a film of reacting emulsion on solid carriers); and the breakdown of PCBs in aqueous emulsions with activated hydroxyl radicals enhanced by UV radiation. The processes operate in a closed loop configuration with effluents circulating among the process unit. These technologies have been verified at laboratory and pilot-plant scales.

  6. Suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens by activated carbon as feed additive.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryoji; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Tanimura, Nobuhiko

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) transfer from the feed to the eggs of laying hens by using activated carbon as a feed additive. Four groups of six hens (White Leghorn egg-layers; age, 11weeks) were housed as two control groups and two exposure groups for a period of 20weeks. Two control groups were fed with either the basal feed "Control" or basal feed additing activated carbon "Control+C". Another two exposure groups were fed with feed contaminated (about 6ng TEQ kg(-1) feed) by standard solutions of PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs "Exposure" alone and contaminated feed adding activated carbon "Exposure+C". There was no significant effect on each groups for the growth rate, biochemical blood components, and egg production: these were around the standard levels for poultry in general. Moreover the results in this study showed the availability of activated carbon as a feed additive owing to the reduction in the risk of food pollution by PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs. The concentration in the eggs of the Exposure group gradually increased following the start of egg-laying but reached a steady state after about 1month. In contrast, the concentration for the Exposure+C group was stationary and below the maximum EU level (6pgTEQg(-1)fat). In comparison to the Exposure group, the Exposure+C group showed a significant decline in the percentage of bioaccumulation into the egg. This reduction due to activated carbon was also observed in the muscle and abdominal fat. The reductions were compound- and congener-dependent for DL-PCBs as follows: PCDDs/PCDFs, non-ortho-PCBs, and mono-ortho-PCBs were more than 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively, irrespective of the type of tissues. Fat soluble vitamin concentrations in the eggs of the Exposure+C group showed lower trends than the Exposure group. The γ-tocopherol and

  7. Laboratory evaluation of PCBs encapsulation method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, a...

  8. Evaluation of planar halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments using ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction of H4IIE cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, R.W.; Long, E.R.; Schwartz, T.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fractionated sediment extracts from the Hudson-Raritan estuary and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA, as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. Contributions of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs, and PAHs to the total toxic equivalents (TEQs) were measured using an H4IIE bioassay and calculated from instrumentally determined concentrations using international toxic equivalency factors. The H4IIE TEQs of whole and fractionated extracts were compared to calculated TEQs to investigate the applicability of the bioassay approach for evaluating 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylease induction by PHHs and PAHs present together in complex mixtures. Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contributed from 41 to 79% of the calculated TEQs from PCDDs/PCDFs and planar PCBs in all sediments sampled, the PAH-containing fractions accounted for >80% of the total TEQs determined either instrumentally or by bioassay. Calculated TEQs from PAHs, based on reported toxic equivalency factors for only seven PAHs, were severalfold greater than the bioassay-derived TEQs of PAH-only fractions of the sediment extracts. Significant correlations were observed between bioassay and instrumentally determined toxic equivalents in the more purified fractions but not in fractions only purified by size-exclusion or argentate chromatographies alone.

  9. Serum levels of hydroxylated PCBs, PCBs and thyroid hormone measures of Japanese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Aya; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Takemori, Hiroaki; Takasuga, Takumi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa; Yoshinaga, Jun

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between serum concentrations of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and PCBs and measures of thyroid hormone status of Japanese pregnant women. The concentrations of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) as well as 16 OH-PCB isomers and 29 PCB isomers were analyzed in the serum of 129 women sampled in the first trimester of gestation. Dietary and lifestyle information of the subjects was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was performed using measures of thyroid hormones as the dependent variable and serum levels of OH-PCBs/PCBs, urinary iodine concentration, and other potential covariates (age, BMI, smoking, etc.) as independent variables. Geometric mean (GM) concentration of the sum of 16 isomers of OH-PCBs was 120 pg/g wet wt. and that of 29 isomers of PCBs was 68 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, in the serum of the subjects. Iodine nutrition was considered adequate to high from urinary iodine level (GM, 370 μg/g creatinine). The mean concentration of TSH, fT4 and TBG was 1.34 ± 1.37 μIU/mL, 1.22 ± 0.16 ng/dL and 33.0 ± 6.4 μg/mL, respectively, with a small number of subjects who were outside the reference range. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum concentrations of OH-PCBs/PCBs were not significantly associated with any of the measures of thyroid hormone status. Exposure/body burden of OH-PCBs and PCBs at environmental levels does not have a measurable effect on thyroid hormones.

  10. The use of ultrasound-assisted anaerobic compost tea washing to remove poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) from highly contaminated field soils.

    PubMed

    Hung, Weiteng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chitsan; Vu, Chi Thanh; Yotapukdee, Siwalee; Kaewlaoyoong, Acharee; Chen, Jenq-Renn; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2017-06-27

    The remediation of dioxin-contaminated soil of a specific coastal area previously employed for the manufacture of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in southern Taiwan's Tainan City has attracted much attention of researchers there. This work addresses the possibility of providing an effective and environmentally friendly option for removing PCDD/Fs from soil in that field. Soil screening/sieving was first conducted to assess particle distribution. Fine sand was observed to be the major component of the soil, accounting for more than 60% of the total mass. A combination of ultrasonification and mechanical double-blade agitation was used to facilitate the washing of the soil using the biosurfactant anaerobic compost tea. More than 85 and 95% of total removal efficiencies were achieved for moderately and highly contaminated soils after 6 and 10 washing cycles, respectively, under ambient temperature, a soil/liquid ratio 1:2.5, 700 rpm, and over a relatively short duration. These results were achieved through the collision and penetration effects of this combined treatment as well as PCDD/F partitioning between the particles and anaerobic compost tea. This study represents the first to report the use of anaerobic compost tea solvent to wash soil highly contaminated by dioxin. It was concluded that anaerobic compost tea, rich in non-toxic bio-surfactants (e.g., alcohols, humic acids), can be used to improve bioavailability and bioactivity of the soil making bio-attenuation and full remediation more efficient.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM FLAME SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDDs/Fs, occur in the combustion of a wide variety of fuels, and is related to poor combustion conditions. This study looks at the importance of flame soot, including associated adsorbed and condensed aeromati...

  12. GAS- AND SOLID-PHASE PARTITIONING OF PCDDS/FS ON MSWI FLY ASH AND THE EFFECTS OF SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), are partitioned as gas-phase and particle-bound products of many industrial combustion processes. This gas/particle partitioning of SOCs has severe implications on both ...

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been shown to occur from the combustion products of fuels as complex as municipal solid waste and as relatively simple as a methane flame. PCDD/F emissions from flame carbon in th...

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    PubMed

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site.

  15. PCBs and DDE in commercial fish feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Nicholson, L.W.; McCauley, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Three commercial fish feeds were analyzed for PCBs and p,p' DDE and were reported in dry weight concentrations. In various sizes of Oregon Moist Pellets, concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.30 I?g/g and those of p,p' DDE from less than 0.01 to 0.47 I?g/g. In Silver Cup, concentrations of PCBs were 0.06 to 0.07 I?g/g, and p,p' DDE, 0.01 to 0.06 I?g/g. Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) contained 0.14 I?g/g PCB and 0.03 I?g/g p,p' DDE.

  16. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  17. Organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, and PBDEs in grey mullets (Liza ramada) and allis shads (Alosa alosa) from the Vilaine estuary (France).

    PubMed

    Bocquené, Gilles; Abarnou, Alain

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the contamination levels of various organohalogenated compounds in two migratory fish species in the Vilaine River in western France. Organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs)), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in two diadromous species from the Vilaine estuary, the grey mullet (Liza ramada)-an amphihaline species, and the allis shad (Alosa alosa)-an anadromous species. Fish were collected in spring 2004 and spring 2005, upstream and downstream of the Arzal Dam. PCB contamination varied from 27 to 200 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.). PCDDs/Fs, expressed in toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ) varied from 0.4 to 2.8 pg g(-1) d.w. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs expressed in total TEQ varied from 1.4 to 18.8 pg g(-1) d.w. PBDE47 was present at around 2-10 ng g(-1) d.w. and concentrations of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenylchloroethylene varied from 1 to 14 ng g(-1) d.w. For both species, specimens collected upstream were more contaminated. The grey mullet specimens were less contaminated than the allis shad when taken downstream of the dam but were more contaminated upstream. The allis shads presented intermediate contaminant concentrations with a less pronounced difference between upstream and downstream specimens. However, it is thought that shads do not feed when they spawn in the upstream parts of rivers, which should modify the contaminant concentrations. However, measurements in upstream shad samples show an unexpected increase of the contamination, which remains unexplained.

  18. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  19. A CASE STUDY OF CANCER DATA SET COMBINATIONS FOR PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of several animal bioassays have demonstrated the carcinogenic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures. Although PCBs are no longer manufactured, cancer risk assessment for PCBs remains an important issue because of continued potential human exposure from man...

  20. A CASE STUDY OF CANCER DATA SET COMBINATIONS FOR PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of several animal bioassays have demonstrated the carcinogenic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures. Although PCBs are no longer manufactured, cancer risk assessment for PCBs remains an important issue because of continued potential human exposure from man...

  1. PCBs and OH-PCBs in Serum from Children and Mothers in Urban and Rural U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Thorne, Peter S.; Wang, Kai; DeWall, Jeanne; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    East Chicago, Indiana is a heavily-industrialized community bisected by the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, which volatilizes ~7.5 kg/yr polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In contrast, the rural Columbus Junction, Iowa area has no known current or past PCB industrial sources. Blood from children and their mothers from these communities were collected April 2008-January 2009 (n=177). Sera were analyzed for all 209 PCBs and 4 hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). Sum PCBs ranged from non-detect to 658 ng/g lw (median = 33.5 ng/g lw). Sum OH-PCBs ranged from non-detect to 1.2 ng/g fw (median = 0.07 ng/g fw). These concentrations are similar to those reported in other populations without high dietary PCB intake. Differences between the two communities were subtle. PCBs were detected in more East Chicago mothers and children than Columbus Junction mothers and children, and children from East Chicago were enriched in lower-molecular weight PCBs. East Chicago and Columbus Junction residents had similar levels of total and individual PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood. Concentrations of parent PCBs correlated with concentrations of OH-PCBs. This is the first temporally- and methodologically-consistent study to evaluate all 209 PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people living in urban and rural areas of the United States. PMID:23452180

  2. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD. D E Burgin1, J J Diliberto2 and L S Birnbaum3.1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, ETD, RTP, NC, USA

    Environmental exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) always occur as part of a complex mixture. ...

  3. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD. D E Burgin1, J J Diliberto2 and L S Birnbaum3.1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, ETD, RTP, NC, USA

    Environmental exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) always occur as part of a complex mixture. ...

  4. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  5. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  6. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects.

  7. Evaluation of 2,3,7,8 specific congener and toxic potency of persistent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, B.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Jimenez, O.; Reich, S.; Eljarrat, E.; Rivera, J.

    2000-03-01

    The present study investigates individual 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in cetaceans and assesses the PCDD and PCDF contributions to the total TCDD equivalent concentration. Liver samples of a variety of cetaceans species found stranded along the Italian coasts during the period of 1987--1992 were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. The main aims were to scrutinize levels and patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs for the first time in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea and to estimate whether chlorinated compounds mentioned are implicated in the exceptionally high mortality of dolphins that occurred in the Mediterranean sea during 1990--1992. PCDD and PCDF profiles were dominated by congeners OCCD and OCDF. The new toxic equivalency factors recommended by WHO in 1997 were used for calculation of dioxin-like toxicity. On the basis of their previous study of PCBs, the overall TEQ calculated from the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs do not contribute as much dioxin-like toxicity as PCBs.

  8. Workshop on perinatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds. III. Endocrine effects

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    Studies involving endocrine effects in humans and experimental animals resulting from the exposure to dioxin-like (non-ortho-substituted PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFs) and nondioxin-like (PCBs, OC pesticides) compounds (DLCs and NDLCs) were presented. A variety of reproductive and hormonal parameters, including androgen status, sexual differentiation, and thyroid functionality, were discussed. As in utero and lactational exposure of the human fetus/neonate to these environmental contaminants is inevitable, continued research to identify sensitive biomarkers of effect and susceptibility as well as to define dose-response relationships is required. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Chronic effects of polychlorinated dibenzofurans on mink in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Beckett, Kerrie J; Bursian, Steve; Kay, Denise P; Holem, Ryan R; Moore, Jeremy N; Yamini, Behzad; Giesy, John P

    2009-04-01

    Mink are often used as a sentinel species in ecological risk assessments of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that cause toxicity mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor. Considerable toxicological information is available on the effects of PCBs and PCDDs on mink, but limited toxicological information is available for PCDFs. Thus, exposure concentrations at which adverse effects occur could not be determined reliably for complex mixtures in which PCDFs dominate the total calculated concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ). Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity of PCDFs to mink. The first was a chronic exposure, conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, in which mink were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) concentrations as great as 2.4 x 10(3) ng 2,3,7,8-TCDF/kg wet-weight (ww) diet or 2.4 x 10(2) ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww diet. In that study, transient decreases in body masses of kits relative to the controls was the only statistically significant effect observed. The second study was a 3-y field study during which indicators of individual health, including hematological and morphological parameters, were determined for mink exposed chronically to a mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs under field conditions. In the field study, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the measured parameters between mink exposed to a median estimated dietary dose of 31 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww and mink from an upstream reference area where they had a median dietary exposure of 0.68 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww. In both studies, concentrations of TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal) to which the mink were exposed exceeded those at which adverse effects, based on studies with PCDD and PCB congeners, would have been expected. Yet in both instances where PCDF congeners were the sole or predominant source of the TEQ

  10. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  12. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  13. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess plasma concentrations and predictors of halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a representative group of postmenopausal Norwegian women (n=311, mean age: 56 years). In addition to delivering a blood sample, the participants had also filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding their current health status, use of medication and dietary habits, etc. The association between a large number of dietary variables, lifestyle factors and plasma concentration of organic pollutants were investigated using multivariate statistics. Within the current study group, p,p'-DDE (median: 903 ng/L w.w.) and pentachlorophenol (PCP, median: 711 ng/L w.w.) were the dominating compounds on a wet weight basis and were present in considerable higher concentrations than the PCBs, the hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and the remaining chlorinated pesticides. Of the PCBs, PCB 153 was detected in highest concentrations, whereas 4-OH-PCB187 was present in highest concentration of the selected OH-PCBs. The ratio of ΣOH-PCB to ΣPCB varied between 0.06 and 0.77 ng/L and were significantly lower in individuals with higher ΣPCB concentration. PCP did not co-vary with the other contaminants, indicating a different route of exposure. No clear food cluster was positively associated with PCP exposure; however intake of marine food was negatively linked to PCP concentration and age and being a non-smoker were positive predictors of PCP. The other investigated contaminants co-varied and were positively associated with age, plasma concentrations of marine derived omega-3 fatty acids and a traditional Norwegian fish and bread based diet. The difference in contaminant concentration between high, medium and low consumers of total marine food were however marginal for the dominating PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. The current results indicate however that marine food in itself could be a source of some of

  14. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  15. Mechanisms of PCBS-Induced Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    breast (milk) enzymes to oxygenated species that are electrophilic and bind to DNA. Of particular interest were the quinone metabolites. Our data showed...NBT ASSAY The spontaneous or enzymatic oxidation of hydroquinone and catechol metabolites of PCBs is expected to result in the production of superoxide...the PCB- metabolite to a final concentration of 100 pM. The increase of absorption at 540 nm was followed for 10 minutes. To test superoxide production

  16. Chemical Detoxification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to the chemical detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls by converting them to non-hazardous substances. In...particular, the invention relates to chemically destroying polychlorinated biphenyls on site for decontamination purposes without creating pollution or...hazardous situations. The invention provides a two-step process where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. biphenyl having 2 to 10 chlorine atoms, are

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides, and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, Susan A.; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although environmental levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and certain organochlorine pesticides – hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolite, dichlorodiphenyl dicloroethene (DDE) – are generally on the decline, early-life exposures to these prevalent contaminants continue. This review will describe current understanding of the potential neurodevelopmental consequences of low-level exposures to these contaminants. Findings Animal models suggest that early-life exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE, or HCB are associated with decreased cognitive or behavioral function in later development. However, despite almost 30 years of research, results of human studies are inconsistent regarding the nature of the observed effects and their persistence over time. Overall, epidemiologic studies support modest associations of primarily prenatal PCB exposures with differences in neuromotor development, decrements in cognition, and behavioral deficits, particularly regarding attention and impulse control. There are limited published human data regarding potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of early-life exposures to DDT/DDE and HCB. Summary Exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE and HCB are likely detrimental to neurodevelopment. Effective control of exposure is complicated by variable exposure sources and variable contaminant levels in food, particularly fish, for which it is important to balance the risk of contaminants with nutritional benefits. PMID:18332718

  18. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  19. Dioxin-like compounds in pine needles around Tokyo Bay, Japan in 1999.

    PubMed

    Hanari, Nobuyasu; Horii, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Falandysz, Jerzy; Bochentin, Ilona; Orlikowska, Anna; Puzyn, Tomasz; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2004-04-01

    Pine needle samples collected at ten spatially distant sites around Tokyo Bay in 1999 indicated a widespread lower troposphere pollution with ultra-trace dioxin-like compounds such as chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), non-ortho- and mono-ortho-chlorobiphenyls (pPCBs), and -naphthalenes (PCNs). Elevated concentration of planar PCBs and the total PCNs were found at the sites which are located innermost to the Bay, suggesting the regional importance of the evaporative nature of the source of pollution by those compounds over this vast area. The concentrations and profiles for PCDDs and PCDFs remained largely uniform. An exception was the site near the town of Tateyama in the Chiba Prefecture, which is the southernmost but also relatively separate from the inner Bay. The site near Tateyama showed somehow background contamination with all compound groups and highly different profiles of PCNs. The principal component analysis (PCA) of the data matrix has revealed that around the Tokyo Bay, apart from the evaporative emission sources for PCNs and PCBs, combustion related processes also play an important role as sources of the ambient air contamination not only with PCDDs/Fs but also with chloronaphthalenes and planar chlorobiphenyls.

