Science.gov

Sample records for pci express interface

  1. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board.

  2. A 45 PS Time-Interval Counter Board with a PCI Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    39th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting A 45 PS TIME-INTERVAL COUNTER BOARD WITH A PCI INTERFACE Ryszard Szplet...precise time-interval and frequency counter board with PCI interface. The counter utilizes two two-stage interpolators that provide 45 ps resolution...synthesis and for generation of the four -phase clock used in the first interpolation stage. The fast arithmetic carry chains are used as high

  3. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  4. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  5. TUKAN—An 8K Pulse Height Analyzer and Multi-Channel Scaler With a PCI or a USB Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Z.; Borsuk, S.; Traczyk, K.; Plominski, M.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we present two types of 8K-channel analyzers designed for spectroscopy and intensity versus time measurements. The first type (Tukan-8K-PCI) incorporates a PCI interface and is designed to be plugged into a PCI slot of a normal PC. The second type (Tukan-8K-USB) incorporates a USB interface. It is mounted in a separate screened box and can be powered either directly from the USB port or from an external dc source (wall adapter or battery). Each type of device may operate in either of two independent operational modes: Multi Channel Analysis (MCA) and Multi-Channel Scaling (MCS). The most crucial component for the MCA mode-the Peak Detect and Hold circuit-is featuring a novel architecture based on a diamond transistor. Its analog stage can accept analog pulses with rise times as short as 100 ns and has a differential linearity below 1% with sliding scale averaging over the full scale. The functionality includes automatic stop on a programmable count in the Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and on preset live- or real time. The MCS mode works at medium counting rates of up to 8 MHz. The dwell time, the number of channels and single or multi-sweep mode may be preset. Each of these parameters can also be controlled externally via four user configurable logical I/O lines. A single Altera FLEX 10KE30 FPGA provides all control functions and incorporates PCI interface. The USB interface is based on FTDI FIFO controller. Advanced and user-friendly software has been developed for the analyzer

  6. Remoting field bus control by means of a PCI Express-based optical serial link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellato, M.; Isocrate, R.; Meng, G.; Passaseo, M.; Rampazzo, G.; Triossi, A.; Ventura, S.

    2007-01-01

    A major evolution moved into the I/O architecture of modern computers, where the multi-drop buses have been replaced by a network of point-to-point links. Besides the increased throughput and the inherent parallelization of the data flows, the serial nature of those links and the packet-based protocols allow an easy geographical decoupling of a peripheral device. In the context of the LINCO project, we investigated the possibility of using an optical physical layer for the PCI Express, and we built a bus adapter which can bridge, through such a link, remote buses (>100 m) to a single-host computer without even the need of a specialized driver, given the legacy PCI compatibility of the PCI Express hardware. By the choice of suitable components and dedicated control logic, the adapter has been made tolerant to harsh environmental conditions, like strong magnetic fields or radiation fluxes, that the data acquisition needs of high-energy physics experiments often require.

  7. High resolution x-ray medical sequential image acquisition and processing system based on PCI interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dongming; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2003-11-01

    In the field of medical application, it is of great importance to adopt digital image processing technique. Based on the characteristics of medical image, we introduced the digital image processing method to the X-ray imaging system, and developed a high resolution x-ray medical sequential image acquisition and processing system that employs image enhancer and CCD. This system consists of three basic modules, namely sequential image acquisition, data transfer and system control, and image processing. Under the control of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), images acquired by the front-end circuit are transmitted to a PC through high speed PCI bus, and then optimized by the image processing program. The software kits, which include PCI Device Driver and Image Processing Package, are developed with Visual C++ Language based on Windows OS. In this paper, we present a general introduction to the principle and the operating procedure of X-ray Sequential Image Acquisition and Processing System, with special emphasis on the key issues of the hardware design. In addition, the context, principle, status quo and the digitizing trend of X-ray Imaging are explained succinctly. Finally, the preliminary experimental results are shown to demonstrate that the system is capable of achieving high quality X-ray sequential images.

  8. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  9. PCI-24781 down-regulates EZH2 expression and then promotes glioma apoptosis by suppressing the PIK3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengqing; Liu, Jun; Zang, Zhenle; Yin, Junyi; An, Ning; Yang, Hui; Song, Yechun

    2014-01-01

    PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 μM) and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. PMID:25505847

  10. CTO PCI Procedural Planning.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Nicholas J; Karmpaliotis, Dimitri; Kandzari, David E

    2012-07-01

    Chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO PCI) procedural planning involves much thought and deliberation before one actually attempts to cross the CTO lesion in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Careful preprocedural angiographic assessment is a key to successful CTO PCI. CTO PCI represents the most complex PCI one can perform, and thus operator and staff training as well as the concept of CTO days are all essential for a successful CTO PCI program. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems.

  12. The evaluation of plasma and leukocytic IL-37 expression in early inflammation in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after PCI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Xiangna; Chen, Lan; Xu, Duanmin; Li, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI) is accompanied by increased expression of inflammation and decreased expression of anti-inflammation. IL-37 was found to be involved in the atherosclerosis-related diseases and increased in acute coronary syndrome. However, the level of IL-37 in blood plasma and leukocytes from patients with ASTEMI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been explored. We collected peripheral venous blood from consented patients at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after PCI and healthy volunteers. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (BP), and high sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP) were quantified by ELISA and leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 by immunoblotting. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, and IL-18 BP expression decreased compared to those in healthy volunteers while hs-CRP level was high. Both leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 were highest expressed at 12 h point but significantly decreased at 48 h point. These findings suggest L-37 does not play an important role in the systematic inflammatory response but may be involved in leukocytic inflammation in ASTEMI after PCI.

  13. The Evaluation of Plasma and Leukocytic IL-37 Expression in Early Inflammation in Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Xiangna; Chen, Lan; Xu, Duanmin; Li, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI) is accompanied by increased expression of inflammation and decreased expression of anti-inflammation. IL-37 was found to be involved in the atherosclerosis-related diseases and increased in acute coronary syndrome. However, the level of IL-37 in blood plasma and leukocytes from patients with ASTEMI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been explored. Methods. We collected peripheral venous blood from consented patients at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after PCI and healthy volunteers. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (BP), and high sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP) were quantified by ELISA and leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 by immunoblotting. Results. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, and IL-18 BP expression decreased compared to those in healthy volunteers while hs-CRP level was high. Both leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 were highest expressed at 12 h point but significantly decreased at 48 h point. Conclusion. These findings suggest L-37 does not play an important role in the systematic inflammatory response but may be involved in leukocytic inflammation in ASTEMI after PCI. PMID:25960620

  14. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Green, James R; Korenberg, Michael J; Aboul-Magd, Mohammed O

    2009-07-17

    Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing alpha-helices, beta-strands, and non-regular structures) from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI), a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at http://bioinf.sce.carleton.ca/PCISS. In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input protein sequence data and also to encode

  15. A millenium approach to Data Acquisition: SCI and PCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Hans; Bogaerts, A.; Lindenstruth, V.

    The international SCI standard IEEE/ANSI 1596a [Ref. 1.] is on its way to become the computer interconnect of the year 2000 since for a first time, low latency desktop multiprocessing and cluster computing can be implemented at low cost. The PCI bus is todays's dominating local bus extension for all major computer platforms as well as for buses like VMEbus. PCI is a self configuring memory and I/O system for peripheral components with a hierarchical architecture. SCI is a scalable, bus-like interconnect for distributed processors and memories. It allows for optionally coherent data caching and assures errorfree data delivery. First measurement with commercial SCI products (SBUS-SCI) confirm simulations that SCI can handle even the highest data rates of LHC experiments. The eventbuilder layer for a millenium very high rate DAQ system can therefore be viewed as a SCI network ( bridges, cables & switches) interfaced between PCI buses on the frontend (VMEb ) side and on the processor farm ( Multi-CPU) side. Such a combination of SCI and PCI enables PCI-PCI memory access, transparently across SCI. It also allows for a novel, low level trigger technique: the trigger algorithm can access VME data buffers with bus-like latencies like local memory, i.e. full data transfers become redundent. The first prototype of a PCI-SCI bridge for DAQ is presented as starting point for a test system with built-in scalability.

  16. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance.

  17. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  18. International Planetary Science Interoperability: The Venus Express Interface Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford Bussard, Stephen; Chanover, N.; Huber, L.; Trejo, I.; Hughes, J. S.; Kelly, S.; Guinness, E.; Heather, D.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) have successfully demonstrated interoperability between planetary science data archives with the Venus Express (VEX) Interface prototype. Because VEX is an ESA mission, there is no memorandum of understanding to archive the data in the PDS. However, using a common communications protocol and common data standards, VEX mission science data ingested into the PSA can be accessed from a user interface at the Atmospheres Node of the PDS, making the science data accessible globally through two established planetary science data portals. The PSA makes scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions accessible to the worldwide scientific community. The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Mission data included in the archive aside from VEX include data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Smart-1, Huygens, and Rosetta spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations. All data are compatible to the Planetary Data System data standard. The PDS archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. The PDS is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The architecture of the VEX prototype interface leverages components from both the PSA and PDS information system infrastructures, a user interface developed at the New Mexico State University, and the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP). The VEX Interoperability Project was a key project of the IPDA, whose objective is to ensure world-wide access to planetary data regardless of which agency collects and archives the data. A follow-on IPDA project will adapt the VEX Interoperability protocol for access in JAXA to the Venus Climate

  19. INTRINSIC REGULATION OF HEMOGLOBIN EXPRESSION BY VARIABLE SUBUNIT INTERFACE STRENGTHS

    PubMed Central

    Manning, James M.; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Padovan, Julio C.; Chait, Brian T.; Manning, Lois R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expression of the six types of human hemoglobin subunits over time is currently considered to be regulated mainly by transcription factors that bind to upstream control regions of the gene (the “extrinsic” component of regulation). Here we describe how subunit pairing and further assembly to tetramers in the liganded state is influenced by the affinity of subunits for one another (the “intrinsic” component of regulation). The adult hemoglobin dimers have the strongest subunit interfaces and the embryonic hemoglobins are the weakest with fetal hemoglobins of intermediate strength, corresponding to the temporal order of their expression. These variable subunit binding strengths and the attenuating effects of acetylation contribute to the differences with which these hemoglobin types form functional O2-binding tetramers consistent with gene switching. PMID:22129306

  20. The therapeutic effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor PCI-24781 on gallbladder carcinoma in BK5.erbB2 mice.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takuya; Connolly, Kevin; Ruffino, Lynnsie; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Lueckgen, Aline; DiGiovanni, John; Kiguchi, Kaoru

    2012-07-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBCa), a type of biliary tract cancer (BTC), has proven challenging to treat, demonstrating the need for more effective therapeutic strategies. In our current study, we examined the therapeutic effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor PCI-24781 against GBCa that developed in BK5.erbB2 mice. PCI-24781 [50 mg/kg/day] and control solutions were administered to BK5.erbB2 mice for 4 weeks. The therapeutic effect of PCI-24781 was evaluated by ultrasound biomicroscopy (USBM) throughout the experiment and histological analyses at the end of the experiment. To investigate potential mechanisms underlining the therapeutic effects of PCI-24781 on GBCa in BK5.erbB2 mice, PCI-24781-treated gallbladders were subjected to Western blot and RT-PCR analysis. The inhibitory effect of PCI-24781 on the growth of BTC cells was compared to the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and gemcitabine. To study the role of miRNAs in GBCa tumorigenesis, the expression profile of 368 miRNAs in GBCas from BK5.erbB2 (both treated and untreated) and wild type mice was analyzed. Treatment of BK5.erbB2 mice with PCI-24781 for 1 month prevented 79% of GBCa cases from progression and showed a clinical effect in 47% of cases. We also confirmed a potent inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth in human BTC cell lines treated with PCI-24781. This effect was associated with downregulation of ErbB2 mRNA and ErbB2 protein/activity and upregulation of acetylated histone and acetylated tubulin. Treatment with PCI-24781 resulted in decreased expression of Muc4, an intramembrane ligand for ErbB2, in BTC cells. PCI-24781 had more effects on growth inhibition of BTC cells than SAHA. In addition, PCI-24781 effectively inhibited the growth of gemcitabine-resistant cells. miRNA profiling revealed that the expression of several miRNAs was significantly altered in GBCa in the BK5.erbB2 mouse compared to normal gallbladder, including upregulated miR21, which was

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) PCI-24781 enhances chemotherapy induced apoptosis in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cao; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J.; Wood, Kirkham B; Schwab, Joseph H; Liu, Xianzhe; Mankin, Henry; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) on multi-drug resistant sarcoma cell lines has never been previously described. Four multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines treated with HDACI PCI-24781 resulted in dose-dependent accumulation of acetylated histones, p21 and PARP cleavage products. Growth of these cell lines was inhibited by PCI-24781 at IC50 of 0.43 to 2.7. When we looked for synergy of PCI-24781 with chemotherapeutic agents, we found that PCI-24781 reverses drug resistance in all four multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines and synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents to enhance caspase-3/7 activity. Expression of RAD51 (a marker for DNA double-strand break repair) was inhibited and the expression of GADD45α (a marker for growth arrest and DNA-damage) was induced by PCI-24781 in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines. In conclusion, HDACI PCI-24781 synergizes with chemotherapeutic drugs to induce apoptosis and reverses drug resistance in multidrug resistant sarcoma cell lines. PMID:21508354

  2. A low cost PCI-VME controller for control and data acquisition systems on fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A universal hardware interface system that allows the transparent use of digital instrumentation of different buses has been developed using the VMEbus as the host platform. In this article a new controller for the VME system, based on a desktop-type PCI Pentium motherboard and a locally developed PCI-VME interconnector is described. This interconnector is composed of two boards, which are connected by an ac-terminated flexible cable and inserted into slots of the PCI motherboard and VME crate. This system decreases the cost of the global system and permits low priced and modular upgradeability. The software drivers have been developed for a UNIX environment using the LINUX-LAB project in a user-friendly approach.