  20. Dietary exposure to PCDD/PCDFs by individuals living near a hazardous waste incinerator in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2008-02-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in July 2006 in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), which are near a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI). A total of 35 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, pulses, cereals, fruits, fish and seafood, meat and meat products, eggs, milk, dairy products, and oils and fats) were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The dietary intake of PCDD/PCDFs was subsequently determined and compared with a previous survey performed in 2002. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/PCDFs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 27.81 pg WHO-TEQ/day, value notably lower than that found in the 2002 study, 63.80 pg WHO-TEQ/day. Fish and seafood (28%), oils and fats (22%), eggs (17%), and dairy products (11%) were the most important contributors to this intake, while pulses (1%), milk (2%), vegetables (3%) and fruits (3%) showed the lowest contribution to total WHO-TEQ. The current PCDD/PCDF intake is also considerably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the population of the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day, when a baseline study was carried out during the construction of the HWI. The present intake is also compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/PCDFs recently (2006-2007) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  1. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  2. On the contribution of biomass burning to POPs (PAHs and PCDDs) in air in Africa.

    PubMed

    Lammel, G; Heil, A; Stemmler, I; Dvorská, A; Klánová, J

    2013-10-15

    Forest, savannah, and agricultural fires in the tropics and subtropics are sources for widespread pollution and release many organic substances into the air and soil, including persistent organic pollutants, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The significance of this source for the exposure of humans and the environment in Africa toward phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is studied using daily global emissions from vegetation fires observed by satellite and a global multicompartment chemistry-transport model. Near-ground atmospheric concentrations of model-predicted vegetation fire related concentrations of PAHs and PCDDs were in the 10-1000 and 10(-5)-10(-3) pg m(-3) ranges, respectively. Vegetation fires in Africa are found to emit 180 ± 25 kg yr(-1) of PCDD/Fs. By comparison with observations, it is found that fires explain 1-10% of the PCDD (5% of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) concentrations in the rural and background atmosphere of sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of vegetation fires to exposure to PAH is probably >10%, but cannot be quantified due to lack of knowledge with regard to both emission factors and photochemistry. A sensitivity analysis suggests that the heterogeneous reaction of PAHs with ozone is effectively limiting atmospheric lifetime and long-range transport.

  3. Diagrams Showing Actions for Reducing Exposures to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Indoor Building Environments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This diagram compliments the document, PCBs in Building Materials: Q's & A's, on how exposure to PCBs can be assessed and reduced in school buildings. It describes actions for reducing exposures to PCBs in indoor school building environments.

  4. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...

  5. Laboratory evaluation of PCBs encapsulation method ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  6. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  7. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G.; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents’ blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breast-feeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  8. Histologic changes in thyroid glands from great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Tokyo Bay, Japan: possible association with environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Saita, E; Hayama, S; Kajigaya, H; Yoneda, K; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    2004-10-01

    We compared morphologic changes in thyroid glands of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from the Tokyo Bay and Lake Biwa areas in Japan with presence of residues of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs). Prominent morphologic changes in thyroid glands included increased density of small follicles and increased number of epithelial cells surrounding follicular lumens. The extent of morphologic changes in the thyroid gland was higher in cormorants captured from Tokyo Bay than in those captured from Lake Biwa. Increased thyroid change in cormorants from the Tokyo Bay area was associated with significantly higher levels of PCDFs and Co-PCBs. Thus, we suggest that morphologic changes in thyroid glands from the cormorants are associated with increased levels of dioxin contamination in Japan.

  9. Uptake and bioaccumulation of three PCBs by Chlorella fusca

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Rott, B.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the bioaccumulation of three PCBs (2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,6,2'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,4,6,2',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) by the green alga Chlorella fusca under various conditions. A probable pattern of the bioconcentration mechanism is suggested. No metabolites were extracted from algae or water 6 days after incubation with PCBs.

  10. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  11. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  12. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  13. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  14. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  15. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in a Wild North American Felid.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Esmarie; Nielsen, Clayton K

    2017-01-01

    Organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are of global concern due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulative potential, and adverse effects on humans and wildlife. We investigated the concentrations of PCBs in the liver tissues of bobcats (Lynx rufus) sampled in Illinois during 2013. Concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 76.4 to 3782 ng/g lw (median 562.97 ng/g lw). Male bobcats had significantly greater concentrations of PCBs than females (p = 0.04). Ours is one of the first studies to report PCBs in a wild North American felid. We suggest that bobcats can be used as a suitable bioindicator species to monitor organohalogen contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.

  17. Evaluation of temporal and age-related trends of chemically and biologically generated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in Lake Ontario lake trout, 1977 to 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huestis, S.Y.; Servos, M.R.; Whittle, D.M.; Heuvel, M. van den; Dixon, D.G.

    1997-02-01

    Levels of selected non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in 4-year-old lake trout from the eastern basin of Lake Ontario, collected from 1977 to 1993. Results confirm that overall levels of contaminants have decreased steadily in lake trout since 1977, and that coplanar PCB levels do not appear to be increasing over time in relation to levels of other PCBs. Contaminant levels in lake trout from 3 to 9 years old, collected in 1988 from the western end of Lake Ontario, show the body burden of contaminants increases with age. Relative levels of coplanar PCBs to other PCBs for the age study samples showed no change, except for PCB 77, which exhibited a slight decrease in relation to total PCB levels. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) were calculated from fish contaminant concentrations measured for the time study using toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) from both mammalian and teleost studies. The relative contributions of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs to total TEQs were examined. When TEFs used for risk assessment are applied to temporal trend data, 15 to 20% of the total TEQs were due to mono-ortho-substituted PCBs; 40 to 50% to non-ortho coplanar PCBs; and 20 to 30% to 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDFs. The TEQs determined from lake trout extracts by an H4IIE cell bioassay technique are compared to those determined by chemical analyses, using a variety of TEFs.

  18. Sex differences in the accumulation of chlorinated dioxins in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo): implication of hepatic sequestration in the maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Yoneda, Kumiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on gender-specific accumulation features of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in common (great) cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Lake Biwa, Japan. Male cormorants showed a tendency to have higher levels of PCDD/DFs and DL-PCBs than did females. For PCDDs, the male-to-female concentration ratio (M/F ratio) for each congener significantly decreased with the liver-to-muscle concentration ratio (Li/Mu ratio). For PCDFs, there also was a weak negative relationship between Li/Mu ratio and M/F ratio. In contrast, for DL-PCBs, M/F ratios showed no correlation with Li/Mu ratios, but increased with an increase in lipophilicity. These results, together with observations from prior studies, suggest that congener-specific hepatic sequestration may be a factor limiting the maternal transfer of PCDDs and, to a lesser extent, PCDFs. Maternal transfer of DL-PCBs seems to favor more lipophilic congeners in the cormorants.

  19. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in cow's milk collected in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Cavallo, S; Serpe, F P; D'Ambrosio, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; Pellicanò, R; Baldi, L; Guarino, A; Serpe, L

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are a family of chemically-related lipophilic compounds characterized by similar toxicity. Due to their properties they are universally distributed in the environment and classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). From most of studies carried out to evaluate human dietary intake, milk and dairy products result as a major contributors of PCDD/Fs uptake. Of course the main source of milk contamination is animal feeds. Lactating ruminants, cows included, transfer these compounds to the food chain by ingestion of contaminated vegetables or soil. Their resistance to degradation and a high lipophilicity means that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs may be accumulated into fat tissues from which they are transferred to milk during lactation period. Seventy-nine cows milk samples, collected in the monitoring plan 2008, were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Eleven milk samples were non-compliant corresponding to five breeding livestock located in Caserta province. The distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs congeners in these samples was examined in order to determine the likely sources of dioxins. The results show that the congener profile is characterized by a prevalence of PCDFs in respect of PCDDs, that represents the typical pattern of thermal origin contamination.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  1. Potencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, for producing early life stage mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Mary K.; Peterson, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in feral lake trout eggs (Salvelinus namaycush) may increase the risk of lake trout early life stage mortality in the Great Lakes. To assess the combined toxicity of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs to lake trout early development, toxic potencies, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), were determined for individual PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, based on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) early life stage mortality. Newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, or a PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congener. LD50 values were determined based on the egg dose that caused mortality from hatching onset to swim-up. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were calculated as 2,3,7,8-TCDD LD50/congener LD50. TEFs were for PCDDs: 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 1.0; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD = 0.730;and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD = 0.319; for PCDFs: 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF = 0.359; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF = 0.280; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF = 0.034; and 2,3,7,8-TCDF = 0.028; and for PCBs: 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB = 0.005; 3,3',4,4'-TCB = 0.00016; 2,3,3',4,4'-PeCB and 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB ortho-chlorinated analogues of the coplanar PCBs fish-specific TEFs were 1/14 to 1/80 less than both those determined in H4IIE cells and proposed for risk assessment. Using these fish-specific TEFs, the risk associated with exposure of early life stages of Sake trout to complex mixtures of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the Great Lakes can be estimated.

  2. Predictors of serum dioxin levels among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia: A cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Williams, Paige; Altshul, Larisa; Korrick, Susan; Peeples, Lynne; Patterson, Donald G; Turner, Wayman E; Lee, Mary M; Revich, Boris; Sergeyev, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Background Toxicological studies and limited human studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and adverse developmental and reproductive health effects. Given that children may be particularly susceptible to reproductive and developmental effects of organochlorines, and the paucity of information available regarding childhood exposures to dioxins in particular, we undertook a pilot study to describe the distribution of, and identify potential predictors of exposure to, dioxin-like compounds and dioxins among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. The pilot study was also designed to guide the development of a large prospective cohort study on the relationship of exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs with growth and pubertal development in peri-pubertal Chapaevsk boys. Methods 221 boys age 14 to 17 participated in the pilot study. Each of the boys, with his mother, was asked to complete a nurse-administered detailed questionnaire on medical history, diet, and lifestyle. The diet questions were used to measure the current and lifetime consumption of locally grown or raised foods. Blood samples from 30 of these boys were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for analysis of dioxins, furans and PCBs. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentrations for total PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were 95.8 pg/g lipids (40.9, 144), 33.9 pg/g lipids (20.4, 61.8), and 120 pg/g lipids (77.6, 157), respectively. For WHO-TEQs, the median (25th, 75th percentile) for total PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs were 0.29 (0.1, 9.14), 7.98 (5.27, 12.3), and 7.39 (4.51, 11.9), respectively. Although TCDD was largely non-detectable, two boys had high TCDD levels (17.9 and 21.7 pg/g lipid). Higher serum levels of sum of dioxin-like compounds and sum of dioxin TEQs were positively associated with increased age, consumption of fish, local

  3. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  5. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  6. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  7. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  9. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  10. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  11. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  12. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  13. Transport of PCBs with leachate water from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kobasić, Vedranka Hodak; Picer, Mladen; Picer, Nena; Calić, Violeta

    2008-08-01

    Contaminated soil was taken from the area around the damaged capacitor of an electrical transformer station in Zadar (Croatia) and a phytoremediation experimental field was constructed with lysimeters. The levels of PCBs in the leachate water samples were measured nearly 3 years. The experiment was conducted under natural climatic conditions, through hot summers and mild winters. Although the amounts of leachated PCBs from the polluted soil were relatively small, their concentrations in leachate water samples from 1,500 to 29,000 ng L(-1) substantially exceeded the maximum allowed concentration of the total PCBs in the fishponds of Croatia (1 ng L(-1)).

  14. Detection and measurement of the agonistic activities of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs to the constitutive androstane receptor using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to exert their toxicities mainly by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and by stimulating transcription of various genes, notably metabolizing enzymes including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family. However, PCBs and their metabolites could have potential to activate other nuclear receptors and subsequent events. We focused on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) inducing CYP2B and measured the agonistic activity of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) to the CAR using yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and its response pathway. Twenty-nine of 34 tested PCBs and 72 of 91 OH-PCBs exhibited CAR agonistic effects. Of 41 OH-PCBs that had the same chlorination patterns as the tested PCBs, 9 had activities more than twice those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. In particular, 2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol and 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol were 332- and 22-fold more potent than their analogs and were 15 times and 2.8 times, respectively, as active as a reference substance, 4-tert-octylphenol. The activities of 17 of the OH-PCBs were reduced to less than half those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. Four OH-PCBs derived from 3 active PCBs were inactive. However, a consistent relationship between hydroxyl substituent position and activity could not be discerned. Comprehensive evaluation of the toxic potential of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites and their concentrations in the environment are required.

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  16. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  18. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day.

  19. Differentiating current and past PCB and PCDD/F sources: The role of a large contaminated soil site in an industrialized city area.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, Antonio; Terzaghi, Elisa; Raspa, Giuseppe; Borin, Sara; Mapelli, Francesca; Chouaia, Bessem; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Morosini, Cristiana; Colombo, Andrea; Fattore, Elena; Davoli, Enrico; Armiraglio, Stefano; Sale, Vanna M; Anelli, Simone; Nastasio, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Cities and contaminated areas can be primary or secondary sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and other chemicals, into air and soil and can influence the regional level of some of these pollutants. In a contaminated site, the evaluation of such emissions can be crucial in the choice of the remediation technology to be adopted. In the city of Brescia (Northern Italy), more than 100 ha of agricultural areas were contaminated with PCBs, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, originating from the activities of a former PCB factory. In order to evaluate the current emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the contaminated site, in a location where other current sources are present, we compared measured and predicted air concentrations, resulting from chemical volatilization from soils as well as fingerprints of Brescia soils and of soils contaminated by specific sources. The results confirm that the contaminated area is still a current and important secondary source of PCBs to the air, and to a lesser extent of PCDFs (especially the more volatile), but not for PCDDs. PCBs in soils have fingerprints similar to highly chlorinated mixtures, indicating contamination by these mixtures and/or a long weathering process. PCB 209 is also present at important levels. PCDD fingerprints in soil cannot be related to current emission sources, while PCDFs are compatible to industrial and municipal waste incineration, although weathering and/or natural attenuation may have played a role in modifying such soil fingerprints. Finally, we combined chemical and microbiological analyses to provide an integrated approach to evaluate soil fingerprints and their variation in a wider perspective, which accounts for the mutual effects between contamination and soil microbiota, a pivotal hint for addressing in situ bioremediation activities.

  20. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  1. Transplanted Lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a Multi-Tracer Monitoring Tool Near a Solid Waste Incinerator in Italy: Assessment of Airborne Incinerator-Related Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Fantozzi, Luca; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a transplanted lichen, Pseudovernia (P.) furfuracea, to act as a multi-tracer biomonitoring tool for As, Cd, Ni, Pb, 12 PAHs, 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 27 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated at six areas of varying risk (high, medium, negligible) of pollutant fallout from a municipal waste incinerator in central Italy. Transplanted P. furfuracea proved to be an useful tool to biomonitor PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations of As, heavy metals, PAHs, PCDDs/Fs resulted similar for all monitored stations. Small differences in total PCBs (4378 and 4631 pg/g dw vs 3298, 4123, 3676 and 4022 pg/g dw) and dioxin-like PCBs (1235 and 1265 pg/g dw vs 794, 1069, 1106 and 1188 pg/g dw) were observed. Air concentrations of monitored compounds appear to be more related to general air pollution than point emissions from the incinerator.

  2. The trophodynamics of PCBs in the Lake Ontario food web

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; Metcalfe, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of water, sediment, invertebrates, fish, and herring gull eggs were collected in north-central Lake Ontario and were analyzed to determine the concentrations of PCBs, including non-ortho substituted PCB congeners, in the benthic and pelagic components of the Lake Ontario food web. There was biomagnification of PCBs in the food web from benthic and planktonic invertebrates through to lake trout and gulls. However, all of the fish species had about the same lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs. The relative proportions of the PCB congeners changed as they passed through the food web. An index of metabolism for each PCB congener was calculated by comparing the concentrations of PCB congeners in various predator/prey groupings within the food web. These data indicate that invertebrates, fish and gulls have different capabilities in metabolizing and eliminating specific PCB congeners. While tri and tetrachlorinated congeners with no chlorine substitution at meta-para carbons on the biphenyl ring were readily metabolized by all taxa, only gulls appeared to be capable of metabolizing the PCBs with no chlorine substitution at ortho-meta positions. The trophodynamics of nonortho substituted (coplanar) PCBs did not differ from other PCB congeners of similar chlorine number, which indicates that non-ortho congeners are not any more persistent in biota than other PCBs.

  3. A Novel Method for Remediation of PCBs in Weathered Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Aitken, Brian S.; Captain, James; Devor, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic aromatic compounds with the general formula C 12H1oCl that were historically used in industrial paints, caulking material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites identified by the USEPA. Prior to the USEPA's ban on PCB production, PCBs were commonly used as additives in paints and asphalt-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to a variety of structures. Government facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or PCB-containing paints, which are now leaching into the environment and posing ecological and worker health concerns. To date, no definitive in situ, non-destructive method is available for the removal of PCBs found in weathered coatings or on painted structures/equipment. The research described in this paper involves the laboratory development and field-scale deployment of a new and innovative solution for the removal and destruction of PCBs found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. The technology incorporates a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) that extracts and degrades only the PCBs found on the facilities, leaving the structure virtually unaltered.

  4. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  5. Environmental transport and fate of PCBs in stream systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.; Birge, W.; Price, D.

    1995-12-31

    Transport and distribution of PCBs were studied in three Kentucky stream systems varying in size from second to fifth order. Point source releases of PCBs in each system have resulted in issuance of fish consumption advisories by state agencies. Water, sediment, floodplain soil and fish-tissues were analyzed for PCBs. Several species were analyzed, including longear sunfish, green sunfish, stonerollers and banded sculpins, which represent different trophic levels and feeding habits. Relatively rapid disappearance of PCBs was noted in green sunfish and may provide a better indication of the current PCB bioavailability in each system. In one stream system, PCBs were detected in water, sediments and floodplain soils sixty-five miles from the known source. Although contaminated groundwater may contribute substantial PCB loading to streams near sources, sequential resuspension of PCB-contaminated sediment is considered to be the main long-range transport mechanism. Contaminant data were incorporated into a GIS system to evaluate potential distribution in the floodplains. Relationships between various tissue concentrations are being examined. These results indicate the potential for persistence, continued sublethal effects and ecological risk of PCBs in lotic systems.

  6. Association of PCBs and allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the incidence rates of childhood allergies have been rising around the world. The presence of persistent chemical pollutants in the environment and exposure to air pollutants are often cited as potential causes of childhood allergies. Accordingly, epidemiological studies of the associations between exposure to low levels of pollutants and adverse health effects are essential. However, at present no useful biomarkers for evaluating such associations have been developed. Thus, using a molecular epidemiological approach we planned to identify candidate biomarkers of pollutant-induced adverse health effects that can be used in children. In asthmatic children, we found that the serum levels of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener sub-types were significantly positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression, whereas in a sub-group of children who displayed positive immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to milk or egg proteins IL-22 mRNA expression was demonstrated to be useful for detecting the adverse health effects of environmental pollutants, particularly PCB congeners. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and IL-22 can be used to detect children who are at particular risk of adverse health events caused by environmental pollutants, especially PCBs.

  7. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  8. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A as a biomarker for hydrocarbon and oxidant pollutants in fish: Relevance of identification of specific mechanism(s) of induction and potential effects on homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewski, T.R.; McCallum, G.P.; Bend, J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The induction of hepatic and extrahepatic P450 1A isozymes in fish and mammals is used as a biomarker for certain classes of toxic environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), planar polychlorinated (PCBs) and polybrominated (PBBs) biphenyl congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). However, recent data from the laboratory have shown that rat pulmonary P450 1A1 can also be induced by arsenite or liver transplantation (via a stress mechanism), raising the possibility that regulation of this biomarker can occur by mechanisms other than Ah receptor-mediated increases of CYP1A gene transcription.

  9. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate.

  10. Consumption of fish: benefits and perceived risk

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Fish, a useful source of protein, may be polluted by microbes, natural toxins, and/or synthetic chemicals. However, based on a review of the U.S. General Accounting Office, 'There does not appear to be a compelling case to implement a mandatory comprehensive federal seafood inspection program.' Although earlier studies showed higher body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in populations who consumed a lot of fish from polluted waterways, a recent study refutes these observations. No information is available in the United States on the levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in anglers who consume a great deal of fish presumed to be contaminated by these chemicals.23 references.

  11. Effects of sewage sludges contaminated with chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments).

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel

    2002-06-22

    The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques--such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal--was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments). Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments.

  12. Potency of PCDD, PCDF, PCB mixture to produce salmonid developmental mortality compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Butterworth, B.C.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    The combined presence of TCDD-like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in feral fish eggs can be expressed as TCDD equivalents (TEQs), assuming congeners interact additively. To test this assumption, early life stage (ELS) mortality was assessed following exposure of lake trout and rainbow trout eggs to control, 7 graded doses of TCDD, or 14 graded doses of a mixture containing 11 TCDD-like PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and 3 nonTCDD-like PCBs, mimicking congener ratios in Lake Michigan lake trout eggs. Lake trout eggs were exposed to waterborne TCDD or mixture and egg congener concentrations determined by GC/MS. Rainbow trout eggs were injected with a known dose of TCDD or mixture. Egg TEQs were calculated as the sum of egg congener concentration multiplied by fish-specific toxic equivalency factors. For both species, dose response curves for ELS mortality versus egg TCDD dose and egg TEQ dose were parallel. However, the mixture dose-response curve was shifted to the right of that for TCDD by 1.5--1.8 fold. LD{sub 50}S for lake trout were 200 pg TCDD/g and 362 pg TEQ/g. Based on TEQs, developmental toxicity of the PCDD, PCDF, PCB mixture was less than additive.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  14. Monitoring and estimating concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans in cattle milk and soils of Rhine-Delta floodplains.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A J; Wever, H; Olie, K; van de Guchte, K; Liem, A K; van Oosterom, R A; van Zorge, J

    1996-08-01

    In the Rhine-Delta, accumulation of microcontaminants in floodplain foodwebs has received little attention in comparison with aquatic communities. Here, soil and cattle milk samples were taken from three floodplains and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Based on 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin equivalents, total PCDD and PCDF residues in milk did not exceed the quality standard of 0.006 microg/kg fat weight. This was still the case if non- and mono-ortho PCBs were added to the total. Yet, the floodplains investigated were only moderately polluted according to previous studies and one cannot exclude higher levels in milk from other floodplains. Bioconcentration ratios of milk fat vs soil organic matter were about 0.01 to 0.1 for persistent PCBs. These values are in accordance with a few literature data found for other persistent compounds. Yet, ratios are lower than expected from equilibrium partitioning. Ratios for PCDDs and PCDFs were even lower, possibly due to biotransformation.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Ross, Peter S; Costa, Daniel; Salazar, Sandie; Aurioles-gamboa, David; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Only traces of PBDEs were detected in one male pup, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were not detected in any sample. The total concentration of PCBs (ΣPCB) in the pups averaged 104 μg/kg lipid (range, 49-384 μg/kg). No statistically significant differences in ΣPCB were observed among the four study sites in the Galapagos Islands. Concentrations of PCB congeners in Galapagos sea lion pups were dominated by low-molecular-weight congeners. These results suggest that global transport is the main source for PCBs in Galapagos sea lions. The ΣPCB levels were below immunotoxic and endocrine-disruption thresholds in pinnipeds, suggesting a limited risk of adverse health effects. The present study indicates that Galapagos sea lions can serve as a useful sentinel of pollutants with a long-range transport capacity and that Galapagos Islands are not exempt from the threats of global pollutants despite its remote locale.

  16. Persistent organic pollutant concentrations in first birth mothers across Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Riojas Rodríguez, Horacio; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Van Oostdam, Jay; Weber, Jean Philippe; Needham, Larry L; Trip, Luke

    2012-01-01

    This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p'-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be ∼60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.

  17. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in Soils and Sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J. A.; Zhang, W.

    2002-12-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation are evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in a soil/water system, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals at remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration. Model responses were validated by a favorable match to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in a land treatment unit operated by Aluminum Corporation of America Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (SRA) reduces to zero (i.e., undetectable), with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (SIA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (SIA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, PAHs and PCBs will leach only slightly, if at all from the treatment site and thus, they constitute no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large Kd, i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity, K (as described by Monod kinetics parameters), regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential active

  18. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  19. Concentrations and gas/particle partitioning of PCBs in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Yücel; Vardar, Nedim; Odabasi, Mustafa; Holsen, Thomas M

    2004-09-01

    Thirty seven air samples were collected in Chicago, IL from June to October 1995 and analyzed for gas and particle concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Lower molecular weight (MW) PCBs dominated the samples and on average 95% of the Sigma50PCB concentration (gas+particulate) was in the vapor phase. Sigma50PCB concentrations were classified based on prevailing winds (lake and land). The Sigma50PCB concentration varied between 0.42 and 5.21 ng/m3 (1.80+/-1.70 ng/m3) for lake and 0.53 and 8.31 ng/m3 (2.41+/-2.15 ng/m3) for land wind directions. Back trajectory analyses suggested that SW of Chicago can be an important local or regional source sector for PCBs. Partitioning between gas and particulate phases was modeled using the Junge-Pankow model. The measured particle phase concentrations for low MW PCBs were lower than those predicted by the model while the opposite was observed for high MW PCBs. Plots of gas/particle partition coefficient (log Kp) vs. subcooled liquid vapor pressure (log pL(0)) had reasonable correlations for individual samples but the slope varied among the samples. Samples that originated from over the lake had higher slopes than samples that originated from over the land.

  20. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Sacco, James C; Faux, Laura R

    2008-03-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways.

  1. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska-Ceradini, Barbara; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane

    2011-07-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), were determined in the pre- and post-air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operational transients of the combustor were found to considerably increase levels of PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs compared to steady state operation, both for the raw and clean flue gas; ΣPBDDs/Fs increased from 72.7 to 700 pg dscm(-1) in the raw, pre-APCS gas and from 1.45 to 9.53 pg dscm(-1) in the post-APCS flue gas; ΣPCDDs/Fs increased from 240 to 960 ng dscm(-1) in the pre-APCS flue gas, and from 1.52 to 16.0 ng dscm(-1) in the post-APCS flue gas. The homologue profile of PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw flue gas (steady state and transients) was dominated by hexa- and octa-isomers, while the clean flue gas homologue profile was enriched with tetra- and penta-isomers. The efficiency of the APCS for PBDD/F and PCDD/F removal was estimated as 98.5% and 98.7%, respectively. The cumulative TEQ(PCDD/F+PBDD/F) from the stack was dominated by PCDD/F: the TEQ of PBDD/F contributed less than 0.1% to total cumulative toxic equivalency of MWC stack emissions.

  2. Continuing sources of PCBs: the significance of building sealants.

    PubMed

    Robson, Matthew; Melymuk, Lisa; Csiszar, Susan A; Giang, Amanda; Diamond, Miriam L; Helm, Paul A

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the significance of building sealants as a remaining source of PCBs to the environment a combined measurement campaign and GIS-based stock estimation were undertaken for Toronto, Canada. This showed that 14% of buildings measured had detectable quantities of PCBs present in sealants, with concentrations from 0.57 mg/g to 82 mg/g (n=95). We then constructed a GIS-based database of remaining PCB-containing sealants in Toronto. This showed that there is an estimated 13 t still present in the city. Mass balance calculations showed that up to 9% had been lost via volatilization alone. This potentially has important implications for both human exposure and the continued presence of PCBs in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple immunoassay for detection of PCBs in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas R; Ohmura, Naoya; Taemi, Yukihiro; Joh, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    A rapid and inexpensive procedure to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil is needed to facilitate identification and removal of PCB contaminated transformers. Here we describe a simple two-step liquid-liquid extraction using acidic dimethyl sulfoxide in conjunction with an immunoassay for detecting PCBs in transformer oil. The process described is faster and simpler than any previous immunoassay while maintaining comparable detection limit and false negative rate. Cross reactivity data, characterizing the immunoassay response to the four Kanechlor technical mixtures of PCBs in oil, are presented. Forty-five used transformer oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and were also evaluated using the immunoassay protocol developed. Results presented show zero false negatives at a 1.4 ppm nominal cutoff for the transformer oils analyzed.

  4. PCBs in the Housatonic River: determination and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, B.L.; Frink, C.R.; Glowa, W.

    1981-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms for the transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as their reactions with sediments should help in developing strategies for removal and disposal of sediments in contaminated rivers. We have developed a convenient procedure, based on multiple linear regression of peak heights (or areas) from gas chromatograms, for estimating individual members (Aroclors) for the PCB group of chemicals. Analysis of the bottom sediments of the Housatonic River system along a 20-km section revealed that the sediments contained Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260 in the ratio of 1.0:0.6:1.9. PCB concentrations were highly correlated with clay and organic matter, suggesting that fine particles consisting of clay-organo complexes in the sediments may provide a primary means of retention and transport of PCBs. Laboratory sorption of PCBs by clay minerals, humic acid, and the river sediments further substantiate these conclusions.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants and hyperuricemia in the U.S. general population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Bae, Sang-Geun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has emerged as a new risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS), while hyperuricemia is associated with MetS through unclear mechanisms. We examined cross-sectional data for consistency with the hypothesis that POPs are a common underlying risk factor of both MetS and hyperuricemia. We evaluated associations of POPs with hyperuricemia in subjects aged ≥20 years in the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Sample size was n = 1331 for organochlorine (OC) pesticides and n = 1299 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Among all subjects, the risk of hyperuricemia was higher for higher serum concentrations of OC pesticides, PCDDs, and dioxin-like PCBs. PCDFs and nondioxin-like PCBs did not show any clear trend. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for OC pesticides, PCDDs, and dioxin-like PCBs were 1.0, 2.4, 2.3, 3.0, and 2.5 (P trend = 0.05), 1.0, 1.6, 1.4, 2.1, and 2.5 (P trend = 0.01), and 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, 1.3, and 2.4 (P trend = 0.04). When we restricted the analyses to subjects without MetS, all these associations appeared to strengthen. This study is consistent with our hypothesis that the risk of hyperuricemia relates to background exposure to a mixture of POPs even among persons without MetS. There should be further research about whether avoiding exposure to POPs and otherwise decreasing body burden of POPs would be helpful to prevent or manage hyperuricemia or gout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    PubMed

    Seegal, R F

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript we present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study we demonstrated that exposure of rats to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 micrograms/(kg small middle dotday) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, we demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2', 4'-tetrachloro- biphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg small middle dotday) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses-levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study. On the basis of these developmental neurochemical studies we suggest that the reported cognitive deficits in children exposed in utero and during lactation to fish-borne contaminants may be due either to contaminants other than PCBs or to complex interactions between PCBs and other neurotoxicants present in the fish.

  7. Transport, fate and bioremediation of PCBs in freshwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, W.J.; Price, D.; Robison, A. |

    1995-12-31

    PCB monitoring studies were conducted on four riverine systems that varied in order, gradient, and substrate composition. Accumulation of PCBs was greater in fine-grained sediments with organic carbon content of 1 percent or more. Due to the short residence time of PCBs in water, downstream transport occurred mostly via erosion, suspension and resuspension of sediments and floodplain soils. Residues of PCBs in fish were lowest in the green sunfish and other species, higher in black bass, and highest in bottom feeders, (e.g., channel catfish, carp). Carp and catfish were the poorest indicators of real-time contamination but more useful in assessing historical conditions. Differences in PCB half-life in fish correlated with lipid content. Sunfish were the best indicators of current levels of contamination. PCB body burden in these species decreased markedly after curtailment of PCB outfall. Residues at or above 2 mg/Kg in sunfish decreased to 0.5 mg/Kg or less within 12 to 18 months. Percent tissue lipid was a major factor affecting the rate of metabolic degradation of PCBs in fish. High lipid content may prolong the biological half-life of PCBS, whereas low content may correlate with more rapid degradation, depending on the species. Sunfish, due to their localized range, lower lipid content, and ability to metabolize PCBs may be useful tools in the bioremediation of freshwater systems. They feed largely on primary consumers (e.g. detritivores, herbivores); are adaptable to a wide variety of warm water habitats; and management practices have been well established.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  9. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  10. Accumulation of sediment-bound PCBs by fiddler crabs

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.R.; Patrick, J.M. Jr.; Moore, J.C.; Forester, J.

    1986-04-01

    The primary objective of this research was to characterize rates of PCB uptake and depuration by fiddler crabs in a simulated spoil bank habitat that contained PCBs in weathered sediment. Also, the authors examined whether the concentration of PCBs in substrates affected bioaccumulation by mixing PCB-laden sediments with clean sand. In a pilot study, they tested Uca pugilator, an inhabitant of relatively dry and sandy areas, and U. minax, which inhabits wetter and muddier substrates, to determine if species differ in PCB uptake and depuration rates.

  11. The uptake and bioaccumulation of PCBs by phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S.; Stange, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton play a major role in the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to their large biomass, their high lipid content, and their place as the primary step in the aquatic food web. Phytoplankton accumulate PCBs in the water column most likely as a result of water-lipid partitioning, and can pass the contaminants up through the food web by consumers or transport them to bottom waters by sedimentation. The process of PCB uptake and bioaccumulation by phytoplankton has been the focus of our study.

  12. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation were evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in soil/water systems, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals on remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration process. Model responses were verified by comparison to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units; a favorable match was found between them. Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (S RA) reduces to undetectable levels, with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (S IA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (S IA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, little or no PAHs and PCBs will leach from the treatment site and constitutes no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large K d , i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity (K in Monod kinetics, i.e., number of microbes, nutrients, and electron acceptor, etc.) regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured for a large number of technical applications including for use in transformers and capacitors. The widespread commercial utilization of PCBs and their persistence in the environment have resulted in their worldwide distribution. ...

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured for a large number of technical applications including for use in transformers and capacitors. The widespread commercial utilization of PCBs and their persistence in the environment have resulted in their worldwide distribution. ...

  15. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  16. Radiation induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollutants in paint scrapings.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals which have been commercially used worldwide in many specialty applications. In paints, PCBs were used because of their unique properties such as thermal stability, flame-resistance and low volatility. However, due to their adverse effects on human health and environment, the use of PCBs has now been banned. PCBs are today considered widespread pollutants in the global system . PCBs sources still exist in various products and in waste streams such as oil, paints, rubbers etc. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to detoxify PCBs. In the present study, radiolysis has been investigated as a safe means to reduce or destroy PCBs. Under this study, detoxification of PCBs in paint scrapings by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source has been investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the gamma radiations can be an alternative environment- friendly technology for destroying PCBs. Gamma radiations also have the potential of being a preferred tool in comparison to the most widely used incineration method for destroying PCBs. The method used was found highly effective and destruction efficiency was as high as 91%. The degradation efficiency of PCBs was dependent on absorbed radiation dose, the type of PCBs and also on the source of paint scrapings.

  17. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelve Mile Creek (Clemson, South Carolina, U.S.A.), a stream that received >400,000 lbs. of PCBs from 1955-1978...

  18. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in Yusho patients].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2011-04-01

    Forty two years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the Yusho patients have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI * GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen Yusho patients. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Among the patients of group A, three patients were especially highly contaminated with PCDFs and we classified them into group A (High). Respective mean concentrations of PCDFs in the blood just before initiating this study were as follows; group A : 145 pg/g lipid, group A (High) : 371 pg/g lipid and group B : 52.1 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs, PCDDs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in group A (High) were 1.7 to 2.6 times higher than those in group A and 2.4 to 7.1 times higher than those in group B. Accordingly, concentrations of dioxins (PCDFs + PCDDs + dioxin-like PCBs) in the blood of groups A, A (High) and B were, respectively, 194, 458 and 85 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Concentrations of PCBs were also the highest in group A (High) : 1399 ng/g lipid, in group A : 748 ng/g lipid

  19. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations and prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCB-metabolites (OH-PCBs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) mothers (n=26) and their 4 months old cubs-of-the-year (n=38) from Svalbard to gain insight into the mother-cub transfer, biotransformation and to evaluate the health risk associated with the exposure to these contaminants. As samplings were performed in 1997/1998 and 2008, we further investigated the differences in levels and pattern of PCBs between the two sampling years. The plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 5710 ± 3090 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 2008: 2560 ± 1500 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 228 ± 60 ng/g wet weight [ww], 2008: 80 ± 38 ng/g ww) in mothers were significantly lower in 2008 compared to in 1997/1998. In cubs, the plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 14680 ± 5350 ng/g lw, 2008: 6070 ± 2590 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 98 ± 23 ng/g ww, 2008: 49 ± 21 ng/g ww) were also significantly lower in 2008 than in 1997/1998. Σ(21)PCBs in cubs was 2.7 ± 0.7 times higher than in their mothers. This is due to a significant maternal transfer of these contaminants. In contrast, Σ(6)OH-PCBs in cubs were approximately 0.53 ± 0.16 times the concentration in their mothers. This indicates a lower maternal transfer of OH-PCBs compared to PCBs. The majority of the metabolite/precursor-ratios were lower in cubs compared to mothers. This may indicate that cubs have a lower endogenous capacity to biotransform PCBs to OH-PCBs than polar bear mothers. Exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is a potential health risk for polar bears, and the levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in cubs from 2008 were still above levels associated with health effects in humans and wildlife. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  1. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  2. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation.