  3. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  4. Complete Versus Lesion-Only Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Gerry P.; Khan, Jamal N.; Greenwood, John P.; Nazir, Sheraz; Dalby, Miles; Curzen, Nick; Hetherington, Simon; Kelly, Damian J.; Blackman, Daniel J.; Ring, Arne; Peebles, Charles; Wong, Joyce; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Flather, Marcus; Swanton, Howard; Gershlick, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete revascularization may improve outcomes compared with an infarct-related artery (IRA)-only strategy in patients being treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) who have multivessel disease presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there is concern that non-IRA PCI may cause additional non-IRA myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives This study sought to determine whether in-hospital complete revascularization was associated with increased total infarct size compared with an IRA-only strategy. Methods This multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial evaluated STEMI patients with multivessel disease having PPCI within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients were randomized to either IRA-only PCI or complete in-hospital revascularization. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed following PPCI (median day 3) and stress CMR at 9 months. The pre-specified primary endpoint was infarct size on pre-discharge CMR. The study had 80% power to detect a 4% difference in infarct size with 100 patients per group. Results Of the 296 patients in the main trial, 205 participated in the CMR substudy, and 203 patients (98 complete revascularization and 105 IRA-only) completed the pre-discharge CMR. The groups were well-matched. Total infarct size (median, interquartile range) was similar to IRA-only revascularization: 13.5% (6.2% to 21.9%) versus complete revascularization, 12.6% (7.2% to 22.6%) of left ventricular mass, p = 0.57 (95% confidence interval for difference in geometric means 0.82 to 1.41). The complete revascularization group had an increase in non-IRA MI on the pre-discharge CMR (22 of 98 vs. 11 of 105, p = 0.02). There was no difference in total infarct size or ischemic burden between treatment groups at follow-up CMR. Conclusions Multivessel PCI in the setting of STEMI leads to a small increase in CMR-detected non-IRA MI, but

  5. Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Lincoff, A Michael; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W; McNulty, Steven; Montalescot, Gilles; Kleiman, Neal S; Goodman, Shaun G; White, Harvey D; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Pollack, Charles V; Manoukian, Steven V; Widimsky, Petr; Chew, Derek P; Cura, Fernando; Manukov, Ivan; Tousek, Frantisek; Jafar, M Zubair; Arneja, Jaspal; Skerjanec, Simona; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-12-10

    Intravenous cangrelor, a rapid-acting, reversible adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, might reduce ischemic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 5362 patients who had not been treated with clopidogrel to receive either cangrelor or placebo at the time of PCI, followed by 600 mg of clopidogrel. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours. Enrollment was stopped when an interim analysis concluded that the trial would be unlikely to show superiority for the primary end point. The primary end point occurred in 185 of 2654 patients receiving cangrelor (7.0%) and in 210 of 2641 patients receiving placebo (8.0%) (odds ratio in the cangrelor group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.07; P=0.17) (modified intention-to-treat population adjusted for missing data). In the cangrelor group, as compared with the placebo group, two prespecified secondary end points were significantly reduced at 48 hours: the rate of stent thrombosis, from 0.6% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.85; P=0.02), and the rate of death from any cause, from 0.7% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the rate of blood transfusion (1.0% in the cangrelor group and 0.6% in the placebo group, P=0.13), though major bleeding on one scale was increased in the cangrelor group, from 3.5% to 5.5% (P<0.001), because of more groin hematomas. The use of periprocedural cangrelor during PCI was not superior to placebo in reducing the primary end point. The prespecified secondary end points of stent thrombosis and death were lower in the cangrelor group, with no significant increase in the rate of transfusion. Further study of intravenous ADP blockade with cangrelor may be warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00385138.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  6. dictyExpress: a Dictyostelium discoideum gene expression database with an explorative data analysis web-based interface

    PubMed Central

    Rot, Gregor; Parikh, Anup; Curk, Tomaz; Kuspa, Adam; Shaulsky, Gad; Zupan, Blaz

    2009-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics often leverages on recent advancements in computer science to support biologists in their scientific discovery process. Such efforts include the development of easy-to-use web interfaces to biomedical databases. Recent advancements in interactive web technologies require us to rethink the standard submit-and-wait paradigm, and craft bioinformatics web applications that share analytical and interactive power with their desktop relatives, while retaining simplicity and availability. Results We have developed dictyExpress, a web application that features a graphical, highly interactive explorative interface to our database that consists of more than 1000 Dictyostelium discoideum gene expression experiments. In dictyExpress, the user can select experiments and genes, perform gene clustering, view gene expression profiles across time, view gene co-expression networks, perform analyses of Gene Ontology term enrichment, and simultaneously display expression profiles for a selected gene in various experiments. Most importantly, these tasks are achieved through web applications whose components are seamlessly interlinked and immediately respond to events triggered by the user, thus providing a powerful explorative data analysis environment. Conclusion dictyExpress is a precursor for a new generation of web-based bioinformatics applications with simple but powerful interactive interfaces that resemble that of the modern desktop. While dictyExpress serves mainly the Dictyostelium research community, it is relatively easy to adapt it to other datasets. We propose that the design ideas behind dictyExpress will influence the development of similar applications for other model organisms. PMID:19706156

  7. HLA Expression at the Maternal-Fetal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Astrid; Dohr, Gottfried; Hunt, Joan S.

    1998-01-01

    Pregancy in the human presents an “immunological paradox,” because of the unexpected willingness of mothers to accept genetically disparate tissues. The fact that the fetus can develop unharmed for nine months shows that protective mechanisms must exist to permit its survival. The conditions that permit the genetically dissimilar human fetus to evade rejection by its mother's immune system have been the subject of intense interest for several decades. As the placental cells, which are in contact with maternal blood or tissue, are devoid of HLA class II antigens, interest has focused on the expression of HLA class molecules. Recent developments in the constitutive, transcriptional, and translational expression of HLA class I molecules on anatomically and morphologically different subpopulations of trophoblast cells will form the basis of this short review. PMID:9814593

  8. The inherent catastrophic traps in retrograde CTO PCI.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eugene B; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-05-04

    When we learn to drive, our driving instructor tells us how to check the side mirror and turn your head to check the blind spot before changing lanes. He tells us how to stop at stop signs, how to drive in slippery conditions, the safe stopping distances, and these all make our driving safe. Similarly, when we learn PCI, our mentors teach us to seat the guiding catheter co-axially, to wire the vessel safely, to deliver balloon and stents over the wire, to watch the pressure of the guiding, in order that we perform PCI safely and evade complications. In retrograde CTO PCI, there is no such published teaching. Also many individual mentors have not had the wide experience to see all the possible complications of retrograde CTO PCI and, therefore, may not be able to warn their apprentice. As the number of retrograde procedures increase worldwide, there is a corresponding increase in catastrophic complications, many of which, we as experts, can see are easily avoidable. To breach this gap in knowledge, this article describes 12 commonly met inherent traps in retrograde CTO PCI. They are inherent because by arranging our equipment in the manner to perform retrograde CTO PCI, these complications are either induced directly or happen easily. We hope this work will enhance safety of retrograde CTO PCI and avoid many catastrophic complications for our readers and operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. CompactPCI/Linux Platform in FTU Slow Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, F.; Wang, L.; Centioli, C.; Panella, M.; Mazza, G.; Vitale, V.

    2004-12-01

    In large fusion experiments, such as tokamak devices, there is a common trend for slow control systems. Because of complexity of the plants, the so-called `Standard Model' (SM) in slow control has been adopted on several tokamak machines. This model is based on a three-level hierarchical control: 1) High-Level Control (HLC) with a supervisory function; 2) Medium-Level Control (MLC) to interface and concentrate I/O field equipments; 3) Low-Level Control (LLC) with hard real-time I/O function, often managed by PLCs. FTU control system designed with SM concepts has underwent several stages of developments in its fifteen years duration of runs. The latest evolution was inevitable, due to the obsolescence of the MLC CPUs, based on VME-MOTOROLA 68030 with OS9 operating system. A large amount of C code was developed for that platform to route the data flow from LLC, which is constituted by 24 Westinghouse Numalogic PC-700 PLCs with about 8000 field-points, to HLC, based on a commercial Object-Oriented Real-Time database on Alpha/CompaqTru64 platform. Therefore, we have to look for cost-effective solutions and finally a CompactPCI-Intel x86 platform with Linux operating system was chosen. A software porting has been done, taking into account the differences between OS9 and Linux operating system in terms of Inter/Network Processes Communications and I/O multi-ports serial driver. This paper describes the hardware/software architecture of the new MLC system, emphasizing the reliability and the low costs of the open source solutions. Moreover, a huge amount of software packages available in open source environment will assure a less painful maintenance, and will open the way to further improvements of the system itself.

  10. Kentucky pilot project for primary PCI without onsite CABG.

    PubMed

    Myers, John; Brock, Guy; Appana, Savitri; Gray, Laman

    2009-11-01

    The American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions strongly recommend that primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) should be performed in facilities that have an experienced cardiovascular surgical team available as emergency backup for all procedures. The current study investigates the medical soundness of allowing select facilities in Kentucky to perform primary PCI despite being devoid of onsite emergency backup capabilities. Two hospitals in the state of Kentucky, currently without emergency backup capabilities, have been allowed to perform primary PCIs for more than three years (beginning in April 2005) by the Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services. The two hospitals selected were of similar size (approximately 200 beds) and similar distances from hospitals with onsite emergency backup capabilities (approximately one hour). We performed an analysis evaluating if hospitals without backup surgical capability have similar outcomes when compared to hospitals with backup surgical capabilities. Outcome variables included: (1) mortality, (2) cardiac arrest as result of PCI, (3) emergency surgery performed as a result of PCI, and (4) door-to-balloon time. Our results suggest that there is no significant difference in any of the outcome variables studied between facilities with and without onsite emergency backup capabilities. Recommendations concerning primary PCI may need to be revisited. The principal outcomes associated with primary PCI were not significantly affected by whether a facility has onsite emergency backup capabilities. Therefore, we recommend that hospitals without backup surgical capabilities be allowed to perform primary PCI (with restrictions based on surgeon experience and the facilities' volume).

  11. An extended multi-zone combustion model for PCI simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Keum, SeungHwan; Babajimopoulos, Aristotelis

    2011-12-01

    Novel combustion modes are becoming an important area of research with emission regulations more stringent than ever before, and with fuel economy being assigned greater importance every day. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) modes in particular promise better fuel economy and lower emissions in internal combustion engines. Multi-zone combustion models have been popular in modelling HCCI combustion. In this work, an improved multi-zone model is suggested for PCI combustion modelling. A new zoning scheme is suggested based on incorporating the internal energy of formation into an earlier conventional HCCI multi-zone approach, which considers a two-dimensional reaction space defined by equivalence ratio and temperature. It is shown that the added dimension improves zoning by creating more representative zones, and thus reducing errors compared to the conventional zoning approach, when applied to PCI simulation.

  12. Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guojing; Mouillet, Jean-François; Mishima, Takuya; Chu, Tianjiao; Sadovsky, Elena; Coyne, Carolyn B; Parks, W Tony; Surti, Urvashi; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2017-07-01

    During pregnancy, placental trophoblasts at the feto-maternal interface produce a broad repertoire of microRNA (miRNA) species. These species include miRNA from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC), which is expressed nearly exclusively in the placenta. Trafficking of these miRNAs among the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments is unknown. To determine miRNA expression and trafficking patterns during pregnancy, we sequenced miRNAs in triads of human placenta and of maternal and fetal blood and found large subject-to-subject variability, with C19MC exhibiting compartment-specific expression. We therefore created humanized mice that transgenically express the entire 160-kb human C19MC locus or lentivirally express C19MC miRNA members selectively in the placenta. C19MC transgenic mice expressed a low level of C19MC miRNAs in diverse organs. When pregnant, female C19MC mice exhibited a strikingly elevated (>40-fold) expression of C19MC miRNA in the placenta, compared with other organs, that resembled C19MC miRNAs patterns in humans. Our mouse models showed that placental miRNA traffic primarily to the maternal circulation and that maternal miRNA can traffic to the placenta and even into the fetal compartment. These findings define an extraordinary means of nonhormonal, miRNA-based communication between the placenta and feto-maternal compartments.-Chang, G., Mouillet, J.-F., Mishima, T., Chu, T., Sadovsky, E., Coyne, C. B., Parks, W. T., Surti, U., Sadovsky, Y. Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface. © FASEB.