  3. NANO-SCALE PALLADIUM DOPED MAGNESIUM BIMETALLICS FOR DECHLORINATING PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and recalcitrant pollutants found in rivers; coastal waters and in 500 of the nation's 1598 Superfund waste sites. According to an EPA estimate, the existing 525 million tons of PCB wastes will cost $394 billion to be incinerated, curren...

  4. LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: PROGNOSIS FOR PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model nutrients, atrazine, PCBs, trans-nonachlor, and mercury to gain a better understanding of the transport and fate of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the environmental decision-making ...

  5. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  6. The effects of PCBs and dioxins on child health.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Christofer; Zuurbier, Moniek; Leijs, Marike; Johansson, Carolina; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Saunders, Margaret; Schoeters, Greet; ten Tusscher, Gavin; Koppe, Janna G

    2006-10-01

    BACKGROUND/EXPOSURE: Dioxins and PCBs are highly persistent and highly toxic environmental pollutants which at present are derived mainly from waste incineration and food contamination. They are widespread in nature and pollute human food, including breast milk so that basically all children in Europe are exposed to measurable levels. RESULTS/TOXICITY IN CHILDREN: The toxicity of dioxins and PCBs are well described both from animal studies and from a number of human epidemiological studies including several large cohort studies. Especially developmental exposure has been shown to affect endocrine and cognitive systems negatively. Measurable outcomes include reduced IQ and changed behaviour. Foetotoxic effects with reduced birth weight and increased congenital anomalies such as cleft lip have also been described. Exposure to PCBs and dioxins must be considered also in the context of multiple exposure to several toxins simultaneously or sequentially. CONCLUSION/SUGGESTED ACTION: Some measures aimed at reducing exposure to dioxins have been partly successful in that the dioxin content of breast milk is going down. However, further steps to reduce exposure must be taken. We suggest legislative measures for reducing the re-entry of especially PCBs from waste into the environment. Individual pre-conception counselling is recommended in order to reduce developmental exposure and its consequences. Biomonitoring of the substances themselves in breast milk and foods is recommended as well as monitoring possible endocrine effects.

  7. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  8. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  9. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  10. [Effects of PCBs on Aegiceras corniculatum seedlings growth and membrane protective enzyme system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-yun; Sun, Hong-bin; Chen, Gui-zhu

    2007-01-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the effects of PCBs (0, 180, 900, 1800 and 2700 microg x kg(-1)) on the seedlings growth and the leaves chlorophyll content, MDA content, and membrane protective enzyme system of Aegiceras corniculatum. The results showed that PCBs had definite stimulative effects on the seedlings growth. The stem height, basal stem diameter, and stem volume were all increased with increasing PCBs concentration. Within the test range of PCBs, the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio maintained at a relatively stable and normal level. The decrement of chlorophyll content and the increment of chlorophyll a/b ratio were less than 25% and 10% of the control, respectively. With increasing PCBs concentration, SOD activity increased first and decreased then, while POD activity and MDA content were in adverse. It was suggested that A. corniculatum could endure and adapt definite concentrations of PCBs through physiological and biochemical mechanisms, being available to the phytoremediation of PCBs pollution.

  11. Changes in contaminant distributions with trophic level in a marine food chain study

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Taplin, B.K.; McGovern, D.G.; Montmarquet, B.T.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory study was designed to investigate the transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants from sediments to marine biota in a simplified marine food chain. Sediments collected from the Passaic River, NJ, which contained high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, were used as the contamination source. Polychaete worms (Nereis virens) were exposed to Passaic River sediment for 70 days to allow steady-state concentrations to be achieved and then these organisms were fed to a crustacean, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Contaminant distributions were altered significantly as they passed from sediments to polychaetes and then to the lobster. PCDDs and PCDFs containing four or five chlorines were accumulated by the polychaetes and lobster; however, the highly chlorinated congeners were not accumulated. PCB patterns in lobsters indicated that these organisms metabolized many PCB congeners. Coplanar PCBs did not appear to be metabolized and therefore became enriched relative to total PCB levels in the lobsters. Lobsters also greatly altered the ratios of chlordane and DDT series compounds relative to those in the sediments and polychaetes.

  12. Environmental contaminants and reproductive success of great blue herons Ardea herodias in British Columbia, 1986-1987.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Butler, R W; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-01-01

    In 1986, eggs were collected and productivity estimated at four great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colonies on the coast of British Columbia. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were present in all eggs in a qualitatively similar pattern among colonies. PCDD levels were significantly elevated at a colony near a kraft pulp mill at Crofton on Vancouver Island, although there was no correlation between the number of young raised in a nest and levels of either PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides or mercury. In 1987, heron productivity was normal at three colonies, while the colony at Crofton failed to raise any young. A normal complement of eggs were apparently laid in about 57 nests, but during incubation they were destroyed and the broken eggshells were found in and beneath the nests. Analysis of eggs salvaged from nests showed that 2378-TCDD levels were about three times higher in 1987 than in 1986. At a colony in Vancouver, 2378-TCDF levels were significantly higher in 1987 than 1986 eggs. Levels of organochlorine pesticides and total mercury in eggs were generally low; highest residue levels were found in two mainland colonies, particularly at one adjacent to an agricultural area. Total PCB levels were low and did not differ significantly among locations. Analysis of PCB congener ratios indicated different sources of PCBs. Regurgitated prey samples collected in 1986 from four locations had generally low levels of PCDD, PCDF, mercury, lead and cadmium contamination.

  13. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  14. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  15. A QSAR evaluation of Ah receptor binding of halogenated aromatic xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Mekenyan, O G; Veith, G D; Call, D J; Ankley, G T

    1996-01-01

    Because of their widespread occurrence and substantial biological activity, halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) comprise one of the more important classes of contaminants in the environment. Some chemicals in this class cause adverse biological effects after binding to an intracellular cytosolic protein called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Toxic responses such as thymic atrophy, weight loss, immunotoxicity, and acute lethality, as well as induction of cytochrome P4501A1, have been correlated with the relative affinity of PCBs, PCDFs, and PCDDs for the AhR. Therefore, an important step in predicting the effects of these chemicals is the estimation of their binding to the receptor. To date, however, the use of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models to estimate binding affinity across multiple chemical classes has shown only modest success possibly due, in part, to a focus on minimum energy chemical structures as the active molecules. In this study, we evaluated the use of structural conformations other than those of minimum energy for the purpose of developing a model for AhR binding affinity that encompasses more of the halogenated aromatic chemicals known to interact with the receptor. Resultant QSAR models were robust, showing good utility across multiple classes of halogenated aromatic compounds. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:9118871

  16. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K S; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-03-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p<0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries.

  17. Bioaccumulation of organochlorines in crows from an indian open waste dumping site: evidence for direct transfer of dioxin-like congeners from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Michio X; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Yoneda, Kumiko; Hashimoto, Takuma

    2005-06-15

    To assess the significance of waste dumping sites as a source of chemical contamination to ecosystems, we analyzed the residue levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other organochlorines in the breast muscle of crows from a dumping site in the south of Chennai city, South India. Crows from the dumping site contained significantly higher total TEQs (60 +/- 27 pg/g lipid wt) than those from the reference sites (26 +/- 18 pg/g lipid wt). Especially, certain dioxin-like coplanar PCB congeners (Co-PCBs), such as CB-77 and CB-105, whose source is commercial PCBs,were significantly higher in crows from the dumping site than those from the reference sites. Profiles of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in crows from the dumping site were similar to those of soil at the same site, which was confirmed by principal component analysis. Furthermore, significant positive correlations were obtained between the congener-specific bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of PCDDs/DFs estimated from concentrations in crows and soil from the dumping site and the theoretical BCFs calculated from water-particle and lipid-water partitioning coefficients. On the other hand, the estimated BCFs had significant negative correlations with the molecular weight of PCDDs/DFs, indicating that molecular size limits their bioaccumulation. These results suggest that dioxin-like congeners in the soil of the dumping site were transferred directly to the crows through the ingestion of on-site garbage contaminated with soil, rather than through trophic transfer in the ecosystem. The present study provides insight into the ecological impacts of dumping sites.

  18. Comparison of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in mothers affected by the Yusho incident and their children.

    PubMed

    Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Yasukawa, Fumiko; Fukushima, Kotaro; Todaka, Takashi; Kajiwara, Junboku; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Hirata, Teruaki; Wake, Norio; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-08-01

    Accumulated maternal dioxins are passed onto the fetus and neonate via the placenta and maternal milk. In Japan in 1968, an accidental human exposure to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other dioxin-related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), led to development of Yusho oil disease. We investigated differences in blood dioxin concentrations in mother-children pairs affected by the Yusho incident. From 2002 to 2008, blood samples were collected from 26 pairs of Yusho mothers and their children (19 mothers, 26 children). Specific congeners of seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ten PCDFs, and four non-ortho PCBs were analyzed. The children had significantly lower TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs compared to their mothers. The mother-child difference in blood concentrations varied with the congeners; the largest for 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF and the smallest for 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD. The level for 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF, which characterizes Yusho oil disease, was approximately 17-30 times higher in the mothers than in the general population, whereas there were no significant differences between children in the formula-fed group and the general population. In contrast, the mean level for 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF in the breast-fed group was approximately 1.5 times, (range 0.5-6.5 times) higher than that in the general population. Over 30 years after the Yusho incident, the mean blood dioxin levels in the offspring were only a fraction of the levels in their mothers. This is more consistent with exposure via breast milk than via transplacental transfer in the Yusho incident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dioxins and related compounds in albatrosses from the Torishima Island, Japan: accumulation features by growth stage and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Oka, Nariko; Sato, Fumio; Tsurumi, Miyako; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-15

    Concentrations of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), were determined in eggs, nestlings, and adults of black-footed albatross (BfA; Diomedea nigripes) and short-tailed albatross (StA; Diomedea albatrus) collected from the Torishima Island in Japan during 2002, which is one of their breeding grounds. Observed DRC concentrations, especially PCDFs and non-ortho Co-PCBs, in eggs of BfA and StA were relatively higher than those in other oceanic, coastal, and inland wild birds reported recently and were comparable to those in a pooled BfA egg from Midway Atoll in 1993, implying continuous input of these contaminants into open ocean and possible albatross-specific exposure. Concentrations of PCDDs except 12378-P5CDD and high-chlorinated PCDFs in 3-month-old BfA nestling were lowerthan those in 1-month-old nestling, indicating their developmental dilution. On the other hand, higher levels of T4-H6CDFs and Co-PCBs, especially low-chlorinated congeners such as 2378-T4CDF and T4CB77, were found in 3-month-old BfA nestling, suggesting specific exposure to these contaminants, possibly due to their higher transportability than high-chlorinated congeners. Estimated biomagnification factors of almost all the congeners in adults were apparently greater than those in nestlings, except 2378-T4CDF, T4CB77, and H7-O8-CDD/Fs. This could be due to preferential metabolism of 2378-T4CDF and T4CB77 and lower uptake efficiency of high-chlorinated congeners through the gastrointestinal tract in adults. Toxic equivalents in BfA and StA eggs estimated using WHO-avian toxic equivalency factors exceeded some toxicity thresholds for avian embryos, indicating possible adverse effects of DRCs to albatross embryos.

  20. Daphnia response to biotic stress is modified by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Pijanowska, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of xenobiotics (PCBs) on the responses of Daphnia to biotic factors such as the presence of a predator (fish kairomone) or filamentous cyanobacteria. Both behaviour (depth selection) and life history (body size at first reproduction and fecundity) were affected by these stressors. Though there was no direct effect of PCBs, their influence resulted in disruption of the "natural" reaction to the presence of fish or cyanobacteria, leading to inadequate responses of Daphnia to these biotic threats. Examined clones of Daphnia showed significant diversity in their reaction to these stress factors, which was greater than that between Daphnia clones exposed to different environmental conditions. PCB pollution may change the frequency of Daphnia clones in favour of those whose responses to biotic stress are similar in both the absence and presence of these toxic chemicals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  2. Assessment of residual exposure to PCBs in metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Fostinelli, Jacopo; Catalani, Simona; Gaia, Alice; De Palma, Giuseppe; Apostoli, Pietro

    2017-06-28

    To evaluate the occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 56 workers employed in 6 electric arc furnace steelmaking plants and 2 secondary aluminum smelting plants located in the highly industrialized area of Brescia, Northern Italy. Thirty-four PCB congeners were found in both environmental and biological samples from workers engaged in scrap yards, electric arc furnaces, casting and maintenance departments. The highest airborne PCB levels were found in the aluminum plant, even 100 times those detected in the steelwork plants. Dioxin-like PCB congeners (DL-PCBs) were poorly represented in all biological samples, whereas non Dioxin-Like PCB congeners (noDL-PCBs), in particular environmentally widespread congeners (PCB 153, 138, 180), could be detected in almost all samples. The mean total PCB serum level was 3.9 ng/ml, with a range of 1.3-10.3 ng/ml, while the geometric mean for airborne PCBs levels was 9305 pg/m3, with a range of 1138-217806 pg/m3. Despite the higher PCB values recorded in some metallurgical plant workplaces, we failed to find any significant difference between serum concentrations in workers from steel or aluminum production, even in consideration of different tasks or different job seniority, while positive association was found only according to the age of the workers. A possible explanation may be identified in the effectiveness of the individual and collective preventive measures adopted in the workplace. Assessment of the occupational exposure to such compounds, in consideration of the recent classifications as carcinogenic to humans, should be encouraged.

  3. Learning from Dioxin & PCBs in meat – problems ahead?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.

  4. Transport of PCBs with leachate water from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kobasić, Vedranka Hodak; Picer, Mladen; Picer, Nena; Calić, Violeta

    2008-08-01

    Natural soil contaminated with PCBs was used in this study. The soil was excavated from the area around the damaged capacitor of an electrical transformer station in Zadar (ETS 110/35 kV). A lysimeter experiment was conducted for 17 months under natural climatic conditions and designed to measure the concentration of PCB in the soil and leachates. Our research field was composed of four plots and there were three lysimeters on each plot. After 12 months, a negligible quantity of Aroclor 1248 (an average of 0.24%) and the Sigma 7 key PCB congeners (SigmaPCB(7); IUPAC No.: PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were leached from the soils into the water collected under the lysimeters (an average of 0.32%). During two soil samplings, the soil was taken at three depths from each lysimeter. The distribution of Aroclor 1248 and 7 individual PCB congeners in the soil layers was determined before and after planting. Plot No. 1 had the highest percentage of contaminant removal after 12 months. The data indicate that the Sigma 7 key PCBs in the surface soil layers of all the plots decreased and the removal percentages ranged between 19.0% (Plot No. 2) and 47.6% (Plot No. 1). Volatilization from the soil surface may be the most important mechanism for the loss of these "more volatile" PCB congeners. The results showed an accumulation of PCBs in the deepest level of the soil plots, probably due to the vertical transfer of the PCBs and the lack of volatilization.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources.

  6. Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Carmela; Stabili, Loredana; Aresta, Michele; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Synergistic/antagonistic effects of multiple contaminants in marine environments are almost completely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and PCBs on picoplankton abundance, biomass, cell size distribution, and bacterial C production. Natural picoplankton assemblages were exposed to heavy metals (Zn or Pb), organic contaminants (PCBs, Aroclor 1260), and to a mixture of different contaminants. The results of the present study indicate that Zn addition stimulated heterotrophic growth, whereas Pb has a negative impact on heterotrophic picoplankton, particularly significant in the first 24 h. Heavy metals had no effects on the autotrophic component. The addition of Aroclor 1260 had a significant impact on abundance, biomass, and cell size of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, and reduced significantly bacterial secondary production. Three weeks after PCB treatment, heterotrophic bacteria displayed a clear resilience, both in terms of abundance and biomass, reaching values comparable to those of the controls, but not in terms of bacterial C production. Our results indicate that picoplankton can be sensitive indicators of impact determined by heavy metals and PCBs in coastal marine systems.

  7. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  8. Study of transportation and distribution of PCBs using an ecologically simulated growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaw-Jian; Liu, Hsiang-Chao; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Wu, Wan-Jheng

    2006-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the transportation, distribution, and bioaccumulation of PCBs in various environmental media and compartments using an ecologically simulated growth chamber. Spatial and temporal trends of PCBs in the growth chamber were discussed. The release of PCB congeners in soil was affected by the amount of rainfall with the transporting direction moving away from PCBs contaminated point. Two pathways of PCBs accumulation in plants were the uptake of roots and the deposition on shoots/leaves. There were 29 PCB congeners been found in the lalang grass. Higher concentrations of lower chlorinated PCBs were identified than higher chlorinated PCBs because of relatively higher vapor pressure for lower chlorinated congeners. After 10months of monitoring, PCBs were detected in water samples which were contributed by the release of PCBs from leached soil. Analysis of sediment showed that the percentages of low- and mid-chlorinated biphenyls were decreased 1% and 13%, respectively compared to the increase (14%) of high-chlorinated biphenyls. The increase of high-chlorinated PCBs was possibly caused by their low hydrophilicity which had resulted higher adsorption rate in sediment. All of five species of fish had been found significant amount of PCBs accumulation ( summation operatorPCBs: 21.7-102.1 microg/g-lipid). The concentrations of PCBs in fish were varied significantly among species. The range of bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) among different species of fish could be as much as 5 times depending on the consumption habits of fish. The mass balance of PCBs distribution in the growth chamber was also discussed.