  13. Genome expansion and differential expression of amino acid transporters at the aphid/Buchnera symbiotic interface.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Duncan, Rebecca P; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wilson, Alex C C

    2011-11-01

    In insects, some of the most ecologically important symbioses are nutritional symbioses that provide hosts with novel traits and thereby facilitate exploitation of otherwise inaccessible niches. One such symbiosis is the ancient obligate intracellular symbiosis of aphids with the γ-proteobacteria, Buchnera aphidicola. Although the nutritional basis of the aphid/Buchnera symbiosis is well understood, the processes and structures that mediate the intimate interactions of symbiotic partners remain uncharacterized. Here, using a de novo approach, we characterize the complement of 40 amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) superfamily member amino acid transporters (AATs) encoded in the genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that the A. pisum APC superfamily is characterized by extensive gene duplications such that A. pisum has more APC superfamily transporters than other fully sequenced insects, including a ten paralog aphid-specific expansion of the APC transporter slimfast. Detailed expression analysis of 17 transporters selected on the basis of their phylogenetic relationship to five AATs identified in an earlier bacteriocyte expressed sequence tag study distinguished a subset of eight transporters that have been recruited for amino acid transport in bacteriocyte cells at the symbiotic interface. These eight transporters include transporters that are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in bacteriocytes and intriguingly, the four AATs that show bacteriocyte-enriched expression are all members of gene family expansions, whereas three of the four that are highly expressed but not enriched in bacteriocytes retain one-to-one orthology with transporters in other genomes. Finally, analysis of evolutionary rates within the large A. pisum slimfast expansion demonstrated increased rates of molecular evolution coinciding with two major shifts in expression: 1) a loss of gut expression and possibly a gain of bacteriocyte expression and 2) loss of expression

  14. Experimental investigation of mouse kidney aging with SR PCI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifeng, P.; Zehua, Z.; Guohao, D.; Tiqiao, X.; Hongjie, X.; Peiping, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Basing on the coherence character of the Synchrotron radiation (SR), the mouse kidney study is performed using the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technology which as one approach of the phase contrasts imaging (PCI). The aim of this paper was to visualize the kidney at different ages and evaluate the latent value of aging mechanism with SR phase contrast imaging technology. Methods. The experiments were performed at the BL13W1 line of the SSRF (the Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility), the samples were soaked in 10% formalin solution, the mouse kidneys at different ages were imaged on the shelf in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging setup and captured with CCD. The captured images were analyzed and compared. Results. When the distance is 50 cm between the samples and imaging plate, good contrast and high resolution were obtained in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI), as such renal capsule revealed well, and the resolution reach to 30 micron; there is significant difference in the shape and vessels structures among the mouse kidneys at different age. Conclusion. The PCI is good for the applying of main light element organization imaging, the difference in shape and vessels structure between the young and old mouse kidney maybe indicated at some extent with the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technology.

  15. A Dual Interface Determines the Recognition of RNA Polymerase II by RNA Capping Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Man-Hee; Meyer, Peter A.; Gu, Meigang; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Mincheng; Kaplan, Craig D.; Lima, Christopher D.; Fu, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    RNA capping enzyme (CE) is recruited specifically to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription sites to facilitate cotranscriptional 5′-capping of pre-mRNA and other Pol II transcripts. The current model to explain this specific recruitment of CE to Pol II as opposed to Pol I and Pol III rests on the interaction between CE and the phosphorylated C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit Rpb1 and more specifically between the CE nucleotidyltransferase domain and the phosphorylated CTD. Through biochemical and diffraction analyses, we demonstrate the existence of a distinctive stoichiometric complex between CE and the phosphorylated Pol II (Pol IIO). Analysis of the complex revealed an additional and unexpected polymerase-CE interface (PCI) located on the multihelical Foot domain of Rpb1. We name this interface PCI1 and the previously known nucleotidyltransferase/phosphorylated CTD interface PCI2. Although PCI1 and PCI2 individually contribute to only weak interactions with CE, a dramatically stabilized and stoichiometric complex is formed when PCI1 and PCI2 are combined in cis as they occur in an intact phosphorylated Pol II molecule. Disrupting either PCI1 or PCI2 by alanine substitution or deletion diminishes CE association with Pol II and causes severe growth defects in vivo. Evidence from manipulating PCI1 indicates that the Foot domain contributes to the specificity in CE interaction with Pol II as opposed to Pol I and Pol III. Our results indicate that the dual interface based on combining PCI1 and PCI2 is required for directing CE to Pol II elongation complexes. PMID:20720002

  16. Predictors of Interventional Success of Antegrade PCI for CTO.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jinglei; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Qun; Liu, Hui; Liu, Zaiyi; Qu, Yanji; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Jian

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to identify significant lesion features of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) that predict failure of antegrade (A) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using pre-procedure coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) combined with conventional coronary angiography (CCA). The current predictors of successful A-PCI in the setting of CTOs are uncertain. Such knowledge might prompt early performance of a retrograde (R)-PCI approach if predictors of A-PCI failure are present. Consecutive patients confirmed to have at least 1 CTO of native coronary arteries underwent coronary CTA- and CCA-guided PCI in which computed tomography and fluoroscopic images were placed side by side before or during PCI. The study included 103 patients with 108 CTOs; 80 lesions were successfully treated with A-PCI and 28 lesions failed this approach, for an A-PCI success rate of 74%. A total of 15 of 28 failed cases underwent attempted R-PCI. Only 1 case also failed R-PCI; thus, the total PCI success rate was 87%. By multivariable analysis, the factors significantly predictive of failed A-PCI included negative remodeling (odds ratio [OR]: 137.82) and lesion length >31.89 mm on coronary CTA (OR: 7.04), and ostial or bifurcation lesions on CCA (OR: 8.02). R-PCI was successful in 14 of 15 patients (93.3%), in whom good appearance of the occluded distal segment and well-developed collateral vessels were present. Morphologic predictors of failed A-PCI on the basis of pre-procedure coronary CTA and CCA imaging may be identified, which may assist in determining which patients with CTO lesions would benefit from an early R-PCI strategy. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An optimized ERP brain-computer interface based on facial expression changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Interferences from spatially adjacent non-target stimuli are known to evoke event-related potentials (ERPs) during non-target flashes and, therefore, lead to false positives. This phenomenon was commonly seen in visual attention-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using conspicuous stimuli and is known to adversely affect the performance of BCI systems. Although users try to focus on the target stimulus, they cannot help but be affected by conspicuous changes of the stimuli (such as flashes or presenting images) which were adjacent to the target stimulus. Furthermore, subjects have reported that conspicuous stimuli made them tired and annoyed. In view of this, the aim of this study was to reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue using a new stimulus presentation pattern based upon facial expression changes. Our goal was not to design a new pattern which could evoke larger ERPs than the face pattern, but to design a new pattern which could reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue, and evoke ERPs as good as those observed during the face pattern. Approach. Positive facial expressions could be changed to negative facial expressions by minor changes to the original facial image. Although the changes are minor, the contrast is big enough to evoke strong ERPs. In this paper, a facial expression change pattern between positive and negative facial expressions was used to attempt to minimize interference effects. This was compared against two different conditions, a shuffled pattern containing the same shapes and colours as the facial expression change pattern, but without the semantic content associated with a change in expression, and a face versus no face pattern. Comparisons were made in terms of classification accuracy and information transfer rate as well as user supplied subjective measures. Main results. The results showed that interferences from adjacent stimuli, annoyance and the fatigue experienced by the subjects could be

  18. Cilostazol and primary-PCI: mirage or good alternative?

    PubMed

    Porto, Italo; D'Amario, Domenico; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    Oral anti-platelet agents targeting the platelet P2Y12 receptor are an integral component of treating patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Advancements in the design of stents and catheters are pushing the technique towards treatment of high risk lesions whose failure would expose patients to catastrophic events. Success of these complex procedures largely lays on efficacy of anti-platelet drugs and the limitation of stent restenosis and/or thrombosis. Clopidogrel has been the most commonly used agent in this respect worldwide. However, there are certain shortcomings of clopidogrel, the most important of which is the wide response variability of platelet inhibition. Thus, clinicians are facing challenges in treating patients where high inhibition of platelets is necessary and the response to clopidogrel may be insufficient. In the last few years, cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor, has been tested in the setting of acute coronary syndromes: it exerts not only anti-platelet actions, but also pleiotropic effects, including inhibition on neointimal hyperplasia, therefore preventing both stent restenosis and thrombosis. Therefore, cilostazol may be considered, on top of our current anti-platelet therapy, as a potential candidate to achieve optimal platelet inhibition especially in patients undergoing primary-PCI (p-PCI) or high risk procedures. This review will focus on the pharmacological characteristics of cilostazol and the initial evidences that support the use of this drug in the setting of p-PCI.

  19. A high-rate PCI-based telemetry processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, R.

    2002-07-01

    The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are based on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-rate data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data rate signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system based on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-based telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required rate.

  20. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of elective PCI in patients with cardiac insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jiang-Xin; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Chen, Sheng-Guo

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the safety and the efficacy of the treatment with elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with coronary heart disease complicated with cardiac insufficiency. We enrolled 217 patients diagnosed with chronic ischemic heart disease complicated with cardiac failure. According to the type of treatment they received, patients were divided into 3 groups: i) The conservative treatment group with 60 patients (they received standard medication); ii) the early PCI group with 82 cases (their condition was stabilized, surgical risk was assessed and PCI was taken as early as possible); and iii) the advanced PCI group with 75 cases (ischemic myocardium was corrected and then elective PCI was applied and for aggravated myocardial ischemia cases, PCI was applied after assessing the risk of surgery). Follow-up visits were set for approximately 3 years and clinical outcomes were compared. Our results showed that the survival time in the early PCI group was significantly prolonged and the survival rate was considerably increased during 3 years. Left ventricular ejection fraction in the early PCI group markedly increased and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and pro-BNP level decreased significantly. The occurrence rates of perioperative complications in the early PCI group and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during the follow-up period were significantly reduced. Quality of life scores in the early PCI group markedly improved. We concluded that in patients with coronary heart disease complicated with cardiac insufficiency, early PCI treatment was safe and effective. PMID:28352338

  1. Developmental expression of human hemoglobins mediated by maturation of their subunit interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lois R; Popowicz, Anthony M; Padovan, Julio; Chait, Brian T; Russell, J Eric; Manning, James M

    2010-01-01

    Different types of human hemoglobins (Hbs) consisting of various combinations of the embryonic, fetal, and adult Hb subunits are present at certain times during development representing a major paradigm of developmental biology that is still not understood and one which we address here. We show that the subunit interfaces of these Hbs have increasing bonding strengths as demonstrated by their distinct distribution of tetramers, dimers, and monomers during gel filtration at very low-Hb concentration. This maturation is mediated by competition between subunits for more favorable partners with stronger subunit interactions. Thus, the protein products of gene expression can themselves have a role in the developmental process due to their intrinsic properties. PMID:20572018

  2. Bruton tyrosine kinase represents a promising therapeutic target for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is effectively targeted by PCI-32765.

    PubMed

    Herman, Sarah E M; Gordon, Amber L; Hertlein, Erin; Ramanunni, Asha; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jaglowski, Samantha; Flynn, Joseph; Jones, Jeffrey; Blum, Kristie A; Buggy, Joseph J; Hamdy, Ahmed; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C

    2011-06-09

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is aberrantly activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is essential to BCR signaling and in knockout mouse models its mutation has a relatively B cell-specific phenotype. Herein, we demonstrate that BTK protein and mRNA are significantly over expressed in CLL compared with normal B cells. Although BTK is not always constitutively active in CLL cells, BCR or CD40 signaling is accompanied by effective activation of this pathway. Using the irreversible BTK inhibitor PCI-32765, we demonstrate modest apoptosis in CLL cells that is greater than that observed in normal B cells. No influence of PCI-32765 on T-cell survival is observed. Treatment of CD40 or BCR activated CLL cells with PCI-32765 results in inhibition of BTK tyrosine phosphorylation and also effectively abrogates downstream survival pathways activated by this kinase including ERK1/2, PI3K, and NF-κB. In addition, PCI-32765 inhibits activation-induced proliferation of CLL cells in vitro, and effectively blocks survival signals provided externally to CLL cells from the microenvironment including soluble factors (CD40L, BAFF, IL-6, IL-4, and TNF-α), fibronectin engagement, and stromal cell contact. Based on these collective data, future efforts targeting BTK with the irreversible inhibitor PCI-32765 in clinical trials of CLL patients is warranted.

  3. Bruton tyrosine kinase represents a promising therapeutic target for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is effectively targeted by PCI-32765

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Sarah E. M.; Gordon, Amber L.; Hertlein, Erin; Ramanunni, Asha; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jaglowski, Samantha; Flynn, Joseph; Jones, Jeffrey; Blum, Kristie A.; Buggy, Joseph J.; Hamdy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is aberrantly activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is essential to BCR signaling and in knockout mouse models its mutation has a relatively B cell–specific phenotype. Herein, we demonstrate that BTK protein and mRNA are significantly over expressed in CLL compared with normal B cells. Although BTK is not always constitutively active in CLL cells, BCR or CD40 signaling is accompanied by effective activation of this pathway. Using the irreversible BTK inhibitor PCI-32765, we demonstrate modest apoptosis in CLL cells that is greater than that observed in normal B cells. No influence of PCI-32765 on T-cell survival is observed. Treatment of CD40 or BCR activated CLL cells with PCI-32765 results in inhibition of BTK tyrosine phosphorylation and also effectively abrogates downstream survival pathways activated by this kinase including ERK1/2, PI3K, and NF-κB. In addition, PCI-32765 inhibits activation-induced proliferation of CLL cells in vitro, and effectively blocks survival signals provided externally to CLL cells from the microenvironment including soluble factors (CD40L, BAFF, IL-6, IL-4, and TNF-α), fibronectin engagement, and stromal cell contact. Based on these collective data, future efforts targeting BTK with the irreversible inhibitor PCI-32765 in clinical trials of CLL patients is warranted. PMID:21422473

  4. Photochemical internalization (PCI) enhanced nonviral transfection of tumor suppressor and pro-drug activating genes; a potential treatment modality for gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen; Kwon, Young Jik; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate the utility of photochemical internalization for the enhanced nonviral transfection of genes into cells. We have examined, in detail, the evaluation of photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral introduction of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and the PCI mediated transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) pro drug activating gene into glioma cell monolayers and multi-cell tumor spheroids. Expression of the CD gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

  5. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  6. Genetic mapping of the polycystic kidney gene, pcy, on mouse chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Shizuko; Ogiso, Noboru; Takahashi, Hisahide

    1995-12-01

    The murine polycystic kidney disease gene, pcy, is an autosomal recessive trait located on chromosome 9. To determine the genetic locus of pcy, 222 intraspecific backcross mice were obtained by mating C57BL/6FG-pcy and Mus molossinus. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 70 of the 222 backcross progeny showed that pcy, dilute coat color (d), and cholecystokinin (Cck) were located in the order d-pcy-Cck from the centromere. Simple sequence repeat length polymorphism analysis of DNA of all 222 backcross mice was carried out using four markers which were located near the central regions of d and Cck. One and eight recombinations were detected between D9Mit24 and pcy and between D9Mit16 and pcy, respectively. However, no recombinant was observed among pcy, D9Mit14, and D9Mit148. These findings strongly suggest that D9Mit14 and D9Mit148 are located near the pcy gene and are good markers for chromosomal walking to this gene. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato.

  8. GeneShelf: a web-based visual interface for large gene expression time-series data repositories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Bongshin; Knoblach, Susan; Hoffman, Eric; Seo, Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    A widespread use of high-throughput gene expression analysis techniques enabled the biomedical research community to share a huge body of gene expression datasets in many public databases on the web. However, current gene expression data repositories provide static representations of the data and support limited interactions. This hinders biologists from effectively exploring shared gene expression datasets. Responding to the growing need for better interfaces to improve the utility of the public datasets, we have designed and developed a new web-based visual interface entitled GeneShelf (http://bioinformatics.cnmcresearch.org/GeneShelf). It builds upon a zoomable grid display to represent two categorical dimensions. It also incorporates an augmented timeline with expandable time points that better shows multiple data values for the focused time point by embedding bar charts. We applied GeneShelf to one of the largest microarray datasets generated to study the progression and recovery process of injuries at the spinal cord of mice and rats. We present a case study and a preliminary qualitative user study with biologists to show the utility and usability of GeneShelf.

  9. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  10. Dehydrocoupling of dimethylamine borane catalyzed by Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Laura J; Huertos, Miguel A; Dickinson, Molly E; Weller, Andrew S; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2013-04-15

    The Rh(III) species Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is an effective catalyst (2 mol %, 298 K) for the dehydrogenation of H3B·NMe2H (0.072 M in 1,2-F2C6H4 solvent) to ultimately afford the dimeric aminoborane [H2BNMe2]2. Mechanistic studies on the early stages in the consumption of H3B·NMe2H, using initial rate and H/D exchange experiments, indicate possible dehydrogenation mechanisms that invoke turnover-limiting N-H activation, which either precedes or follows B-H activation, to form H2B═NMe2, which then dimerizes to give [H2BNMe2]2. An additional detail is that the active catalyst Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl is in rapid equilibrium with an inactive dimeric species, [Rh(PCy3)H2Cl]2. The reaction of Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl with [Rh(PCy3)H2(H2)2][BAr(F)4] forms the halide-bridged adduct [Rh(PCy3)2H2(μ-Cl)H2(PCy3)2Rh][BAr(F)4] (Ar(F) = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3), which has been crystallographically characterized. This dinuclear cation dissociates on addition of H3B·NMe2H to re-form Rh(PCy3)2H2Cl and generate [Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H3B·NMe2H)][BAr(F)4]. The fate of the catalyst at low catalyst loadings (0.5 mol %) is also addressed, with the formation of an inactive borohydride species, Rh(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2), observed. On addition of H3B·NMe2H to Ir(PCy3)2H2Cl, the Ir congener Ir(PCy3)2H2(η(2)-H2BH2) is formed, with concomitant generation of the salt [H2B(NMe2H)2]Cl.

  11. Late Double-Barrel Lumen Following Successful CTO-PCI Using the Crossboss Stingray System.

    PubMed

    Roy, James; Rees, David; Ramsay, David; Weaver, James

    2017-02-01

    There remains limited randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI). New techniques involving dissection of the subintimal space and reentry into the true lumen increase success rates in CTO-PCI. However, their longer-term safety and efficacy remain unknown and poorly studied. We present a case of double-lumen formation seen at 1 year post CTO-PCI using subintimal dissection reentry with late restoration of major side branches.

  12. Type VII Collagen Expression in the Human Vitreoretinal Interface, Corpora Amylacea and Inner Retinal Layers.

    PubMed

    Wullink, Bart; Pas, Hendri H; Van der Worp, Roelofje J; Kuijer, Roel; Los, Leonoor I

    2015-01-01

    Type VII collagen, as a major component of anchoring fibrils found at basement membrane zones, is crucial in anchoring epithelial tissue layers to their underlying stroma. Recently, type VII collagen was discovered in the inner human retina by means of immunohistochemistry, while proteomic investigations demonstrated type VII collagen at the vitreoretinal interface of chicken. Because of its potential anchoring function at the vitreoretinal interface, we further assessed the presence of type VII collagen at this site. We evaluated the vitreoretinal interface of human donor eyes by means of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blotting. Firstly, type VII collagen was detected alongside vitreous fibers6 at the vitreoretinal interface. Because of its known anchoring function, it is likely that type VII collagen is involved in vitreoretinal attachment. Secondly, type VII collagen was found within cytoplasmic vesicles of inner retinal cells. These cells resided most frequently in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. Thirdly, type VII collagen was found in astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, known as corpora amylacea. The intraretinal presence of type VII collagen was confirmed by Western blotting of homogenized retinal preparations. These data add to the understanding of vitreoretinal attachment, which is important for a better comprehension of common vitreoretinal attachment pathologies.

  13. Vascular Endothelial Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Forms a Positive Gradient towards the Feto-Maternal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Blaschitz, Astrid; Gauster, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Lang, Ingrid; Maschke, Petra; Ulrich, Daniela; Karpf, Eva; Takikawa, Osamu; Schimek, Michael G.; Dohr, Gottfried; Sedlmayr, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe the distribution of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in vascular endothelium of human first-trimester and term placenta. Expression of IDO1 protein on the fetal side of the interface extended from almost exclusively sub-trophoblastic capillaries in first-trimester placenta to a nearly general presence on villous vascular endothelia at term, including also most bigger vessels such as villous arteries and veins of stem villi and vessels of the chorionic plate. Umbilical cord vessels were generally negative for IDO1 protein. In the fetal part of the placenta positivity for IDO1 was restricted to vascular endothelium, which did not co-express HLA-DR. This finding paralleled detectability of IDO1 mRNA in first trimester and term tissue and a high increase in the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio in chorionic villous tissue from first trimester to term placenta. Endothelial cells isolated from the chorionic plate of term placenta expressed IDO1 mRNA in contrast to endothelial cells originating from human umbilical vein, iliac vein or aorta. In first trimester decidua we found endothelium of arteries rather than veins expressing IDO1, which was complementory to expression of HLA-DR. An estimation of IDO activity on the basis of the ratio of kynurenine and tryptophan in blood taken from vessels of the chorionic plate of term placenta indicated far higher values than those found in the peripheral blood of adults. Thus, a gradient of vascular endothelial IDO1 expression is present at both sides of the feto-maternal interface. PMID:21755000

  14. A distant trophoblast-specific enhancer controls HLA-G expression at the maternal–fetal interface

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Leonardo M. R.; Meissner, Torsten B.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Mallard, William; O’Donnell, Charles W.; Tilburgs, Tamara; Gomes, Hannah A. B.; Camahort, Raymond; Sherwood, Richard I.; Gifford, David K.; Rinn, John L.; Cowan, Chad A.; Strominger, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G, a nonclassical HLA molecule uniquely expressed in the placenta, is a central component of fetus-induced immune tolerance during pregnancy. The tissue-specific expression of HLA-G, however, remains poorly understood. Here, systematic interrogation of the HLA-G locus using massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) uncovered a previously unidentified cis-regulatory element 12 kb upstream of HLA-G with enhancer activity, Enhancer L. Strikingly, clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer resulted in ablation of HLA-G expression in JEG3 cells and in primary human trophoblasts isolated from placenta. RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that Enhancer L specifically controls HLA-G expression. Moreover, DNase-seq and chromatin conformation capture (3C) defined Enhancer L as a cell type-specific enhancer that loops into the HLA-G promoter. Interestingly, MPRA-based saturation mutagenesis of Enhancer L identified motifs for transcription factors of the CEBP and GATA families essential for placentation. These factors associate with Enhancer L and regulate HLA-G expression. Our findings identify long-range chromatin looping mediated by core trophoblast transcription factors as the mechanism controlling tissue-specific HLA-G expression at the maternal–fetal interface. More broadly, these results establish the combination of MPRA and CRISPR/Cas9 deletion as a powerful strategy to investigate human immune gene regulation. PMID:27078102

  15. Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing PCI: State of Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Galasso, G; Mirra, M; De Luca, G; Piscione, F

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the management of choice in patients with ACS and occurrence of intra-procedural thrombotic complications are an independent predictor of mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. According to current guideline, anticoagulation therapy is indicated during PCI in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis. Among currently available anticoagulant drugs, bivalirudin demonstrates a lower incidence of bleeding risk, despite it is associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pharmacology of bivalirudin and the clinical evidences of its use in patients undergoing PCI for ACS. PMID:27326396

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  17. Validation and incremental value of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI.

    PubMed

    Pershad, Ashish; Eddin, Moneer; Girotra, Sudhakar; Cotugno, Richard; Daniels, David; Lombardi, William

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the outcomes and benefits of using the hybrid algorithm for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The hybrid algorithm harmonizes antegrade and retrograde techniques for performing CTO PCI. It has the potential to increase success rates and improve efficiency for CTO PCI. No previous data have analyzed the impact of this algorithm on CTO PCI success rates and procedural efficiency. Retrospective analysis of contemporary CTO PCI performed at two high-volume centers with adoption of the hybrid technique was compared to previously published CTO outcomes in a well matched group of patients and lesion subsets. After adoption of the hybrid algorithm, technical success was significantly higher in the post hybrid algorithm group 189/198 (95.4%) vs the pre-algorithm group 367/462 (79.4%) (P < 0.001). Procedural success in the post hybrid algorithm group 175/198 (88.3%) when compared to the pre-algorithm group 360/462 (77.9%) (P < 0.001) was also significantly improved. Failure rates were significantly lower. Efficiency parameters including procedure time, contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, and radiation doses all favored the post hybrid group but did not reach statistical significance. The validation of the hybrid algorithm has the potential to disseminate adoption of CTO PCI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Independent predictors of retrograde failure in CTO-PCI after successful collateral channel crossing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Muto, Makoto; Yamane, Masahisa; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Okamura, Atsunori; Igarashi, Yasumi; Fujita, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shigeru; Oida, Akitsugu; Tsuchikane, Etsuo

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing is important for the retrograde approach in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO). A total of 5984 CTO-PCI procedures performed in 45 centers in Japan from 2009 to 2012 were studied. The retrograde approach was used in 1656 CTO-PCIs (27.7%). We investigated these retrograde procedures to evaluate factors for predicting retrograde CTO-PCI failure even after successful collateral channel crossing. Successful guidewire/catheter collateral crossing was achieved in 77.1% (n = 1,276) of 1656 retrograde CTO-PCI procedures. Retrograde procedural success after successful collateral crossing was achieved in 89.4% (n = 1,141). Univariate analysis showed that the predictors for retrograde CTO-PCI failure were in-stent occlusion (OR = 1.9829, 95%CI = 1.1783 - 3.3370 P = 0.0088), calcified lesions (OR = 1.9233, 95%CI = 1.2463 - 2.9679, P = 0.0027), and lesion tortuosity (OR = 1.5244, 95%CI = 1.0618 - 2.1883, P = 0.0216). On multivariate analysis, lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing (OR = 1.3472, 95%CI = 1.0614 - 1.7169, P = 0.0141). The success rate of retrograde CTO-PCI following successful guidewire/catheter collateral channel crossing was high in this registry. Lesion calcification was an independent predictor of retrograde CTO-PCI failure after successful collateral channel crossing. Devices and techniques to overcome complex CTO lesion morphology, such as lesion calcification, are required to further improve the retrograde CTO-PCI success rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable angina: a common approach? Lessons learned from the EHS PCI registry.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Möllmann, Helge; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Nef, Holger; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, procedural details, and outcomes of patients undergoing elective multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in Europe. A total of 7113 patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least two major epicardial vessels with ≥ 70% stenosis were included in this analysis of the contemporary Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 3376, 47.5%) were compared with those with single-vessel PCI (SV-PCI) (n = 3737, 52.5%). Patients with MV-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, whereas those with SV-PCI more often suffered from noncardiac comorbidities. Hospital mortality (0.1% vs 0.3%) and the incidence of nonfatal postprocedural myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 0.7%) were low in patients with MV-PCI and SV-PCI. In the multivariate analysis, no significant difference in the incidence of hospital death (odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-1.27) could be observed between the two groups. However, the risk for postprocedural myocardial infarction (OR 1.57, 95% CI 0.93-2.67) tended to be higher among patients undergoing MV-PCI. Independent determinants for performing MV-PCI were age, comorbidities, and coronary anatomy. In Europe almost half of all patients with multivessel disease were treated with MV-PCI. Hospital complications were low, but a trend toward a higher rate of postprocedural myocardial infarctions was seen in patients with MV-PCI.

  20. Use and outcome of thrombus aspiration in patients with primary PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the multinational Euro Heart Survey PCI Registry.

    PubMed

    Weipert, Kay F; Bauer, Timm; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2016-09-01

    The clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration (TA) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well defined. Furthermore, there is a large variation in the use of TA in real-world registries. Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 7146 consecutive patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were prospectively enrolled into the PCI Registry of the Euro Heart Survey Programme. For the present analysis, patients treated additionally with TA (n = 897, 12.6 %) were compared with those without TA (n = 6249, 87.4 %). Patients with hemodynamic instability at initial presentation (15.1 vs. 11.0 %; p < 0.001) and resuscitation prior to PCI (10.4 vs. 7.4 %; p = 0.002) were more frequently treated with TA. TIMI flow grade 0/1 before PCI was more often found among those with TA (73.5 vs. 58.6 %; p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors in the propensity score analysis, TA was not associated with improved in-hospital survival (risk difference -1.1 %, 95 % confidence interval -2.7 to 0.6 %). In this European real-world registry, the rate of TA use was low. Hemodynamically unstable patients were more likely to be treated with TA. Consistent with the results of the TASTE study and the TOTAL trial, TA was not associated with a significant reduction in short-term mortality.