  9. Milwaukee, WI, as a source of atmospheric PCBs to Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Wethington, David M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2005-01-01

    A field study of atmospheric PCBs in Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. was conducted on the shore of Lake Michigan. We believe this is the first report of atmospheric PCBs in Milwaukee, although PCBs are well-known to contaminate the sediments of the Milwaukee River and Outer Harbor. Concentrations of PCBs collected during the June 2001 study are similar to concentrations in other urban-industrial areas and higher than PCBs in background air. The average sigmaPCB (sum of 88 congener groups) gas-phase concentration in Milwaukee was 1.9 ng m(-3)+/-standard deviation 0.78 ng m(-3). The average and standard deviation for the particulate-associated PCBs are 0.05+/-0.02 ng m(-3). Particulate-phase PCBs account for less than 5% of the total atmospheric concentration. PCBs in Milwaukee air are a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. Calculated net gas exchange fluxes predicted forthe Milwaukee sampling period ranged from -60 to -400 ng m(-2) d(-1), where net deposition is indicated by the negative sign. Calculated particle-associated PCB deposition ranged from 80 to 500 ng m(-2) d(-1). Most of the particle-phase deposition flux is a result of coarse particle deposition and decreases rapidly with distance from shore. Under typical meteorological conditions, particle-associated PCBs depositional flux to the lake surface decreases by 90% within 40 km. For net gas-exchange, the flux reaches zero at about the same distance. At greater distances, particle-phase PCB deposition is negligible, and PCBs are volatilizing at a higher rate than they are being deposited. We calculated that Milwaukee air contributes about 120 kg of PCBs to Lake Michigan each year. This is about 10 times larger than the discharge of PCBs from the Milwaukee River.

  10. Disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-contaminated materials. Volume 4. Test incineration of electrical capacitors containing PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, N.W.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of a trial burn conducted at the Energy Systems Company (ENSCO) located in El Dorado, Arkansas in order to determine whether liquid PCBs and shredded electronic capacitors could be incinerated in accordance with the recent EPA rules and regulations published in the Federal Register (40 CFR Part 761, Vol. 44, No. 106, pp. 31513-31568, May 31, 1979). Based on the results of this trial burn, PCBs were not detected in the stack effluent, the scrubber liquor effluent, or the recycled scrubber liquor from the sludge lagoon. PCBs were detected in the ash effluent from the rotary kiln and were less than 550 ppM, the lower limit at which PCBs are regulated by the EPA. A discussion is given of problems associated with the EPA perchlorination procedure for analyzing PCBs.

  11. Review of organohalogen toxicants in fish from the Gulf of Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Roots, Ott; Keinänen, Marja

    2017-07-01

    A literature survey identified 30 articles providing data on the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in fish caught from the Gulf of Finland: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated pesticide DDT and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Results were found for 14 fish species in total, but mainly for herring (Clupea harengus), salmon (Salmo salar) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), and the oldest data were for PCBs, from 1975. PCBs and PCDDs were the most prevalent organohalogens in the Gulf of Finland compared to other areas of the Baltic Sea. In particular, more local fish species and benthic feeders caught from the eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland appear to contain higher concentrations of organochlorines than those from the western parts. The concentration of dioxins plus dioxin-like PCBs as WHO-TEQPCDD/F + PCB in herring has demonstrated a decreasing trend since the late 1970s. However, the maximum allowable concentration of WHO-TEQPCDD/F + PCB in fish set by the EC was exceeded in all salmon and older herring specimens and in some whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), bream (Abramis brama), sea trout (Salmo trutta) and flounder (Platichthys flesus). The respective limit concentration for fish used as animal feed was exceeded in most of the fish samples.

  12. PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in eggs of peregrine falcons from Germany.

    PubMed

    Malisch, Rainer; Baum, Frank

    2007-04-01

    Thirty one egg samples of peregrine falcons were collected in different regions of Germany (South-West, North and East) and analysed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs and marker PCBs. Altogether, 37 PCB congeners were determined, allowing a more detailed discussion of different aspects of the relative importance of these individual congeners. For comparison with dioxin data from other studies, differences between toxic equivalency factors (TEF) have to be taken into consideration. The results of this study are discussed on the basis of WHO-TEFs for birds published in 1998. All samples showed high levels of PCDD/Fs (median of all samples: 368 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat; range 137-1453) and even higher levels of PCBs (median 967 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/g fat; range 243-7482). The upper range of these levels reach concentrations found at the beginning of the Belgian dioxin crisis when a significant reduction in hens' egg hatchability was observed. The relative contribution of PCBs to the total TEQ is on average 71% (range 55-92%) with a tendency to higher values in South-West Germany compared to different sites in East Germany or one site in northern Germany. Within a region, a wide range of contamination can be found. Even in the same cities (Stuttgart and Ludwigshafen), results derived from eggs collected in the same year (2003) varied by factors 5-10. These findings show the high degree of variation occurring even within the same kind of biological matrix. Therefore, to allow for comparison of regions or time trends, a considerable number of samples has to be analysed.

  13. Effects of parental and dietary PCBs on survival, growth, and body burdens of larval striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Westin, D.T.; Olney, C.E.; Rogers, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The relative contribution of parental and dietary sources of PCBs on the effects on survival and growth of striped bass larvae during their first month of life was investigated. Larvae of known PCBs body burden were fed for 20 days on ARTEMIA diets containing high and low concentrations of PCBs. The inherited and dietary concentrations had no effect on survival and growth after yolk absorption. Residue analysis of eggs and larvae showed a consistent reduction of PCBs concentration over time regardless of the PCBs level in the diet. The reduction in total PCBs reflects dilution of PCB from paretal sources by the accretion of relatively uncontaminated tissue during the period of rapid larval growth. (JMT)

  14. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs.

  15. Potential influence of acetone in aquatic bioassays testing the dynamics and effects PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Mac, M.J.; Seelye, J.G.

    1981-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of acetone on uptake of PCBs and growth in fish, a study was conducted in which fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to relatively low levels of PCBs in water and food with and without the addition of acetone to the water. Fry receiving PCBs with acetone accumulated significantly more PCBs after 52 days than did fry not receiving acetone. Significant differences, however, did not occur until day 52, and up to day 41, both groups of fry accumulated PCBs rapidly, but from day 41 to day 52, little accumulation of PCBs occurred. Significant growth rate differences were also noted in the two groups, with the group receiving acetone being less in length and weight.

  16. Toxicity of arsenic and PCBs to fry of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus)

    SciTech Connect

    Passino, D.R.M.; Kramer, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    As the initial step in determing the potential role of arsenic and PCBs in the decline of Lake Michigan ciscoes, the objectives were to measure the acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of arsenic and PCBs, singly and in combination, for cisco fry; to determine the additive index for arsenic and PCBs; and to evaluate the adequacy of water quality criteria for these contaminants relative to protecting ciscoes.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.

  18. Adsorption characteristics of PCBs to resins, whole cells, cell and tissue components, and biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Conrad, J.; Akin, C.

    1990-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been designated hazardous chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although PCBs and PCB-containing oils have not been in use since 1977, they persist in the environment. They are known to be absorbed by various aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. The nature of these affinities is not known. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) compared the adsorption phenomenon of PCBs on commercial resins, whole bacterial cells, cell and tissue component, and various biomolecules. Adsorption and desorption of PCBs to biomolecules and resins in both aqueous and nonaqueous conditions were examined. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  20. Using stable isotopes to track biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through stream food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. M.; Fritz, K. M.; Johnson, B. R.; Lazorchak, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC, USA), a stream that received >400,000 lbs of PCBs from 1955-1978. Our goals were to determine if PCBs biomagnify in streams and to measure the relative importance of heterotrophic and autotrophic pathways for biomagnification. Sites were sampled during spring (n=6) and fall (n=4) 2003-04. Major components of the foodweb were analyzed for total PCBs, δ13C and δ15N. Biomagnification was apparent as mean δ15N strongly predicted PCBs (r2 = 0.58), and PCBs consistently increased with trophic level. We found no consistent patterns related to carbon pathways. δ13C and PCBs were uncorrelated, suggesting that carbon source was unrelated to biomagnification. However, mean PCB tissue concentration in grazers were double those in shredders (Stenonema modestum, 970 ppb versus Tipula and Pteronarcys spp, 370 ppb) even though concentrations were similar for periphyton and conditioned leaves. Our results show that PCBs biomagnify and persist in streams but the importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways are unclear. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  1. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Bellward, G.D. ); Elliott, J.E.; Whitehead, P.E. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r[sup 2] = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988.

  3. Correlation coefficients between the dioxin levels in mother's milk and the distances to the nearest waste incinerator which was the largest source of dioxins from each mother's place of residence in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tajimi, M; Uehara, R; Watanabe, M; Oki, I; Ojima, T; Nakamura, Y

    2005-12-01

    To observe the relationship between the PCDD/F and Co-PCB levels in samples of human breast milk and nearby waste incinerators in Tokyo, Japan. Breast milk was taken from 240 mothers residing in Tokyo, Japan to measure and analyze the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs; 14 congeners), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs; 15 congeners), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs; 12 congeners) contained in the fat. Individual milk samples (about 50 ml) were obtained from the mothers 30 days after delivery, between the months of June and September in 1999 and 2000. A map of Tokyo was used to measure the distances between each mother's place of residence and the closest public and industrial waste incinerators. The distances to the nearest waste incinerators bore no apparent correlations with the congeners of PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs. The distances were also uncorrelated with the mean toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) of PCDD/Fs (the sum of PCDDs and PCDFs), Co-PCBs, and the total PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs. Although waste incinerators were the largest source of dioxins in Japan at the time of the study, the dioxins levels of mother's milk bore no apparent relationships with the distances between the mothers' domiciles and the nearest waste incinerators. In this study, several meaningful factors were not taken into account, namely, the wind direction, the level of dioxin emitted from each incinerator, the level of environmental pollution of dioxins, and the average time the mothers stayed at home each day. A full understanding of these points awaits future studies.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g(-)(1) wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  5. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes basin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Ng, P; Norstrom, R J; Brooks, R J; Pettit, K E

    1996-11-01

    Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) eggs from five sites within the Great Lakes basin, and from a reference site in north-central Ontario were collected during 1981-1991 and analyzed for four organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including six non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The pattern of geographic variation was consistent over time in eggs with Cootes Paradise/ Hamilton Harbour and Lynde Creek eggs on Lake Ontario containing the highest concentrations and most PCDD and PCDF congeners among all sites. Eggs from Cranberry Marsh on Lake Ontario contained organochlorine concentrations similar to those from Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie except PCDDs and PCDFs which occurred at higher concentrations and more congeners were detectable in Cranberry Marsh eggs. Concentrations of most contaminants in turtle eggs from Algonquin Park, the reference site, have significantly decreased in the past decade. Dieldrin concentrations, however, increased in Algonquin Park eggs from 1981 to 1989. Significant decreases in concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, mirex and PCBs occurred between turtle eggs collected in 1981/84 and 1989 at Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park, whereas there was no significant change in concentrations of p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. In Lake Ontario eggs, concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and dieldrin increased significantly between 1984 and 1991. Differences were also found in patterns of temporal variation in contamination between herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and snapping turtles which were attributed to differences in diet. Elevated and continued contamination in turtle eggs from Lake. Ontario is probably due to a combination of local sources of chemicals and consumption of large migratory fish that spawn in wetlands inhabited by these turtles.

  6. Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper.

  7. Investigations into the vertical distribution of PCDDs and mineralogy in three ball clay cores from the United States exhibiting the natural formation pattern.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Damien; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert L; Burns, Peter C; Andersson, Rolf

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we report the PCDD and mineralogical results from the analyses of 27 different samples from three ball clay cores from different locations in Kentucky and Tennessee. One goal of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between the mineralogy of the ball clay samples and the PCDD concentrations and/or homologue profiles in each sample. Samples from each of the three cores exhibited the natural formation profile with extremely high PCDD concentrations with low and mostly undetectable levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The maximum toxic equivalents (TEQs) for Cores C-E were 2500, 440, and 15,000 pg WHO-TEQ/g, respectively. Although there does not seem to be a direct correlation between mineralogy and PCDD concentrations or homologue profiles, the mineralogy of Core C is substantially different than that of Cores D and E, which may in part explain the differences in congener patterns we observed among the three cores.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Residual Strain in PCBs with Cu-Plated Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudajevova, A.; Dušek, K.

    2017-08-01

    The residual strain in pure printed circuit boards (PCBs) and PCBs with Cu-plated holes has been obtained by measurement of the temperature dependence of their dilatational characteristics in the x, y, and z directions up to 240°C. Shrinkage in all directions was observed for all samples of both materials in the first thermal cycle. No permanent length changes were observed in the second or subsequent thermal cycles. The residual strain was determined from the difference in relative elongation between the first and second thermal cycles. Relaxation of residual strain occurred only in the first thermal cycle, as a thermally activated process. The highest value of relaxed residual strain was found in the z direction for both materials. Relaxation of residual strain in the z direction of the pure PCB occurred only in the negative strain range, whereas relaxation of the PCB with Cu-plated holes occurred in both the positive and negative strain ranges. The relaxation of the positive strain in the PCB with Cu-plated holes in the z direction implies that this part of the PCB was under pressure during its preparation. This relaxation is a consequence of the high coefficient of thermal expansion of PCB laminate in this direction, which can also lead to cracks in Cu holes when the material is heated above the glass-transition temperature.

  10. Comparisons of PCBs dechlorination occurrences in various contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Chen, I M; Chang, F C; Hsu, M F; Wang, Y S

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was made of reductive dechlorination occurrences of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by microorganisms collected from contaminated sediments including Er-Jen River (Tainan, Taiwan), Hudson River (Ft. Edward, NY), Silver Lake (Pittsfield, MA) and Puget Sound (Washington State). Comparisons was made in terms of chromatographic data (referring to the biological activity, including microbial availability) and thermodynamic data (demonstrating the selectivity of anaerobic microorganisms in the dechlorination of chlorinated compounds). Chromatographic data was established in terms of difference in relative retention time (delta ln RRT) and thermodynamic data was estimated as heat of reaction (delta H(r)0). Both were calculated and correlated to occurrences of dechlorination reactions. Observed dechlorination reactions for individually introducing PCB congener had delta ln RRT levels measured as >0.47 (Er-Jen River), >0.29 (Hudson River), >0.36 (Silver Lake) and >0.45 (Puget Sound, for Aroclor 1254 dechlorination). Critical of delta H(r)0 and delta ln RRT values showed that Hudson River and Silver Lake microorganisms were capable of dechlorinating PCBs through reactions with larger H(r)0 value (lower levels of released energy) and smaller delta ln RRT value compared with those found in Er-Jen River and Puget Sound sediments. Differences in the critical delta ln RRT values of these sediments may be due to differences in their levels of PCB contamination.

  11. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures.

  12. Bioaccumulation of metals and PCBs in Raja clavata.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Micaelo, Cristina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2016-12-15

    The goal of this study was to assess stable isotopes profiles, metals concentration and PCBs in Raja clavata muscle and liver, according to sex and size, and to elucidate its suitability as a Mid-Atlantic biomonitor. The results reflected bioaccumulation and suggested biomagnification processes for As and Hg in muscle tissue. Cd, Cu and Zn were detected in high amounts in liver, Cr, Mn and Rb were relatively stable and low, Pb was not detected and Sr was present in muscle at high levels, decreasing with length. Hg and Se were strongly correlated, suggesting a mitigation role. Both tissues presented low concentrations of PCBs, especially the dioxin-like congeners, although always higher in liver and not correlated with size. None of these contaminants exceed EU legislated limits. However, they need to be monitored given study area's location, volcanic nature and the expected increase of anthropogenic activity related to future prospective mining activities and the establishment of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between Europe and the USA.

  13. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. PMID:22573988

  14. Contrasting retinoid and thyroid hormone status in differentially-contaminated northern fulmar colonies from the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Jonathan; Helgason, Lisa B; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Dam, Maria; Braune, Birgit M

    2013-02-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) has previously been shown to accumulate a wide range, and occasionally high concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) (e.g., PCBs, chlorobenzenes, DDT- and chlordane-related compounds, dioxins and furans). The present study aimed to investigate, using a meta-analysis approach, the variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A-like enzyme induction based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD) and selected physiological variables (retinoids and thyroid hormones) in northern fulmar breeding in three differentially OC-exposed populations: Nunavut (Canadian Arctic), Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) and the Faroe Islands. Substantially higher (roughly two-fold) OC levels were uncovered in the liver of this long-lived fulmarine petrel breeding in the Faroe Islands relative to Svalbard and Nunavut. Liver levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Faroe Islands fulmars were amongst the highest reported thus far in any seabirds from the northern regions. Positive correlations were depicted in combined fulmars (all three populations) between hepatic EROD activity and concentrations of OCs, in which strongest associations were found for dioxin-like compound (PCDFs and PCDDs) and TEQ concentrations. Moreover, moderate to strong positive correlations were found between liver OC concentrations and plasma total thyroxin (TT(4)) levels and TT(4)/total triiodothyronine (TT(3)) level ratios, as well as strong negative correlations between the same suite of OCs and plasma TT(3) levels. Hepatic OC concentrations (PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB, p,p'-DDE and oxychlordane) also were positively correlated with hepatic retinyl palmitate levels which, in turn, were associated with a significant decrease in plasma retinol levels and somewhat unchanged liver retinol levels. The present meta-analysis investigation on northern fulmar breeding in three geographically-distant sites illustrated that OC exposure (mainly PCBs and dioxins/furans) may be associated with

  15. Dietary Accumulation of PCBs from a Contaminated Sediment Source by a Demersal Fish Species (Leiostomus xanthurus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    PCBs prior to dietary exposure and to provide a PCB- contaminated food source . Whole bcdy concentrations of PCBs in spot and sandworms exposed to...potential food ., source for infaunal and epibenthic food webs. 23. Current regulations dealing with conditions for the release of 4 contaminoted

  16. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  17. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  18. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  19. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  20. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  1. PCBs in Fish: A Problem? Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.; And Others

    In this secondary school unit, students investigate the health effects and methods for controlling polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The teacher's manual contains a materials list, objectives, teaching strategies, supplementary information on PCBs, and answers to questions included in the accompanying student workbook. Activities presented include…

  2. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  3. Endometriosis and Organochlorinated Environmental Pollutants: A Case–Control Study on Italian Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Porpora, Maria Grazia; Medda, Emanuela; Abballe, Annalisa; Bolli, Simone; De Angelis, Isabella; di Domenico, Alessandro; Ferro, Annamaria; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Maggi, Antonella; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti; De Felip, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. In industrialized countries, it affects approximately 10% of women of reproductive age. Its etiology is unclear, but a multifactorial origin is considered to be most plausible. Environmental organochlorinated persistent pollutants, in particular dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been hypothesized to play a role in the disease etiopathogenesis. However, results of studies carried out on humans are conflicting. Objective We evaluated the exposure to organochlorinated persistent pollutants as a risk factor for endometriosis. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Rome on 158 women comprising 80 cases and 78 controls. In all women, serum concentrations of selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p′-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined by ion-trap mass spectrometry. DR-CALUX bioassay was employed to assess the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and DL-PCBs. Results We found an increased risk of endometriosis for DL-PCB-118 [odds ratio (OR) = 3.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.61–8.91], NDL-PCB-138 (OR = 3.78; 95% CI, 1.60–8.94), NDL-PCB-153 (OR = 4.88; 95% CI, 2.01–11.0), NDL-PCB-170 (OR = 3.52; 95% CI, 1.41–8.79), and the sum of DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs (OR = 5.63; 95% CI, 2.25–14.10). No significant associations were observed with respect to HCB or to the sum of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs given as total TEQs. Conclusions The results of this study show that an association exists between increased PCB and p,p′-DDE serum concentrations and the risk of endometriosis. PMID:19654915

  4. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guodong; Herath, H M S K; Wang, Yujun; Cang, Long; Xie, Zubin; Zhou, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment.