  1. Integrative transcriptome meta-analysis reveals widespread sex-biased gene expression at the human fetal–maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Buckberry, Sam; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Bent, Stephen J.; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2014-01-01

    As males and females share highly similar genomes, the regulation of many sexually dimorphic traits is constrained to occur through sex-biased gene regulation. There is strong evidence that human males and females differ in terms of growth and development in utero and that these divergent growth strategies appear to place males at increased risk when in sub-optimal conditions. Since the placenta is the interface of maternal–fetal exchange throughout pregnancy, these developmental differences are most likely orchestrated by differential placental function. To date, progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in placental gene expression. Therefore, our motivation in this study was to characterize sex-biased gene expression in the human placenta. We obtained gene expression data for >300 non-pathological placenta samples from 11 microarray datasets and applied mapping-based array probe re-annotation and inverse-variance meta-analysis methods which showed that >140 genes (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05) are differentially expressed between male and female placentae. A majority of these genes (>60%) are autosomal, many of which are involved in high-level regulatory processes such as gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation and hormonal function. Of particular interest, we detected higher female expression from all seven genes in the LHB-CGB cluster, which includes genes involved in placental development, the maintenance of pregnancy and maternal immune tolerance of the conceptus. These results demonstrate that sex-biased gene expression in the normal human placenta occurs across the genome and includes genes that are central to growth, development and the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24867328

  2. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor neuropilin-1 at the human embryo-maternal interface.

    PubMed

    Baston-Buest, Dunja M; Porn, Anne C; Schanz, Andrea; Kruessel, Jan-S; Janni, Wolfgang; Hess, Alexandra P

    2011-02-01

    Angiogenesis is required for successful implantation of the invading blastocyst. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important key player in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling during the implantation process. Besides its well-characterized receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to play an additional role in the signaling process of angiogenesis in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, as a co-receptor of VEGF. These findings led to the hypothesis that NRP-1 might play a role in the vascular remodeling process during embryo implantation and the establishment of a pregnancy. NRP-1 mRNA transcript and protein expression were investigated in human choriocarcinoma cell lines (JEG-3, Jar and BeWo) aiming to evaluate the expression of NRP-1 in vitro, as well as in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy, by western blot analysis (three samples of each trimester of pregnancy). The localization of NRP-1 in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (five samples of each trimester of pregnancy). NRP-1 transcript and protein were expressed in all cell lines examined. Corresponding to the analysis of human tissue by western blot and the localization by immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein higher expressed in samples of early pregnancy in comparison to the end of pregnancy. NRP-1 was expressed in the decidua, villi and invading cytotrophoblast of all samples investigated. This is the first study clearly showing the expression of NRP-1 in human decidua and trophoblast, suggesting an important role for the VEGF co-receptor NRP-1 besides the established receptor VEGFR2 at the embryo-maternal interface during embryonic implantation and placentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tim-3: Expression on immune cells and roles at the maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Hui; Tang, Mao-Xing; Mor, Gil; Liao, Ai-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Successful pregnancy relies on the accurate regulation of the maternal-fetal immune system. Without enough tolerance in the uterine microenvironment, the mother and the hemiallogeneic fetus could not peacefully coexist. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is a molecule originally regarded as to be expressed on terminally differentiated IFN-γ expressing CD4(+) T cells (Th1). The engagement of Tim-3 with its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9) could induce the exhaustion or apoptosis of effector T cells, and thus might regulate the tolerance. Tim-3 pathway also participates in regulating the activities of CD4(+) regulatory T cells, monocyte-macrophages, dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Dysregulation of Tim-3 expression can elicit excessive or inhibited inflammatory responses and ultimately result in autoimmune diseases, viral or tumor evasion and pregnancy complications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the expression of Tim-3 on local immune cells and its function in pregnancy. In addition, meaningful questions that need further investigation and the potential roles of Tim-3 in fetal tolerance will be discussed. Deeper understanding of the immune checkpoint receptor Tim-3 will shed new light on exploring the pathogenesis of some pregnancy complications, including pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, recurrent spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. Tim-3 pathway might be a new target of immune therapy for pregnancy complications in the future.

  4. Multiparity increases trophoblast invasion and vascular endothelial growth factor expression at the maternal-fetal interface in mice.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Silvana; Cortina, María E; Barrientos, Gabriela L; Prados, María B; Roux, María E; Miranda, Silvia E

    2010-06-01

    To analyze immunomodulating effects related to parity status, we studied trophoblast invasion grade, placental expression and systemic concentration of VEGF and its receptor Flt-1 in normal fertile (CBA/JxBALB/c) mice and abortion-prone (CBA/JxDBA/2) H-2(d)xH-2(k) mice. BALB/c or DBA/2 mated CBA/J females were, respectively, divided into the following groups: primiparous young (3.0+/-0.5 months old); primiparous old (8.5+/-0.5 months old) and multiparous old (8.5+/-0.5 months old, with 4 pregnancies). Immunohistochemical analysis of term placentae from both multiparous groups revealed various layers of invasive trophoblast tissue, identified as cytokeratin+/vimentin- cells, in contrast to the single layer detected in the placentae of primiparous animals, indicating that multiparity increases trophoblast invasion regardless of the success of the pregnancy outcome. Invasive trophoblast tissue from primiparous CBA/JxDBA/2 placentae showed diminished VEGF expression in comparison with the normal fertile group, while both multiparous groups demonstrated high expression of VEGF in the invasive trophoblast tissue. Placental expression of Flt-1 was similar in all groups. However, the primiparous CBA/JxBALB/c group showed the highest plasma concentration of sFlt-1 at term, while both multiparous groups demonstrated low circulating levels. No differences in circulating VEGF levels were observed among the groups. These results demonstrate an increase in trophoblast invasion tissue and expression of VEGF in the maternal-fetal interface in multiparous mice compared to primiparous mice. Moreover, the placenta appears to be able to regulate the circulating levels of VEGF by releasing sFlt-1.

  5. Adapting the revised prenatal coping inventory (NuPCI) for use in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Lorén-Guerrero, L; Gascón-Catalán, A; Romero-Cardiel, M A

    2017-04-19

    To adapt the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (NuPCI) for the evaluation of prenatal stress coping strategies utilised by Spanish women. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the psychometric properties of NuPCI adapted for a Spanish population. Two hundred and sixty one puerperium women completed the NuPCI at the time of discharge after childbirth. Instrument construct validity was evaluated using subscale item correlations. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α test. Items from each subscale (Preparation, Avoidance and Spiritual - Positive Coping) were significantly correlated with the global result (p < .001). The internal reliability of the NuPCI demonstrated suitable values for each of the three coping strategies (α > 0.7). The most frequently used coping strategy was Preparation and the least used was Avoidance. Utilisation of the coping strategies with Preparation decreased with increasing parity (p = .002) and greater prenatal stress was associated with increased use of the Avoidance coping strategy (p < .001). The NuPCI adapted for Spanish women demonstrates good psychometric properties for evaluating the three types of prenatal stress coping strategies: Preparation, Avoidance and Spiritual - Positive Coping. Results were similar to those presented by the instrument in its English language version.

  6. PCI Outcomes in U.S. Hospitals with Varying Structural Characteristics: Analysis of the NCDR® CathPCI Registry®

    PubMed Central

    Cram, Peter; House, John A.; Messenger, John; Piana, Robert N.; Horwitz, Phillip A; Spertus, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In the U.S. there continues to be debate about whether certain types of hospitals deliver improved patient outcomes. We sought to assess the association between hospital organizational characteristics and in-hospital outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Retrospective analysis of 2004-2007 data for 694 U.S. hospitals participating in the American College of Cardiology NCDR® CathPCI Registry®. Our analysis focused on 1,113,554 patients who underwent PCI in 471 not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals, 131 major teaching hospitals, 79 for-profit (FP) hospitals, and 13 physician-owned specialty hospitals. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality, stroke, bleeding, vascular injury and a composite representing one or more of the individual complications. We used the current NCDR mortality risk model to calculate risk standardized mortality ratios (RSMR) for each category of hospital and compared hospital groupings for all patients in aggregate and in subgroups stratified by patients' indications for PCI. Results Patients treated in major teaching hospitals were younger, while FP hospitals performed greater proportion of PCI for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)(P<.0001). Specialty hospitals treated patients with less acuity including a lower proportion of patients with STEMI. In unadjusted analyses, specialty hospitals had significantly lower rates of all adverse outcomes compared to NFP, teaching, and FP hospitals including in-hospital mortality (0.7%, 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively; P<.001) and the composite endpoint (2.4%, 4.1%, 4.6%, 4.3%; P<.001). In adjusted analyses, RSMR was significantly lower for specialty hospitals when compared to the other three groups for all patients in-aggregate (RSMR 1.05%, 1.30%, 1.38%, 1.39%; P<.001); these differences remained clinically significant but were no longer statistically significant for all subgroup analyses. Conclusions Specialty hospitals appear to have lower rates of

  7. Emotion-Bracelet: A Web Service for Expressing Emotions through an Electronic Interface.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alicia; Estrada, Hugo; Molina, Alejandra; Mejia, Manuel; Perez, Joaquin

    2016-11-24

    The mechanisms to communicate emotions have dramatically changed in the last 10 years with social networks, where users massively communicate their emotional states by using the Internet. However, people with socialization problems have difficulty expressing their emotions verbally or interpreting the environment and providing an appropriate emotional response. In this paper, a novel solution called the Emotion-Bracelet is presented that combines a hardware device and a software system. The proposed approach identifies the polarity and emotional intensity of texts published on a social network site by performing real-time processing using a web service. It also shows emotions with a LED matrix using five emoticons that represent positive, very positive, negative, very negative, and neutral states. The Emotion-Bracelet is designed to help people express their emotions in a non-intrusive way, thereby expanding the social aspect of human emotions.

  8. Emotion-Bracelet: A Web Service for Expressing Emotions through an Electronic Interface

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alicia; Estrada, Hugo; Molina, Alejandra; Mejia, Manuel; Perez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms to communicate emotions have dramatically changed in the last 10 years with social networks, where users massively communicate their emotional states by using the Internet. However, people with socialization problems have difficulty expressing their emotions verbally or interpreting the environment and providing an appropriate emotional response. In this paper, a novel solution called the Emotion-Bracelet is presented that combines a hardware device and a software system. The proposed approach identifies the polarity and emotional intensity of texts published on a social network site by performing real-time processing using a web service. It also shows emotions with a LED matrix using five emoticons that represent positive, very positive, negative, very negative, and neutral states. The Emotion-Bracelet is designed to help people express their emotions in a non-intrusive way, thereby expanding the social aspect of human emotions. PMID:27886130

  9. Controversies in the treatment of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease: is it time for PCI of all lesions?

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Several randomized trials have suggested a benefit for multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease. However, none of the studies compared multivessel PCI with a staged PCI-approach which is the current guideline recommended approach. The results of the trials may overestimate the beneficial effect of the multivessel PCI approach because the control group did not receive any ischaemia testing for evaluation of the significance of remaining lesions. Thus, unfavourable aspects of the multivessel PCI approach such as overestimation of non-culprit lesions at the time of acute coronary angiography, complications associated with PCI of the non-culprit lesion (i.e. dissection, no-reflow, acute stent thrombosis) or increased risk for contrast induced nephropathy may have gone unnoticed as the comparative management pathway was unusual and likely inferior to the guideline recommended approach. We believe that culprit lesion only PCI and staged evaluation of remaining areas of myocardial ischaemia with subsequent PCI is still preferable in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease but a randomized study comparing this approach with multivessel PCI is needed.

  10. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  11. MAGIC Database and Interfaces: An Integrated Package for Gene Discovery and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chun; Wang, Haiming; Kolychev, Dmitri S.; Sun, Feng; Freeman, Robert; Sullivan, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly increasing rate at which biological data is being produced requires a corresponding growth in relational databases and associated tools that can help laboratories contend with that data. With this need in mind, we describe here a Modular Approach to a Genomic, Integrated and Comprehensive (MAGIC) Database. This Oracle 9i database derives from an initial focus in our laboratory on gene discovery via production and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and subsequently on gene expression as assessed by both EST clustering and microarrays. The MAGIC Gene Discovery portion of the database focuses on information derived from DNA sequences and on its biological relevance. In addition to MAGIC SEQ-LIMS, which is designed to support activities in the laboratory, it contains several additional subschemas. The latter include MAGIC Admin for database administration, MAGIC Sequence for sequence processing as well as sequence and clone attributes, MAGIC Cluster for the results of EST clustering, MAGIC Polymorphism in support of microsatellite and single-nucleotide-polymorphism discovery, and MAGIC Annotation for electronic annotation by BLAST and BLAT. The MAGIC Microarray portion is a MIAME-compliant database with two components at present. These are MAGIC Array-LIMS, which makes possible remote entry of all information into the database, and MAGIC Array Analysis, which provides data mining and visualization. Because all aspects of interaction with the MAGIC Database are via a web browser, it is ideally suited not only for individual research laboratories but also for core facilities that serve clients at any distance. PMID:18629159

  12. The feasibility of using Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) in managing Malaysian oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hatta, J M M; Doss, J G; Rogers, S N

    2014-02-01

    The feasibility of using the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to identify oral cancer patient concerns during consultation in oral and maxillofacial specialist clinics in Malaysia was assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a consecutive clinical sampling technique of all new and follow-up oral cancer patients. Surgeons and counter staff were also recruited. Two-thirds of patients were elderly, 63.9% female, 55.6% Indian, 63.9% of lower-level education, and half had the lowest level household income. Patient status was mostly post-treatment (87.5%) and most were at cancer stage III/IV (63.9%); 59.7% had surgery. Patients took an average 5.9 min (95% CI 5.1-6.7 min) to complete the PCI. Physical domain appeared highest (94.4%); social/family relationship issues (4.2%) were lowest. Significant associations included patient age-personal function (P=0.02); patient education level-emotional status (P=0.05) and social/family relationship issues (P=0.04), and patient TNM staging-personal function (P=0.03). The patients' mean feasibility score for the PCI was 5.3 (95% CI 5.1-5.5) out of 6. Patients (93.1%) and surgeons (90%) found the PCI to be feasible. Only 57.1% of counter staff agreed on the use of the PCI during patient registration. Overall, the PCI was considered feasible, thus favouring its future use in routine oral cancer patient management. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. FFR result post PCI is suboptimal in long diffuse coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Arvydas; Peace, Aaron; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Shannon, Joanne; Abraitis, Vytautas; Bajoras, Vilhelmas; Bilkis, Valdas; Aidietis, Audrius; Laucevicius, Aleksandras; Davidavicius, Giedrius

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional result immediately post PCI and at nine-month follow-up, and to ascertain how often a functionally optimal result of >0.95 can be achieved in long coronary lesions treated with long second- or newer-generation DES. Patients receiving DES measuring ≥30 mm with FFR value ≤0.8 were included in the study. Stent length was defined as long (30 to 49 mm; L-DES) and ultra-long (≥50 mm; UL-DES). Angiographic and FFR evaluation was performed before and after PCI and at nine-month follow-up. A total of 74 patients each received a mean stent length of 50.72±14.6 mm. Mean FFR post PCI was 0.88±0.06. An optimal post PCI FFR value of >0.95 was achieved in only 9/74 patients (12.2%), and was not achieved in any UL-DES patients. Only 12/74 (16.2%) had FFR post PCI of 0.91 to 0.95; 8/74 (10.8%) patients remained ischaemic (≤0.8). FFR gradient across the stent was higher in UL-DES patients compared to L-DES patients (0.07±0.03 vs. 0.04±0.03; p=0.001). At follow-up, the angiographic restenosis rate was 4.7%, and the functional restenosis rate was 15.1%. The FFR result post PCI was suboptimal in the majority of patients treated with long DES and was particularly poor when the total stent length exceeded 50 mm.

  14. Chronic Total Occlusion - Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CTO-PCI) Experience in a Single, Multi-operator Australian Centre: Need for dedicated CTO-PCI programs.

    PubMed

    BoganaShanmugam, Vimalraj; Psaltis, Peter J; Wong, Dennis T; Seneviratne, Sujith; Cameron, James; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent a unique set of lesions for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of the complexity of techniques required to treat them. We retrospectively reviewed the CTO-PCI experience between January 2010 and December 2012, in a multi-operator single centre, which is one of the largest volume PCI centres in Australia. Eighty-two patients (62.6±11.3 years, 85% males) who had CTO-PCIs were included. The most common site of CTO was the right coronary artery (44%), followed by the left circumflex (30%) and left anterior descending (26%) arteries. Using the Japanese CTO scoring system, 34% of lesions were classified as easy, 37% intermediate, 23% difficult and 6% very difficult. All PCIs were performed by antegrade approach. Selected procedural characteristics included: re-attempt procedure 10%; multiple access sites 21%; more than one guidewire 77%; additional support modality 60%; drug-eluting stents 97%; stent number 1.6±0.8; total stent length 40.1±24.5mm; fluoroscopy time 33±17min; contrast volume 257.2±110.8mL. Overall CTO success rate was 60%. In-hospital adverse outcomes included 1.2% mortality, 9.8% peri-procedural myocardial infarction, 4.9% emergency bypass surgery, 3% cardiac tamponade and 4.9% contrast induced nephropathy. We report modest success rates in a single Australian centre experience in a relatively conservative cohort of CTO-PCI prior to the initiation of a dedicated CTO revascularisation program. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (Nu-PCI).

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Pasha, Hajar; Khafri, Sorayya; Heidary, Shima

    2017-03-01

    Familiarity with coping strategies is essential for stress management during pregnancy. The Revised Prenatal Coping Inventory (Nu-PCI) was developed to assess coping strategies during pregnancy. This study aimed to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Nu-PCI. After forward-backward translation, the Nu-PCI was administered to 210 pregnant women who were enrolled in two teaching referral clinics in the North of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Babol). The participants completed the Persian Nu-PCI and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ), which was used to determine the validity of the Persian Nu-PCI. To test construct validity of the Persian Nu-PCI, a principal components factor analysis was performed. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation showed a best fitting 3-factor structure similar to the original with three coping subscales: planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping. The Persian Nu-PCI was internally consistent and within the acceptable range (α=0.89-0.97). The alpha coefficients for the Nu-PCI and the subscales of planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping were high. Test-retest coefficients for the Nu-PCI and subscales were 0.98-0.99. The Nu-PCI and its subscales correlated with the WCQ in the entire sample and within each trimester. The Persian version of the Nu-PCI and the subscales of planning-preparation, avoidance, and spiritual-positive coping represent the first reliable standardized tool for measuring coping strategies during pregnancy in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Therefore, it can be applied as a quick and accurate preliminary screening tool for evaluating coping strategies throughout pregnancy in clinics and other medical and research settings.

  16. Regulation of carcinoma cell invasion by protein C inhibitor whose expression is decreased in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Nishioka, Junji; Tamaru, Hiroshi; Akita, Nobuyuki; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Ido, Masaru; Kawamura, Juichi; Suzuki, Koji

    2004-02-10

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is produced in various human tissues, including the liver, kidney and testis. In addition to inhibiting the anticoagulant protein C pathway, PCI also inhibits urinary plasminogen activator (uPA), which is a well-known mediator of tumor cell invasion. In the present study, to clarify the biologic significance of PCI in the kidney, we compared the expression of PCI between human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissue and nontumor kidney tissue. The PCI antigen level in RCC tissue was found to be significantly lower than in nontumor kidney tissue, and expression of PCI mRNA was detected in normal renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), but not in RCC or in an RCC cell line (Caki-1 cells). No differences were detected between the nucleotide sequence of the major cis-elements in the promoter region of the PCI gene from nontumor kidney and RCC tissues, RPTEC and Caki-1 cells, an RPTEC-derived RCC cell line. The in vitro invasiveness of Caki-1 cells transfected with a PCI expression vector was significantly decreased compared to mock-transfected Caki-1 cells, and it was blocked in the presence of anti-PCI antibody. Since PCI itself did not affect the proliferation rate of Caki-1 cells or cell expression of uPA in vitro, the effect of uPA, PCI, heat-inactivated PCI and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 on the invasive potential of cultured RCC cells was evaluated. The in vitro invasiveness of Caki-1 cells, which express uPA, was significantly enhanced by the addition of uPA, and it was inhibited by anti-uPA antibody, PCI and PAI-1, but not by heat-inactivated PCI. In addition, uPA activity was significantly decreased and uPA-PCI complex level was significantly increased in the culture medium of PCI expression vector-transfected Caki-1 cells as compared to mock-transfected Caki-1 cells. These findings strongly suggest that PCI regulates the invasive potential of RCC cells by inhibiting u

  17. Answer the call: let's make 2015 the year of magical thinking in CTO PCI.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Richard R

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of chronic total occlusions (CTO's) is as high as 50% in angiographic series Patients are helped with successful recanalization of CTO's In spite of current improved success rates in CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), only 10-12% of CTO's are currently attempted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  19. Modifying angiographic syntax score according to PCI strategy: lessons learnt from ERACI IV Study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Santaera, Omar; Antoniucci, David

    2015-01-01

    In recent years an angiographic score was introduced in clinical practice to stratified different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with drug eluting stents. The SYNTAX score (SS) classified patients in three different risk levels and was included in revascularization guidelines that patients allocated with low SS could be equally treated with either PCI or CABG, whereas those with intermediate or high SS were better off with CABG. However, using original SS each coronary lesion with a diameter stenosis ≥50% in vessels ≥1.5 mm was scored. In ERACI IV registry we used a revascularization strategy during PCI where operators were advised to only treat lesions≥than 70% in a≥2.0 mm reference vessel; therefore, no intermediate lesions should be treated, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm was discouraged as well. If we recalculated SS using the above-mentioned operators' advices all intermediate lesions were not scored, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm were excluded for the analysis, including bifurcations, trifurcations and chronic total occlusions; after this new scoring, the original SS dropped significantly which is in accordance with the goal of complete functional revascularization strategy of the ERACI IV study and the low one year adverse events of such study. In conclusion, if we performed an SS scoring, only severe stenosis in vessels with a reference diameter ≥2.0 mm would allow a more rational assessment of coronary anatomy, and the use of a more conservative PCI strategy.

  20. A PCI Based Data Acquisition System for Ground Array Detectors with Wireless Synchronization through GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Melo, L.; Pimenta, M.; Silva, J. C.; Varela, J.

    2003-07-01

    The synchronization of ground based cosmic ray detectors is a recurring problem. Traditional acquisition systems usually drive signal cables from each station of an array of detectors to a central acquisition system. In the context of ULTRA, a support experiment for the EUSO mission, a distributed wireless acquisition system based on a PCI board with synchronization through GPS was developed. The System is composed by several units, one per station and timetags each event on each station. The time differences between the several stations are computed offline. Each unit includes a low-cost, commercial GPS receiver (GPSboard), a custom PCI board (LIP-PAD) and a Personal Computer. The PCI board performs the fine time-tagging and also acquires the PMT signals of the ground array detector. PMT signals are shaped, amplified and then digitized by a 10 bits flash ADC with a frequency of 100 MHz. A digital trigger unit allows to implement several online trigger conditions. On trigger, event data is stored on an onboard memory. The board control and data readout is performed using the PCI bus. The overall time accuracy has been estimated to be better than 5ns.

  1. Invasive measurement of coronary microvascular resistance in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Amier, Raquel P; Teunissen, Paul F A; Marques, Koen M; Knaapen, Paul; van Royen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Up to 40% of patients with acute myocardial infarction develop microvascular obstruction (MVO) despite successful treatment with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The presence of MVO is linked to negative remodelling and left ventricular dysfunction, leading to decreased long-term survival, increased morbidity and reduced quality of life. The acute obstruction and dysfunction of the microvasculature can potentially be reversed by pharmacological treatment in addition to the standard PCI treatment. Identifying patients with post-PCI occurrence of MVO is essential in assessing which patients could benefit from additional treatment. However, at present there is no validated method to identify these patients. Angiographic parameters like myocardial blush grade or corrected Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow do not accurately predict the occurrence of MVO as visualised by MRI in the days after the acute event. Theoretically, acute MVO can be detected by intracoronary measurements of flow and resistance directly following the PCI procedure. In MVO the microvasculature is obstructed or destructed and will therefore display a higher coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR). The methods for intracoronary assessment of CMVR are based on either thermodilution or Doppler-flow measurements. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the currently available methods and parameters for assessing CMVR, with special attention given to their use in clinical practice and information provided by clinical studies performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Predictors and importance of prolonged hospital stay after primary PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Schellings, Dirk A A M; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; van 't Hof, Arnoud W J; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Hoorntje, Jan Ca; Gosselink And, Marcel; Suryapranata, Harry

    2011-11-01

    Although most patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have a good prognosis and can be discharged from hospital very soon, some patients must be admitted longer. We performed the current analysis to assess predictors and the prognostic significance of prolonged hospital stay. In this prospective observational study, individual data from 2323 patients who survived at least 2 days after primary PCI in our hospital were recorded. Patients in the highest tertile of hospital stay were compared with the other patients. Both predictors and prognostic importance of prolonged hospital stay were evaluated. Mean admission duration was 6.7 days (standard deviation=6.6). A total of 797 patients had a hospital stay for more than 6 days (highest tertile). Patients with a longer hospital stay were older, more often female, had more often a history of previous myocardial infarction and signs of heart failure on admission, and had more frequently Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 0 before PCI. In addition, a low left ventricular ejection fraction was independently associated with prolonged hospital stay [odds ratio: 2.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.54-2.76)], but with a comparable risk of 1-year mortality [odds ratio: 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-2.0)]. According to this study, a low left ventricular ejection fraction is associated with prolonged hospital stay in patients after primary PCI. Predictors of prolonged hospital stay are age, female sex, previous myocardial infarction, heart failure on admission, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 0 before PCI.

  3. Bodily Expression Support for Creative Dance Education by Grasping-Type Musical Interface with Embedded Motion and Grasp Sensors †

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kadone, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Dance has been made mandatory as one of the physical education courses in Japan because it can cultivate capacities for expression and communication. Among several types of dance education, creative dance especially contributes to the cultivation of these capacities. However, creative dance requires some level of particular skills, as well as creativity, and it is difficult to presuppose these pre-requisites in beginner-level dancers without experience. We propose a novel supporting device for dance beginners to encourage creative dance performance by continuously generating musical sounds in real-time in accordance with their bodily movements. It has embedded sensors developed for this purpose. Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the device were conducted with ten beginner-level dancers. Using the proposed device, the subjects demonstrated enhanced creative dance movements with greater variety, evaluated in terms of Laban dance movement description. Also, using the device, they performed with better accuracy and repeatability in a task where they produced an imagined circular trajectory by hand. The proposed interface is effective in terms of creative dance activity and accuracy of motion generation for beginner-level dancers. PMID:28531114

  4. Bodily Expression Support for Creative Dance Education by Grasping-Type Musical Interface with Embedded Motion and Grasp Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kadone, Hideki

    2017-05-20

    Dance has been made mandatory as one of the physical education courses in Japan because it can cultivate capacities for expression and communication. Among several types of dance education, creative dance especially contributes to the cultivation of these capacities. However, creative dance requires some level of particular skills, as well as creativity, and it is difficult to presuppose these pre-requisites in beginner-level dancers without experience. We propose a novel supporting device for dance beginners to encourage creative dance performance by continuously generating musical sounds in real-time in accordance with their bodily movements. It has embedded sensors developed for this purpose. Experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the device were conducted with ten beginner-level dancers. Using the proposed device, the subjects demonstrated enhanced creative dance movements with greater variety, evaluated in terms of Laban dance movement description. Also, using the device, they performed with better accuracy and repeatability in a task where they produced an imagined circular trajectory by hand. The proposed interface is effective in terms of creative dance activity and accuracy of motion generation for beginner-level dancers.