  5. [Assessment on PCBs wastes treatment technologies including incineration, cement kiln and secure landfill].

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Lü, Yong-Long; Shi, Ya-Juan; Wang, Tie-Yu; Luo, Wei; Wang, Guang; Ma, Hu; Sun, Ya-Mei

    2007-03-01

    Analytic hierarchy process and a specialist investigation were applied to value the three PCBs treatment technologies qualitatively and quantitatively, in which the environmental, technological, social and economic factors were considered. The most important factor is thought to be environmental impact. Incineration is proved to be the most suitable technology in this period according to the research. For the high concentration of PCBs pollutants, or the low concentration of PCBs pollutants with good economic performance and large quantity of waste, incineration is considered the best. For the low concentration of PCBs pollutants in the area with bad economic performance and with little quantity of waste, cement kiln and landfill are thought to be suitable. It is also suggested that pollutants be treated at the nearest place. What's more, the measures to improve the three technologies are discussed and the policy comments on PCBs treatment are presented.

  6. Zero-valent iron-promoted dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Fei-Wen; Larson, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Zero-valent iron promoted the dechlorination of PCBs (Aroclors 1221 and 1254) at elevated temperatures in an oxygen-limited environment. At temperatures higher than 300{degrees}C, dechlorination of Aroclor 1221 began to occur; at 400{degrees}C, the major reaction product, biphenyl, was observed in highest yield. (At this temperature most of the PCBs were dechlorinated to biphenyl within 10 min.) At temperatures of 500{degrees}C or higher, dechlorination and other reactions of PCBs took place. At 600{degrees}C, almost all PCBs were destroyed by reactions other than hydrogenolytic dechlorination. Similar reactions were observed with the more highly chlorinated Aroclor 1254. Water or other impurities associated with the iron surface may donate protons or hydrogen atoms to the PCBs and take part in other reactions.

  7. Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk. PMID:14754570

  8. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    SciTech Connect

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. )

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  9. Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    PubMed

    Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk.

  10. Selected polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Bencko, V; Skulová, Z; Krecmerová, M; Liem, A K

    1998-08-01

    Breast milk samples were collected and analysed within a comprehensive programme co-ordinated by WHO EURO to evaluate the possible health risk for breast-fed infants in chosen localities of European countries ('exposed' and 'control' ones). The samples of breast milk were collected, stored transported and analysed by a standardised study protocol to assure the comparability of the results from different areas (of 19 European countries). The study included three categories of chemicals: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxine like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other PCBs. The results obtained confirmed the correct choice of 'exposed' and 'control' regions in the Czech Republic as a suitable tool used to identify certain geographical areas with relatively high exposure levels for further risk management actions and possible follow-up epidemiological studies. The results obtained have shown high levels of PCBs in exposed region but not in the dioxine-like fraction, that ranged within a lower rank of a relevant European data. PCDs/PCDFs levels ranged in the same lower rank of values in comparison with e.g. Benelux countries. The data of this study does not confirm ideas about wide spread excessive exposure of central European population to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons via excessive contamination of a local food basket.

  11. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... records by importers and persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.185 Section 761... POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. (a) In addition to meeting the basic requirements...

  12. Enabling technologies for the rapid dechlorination of polychloroarenes and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Garella, Davide; Beltramo, Lara; Carnaroglio, Diego; Mantegna, Stefano; Roggero, Carlo Maria

    2013-07-01

    Dielectric heating and acoustic cavitation (ultrasound or high-performance disperser) may all dramatically enhance conversion rates and yields in heterogeneous metal-assisted organic reactions even when low reagent excesses are used. These so called "enabling technologies" bring with them process intensification, safer protocols, cost reduction and energy savings. We herein describe a series of rapid polychlorinated aromatic and PCBs dechlorinations (15min) carried out in a moderate excess of metallic sodium and using non-conventional techniques. We compared the results with those obtained for reactions carried out under conventional heating and with those performed with less reactive metals such as magnesium and zinc. In this comparison, high-intensity ultrasound stands out as the technique of choice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) by phytoplankton is correlated to the compound's octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) in a predictive relationship in laboratory experiments, and to confirm these findings with field observations. In laboratory experiments the authors measured the uptake of 40 representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners over time under conditions that inhibited and allowed phytoplankton growth. Results indicated that the bioaccumulation process is consistent with partitioning from water into cell lipids but is slower than previously thought. The uptake of PCBs was slow relative to growth of phytoplankton, preventing the chemical from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium in algal cells under conditions promoting growth (nonwinter). Thus under non-winter field conditions, many PCB congeners never reach equilibrium concentrations. Food-chain models that assume equilibrium between HOCs and the primary trophic level could be inaccurate and may need to use a kinetic framework.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Phillip G; Walker, Mary K

    2009-10-01

    The developing cardiovascular system is a sensitive target of many environmental pollutants, including dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some pesticides such as methyl parathion. Laboratory research has utilized a variety of vertebrate models to elucidate potential mechanisms that mediate this cardioteratogenicity and to establish the sensitivity of different species for predicting potential risk to environmental and human health. Studies of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs have illustrated that piscine, avian, and mammalian embryos exhibit cardiovascular structural changes and functional deficits, although the specific characteristics vary among the individual models. Piscine models typically exhibit reduced blood flow, altered heart looping, and reduced heart size and contraction rate. The chick embryo exhibits extensive cardiac dilation, thinner ventricle walls, and reduced responsiveness to chronotropic stimuli, while the murine embryo exhibits reduced heart size. It is notable that in all models the dioxin-associated cardioteratogenicity is associated with increases in cardiovascular apoptosis and decreases in cardiocyte proliferation. While the cardiotertogenicity in piscine and avian species is associated with overt morbidity and mortality, that is not the case for the murine embryo. However, murine offspring exposed during development to dioxin exhibit cardiac hypertrophy and an increased sensitivity to a second cardiovascular insult in adulthood. Thus, although the mammalian embryo is less sensitive to cardiovascular defects by dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, developmental exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The impact of developmental exposure to dioxin-like chemicals on human cardiovascular disease susceptibility is not known. However, recent animal research has confirmed human epidemiology studies that dioxin exposure in adulthood is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery.

  18. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury levels in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in British Columbia, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.; Langelier, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Liver samples from 70 bald eagles found dead or dying in British Columbia between 1988 and 1993 were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury levels. A subset of 11 eagles found around the Strait of Georgia, an area of known pulp mill pollution, in summer (and therefore presumably resident birds) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Levels of DDE and PCBs ranged from less than 1 mg/kg to 190 and 65 mg/kg respectively. Levels of other organochlorines were generally less than 1 mg/kg, with the exception of some chlordane-related compounds which were occasionally over 2 mg/kg. All birds analyzed for PCDDs/PCDFs contained detectable levels of the major 2,378-substituted isomers. Some birds had extremely high levels, one eagle collected near a kraft pulp mill site contained: 400 ng/kg 2378-TCDD, 1400 ng/kg 12378-PnCDD and 4400 ng/kg 123678-HxCDD. All but two eagles had > 1 mg/kg dry wt. of mercury in liver; most contained less than 1 0 mg/kg d.w. but one bird had 130 mg/kg, a level of toxicological concern. All carcasses were autopsied and cause of death determined wherever possible. The relationship between cause of death and sublethal exposure to OCs and Hg is analyzed and discussed.

  19. Effect of solid waste landfill organic pollutants on groundwater in three areas of Sicily (Italy) characterized by different vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Indelicato, Serena; Orecchio, Santino; Avellone, Giuseppe; Bellomo, Sergio; Ceraulo, Leopoldo; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Di Stefano, Vita; Favara, Rocco; Candela, Esterina Gagliano; La Pica, Leonardo; Morici, Sabina; Pecoraino, Giovannella; Pisciotta, Antonino; Scaletta, Claudio; Vita, Fabio; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Bongiorno, David

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information on the presence and levels of hazardous organic pollutants in groundwater located close to solid waste landfills. Eighty-two environmental contaminants, including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 29 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 7 dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, PCDDs) and 10 furans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDFs) were monitored in areas characterised by different geological environments surrounding three municipal solid waste landfills (Palermo, Siculiana and Ragusa) in Sicily (Italy) in three sampling campaigns. The total concentrations of the 16 PAHs were always below the legal threshold. Overall, the Fl/Fl + Py diagnostic ratio revealed that PAHs had a petrogenic origin. VOC levels, except for two notable exceptions near Palermo landfill, were always below the legal limit. As concerns PCB levels, several samples were found positive with levels exceeding the legal limits. It is worth noting that the % PCB distribution differs from that of commercial compositions. In parallel, some samples of groundwater containing PCDDs and PCDFs exceeding the legal threshold were also found. Among the 17 congeners monitored, the most abundant were the highest molecular weight ones.

  20. Effects of PCBs, DDT, and mercury compounds in chickens and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L

    1977-05-01

    In well-controlled experiments using white leghorn chickens and Japanese quail, dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and related compounds produced no detrimental effects on eggshell quality. A drastic reduction in hatchability of chicks occurred with 10-20 ppm PCBs, but no detrimental effects on eggshell quality, egg production or hatchability were found with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm PCBs, or DDT up to 100 ppm. Dietary PCBs potentiated a vitamin E-selenium deficiency in the chick, increased exudative diathesis, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase levels. Dietary PCBs induced hepatic microsomal benzopyrine hydroxylase. Dietary levles of 100 or 200 ppm inorganic mercury as HgSO4 or HgCl2 had little effect on egg production, hatchability, shell quality, morbidity and mortality. Methylmercury chloride, however, at levels providing 10 or 20 mg Hg/kg of diet, severely affected all of these parameters. Even though the present experiments demonstrate that neither DDT nor PCBs has any effect on eggshell quality in chickens and Japanese quail, they may cause thinning of eggshells in other species. Controlled experiments are lacking. Eagles, ospreys and pelicans all consume fish which in many areas of the world are known to contain methyl mercury. The thinning of eggshells in the species in the wild may have been due, at least in part, to environmental contamination with methylmercury rather than DDT, DDE or PCBs, as has been claimed.

  1. The effect of PCBs on glycogen reserves in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Encomio, V; Chu, F L

    2000-01-01

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic contaminants that may potentially affect mobilization of lipid reserves, increasing reliance on glycogen stores, which could otherwise be utilized to supply energy for gametogenesis. Thus, PCBs may indirectly affect glycogen stores in oysters in a deleterious manner. To test for this effect, reproductively inactive oysters were exposed to PCBs by feeding individuals 0.7 g of algal paste containing 0, 0.35, or 3.5 micrograms PCBs daily for 8 weeks. Additionally, a group of oysters was exposed to PCBs (0, 0.35, and 3.5 micrograms) plus 0.3 g of non-toxic artificial sediment to examine interactive effects of sediment particles and PCBs. Adductor muscle, mantle, and gonadal tissues were analyzed for glycogen content. Results suggest that glycogen content is reduced in the adductor muscle with increasing PCB exposure, but there are no effects of PCBs in the mantle and gonadal tissues.

  2. Intervention to reduce PCBs: learnings from a controlled study of Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2016-02-01

    Nonabsorbable dietary lipid reduces the absorption of dietary PCBs and increases the excretion of previously absorbed stored PCBs. Absorption of all PCB congeners will presumably be interrupted by nonabsorbable lipid; however excretion will be enhanced only for PCBs that have not been metabolized and also for their lipophilic metabolites. Our study with the nonabsorbable lipid, olestra, in a controlled trial in Anniston residents with elevated PCB levels demonstrated that it is possible to enhance removal of PCBs from the body in the clinically meaningful time frame of 1 year. The rate of disappearance of PCBs in participants who ate 15 g/day of olestra was significantly faster than the rate determined during the 5 years prior to intervention. The rate of disappearance was not changed from the pretrial rate in participants who ingested vegetable oil. Consideration of the role of body weight and fat is an important factor in the design of intervention trials of this kind, and the results of this trial suggest that the level of body fat in individuals will influence the rate of removal from the body. Previously reported data from animals and from a case report indicate that weight loss combined with nonabsorbable dietary lipid will maximize removal of PCBs and presumably other stored organochlorine compounds. The design of future intervention trials should include a focus on body fat levels and changes. Future trials should also include the testing of dietary compounds other than olestra that have affinity for PCBs, such as plant-derived polyphenols.

  3. Pollutants make rheumatic diseases worse: Facts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Abella, Vanessa; Pérez, Tamara; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pirozzi, Claudio; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, disturbing its metabolism and the balance of adipokines, related to obesity. The altering secretion pattern of adipokines from the adipose tissue and the increasing mechanical load in weight-bearing joints presented in obesity condition, are risk factors for osteoarthritis development. The most prevalent rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic conditions that target the whole joints, leading to increasing disability and health care cost. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of PCBs in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. A PubMed search was managed using keywords as "rheumatic diseases", "polychlorinated biphenyls", "obesity" and "endocrine disruption". The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis has been reported to be increased especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of environment in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Analysis of two cohorts exposed to PCBs food contamination showed high incidence of arthritis. In addition, PCBs in serum correlated positively with the prevalence of self-reported arthritis. Few studies support the hypothesis that osteoarthritis development could be related to PCBs induction of chondrocytes apoptosis. Evidences have emerged for a relationship between PCBs and development of several types of arthritis. Further research is encouraged to determine the correlation between PCBs exposure and the development of rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in indoor air environment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qizhou; Min, Xia; Weng, Mili

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial production due to the unique physical and chemical properties. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, the PCBs would lead to environment pollution and cause serious problems for human health. Thus, they have been banned since the 1980s due to the environment pollution in the past years. Indoor air is the most direct and important environment medium to human beings; thus, the PCBs pollution research in indoor air is important for the protection of human health. This paper introduces the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarizes the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compares the indoor air levels of urban areas with those of industrial areas in different countries according to various reports. This paper can provide a basic summary for PCBs pollution control in the indoor air environment. The review of PCBs pollution in indoor air in China is still limited. In this paper, we introduce the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarize the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compare the indoor air levels of urban areas with industrial areas in different countries according to various reports.

  5. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Natal and neonatal teeth in relation to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Alaluusua, Satu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Leppäniemi, Anu; Hölttä, Päivi; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Lope, Leena; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Renlund, Martin; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena; Kaleva, Marko; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-11-01

    Infants born to mothers heavily exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have earlier been reported to have increased prevalences of natal and neonatal teeth. Some tendency toward higher prevalence figures of natal and neonatal teeth can be seen in the literature in normal child populations during the last 40 y. We therefore decided to determine the present prevalence of these teeth in a Finnish population and to evaluate whether infants with natal and neonatal teeth are more exposed to PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) than infants on average. A total of 34,457 infants born in 1997-2000 in four hospitals in southern Finland were examined for natal and neonatal teeth. The exposure of the infant to PCBs and PCDD/Fs was evaluated by measuring the levels of 17 most toxic PCDD/F and 36 PCB congeners in his or her mother's milk sample when the child was 4-8 wk old. A total of 34 infants had one or two natal (29 infants) or neonatal teeth (five infants). The milk analyses showed that the median level of PCDD/Fs as toxic equivalent (World Health Organization-recommended 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent quantity for PCDD/Fs in fat) was 11.9 pg/g in fat, and that of PCBs (World Health Organization-recommended 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent quantity for PCBs) was 7.24 pg/g in fat. These levels corresponded to the prevailing levels. The results showed that the prevalence of natal and neonatal teeth was 1:1000. No association was found between pollutant levels and occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth, indicating that the prevailing levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs are likely to be below the threshold to cause perinatal eruption of teeth.

  7. Emission characterization of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants from iron ore sintering process in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bo; Huang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2012-10-01

    Emission of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (Unintentional POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were investigated in four typical iron ore sintering plants in China. The emission factors and annual mass releases of the Unintentional POPs were calculated. The results indicated that PCDFs contributed more than 60% to the overall toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values, while the contribution of the dl-PCBs is relatively low, and only in the range of 8-9%. The dominant congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contributing most to the total TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCB-126. With regard to the TEQ contributions, the most abundant homologues were PeCDFs and HxCDD/Fs, followed by PeCDDs and non-ortho dl-PCB, whereas HpCDD/Fs, OCDD/Fs and mono-ortho dl-PCBs almost made no contributions. Due to the massive use of recycled waste in the feeding materials, the average emission factor of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of the four plants was 3.95 μg WHO-TEQ ton(-1). Based on the results, the annual release of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in 2007-2009 were estimated to be 2070 g, 2212 g, and 2307 gWHO-TEQ, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cycling of PCBs and HCB in the surface ocean-lower atmosphere of the open Pacific.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Lohmann, Rainer

    2010-05-15

    Surface ocean and lower atmosphere samples were collected on the R/V Revelle during a scientific cruise from San Diego, CA to New Zealand via Samoa and the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) from 12/2006 to 1/2007. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). summation operator(ICES)PCBs gaseous concentrations (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) ranged from 28-103 pg m(-3) in the northern hemisphere (NH) and 1.5-36 pg m(-3) in the southern hemisphere (SH), whereas dissolved seawater concentrations were between 0.2-15 pg L(-1) in the NH and 0.3-7.8 pg L(-1) in the SH. Both gas ([PCBs](gas)) and dissolved phase concentrations ([PCBs](sw_dis)) displayed highest concentrations near North America and lowest in the SPG. In the NH, [HCB](gas) ranged from 42-89 pg m(-3), higher than the average in the SH (31 pg m(-3)), while [HCB](sw_dis) were comparable in both hemispheres (NH: 0.4-1.6 pg L(-1), SH: 0.4-0.8 pg L(-1)). Fugacity ratio calculations suggest PCBs were volatilizing from surface waters to the overlying atmosphere, and air-water exchange fluxes were approximately 0.5 to approximately 30.4 ng m(-2) d(-1). This is the first study reporting the degassing of PCBs from the open ocean into the air. Previous studies deduced net deposition of PCBs into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. As has been observed for other oceans, HCB was at/near air-water equilibrium. A mass balance model was used to interpret the short-term variations in [PCBs](gas) in the SPG, which was not observed for HCB. It is suggested that hydroxyl radical depletion reaction and air-water gas exchange together controlled the variation in [PCBs](gas).