  5. Development of Network Interface Cards for TRIDAQ systems with the NaNet framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Valente, P.; Vicini, P.

    2017-03-01

    NaNet is a framework for the development of FPGA-based PCI Express (PCIe) Network Interface Cards (NICs) with real-time data transport architecture that can be effectively employed in TRIDAQ systems. Key features of the architecture are the flexibility in the configuration of the number and kind of the I/O channels, the hardware offloading of the network protocol stack, the stream processing capability, and the zero-copy CPU and GPU Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). Three NIC designs have been developed with the NaNet framework: NaNet-1 and NaNet-10 for the CERN NA62 low level trigger and NaNet3 for the KM3NeT-IT underwater neutrino telescope DAQ system. We will focus our description on the NaNet-10 design, as it is the most complete of the three in terms of capabilities and integrated IPs of the framework.

  6. [The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Three case reports].

    PubMed

    Silber, Sigmund; Richartz, Barbara M; Brilmayer, Matthias

    2006-12-01

    The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for the first time issued guidelines for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in spring 2005. The strengths of recommendations stated in the ESC guidelines (as in those of the AHA/ACC [American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology]) are traditionally a combination of recommendation classes (I, IIa, and IIb) and a level of evidence (A, B, or C). This paper explains and discusses selected focal points of the ESC PCI guidelines based on three representative cases from daily practice. 1. Stable coronary artery disease (CAD): PCI in a 53-year-old patient without angina pectoris and proof of myocardial ischemia. With a clear indication of ischemia in the anterior myocardial wall, the ESC PCI guidelines indicated coronary angiography with possible PCI, even without angina pectoris symptoms. Cardiac catheterization showed a 99% proximal LAD stenosis, which was immediately dilated and stented based on the indicated ischemia. According to the ESC PCI guidelines, an intervention is indicated for CAD when a larger ischemic area is clearly evident even in the absence of typical angina (recommendation class I A). 2. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): PCI even after successful thrombolysis. A 70-year-old patient experienced acute substernal pain and immediately went to his nearby hospital. The ECG clearly showed anterior myocardial wall STEMI, which in this hospital without a cardiac cath lab indicated thrombolysis, since it could be initiated within 3 h after the onset of chest pain. Pain relief was evident soon after thrombolysis, combined with a resolution of the ST segment elevations. As suggested by the ESC PCI guidelines, a transfer to a cardiac cath lab took place the next day, where the 50% residual stenosis of the LAD was stented. The ESC PCI guidelines suggest coronary angiography with possible PCI within 1-2 days following successful thrombolysis (recommendation class I A). Thus, even

  7. "PCI Reading Program": The Final Report of a Three Year Experimental Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Megan; Jaciw, Andrew; Ma, Boya; Lipton, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    PCI Education conducted a three-year longitudinal study to determine the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" ("PCI") for students with severe disabilities as implemented in Florida's Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The primary question addressed by the study is whether students…

  8. Clinical effect of preoperative high-dose atorvastatin against no-reflow after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbo; Zou, Zhipeng; Jiang, Haipeng; Li, Qiang; Guo, Fangming; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of preoperative high-dose atorvastatin to prevent the no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 138 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, admitted from March 2014 to January 2015, were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups of 46 individuals each. The groups included a control group in which patients were not treated with atorvastatin before PCI; a conventional-dose atorvastatin treatment group in which patients received a single dose of 20 mg at bedtime one day prior to PCI; and a high-dose atorvastatin treatment group in which patients were treated with 40 mg divided in two doses the day before PCI. The treatment effects were assessed by re-examining the echocardiography, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels after the PCI. The follow-up examinations included determinations of ultrasound imaging indicators and the contact with patients was maintained for a whole year. The CTFC (frame), pro-BNP, CK-MB peak and WMSI levels of the patients in the high-dose treatment group were significantly lower than those in the conventional dose or the control group. Trombolysis in myocardial infarction ≤2 and myocardial blush grade ≤1 levels were significantly lower than those in the conventional dose group (P=0.01) or those in the control group (P=0.01), although the echocardiographic indicators of the three groups were not significantly different (P<0.05). Nevertheless, it was found that there were significantly fewer adverse cardiovascular events in the high-dose group (P<0.05 in both cases). During the follow-up period, thromboembolism and restenosis were most infrequent in the high-dose atorvastatin group. Based on our findings the oral administration of high-dose atorvastatin before bedtime, one day before the procedure, can effectively prevent no-reflow cases, reduce adverse events and improve the long

  9. Nonemergency PCI at hospitals with or without on-site cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Alice K; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Massaro, Joseph M; Cutlip, Donald E; Carrozza, Joseph P; Marks, Anthony D; Murphy, Nancy; Romm, Iyah K; Biondolillo, Madeleine; Mauri, Laura

    2013-04-18

    Emergency surgery has become a rare event after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Whether having cardiac-surgery services available on-site is essential for ensuring the best possible outcomes during and after PCI remains uncertain. We enrolled patients with indications for nonemergency PCI who presented at hospitals in Massachusetts without on-site cardiac surgery and randomly assigned these patients, in a 3:1 ratio, to undergo PCI at that hospital or at a partner hospital that had cardiac surgery services available. A total of 10 hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery and 7 with on-site cardiac surgery participated. The coprimary end points were the rates of major adverse cardiac events--a composite of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, or stroke--at 30 days (safety end point) and at 12 months (effectiveness end point). The primary end points were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle and were tested with the use of multiplicative noninferiority margins of 1.5 (for safety) and 1.3 (for effectiveness). A total of 3691 patients were randomly assigned to undergo PCI at a hospital without on-site cardiac surgery (2774 patients) or at a hospital with on-site cardiac surgery (917 patients). The rates of major adverse cardiac events were 9.5% in hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery and 9.4% in hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery at 30 days (relative risk, 1.00; 95% one-sided upper confidence limit, 1.22; P<0.001 for noninferiority) and 17.3% and 17.8%, respectively, at 12 months (relative risk, 0.98; 95% one-sided upper confidence limit, 1.13; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The rates of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stroke (the components of the primary end point) did not differ significantly between the groups at either time point. Nonemergency PCI procedures performed at hospitals in Massachusetts without on-site surgical services were noninferior to procedures performed at hospitals

  10. The development of a Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to help reveal patients concerns in the head and neck clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; El-Sheikha, J; Lowe, D

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) is to identify the concerns that patients would like to discuss during their consultation. The PCI covers a range of issues including hearing, intimacy, fatigue, financial/benefits, PEG tube, relationships, regret, support for family, and wound healing. It also lists MDT members that patients would like to see or be referred on to. The PCI is completed using a touch-screen computer (TST) immediately before consultation. Responses are networked into the consultation room. A 28 weeks pilot for one consultant ran from August 2007 with 123 (of maximum 150) patients. The median time to complete the TST was 8min. Patients most frequently selected fear of recurrence (37%), dental health/teeth (27%), chewing (24%), pain in head/neck (20%), fatigue/tiredness (19%), saliva (18%) and swallowing (18%). The two MDT members they wished to see were dentist (19%) and speech/language therapist (10%). The vast majority felt the PCI made a difference (quite a bit/very much) to their consultation as it made it 'a bit more personal', 'reminds them of the points they want discussed', 'allows the consultation to get straight to the point'. Although the PCI can raise many issues it did not noticeably prolong the consultation (median 8min with PCI, 7min without PCI). The Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) helps focus the consultation onto patient needs and promotes multidisciplinary care. Following this very successful pilot the PCI is being rolled out to other consultants in the H & N clinic.

  11. Single-chip correlator implementation for PCI-bus personal computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Perlmutter, Stephen H.; Wolt, Barry

    2000-03-01

    We have previously reported on the design and operation of a novel single-chip optical correlator prototype. Two ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs and a high-speed APS camera were built into a single CMOS integrated circuit. Diffractive Fourier transform lenses were fabricated onto the surface of a window which was mounted on top of the chip. We are now working towards implementing the correlator as a business card-sized module mounted on a PCI card which can be plugged into the motherboard of industry standard PCs. We are also upgrading the SLMs to have analog optical modulation capability. The PCI card contains input and output image buffers, plus high-speed circuitry which digitizes the four analog output channels of the correlator's camera. This paper describes the system we are developing, some of the electronic and optical engineering issues involved, and the present status of our work.

  12. Evolution of metallic screening in small metal clusters probed by PCI-Auger spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sven; Peredkov, Sergey; Balkaya, Baris; Ferretti, Nicoletta; Neeb, Matthias; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2010-09-07

    Excitation-energy dependent Auger spectra of small copper clusters supported by a thin silica layer have been measured as function of cluster size. The Auger kinetic energy of the clusters clearly changes with the excess energy of the emitted photoelectron while not for the bulk. The kinetic energy shift is attributed to post-collision interaction (PCI) and exhibits a reduced metallic screening ability of small Cu-clusters. The spectroscopic data reveal an evolution from a long-range Coulomb-like interaction to a short-range "screened" electrostatic interaction within the sub-nm range. The data show that core electron spectroscopy such as PCI-Auger measurements can be used as a general tool to follow the metallic character of supported clusters.

  13. Inhibition of platelet function by abciximab or high-dose tirofiban in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    van Werkum, J.W.; Gerritsen, W.B.M.; Kelder, J.C.; Hackeng, C.M.; Ernst, S.M.; Deneer, V.H.M.; Suttorp, M.J.; Rensing, B.J.W.M.; Plokker, H.W.M.; ten Berg, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI, few data exist on the magnitude of platelet activation, aggregation and dosing of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors. Methods Sixty STEMI patients were randomised to abciximab, to high-dose tirofiban or to no additional GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment. Platelet activation (P-selectin expression) was measured using flow cytometry and the level of inhibition of platelet aggregation was assessed using the Plateletworks assay. Additionally, the PFA-100 with the collagen/adenosine-diphosphate cartridge (CADP) was used to compare the levels of platelet inhibition. All measurements were performed at baseline (T0), immediately after (T1), 30 minutes (T2), 60 minutes (T3) and 120 minutes (T4) after primary PCI. Results The level of platelet activation in both GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor treated groups was significantly lower compared with the control group at all time points after primary PCI (p=0.04). Also the administration of the currently recommended dose of abciximab resulted in significantly lower levels of inhibition of aggregation compared with high-dose tirofiban (p<0.0001). In addition, the CADP closure times were significantly prolonged in both GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor treated groups compared with the control group at time points T1 (p=0.006) and T4 (p<0.0001). Conclusion The administration of high-dose tirofiban resulted in a significantly higher inhibition of platelet aggregation compared with the currently recommended dose of abciximab. Large clinical trials are needed to assess whether this laboratory superiority of high-dose tirofiban translates into higher clinical efficacy. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:375-81.18176639) PMID:18176639

  14. Start-up of the PCI Facility at Stelco Hilton Works

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, J.B.; Hutchinson, S.; Brown, R.

    1996-12-31

    In the late 1980`s it became apparent that the future coke requirements for the two Blast Furnaces at Stelco`s Hilton Works would be greater than the projected internal coke production levels. The three older coke batteries had been producing for forty years and were expected to be shutdown by the mid 1990`s due to age and environmental considerations. Although the purchase of coke from external sources to supplement needs was accepted as a short term solution, it was not considered a viable long term strategy. Decreasing world coke production forecasted increasing coke purchase costs and availability constraints. Construction of a new coke battery represented a large capital investment, high operating costs, and new environmental implications. Early studies suggested pulverized coal injection was the most viable solution to the coke shortfall problem. PCI rates had advanced significantly during the 1980`s and the process continued to be a leading edge technology entering the 1990`s. To return Hilton Works to a near self sufficient coke state, a team was formed whose efforts were directed towards investigating the available PCI technologies, selecting a process which was most suitable, and arranging acceptable financing. The facility design was to be based on Kawasaki technology. Construction of the facility and injection lines to the Blast Furnaces occurred over 13 months. On Dec. 18, 1995, injection began to E Blast Furnace followed by injection to D Blast Furnace on January 16, 1996. This paper will provide a description of Hilton Works` Blast Furnaces and the PCI Facility. The start-up and current status of PCI will also be examined.

  15. Determine Operating Reactor to Use for the 2016 PCI Level 1 Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-30

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) Level 1 milestone to “Assess the analysis capability for core-wide [pressurized water reactor] PWR Pellet- Clad Interaction (PCI) screening and demonstrate detailed 3-D analysis on selected sub-region” (L1:CASL.P13.03) requires a particular type of nuclear power plant for the assessment. This report documents the operating reactor and cycles chosen for this assessment in completion of the physics integration (PHI) milestone to “Determine Operating Reactor to use for PCI L1 Milestone” (L3:PHI.CMD.P12.02). Watts Bar Unit 1 experienced (at least) one fuel rod failure in each of cycles 6 and 7, and at least one was deemed to be duty related rather than being primarily related to a manufacturing defect or grid effects. This brief report documents that the data required to model cycles 1–12 of Watts Bar Unit 1 using VERA-CS contains sufficient data to model the PHI portion of the PCI challenge problem. A list of additional data needs is also provided that will be important for verification and validation of the BISON results.