  9. Watershed land use is strongly linked to PCBs in white perch in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan S; Beaman, Joseph R; Whigham, Dennis F; Hines, Anson H; Baker, Matthew E; Weller, Donald E

    2004-12-15

    We related total PCBs (t-PCBs) in white perch (Morone americana), an abundant estuarine resident that supports a valuable recreational and commercial fishery in the mid-Atlantic region, to the amount and spatial arrangement of developed land in watersheds that discharge into 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We considered the intensity of development in watersheds using four developed land-use measures (% impervious surface, % total developed land, % high-intensity residential + commercial [%high-res/comm], and % commercial) to represent potential source areas of PCBs to the subestuaries. We further evaluated the importance of source proximity by calculating three inverse-distance weighted (IDW) metrics of development, an approach that weighted developed land near the shoreline more heavily than developed land farther away. Unweighted percentages of each of the four measures of developed land explained 51-69% of the variance in t-PCBs. However, IDWs markedly improved the relationships between % developed land measures and t-PCBs. Percent commercial land, weighted by its simple inverse distance, explained 99% of the variance in t-PCBs, whereas the other three measures explained as much as 93-97%. PCBs historically produced or used in commercial and residential areas are apparently persisting in the environment atthe scale of the watersheds and subestuaries examined in this study, and developed land close to the subestuary has the greatest unit effect on t-PCBs in fish. These findings provide compelling evidence for a strikingly strong linkage between watershed land use and t-PCBs in white perch, and this relationship may prove useful for identifying unsampled subestuaries with a high risk of PCB contamination.

  10. Long-term sampling of dioxin-like substances from a clinker kiln stack using alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Austrui, J; Martinez, K; Marco-Almagro, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from a cement production plant where the existing clinker production line was completely replaced by a new state-of-the-art installation. The project started in April 2008 with the installation of a long-term sampling system in the stack of the clinker kiln that used petroleum coke as fuel; PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions were then evaluated for a two year period. To carry out the second part of the study, in 2010 the sampling system was moved to the new installation in which, apart from conventional fuel, recovered derived fuel (RDF) and WWTP sludge were used as alternative fuels. For both the old and new clinker kilns, PCDD/PCDF emission values were well below the limit established by the European Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/CE (EWID) of 100 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3); values ranged from 0.43 to 2.02 and from 0.07 to 3.31 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. dl-PCBs accounted for approximately 25% of the WHO-TEQ toxicity. These results prove that the installation is capable of reducing PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions when alternative fuels are integrated into the process. In the case of PCDDs/PCDFs, the major contributions to total TEQ were usually from 2,3,7,8-TCDD (owing to its relative abundance) and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (due to its high I-TEF of 0.5); while for dl-PCBs, the major contribution was from PCB-126. The slight shift in the congener profile between the old and new installations was characterized and a regression model was proposed for dl-PCB emissions depending on the RDF flow rate in the clinker.

  11. Serum concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of pregnant females and changes in their concentrations during gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard Y; Jain, Ram B; Wolkin, Amy F; Rubin, Carol H; Needham, Larry L

    2009-08-01

    In this study we evaluated the concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females residing in the United States and assessed differences in these concentrations in all pregnant females during gestation. We reviewed demographic and laboratory data for pregnant females participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including concentrations of 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 9 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 9 organochlorine pesticides. We report serum concentrations for first-time pregnant females (2001-2002; n = 49) and evaluate these concentrations in all pregnant females by trimester (1999-2002; n = 203) using a cross-sectional analysis. The chemicals with >or= 60% detection included PCBs (congeners 126, 138/158, 153, 180), PCDDs/PCDFs [1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1234678HpCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (123678HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (1234678HpCDF), 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethenylidene)-bis(4-chlorobenzene) (p,p'-DDE)], and trans-nonachlor. The geometric mean concentration (95% confidence intervals) for 1234678HpCDD was 15.9 pg/g lipid (5.0-50.6 pg/g); for 123678HxCDD, 9.7 pg/g (5.5-17.1 pg/g); and for 1234678HpCDF, 5.4 pg/g (3.3-8.7 pg/g). The differences in concentrations of these chemicals by trimester were better accounted for with the use of lipid-adjusted units than with whole-weight units; however, the increase in the third-trimester concentration was greater for PCDDs/PCDFs (123678HxCDD, 1234678HpCDF) than for the highest concentration of indicator PCBs (138/158, 153, 180), even after adjusting for potential confounders. The concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants in a sample of first-time pregnant females living in the United States suggest a decline in exposures to these chemicals since their ban or restricted use and emission. The redistribution of body burden for

  12. Influence of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides on formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-11-01

    Model fly ashes containing admixed Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides were heated at a temperature corresponding to the postcombustion zone of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), resulting in the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes (CBzs). The concentrations of these compounds were measured and compared with those occurring in real fly ash. The order with respect generative capacity of each metal additive was calculated from principal component analysis of the concentrations of the different chlorinated aromatic compounds as CuCl(2)*2H(2)O > Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl > FeCl(3)*6H(2)O > FeCl(2)*4H(2)O > CuO > Fe(2)O(3) > PbCl(2) > blank (no metal added) > ZnCl(2) > PbO > ZnO. From hierarchical cluster analysis of the concentrations and congener distribution patterns of the PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and CBzs, the metallic compounds were divided into five groups: Group A (CuCl(2)*2H(2)O and Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl), B (FeCl(3)*6H(2)O and FeCl(2)*4H(2)O), C (CuO and PbCl(2)), D (Fe(2)O(3), blank, and ZnCl(2)), and E (PbO and ZnO). Cluster analysis showed the congener distribution patterns of model fly ashes to be similar to the pattern of real MSWI fly ash. The formation of PCDDs was influenced mainly by group B, blank, and PbO; PCDFs, mainly by CuO, Fe(2)O(3) and ZnCl(2); PCBs, mainly by groups B and C; and CBzs, mainly by groups A and B. Thus, the multiple promotion of chlorinated aromatic compound formation by metallic chlorides and oxides in the fly ashes of MSWIs and other thermal processes has considerable importance for the environment.

  13. MOBILIZATION OF PAHS AND PCBS FROM IN-PLACE CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS DURING SIMULATED RESUSPENSION EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particle entrainment simulator was used to experimentally produce representative estuarine resuspension conditions to investigate the resulting transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the overlying water column. Contaminants ...

  14. Cancer Dose-Response Assessment for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Application to Environmental Mixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report updates the cancer dose-response assessment for PCBs and shows how information on toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes can be considered together to evaluate health risks from PCB mixtures in the environment.

  15. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  16. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on...

  17. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  18. Developmental Exposure to PCBs Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Audiogenic and Kindling-Induced Seizures in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported an increased incidence of audiogenic seizures in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study compares the proconvulsant properties of PCB exposure in audiogenic and electrical kindling seizu...

  19. Non-Dioxin-Like PCBs: Effects and Consideration In Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An estimated one million metric tons of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors (USA), Kanechlors (Japan) and Clophens (Germany), were manufactured (WHO, 1993) and used worldwide as dielectric fluids

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates transition metal based activation of peroxymonosulfate for generation of highly reactive sulfate radicals to degrade Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated aqueous and sediment systems. Environmental friendly transition metal iron (Fe (II), Fe (I...

  1. TREATMENT OF PAHS AND PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic systems pose serious threat to public health due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity [1]. Sulfate radical-based oxidation processes can be effectively used for degradation of these...

  2. Developmental Exposure to PCBs Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Audiogenic and Kindling-Induced Seizures in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported an increased incidence of audiogenic seizures in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study compares the proconvulsant properties of PCB exposure in audiogenic and electrical kindling seizu...

  3. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of biomagnification are from lentic systems, which are characterized by organic matter and sediment retention. However, biomagnification studies in streams are rare. This is surprising because PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants are known to biomagnify in ...

  4. Factors affecting the elimination of PCBs in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, George B.; Wyman, Kevin D.; Peterson, William T.; Wurster, Charles F.

    1983-10-01

    The effects of feeding, egg laying, and fecal pellet production on the elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the marine copepod Acartia tonsa were studied in a series of experiments. Copepods were exposed to 14C-labelled Aroclor 1254 and allowed to depurate in clean seawater. Copepods fed during depuration eliminated PCBs more rapidly than unfed copepods whether or not the original PCB exposure medium had contained food. Both eggs and fecal pellets contained PCBs during depuration, with the weight specific concentration of PCB in the eggs (up to 407 ppm, dry weight) exceeding four times that in the females that produced them. Female copepods eliminated PCBs twice as rapidly as males, indicating that egg production is an important route for PCB elimination.

  5. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of biomagnification are from lentic systems, which are characterized by organic matter and sediment retention. However, biomagnification studies in streams are rare. This is surprising because PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants are known to biomagnify in ...

  6. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  7. TREATMENT OF PAHS AND PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic systems pose serious threat to public health due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity [1]. Sulfate radical-based oxidation processes can be effectively used for degradation of these...

  8. U.S. EPA requires safer handling of PCBs in Imperial and Riverside Counties

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect public health and the environment from the risks of PCBs, said Jared Blumenfeld, EPA's Regional Administrator for the Pacific Southwest. Today's settlement means Imperial Irrigation District will be taking steps to counter the imp

  9. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  10. Simulation of Observed PCBs and Pesticides in the Water Column during the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Thibodeaux, Louis; Jones, Lee; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of persistent organic pollutants in the oceans are not well constrained, in particular during a bloom formation and collapse. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some pesticides were measured in air, water, and zooplankton tracking the North Atlantic Bloom in May 2008. Lower weight PCBs were entering the water column from the atmosphere during the main bloom period but reached equilibrium after the bloom collapsed. The PCBs in the lipids of zooplankton Calanus were in equilibrium with those in the dissolved phase. A Lagrangian box model was developed to simulate the dissolved phase PCBs and pesticides by including the following processes: air-water exchange, reversible sorption to POC, changes in mixed layer depth, removal by sinking particles, and degradation. Results suggest that sorption to (sinking) POC was the dominant removal process for hydrophobic pollutants from seawater. Statistical test suggested simulated results were not significantly different from observed values for hydrophobic pollutants (p,p'-DDE).

  11. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  12. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. IRON-PEROXYMONOSULFATE: A NOVEL SULFATE RADICAL BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the degradation of recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Sulfate radicals are generated through coupling of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)). Sulfate radicals have very ...

  14. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  15. A model for simulating the grinding and classification cyclic system of waste PCBs recycling production line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deming; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-09-15

    Crushing and separating technology is widely used in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling process. A set of automatic line without negative impact to environment for recycling waste PCBs was applied in industry scale. Crushed waste PCBs particles grinding and classification cyclic system is the most important part of the automatic production line, and it decides the efficiency of the whole production line. In this paper, a model for computing the process of the system was established, and matrix analysis method was adopted. The result showed that good agreement can be achieved between the simulation model and the actual production line, and the system is anti-jamming. This model possibly provides a basis for the automatic process control of waste PCBs production line. With this model, many engineering problems can be reduced, such as metals and nonmetals insufficient dissociation, particles over-pulverizing, incomplete comminuting, material plugging and equipment fever.

  16. Reduction of the body burden of PCBs and DDE by dietary intervention in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Heubi, James E; Buckley, Donna D; Khoury, Jane C; Turner, Wayman E; Sjödin, Andreas; Olson, James R; Shelton, Christie; Helms, Kim; Bailey, Tina D; Carter, Shirley; Tso, Patrick; Pavuk, Marian

    2014-04-01

    Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, AL, residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14 and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year prestudy rates. Eleven participants in the olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-coplanar PCB congeners during the 1-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pretrial period (-0.0829 ± 0.0357 and -0.00864 ± 0.0116 year(-1), respectively; P=.04), but not during VO consumption (-0.0413 ± 0.0408 and -0.0283 ± 0.0096 year(-1), respectively; P=.27). The concentration of PCBs in two olestra group participants decreased by 27% and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However, group main effects for total PCBs and PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes.

  17. Recycling of transformer oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using catalytic hydrodechlorination.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Min; Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oil was carried out in a batch mode to detoxify PCBs and to recycle the treated oil. Various metal supported catalysts, including 0.98 wt% Pt, 0.79 wt% Pd and 12.8 wt% Ni on gamma -alumina (gamma -Al(2)O(3)) support, and 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) support were used for the hydrodechlorination. Metal particle size of the Pt catalyst was 2.0 nm and metal particle sizes of the Pd and Ni catalysts were in the range of 6.4-6.9 nm. Various supercritical fluids, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), supercritical propane (scPropane), supercritical dimethyl ether (scDME) and supercritical isobutane (scIsobutane) were used as reaction media. PCBs conversion, dechlorination degree of PCBs, was measured using gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The hydrodechorination degree increased in the order Ni > Pd > Pt, possibly due to higher metal loading and larger metal size of the Ni catalysts. At temperatures below 175 degrees C, scCO(2) was effective as the reaction media for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of PCBs in the presence of the transformer oil. However, PCBs conversion decreased significantly when the hydrodechlorination was carried out in a homogeneous phase with using scPropane, scDME or scIsobutane as a reaction medium. This was attributed to dilution effect of the supercritical fluids. Molecular weights of the transformer oils before and after the catalytic hydrodechlorination were analyzed using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular weight of the treated oil with 100 % PCBs conversion did not change after the catalytic hydrodechlorination at 200 degrees C. This process has proven to be effective to detoxify PCBs containing transformer oil and to recycle the treated oil.

  18. The biological pathway and effect of PCBs on common terns in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Jablonski, Cindi; Semel, Brad; Soucek, David

    2010-11-01

    Poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been recognized as a significant contaminant in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Although PCBs are implicated in the reduced survival and reproductive success of several piscivorous bird species, the biological pathway in which PCBs bioaccumulate remains largely unknown. This study investigates the two most likely biological pathways, suggested via research on Great Lakes sport fish, by which PCBs would be acquired by common terns (Sterna hirundo), a piscivorous species of conservation concern. The first proposed pathway is through atmospheric deposition of PCBs which are subsequently acquired by filter-feeding fish (e.g., alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus). An alternative pathway is via the biodeposits of zebra mussels which are consumed by shallow water fish (e.g., round gobies, Neogobius melanostromus). Because common terns breed in near-shore sites where concentrations of zebra mussels are found, as well as forage in more pelagic environments it is possible that either or both pathways may be contributing to their PCB exposure. Field experiments and stable isotope analyses suggest the most likely pathway by which terns are exposed to PCBs is via alewives, similar to how apex predators such as lake trout acquire PCBs. Biodeposits from zebra mussels do not appear to be a significant factor in PCB accumulation in terns. We quantified extremely poor parental attentiveness during incubation. Although we cannot determine whether poor parental attentiveness alone or in combination with PCB contamination led to low hatching success, accumulation of PCBs appears to have significant impacts on the overall reproductive success of common terns.

  19. Exposure assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in pasteurised bovine milk using probabilistic modelling.

    PubMed

    Adekunte, Adefunke O; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative exposure assessment is a useful technique to investigate the risk from contaminants in the food chain. The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic exposure assessment model for dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in pasteurised bovine milk. Mean dioxins and DL-PCBs (non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs) concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in bovine milk were estimated as 0.06 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for dioxins and 0.08 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for DL-PCBs using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated model estimated mean exposure for dioxins was 0.19 ± 0.29 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)bw d(-1) and 0.14 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and for DL-PCBs was 0.25 ± 0.30 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men and women, respectively. This study showed that the mean dioxins and DL-PCBs exposure from consumption of pasteurised bovine milk is below the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (equivalent of 2.3 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). Results from this study also showed that the estimated dioxins and DL-PCBs concentration in pasteurised bovine milk is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrogenic followed by anti-estrogenic effects of PCBs exposure in juvenil fish (Spaurus aurata).

    PubMed

    Calò, M; Alberghina, D; Bitto, A; Lauriano, E R; Lo Cascio, P

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospho-lipo-glycoprotein produced by oviparous animals in response to estrogen receptor (ER) binding. The presence of Vtg in juvenile and male fish liver and plasma has been used as biomarker to evaluate levels of environmental contaminants as dioxin and PCBs. Interaction of dioxins and PCBs with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may affect reproduction by recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PCB-126, a co-planar PCB prototypical AhR agonist, and of PCB-153, a non-coplanar PCB lacking dioxine-like activity, on Vtg expression in young fish (Spaurus aurata) after a 12 or 24h exposure to PCBs as well as 48h following PCBs removal. Vtg expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western-blot analysis. Our results showed an increased Vtg expression following PCBs administration, with a maximum level after 12h of exposure to either PCB-126, PCB-153 or a mixture of both PCBs. Following this estrogenic activity, an anti-estrogenic activity was detected after 24h of incubation with PCB-126 (alone or mixed with PCB-153), suggested by a decrease in Vtg expression likely through AhR, as a consequence of a hypothetic defence mechanism to endogenous or exogenous ligands. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  2. Studies of transformer repair workers exposed to PCBs. II. Results of clinical laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, E.A.; Maroni, M.; Jefferys, J.; Schmith, J.; Levin, B.K.; Alvares, A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight transformer repairmen currently exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 former transformer repairmen, and 56 comparison workers not known to be exposed to PCBs were studied. Measurements were made of serum liver function tests, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipid profile, thyroid function tests, and other serum biochemistry; hemoglobin; white cell count; 24-hour excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, 17-hydroxycorticosteriods and 17-ketosteroids; sperm count; spirometry; and antipyrine half-life to evaluate microsomal mixed function oxidase induction. The total exposed group differed significantly from the comparison group in albumin, LDH, T4, T4-RT3 index, and actual/predicted FEV1. Significant differences among all three exposure groups were seen for albumin, T4, T4-RT3 index, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. Differences in FEV1 were attributable to smoking. Significant correlations between serum PCBs and serum lipids were removed by adjustment for confounding variables. After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PCBs and GGT and a negative correlation between adipose PCBs and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. These may reflect subtle metabolic effects of PCBs.

  3. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS): PCB – health Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie; Specht, Ina Olmer; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Ebbehøj, Niels; Bailey, Janice; Giwercman, Aleksander; Steenland, Kyle; Longnecker, Matthew Paul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have been measured were created. An individual estimate of long-term airborne PCB exposure was assigned based on measurements. The cohorts will be linked to eight different national data sources on mortality, school records, residential history, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease and reproductive outcomes. The linking of indoor air exposures with health outcomes provides a dataset unprecedented worldwide. We describe a project, called HESPERUS (Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools), which will be the first study of the long term health effects of the lower-chlorinated, semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. PMID:27090775

  4. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation.

  5. Direct and indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the Delaware River watershed.

    PubMed

    Totten, Lisa A; Panangadan, Maya; Eisenreich, Steven J; Cavallo, Gregory J; Fikslin, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition can be an important source of PCBs to aquatic ecosystems. To develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the tidal Delaware River (water-quality Zones 2-5), estimates of the loading of PCBs to the river from atmospheric deposition were generated from seven air-monitoring sites along the river. This paper presents the atmospheric PCB data from these sites, estimates direct atmospheric deposition fluxes, and assesses the importance of atmospheric deposition relative to other sources of PCBs to the river. Also, the relationship between indirect atmospheric deposition and PCB loads from minor tributaries to the Delaware River is discussed. Data from these sites revealed high atmospheric PCB concentrations in the Philadelphia/Camden urban area and lower regional background concentrations in the more remote areas. Wet, dry particle, and gaseous absorption deposition are estimated to contribute about 0.6, 1.8, and 6.5 kg year-(-1) sigmaPCBs to the River, respectively, exceeding the TMDL of 0.139 kg year(-1) by more than an order of magnitude. Penta-PCB watershed fluxes were obtained by dividing the tributary loads by the watershed area. The lowest of these watershed fluxes are less than approximately 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for penta-PCB and probably indicates pristine watersheds in which PCB loads are dominated by atmospheric deposition. In these watersheds, the pass-through efficiency of PCBs is estimated to be on the order of 1%.

  6. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs < HCHs < PCBs, and their mass fractions ranged from 0.29-32.91, 0.09-13.19 and 0.16-4.10 μg/kg (dry mass), respectively. The levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased slowly from 2009 to 2013, with considerably greater concentrations in winter than in spring and summer. In this study area, the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs decreased gradually towards the mouth of Hangzhou Bay, while the concentrations of PCBs were related to changes in the local economy. In addition, the sources of HCHs and DDTs were identified as atmospheric precipitation and historical residues. Finally, we predicted that PCBs pollution primarily originated from Aroclor 1254(Lot A4), which might root in the illegal demolition and stacking of abandoned paint, transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  7. [PCBs concentrations in human milk collected from a polluted area--exposure risk for feeding infants].

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Min; Yu, Su-Xia; Jiang, Shi-Xi; Wu, Nan-Xiang; Zhang, Xing

    2006-09-01

    To determine the concentration of PCBs and the distribution of dioxin-like compounds in human milk collected from a polluted area where discarded electronic equipment is dismantled, and to evaluate the risk for feeding infants. The authors collected 20 and 12 milk samples from the polluted area and nearby town, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for total PCBs (t-PCBs) by gas chromatography, and two mixed milk samples from the two areas were detected the distribution of dioxin-like compounds. t-PCBs in human milks of polluted area and control area were 0.39 - 3.92 microg/g fat and 0.46 microg/g (only one sample was detectable), respectively. The TEQ of PCB126 contribute to total TEQ of dioxin-like compounds was similar to other countries and regions. The TEQs of PCBs of the polluted and control area were 59 pg/g fat and 6 pg/g fat, respectively. The TEQ of PCBs of polluted area was much higher than other countries and regions, and the dioxin-like compounds intake of infants was much higher than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for dioxin recommended by WHO.

  8. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of PCBs in water on uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesselberg, Robert J.; Nicholson, Lawrence W.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers predicted that several hundred years would be required before DDT (1,1,1 trichloro-2,2-bis [P-chlorophyl] ethane) and its metabolites were likely to decrease to nondetectable levels in Lake Michigan. But following the ban on DDT in 1970, residues of total DDT in Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) declined rapidly from 10.5µg/g in 1970 to 5.7 µg/g in 1976. During this period, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were being detected in lake trout tissues at about 20 µg/g. It was hypothesized that the high level of PCBs being accumulated by fish may have influenced uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene) by fish. To test this hyphophesis, fingeriing lake trout were exposed to various combinations of DDT, DDE (100 ng/liter), and PCBs (100 and 500 ng/liter) in water for 12 weeks. After DDT and DDe exposures were completed, exposure to PCBs was continued for an additional 16 weeks to measure any effect PCBs may have on the elimination of DDT and DDE by fish. Accumulation and elimination rates of DDT and DDE were compared. It was found that PCBs did not influence the accumulation or elimination rates of DDT or DDE in lake trout and therefore should not have had a major influence on the decline of DDT in lake trout.

  10. PCBs in schools--where communities and science come together.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, David; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-02-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program's Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings.

  11. Mechanism of biosynthesis of methylsulfones from PCBs and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mio, T.; Sumino, K.

    1985-02-01

    Mercapto-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl- and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and some other chlorobenzenes were identified in adipose tissues of mice, rats and guinea pigs by using GC/MS/COM systems. By means of administration of CD/sub 3/-methionine, it was confirmed that the methyl group in methylthio metabolites was derived from the methionine. Moreover, after pretreatment with either esterification of urinary metabolites in guinea pigs with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene or N-acetylation after esterification, it was confirmed that cysteinylglycine, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteamine, mercaptopyruvate, mercaptolactate, mercaptacetate, thiol and disulfide conjugates were detected as a serial modified derivatives of glutathione moiety. These results are summarized as a metabolic proposed pathway of halogenated aromatic compounds. Three routes in pathway correspond to oxygenation (initial route), glutathione thioether disposition (intermediate route) and sulfoxydation (final route) in connection with both reactive intermediates of epoxide and thiol. Methylation of the thiol by S-adenosylmethionine may be important in inhibiting covalent binding of reactive intermediates with biocomponents, similar to the glutathione conjugation for the detoxification of epoxide.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Africa: a review of environmental levels.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Akindele, Abidemi James; Adebusoye, Sunday Adekunle; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Buekens, Alfons; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown an increase in PCB sources in Africa due to leakage and wrongly disposed transformers, continuing import of e-waste from countries of the North, shipwreck, and biomass burning. Techniques used in the recycling of waste such as melting and open burning to recover precious metals make PCBs contained in waste and other semivolatile organic substances prone to volatilization, which has resulted in an increase of PCB levels in air, blood, breast milk, and fish in several regions of Africa. Consequences for workers performing these activities without adequate measures of protection could result in adverse human health effects. Recent biodegradation studies in Africa have revealed the existence of exotic bacterial strains exhibiting unique and unusual PCB metabolic capability in terms of array of congeners that can serve as carbon source and diversity of congeners attacked, marking considerable progress in the development of effective bioremediation strategies for PCB-contaminated matrices such as sediments and soils in tropical regions. Action must be taken to find and deal with the major African sources of these pollutants. The precise sources of the PCB plume should be pinned down and used to complete the pollutant inventories of African countries. These nations must then be helped to safely dispose of the potentially dangerous chemicals.

  13. Development of a portable field monitor for PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    With the advent of recent regulations and those yet pending concerning allowable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), personnel in all aspects of the electric power industry, analytical support personnel, and those in the regulatory functions themselves have realized that the PCB problem, as well as these associated regulations, has far surpassed available monitoring capability. In short, detailed, stringent regulations are being set for contamination levels where no accepted ASTM procedure or instrumentation exists. The largest PCB problems occur in the form of PCB-contaminated oil in field transformers and storage containers, and pure askarel in transformers and capacitors. The most immediate need for a portable field instrument would be for use under PCB spill conditions. Portable monitors based on the principles of photoionization detection (PID) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) have been adapted and evaluated for this purpose. The latter includes both flow cell and horizontal multiple internal reflectance (HMIR) sampling configurations. Extensive work has also been performed on solvent-solvent and solvent-soil extractions, as well as PCB adsorption on packings, for use under spill conditions.

  14. Mechanism of biosynthesis of methylsulfones from PCBs and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Mio, T; Sumino, K

    1985-01-01

    Mercapto-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl- and methysulfonyl metabolites of PCBs 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and some other chlorobenzenes were identified in adipose tissues of mice, rats and guinea pigs by using GC/MS/COM systems. By means of administration of CD3-methionine, it was confirmed that the methyl group in methylthio metabolites was derived from the methionine. Moreover, after pretreatment with either esterification of urinary metabolites in guinea pigs with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene or N-acetylation after esterification, it was confirmed that cysteinylglycine, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteamine, mercaptopyruvate, mercaptolactate, mercaptacetate, thiol and disulfide conjugates were detected as a serial modified derivatives of glutathione moiety. These results are summarized as a metabolic proposed pathway of halogenated aromatic compounds. Three routes in pathway correspond to oxygenation (initial route), glutathione thioether disposition (intermediate route) and sulfoxydation (final route) in connection with both reactive intermediates of epoxide and thiol. Methylation of the thiol by S-adenosylmethionine may be important in inhibiting covalent binding of reactive intermediates with biocomponents, similar to the glutathione conjugation for the detoxification of epoxide. PMID:3921355

  15. PCBs in schools—where communities and science come together

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-01-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program’s Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings. PMID:26194237

  16. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  17. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  18. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  19. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  20. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  1. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  2. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  3. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  4. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  5. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  6. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  7. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  8. PCBs and OCPs on a east-to-west transect: the importance of major currents and net volatilization for PCBs in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Klanova, Jana; Kukucka, Petr; Yonis, Shifra; Bollinger, Kevyn

    2012-10-02

    Air-water exchange gradients of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners across a large section of the tropical Atlantic suggested net volatilization of PCBs to the atmosphere. Only for the higher chlorinated PCB 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were gradients near equilibrium detected. The use of passive samplers also enabled the detection of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products across the tropical Atlantic, indicating net deposition. There were clear differences between the southern and northern hemisphere apparent in terms of atmospheric concentrations: Once the ship moved from the southern into the northern hemisphere air, concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine pesticides increased several-fold. For large swaths of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, neither PCB nor organochlorine pesticide dissolved concentrations varied much longitudinally, probably due to efficient mixing by ocean currents. In selected samples, dissolved concentrations reflected the influence of river plumes and major ocean currents far away from the continents. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, and HCB increased in the Amazon plume and the Gulf Stream. While the Amazon plume flushed only a few kg of PCBs and HCB, the Gulf Stream is potentially delivering tons of PCBs into the North Atlantic annually.

  9. Protective role of quercetin on PCBs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2012-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  10. Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Tong, Hebing

    2014-12-15

    The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs).

  11. Nano-occurrence and removal of PCBs within the Europe's largest petrochemical MBR system.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Di Fabio, Silvia; Vecchiato, Giuseppe; Cecchi, Franco; Fatone, Francesco

    2015-10-15

    The occurrence of 45 PCBs was studied in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats industrial wastewater from the zone of Porto Marghera (Venice, Italy) in an MBR, and in the Naviglio del Brenta River, which serves as a source of process water supply for this industrial zone. The focus of the study was placed on the comparison of levels of contamination of the WWTP effluent and the river water by selected PCBs in order to understand the major source of PCB pollution for the Lagoon of Venice and contrast them with the current legislation. Out of 45, 31 PCBs were detected in the WWTP at total median PCB concentration of 5.5 ng/L with a predominant presence of six indicator - PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180), which accounted for 50-55% of total PCBs in both wastewater and sludge samples. The total PCB concentration was reduced by around 90% during the applied wastewater treatment to a median concentration of 0.5 ng/L at the WWTP effluent. In the samples collected from the river, 27 PCBs were detected at total median concentration of 2.1 ng/L, which is few times higher than the total PCB concentration found in the WWTP effluent. This result suggests that the current legislative limitations applied to the WWTPs effluent discharges into the Lagoon of Venice, regarding the presence of PCBs (i.e. absent) is rather arbitrary given the higher concentration levels encountered in river water than in the WWTP effluent of the studied industrial WWTP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nationwide monitoring of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Jin, Guang Zhu; Kim, Woo Il; Kim, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Seung Man; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Jin Soo

    2011-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples collected from different parts of South Korea in 2008, and the measured levels were used for assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of atmospheric PCDDFs and DL-PCBs in South Korea. The average concentrations of atmospheric PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs among the 37 sites were 28 fg I-TEQ m(-3) (ND~617) and 1 fg WHO-TEQ m(-3) (ND~0.016). Elevated atmospheric levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs observed at residential/industrial sites and in the north-west of Korea, indicated a potential contribution and impacts of anthropogenic sources of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. These levels were similar or lower than those previously reported in other ambient air surveys. Average concentrations of PCDD/Fs showed small seasonal variations (ANOVA analysis, p=0.144). The highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs were observed during winter, followed by spring, autumn and summer. Atmospheric PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in South Korea rapidly decreased during the last 10 years (1998-2008), demonstrating the efficiency of stricter regulations and the application of best available technologies/best environmental practices at emission sources. Comparison of the congener profiles and principal component analysis showed that current atmospheric PCDD/Fs are mostly influenced by industrial sources and PCBs from old commercial PCB uses. Nationwide POPs monitoring will continue and allows an effective evaluation of the implementation of the Stockholm Convention on POPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of the southern Baltic Sea--trends and fate.

    PubMed

    Konat, J; Kowalewska, G

    2001-12-03

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been determined in recent [0-1(2), 1(2)-5 and 5-10 cm deep layers] sediments from different sites of the southern Baltic Sea, including the Szczecin Lagoon, collected from May 1996 to October 1999, i.e. before and after the great flood in Poland of July/August 1997. The PCB distribution has been correlated with location and hydrological conditions as well as with organic carbon, algal pigments and their derivatives in the sediments. The sum of PCB (seven congeners) was equal to approximately 1-149 ng/g dry wt., on average this was rather low (up to 40 ng/g). There was a decreasing trend in PCBs concentrations in the bottom sediments of the southern Baltic in 1996 but considerable amounts were still accumulated there. The flood of 1997 caused a distinct increase of PCB concentration level in the sediments, which again showed a decreasing trend in the next few years. This illustrates that at present the main source of PCBs for the southern Baltic are not a direct consequence of human activity, but from floods and heavy rains washing these compounds from land to the sea. Algae and algal detritus play an important role in the transport and distribution of PCBs in the southern Baltic. High correlation of PCBs with chlorophyll a derivatives--products of zooplankton grazing--indicates that PCBs are ingested by zooplankton with phytoplankton and then exuded with fecal pellets. PCBs bound to algal detritus or to fecal pellets in the water column are transferred to sediments, there they may be trapped either in a bonded and unchanged form or resuspended, remobilized and/or dechlorinated, depending on their properties and environmental conditions.

  15. Position paper of the American Council on Science and Health: public health concerns about environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, were widely used in various industrial applications for their insulating and fire retardant properties. In the 1960s, PCBs were found in soil and water, and research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade very slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Two widespread poisoning episodes in Japan and Taiwan were initially attributed to the consumption of rice bran oil contaminated with PCBs. Although subsequent analysis suggested that toxic thermal degradation products of PCBs in the oil, rather than the PCBs, were responsible for the observed health effects, commercial production of PCBs in the United States was discontinued in 1979. Several regulatory and advisory agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs over long periods of time have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. In fact, the only health effects that could be attributed to PCBs were skin and eye irritation. Recent studies of the possible effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs on neurodevelopment in infants and children have been criticized for methodological deficiencies. There is no conclusive evidence that PCB levels in the general population are causing intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Some investigators have also suggested that PCBs and other chemicals in the environment can interfere with the body's endocrine system, leading to infertility, certain types of cancer, and other hormone-related disorders. Evidence for estrogenic effects of environmental PCBs remains weak and circumstantial. The following actions are recommended: development of innovative, cost-effective remediation techniques, particularly for sites that are difficult to remediate (e.g., river sediments); and scientifically based improvements to risk assessment, to reduce the considerable uncertainty associated with PCB exposure to health effects in humans.

  16. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of fish and seafood in Catalonia (Spain): Temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Llobet, Juan M; Castell, Victòria; Vicente, Emilio; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and 18 PCBs (DL- and NDL-) were analyzed in 16 fish and seafood species widely consumed in Catalonia (Spain). The exposure of these pollutants was subsequently estimated according to various groups of population. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed an important decrease in relation to the baseline study (2000) and our last survey (2008). Sardine and red mullet were the species showing the highest pollutant concentrations, while canned tuna and cuttlefish presented the lowest levels. Sardine was the main contributor to the exposure of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In contrast, swordfish was the species with the lowest contribution to the exposure of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs, while clam was the minor contributor for NDL-PCBs and total PCBs. For all groups of population, the current intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were lower than the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day), being children the group with the highest exposure. However, this exposure should not mean a health risk for this group of population. The current intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and seafood consumption was similar or even lower than most values reported in recent studies all over the world.

  17. Accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in livers of young sheep.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Stark, Marie Luise; Spolders, Markus; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Traag, Wim A; Ten Dam, Guillaume; Schafft, Helmut A

    2015-03-01

    A major part of sheep livers contains levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the former but to some extent also the new maximum levels (MLs) in the EU. In order to investigate the relationship between the intake of these contaminants and their accumulation in livers, kidney fat and meat, young blackhead sheep were fed with grass pellets containing PCDD/Fs at 2.5 times the maximum level. Levels of PCDD/Fs in livers were already quite high at the start of the exposure but increased 3-fold within 56d, exceeding the new product based MLs. Levels in meat and fat also increased but did not exceed the MLs. Although less elevated in the grass, both dl- and ndl-PCB levels also increased in liver and fat. Their kinetics in the tissues was less clear, potentially caused by increased levels in the straw given to the sheep during the whole experimental period. There was a clear difference in the behavior of the various congeners, the PCDFs and especially the higher chlorinated PCDFs and PCDDs showing a higher accumulation in the liver. In the case of the PCBs, this was particularly true for PCB 126. When switched to clean grass after 56d, the levels in livers and other tissues decreased to about the levels in the control sheep within 56d. This offers a potential solution for decreasing the intake of consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume.

  19. Diabetes in Native Americans: elevated risk as a result of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to

  20. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a Lebanese population: ENASB study.

    PubMed

    Harmouche-Karaki, Mireille; Matta, Joseph; Helou, Khalil; Mahfouz, Yara; Fa