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phages vB_PaeP_PcyII-10_P3P1 and vB_PaeM_PcyII-10_PII10A

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, Cédric; Latino, Libera; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    vB_PaeP_PcyII-10_P3P1 and vB_PaeM_PcyII-10_PII10A are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages belonging, respectively, to the Lit1virus genus of the Podoviridae family and the Pbunavirus genus of the Myoviridae family. Their genomes are 72,778 bp and 65,712 bp long, containing 94 and 93 predicted open reading frames, respectively. PMID:27856570

  17. Interface resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, Juha

    1983-11-01

    Interface resistance is studied by using the Landauer formula which relates the resistance to the quantum mechanical transmission coefficient. A simple rederivation of the Landauer formula is given. Using a step-like potential barrier as a model for the metal-semiconductor contact an analytical expression for the effective Richardson constant is derived. As an other application the grain boundary resistance in polycrystalline semiconductors is studied. The short-range potential fluctuation associated with the grain boundary is described by a rectangular potential barrier. The results for the grain boundary limited mobility cover both the strong and weak scattering regimes.

  18. The differential expression of Kiss1, MMP9 and angiogenic regulators across the feto-maternal interface of healthy human pregnancies: implications for trophoblast invasion and vessel development.

    PubMed

    Matjila, Mushi; Millar, Robert; van der Spuy, Zephne; Katz, Arieh

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in invasion of trophoblast cells and angiogenesis are crucial in determining pregnancy outcome. We therefore studied expression profiles of these genes in both fetal and maternal tissues to enhance our understanding of feto-maternal dialogue. We investigated the expression of genes involved in trophoblast invasion, namely Kiss1, Kiss1 Receptor (Kiss1R) and MMP9 as well as the expression of angiogenic ligands Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) and their respective receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and PROK1R) across the feto-maternal interface of healthy human pregnancies. The placenta, placental bed and decidua parietalis were sampled at elective caesarean delivery. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate transcription, while immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were utilized to study protein expression. We found that the expression of Kiss1 (p<0.001), Kiss1R (p<0.05) and MMP9 (p<0.01) were higher in the placenta compared to the placental bed and decidua parietalis. In contrast, the expression of VEGF-A was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001). While VEGFR1 expression was highest in the placenta (p<0.01), the expression of VEGFR2 was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001). Lastly, both PROK1 (p<0.001) and its receptor PROK1R (p<0.001) had highest expression in the placenta. Genes associated with trophoblast invasion were highly expressed in the placenta which could suggest that the influence on invasion capacity may largely be exercised at the fetal level. Furthermore, our findings on angiogenic gene expression profiles suggest that angiogenesis may be regulated by two distinct pathways with the PROK1/PROK1R system specifically mediating angiogenesis in the fetus and VEGFA/VEGFR2 ligand-receptor pair predominantly mediating maternal angiogenesis.

  19. The Differential Expression of Kiss1, MMP9 and Angiogenic Regulators across the Feto-Maternal Interface of Healthy Human Pregnancies: Implications for Trophoblast Invasion and Vessel Development

    PubMed Central

    Matjila, Mushi; Millar, Robert; van der Spuy, Zephne; Katz, Arieh

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in invasion of trophoblast cells and angiogenesis are crucial in determining pregnancy outcome. We therefore studied expression profiles of these genes in both fetal and maternal tissues to enhance our understanding of feto-maternal dialogue. We investigated the expression of genes involved in trophoblast invasion, namely Kiss1, Kiss1 Receptor (Kiss1R) and MMP9 as well as the expression of angiogenic ligands Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and Prokineticin-1 (PROK1) and their respective receptors (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and PROK1R) across the feto-maternal interface of healthy human pregnancies. The placenta, placental bed and decidua parietalis were sampled at elective caesarean delivery. Real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate transcription, while immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were utilized to study protein expression. We found that the expression of Kiss1 (p<0.001), Kiss1R (p<0.05) and MMP9 (p<0.01) were higher in the placenta compared to the placental bed and decidua parietalis. In contrast, the expression of VEGF-A was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001). While VEGFR1 expression was highest in the placenta (p<0.01), the expression of VEGFR2 was highest in the placental bed (p<0.001). Lastly, both PROK1 (p<0.001) and its receptor PROK1R (p<0.001) had highest expression in the placenta. Genes associated with trophoblast invasion were highly expressed in the placenta which could suggest that the influence on invasion capacity may largely be exercised at the fetal level. Furthermore, our findings on angiogenic gene expression profiles suggest that angiogenesis may be regulated by two distinct pathways with the PROK1/PROK1R system specifically mediating angiogenesis in the fetus and VEGFA/VEGFR2 ligand-receptor pair predominantly mediating maternal angiogenesis. PMID:23696833

  20. Myocardial Revascularization in New York State: Variations in the PCI-to-CABG Ratio and Their Implications

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wilson; Tranbaugh, Robert; Marmur, Jonathan D.; Supino, Phyllis G.; Borer, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background During the past 2 decades, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has increased dramatically compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with coronary artery disease. However, although the evidence available to all practitioners is similar, the relative distribution of PCI and CABG appears to differ among hospitals and regions. Methods and Results We reviewed the published data from the mandatory New York State Department of Health annual cardiac procedure reports issued from 1994 through 2008 to define trends in PCI and CABG utilization in New York and to compare the PCI/CABG ratios in the metropolitan area to the remainder of the State. During this 15-year interval, the procedure volume changes for CABG, for all cardiac surgeries, for non-CABG cardiac surgeries, and for PCI for New York State were −40%, −20%, +17.5%, and +253%, respectively; for the Manhattan programs, the changes were similar as follows: −61%, −23%, +14%, and +284%. The average PCI/CABG ratio in New York State increased from 1.12 in 1994 to 5.14 in 2008; however, in Manhattan, the average PCI/CABG ratio increased from 1.19 to 8.04 (2008 range: 3.78 to 16.2). The 2008 PCI/CABG ratios of the Manhattan programs were higher than the ratios for New York City programs outside Manhattan, in Long Island, in the northern counties contiguous to New York City, and in the rest of New York State; their averages were 5.84, 5.38, 3.31, and 3.24, respectively. In Manhattan, a patient had a 56% greater chance of receiving PCI than CABG as compared with the rest of New York State; in one Manhattan program, the likelihood was 215% higher. Conclusions There are substantial regional and statewide differences in the utilization of PCI versus CABG among cardiac centers in New York, possibly related to patient characteristics, physician biases, and hospital culture. Understanding these disparities may facilitate the selection of the most appropriate, effective, and evidence

  1. Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor β-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor β-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the

  2. Protonation of W(CO) sub 3 (PCy sub 3 ) sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Sluys, L.S.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Kubas, G.J.; Caulton, K.G. Indiana Univ., Bloomington )

    1991-01-23

    Protonation of W(CO){sub 3}(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} with equimolar HBF{sub 4}{center dot}OEt{sub 2} in toluene produces WH(BF{sub 4})(CO){sub 3}(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2}. This was characterized by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal x-ray diffraction as a seven-coordinate molecule with {eta}{sup 1}-coordinated BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. The location of the hydride, in the WFP{sub 2}CO plane and in the cis position relative to one P and CO, makes the phosphines inequivalent. This inequivalence is evident in both the {sup 31}P and {sup 1}H NMR spectra, but the onset of hydride fluxionality is detected already at 25{degree}C. The low-temperature {sup 19}F NMR spectrum and also the comparison of the spectral data of this molecule to that of the analogous products from HO{sub 3}SCF{sub 3}, H{sub 2}C(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}, and HCl{center dot}Et{sub 2}O indicate that the conjugate base of the acid employed for protonation remains coordinated in aromatic solvents. Reactivity studies of W(CO){sub 3}P{sub 2} with BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} are consistent with the idea that the overall protonation reaction of 16-electron W(CO){sub 3}(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} is initiated by proton transfer, not by coordination of a lone pair of the conjugate base (e.g., BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} or OEt{sub 2}). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Further validation of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI; difficult lesions, same success.

    PubMed

    Basir, Mir B; Karatasakis, Aris; Alqarqaz, Mohammad; Danek, Barbara; Rangan, Bavana V; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Kim, Henry; O'Neill, William W; Alaswad, Khaldoon

    To evaluate the success rates and outcome of the hybrid algorithm for chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by a single operator in two different clinical settings. We compared 279 consecutive CTO PCIs performed by a single, high-volume operator using the hybrid algorithm in two different clinical settings. Data were collected through the PROGRESS CTO Registry. We compared 145 interventions performed in a community program (cohort A) with 134 interventions performed in a referral center (cohort B). Patient in cohort B had more complex lesions with higher J-CTO (3.0 vs. 3.41; p<0.001) and Progress CTO (1.5 vs.1.8, P=0.003) scores, more moderate to severe tortuosity (38% vs. 64%; p<0.001), longer total occlusion length (25 vs. 40mm; p<0.001) and higher prevalence of prior failed CTO PCI attempts (15% vs. 35%; p=0.001). Both technical (95% vs. 91%; p=0.266) and procedural (94% vs. 88%; p=0.088) success rates were similar between the two cohorts despite significantly different lesion complexity. Overall major adverse cardiovascular events were higher in cohort B (1.4% vs. 7.8%; p=0.012) without any significant difference in mortality (0.7% vs. 2.3%, p=0.351). In spite of higher lesion complexity in the setting of a quaternary-care referral center, use of the hybrid algorithm for CTO PCI enabled similarly high technical and procedural success rates as compared with those previously achieved by the same operator in a community-based program at the expense of a higher rate of MACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical therapy v. PCI in stable coronary artery disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Tomlinson, George; Ko, Dennis T; Dzavik, Vladimir; Krahn, Murray D

    2013-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with either drug-eluting stents (DES) or bare metal stents (BMS) reduces angina and repeat procedures compared with optimal medical therapy alone. It remains unclear if these benefits are sufficient to offset their increased costs and small increase in adverse events. Cost utility analysis of initial medical therapy v. PCI with either BMS or DES. . Markov cohort decision model. Data Sources. Propensity-matched observational data from Ontario, Canada, for baseline event rates. Effectiveness and utility data obtained from the published literature, with costs from the Ontario Case Costing Initiative. Patients with stable coronary artery disease, confirmed after angiography, stratified by risk of restenosis based on diabetic status, lesion size, and lesion length. Time Horizon. Lifetime. Perspective. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. Interventions. Optimal medical therapy, PCI with BMS or DES. Lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). of Base Case Analysis. In the overall population, medical therapy had the lowest lifetime costs at $22,952 v. $25,081 and $25,536 for BMS and DES, respectively. Medical therapy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of 10.1 v. 10.26 QALYs for BMS, producing an ICER of $13,271/QALY. The DES strategy had a quality-adjusted life expectancy of only 10.20 QALYs and was dominated by the BMS strategy. This ranking was consistent in all groups stratified by restenosis risk, except diabetic patients with long lesions in small arteries, in whom DES was cost-effective compared with medical therapy (ICER of $18,826/QALY). Limitations. There is the possibility of residual unobserved confounding. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an initial BMS strategy is cost-effective.

  5. Predictors of cardiac death in patients with coronary chronic total occlusion not revascularized by PCI.

    PubMed

    Godino, Cosmo; Bassanelli, Giorgio; Economou, Fotios I; Takagi, Kensuke; Ancona, Marco; Galaverna, Stefano; Mangieri, Antonio; Magni, Valeria; Latib, Azeem; Chieffo, Alaide; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio

    2013-09-30

    Limited data are available on clinical outcome of patients with previously failed or not attempted chronic total occlusion (CTO) recanalization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the study is to determine prevalence and predictors of cardiac death in patients with CTO not revascularized by PCI. Double-center study analyzing data of 1.345 consecutive patients with at least one CTO between 1998 and 2008. Of these, 847 patients were successfully revascularized (Revascularized group) and 498 patients were not revascularized (Not revascularized group) either due to failure of CTO-PCI (n=337) or because no attempt was made (n=161). At 4-year clinical follow-up, Not revascularized patients had a significantly higher rate of cardiac mortality (8.5% vs. 2.5%, p<0.0001) and sudden cardiac death (2.7% vs. 0.5%, p=0.001) compared to those Revascularized. The separate adjusted Cox-model analysis made for Not revascularized patients showed the most significant independent predictors of cardiac death were: chronic renal failure [HR (CI), 6.0 (2.66-13.80)], low-LVEF [5.7 (2.84-11.58)], insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 4.6 [(1.96-10.97)]. In the Revascularized group, the presence of 3-vessel disease was the only significant independent predictor of cardiac death [4.4 (1.40-13.70)]. CTO patients Not revascularized had a significant higher rate of cardiac mortality and sudden cardiac death compared to those Revascularized. Within Not revascularized patients, the presence of low-LVEF, or CRF or IDDM was associated with an incidence of cardiac death at least 4 times higher than those without the same risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Door-to-balloon time and mortality among patients undergoing primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Menees, Daniel S; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Messenger, John C; Rumsfeld, John S; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2013-09-05

    Current guidelines for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction recommend a door-to-balloon time of 90 minutes or less for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Door-to-balloon time has become a performance measure and is the focus of regional and national quality-improvement initiatives. However, it is not known whether national improvements in door-to-balloon times have been accompanied by a decline in mortality. We analyzed annual trends in door-to-balloon times and in-hospital mortality using data from 96,738 admissions for patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from July 2005 through June 2009 at 515 hospitals participating in the CathPCI Registry. In a subgroup analysis using a linked Medicare data set, we assessed 30-day mortality. Median door-to-balloon times declined significantly, from 83 minutes in the 12 months from July 2005 through June 2006 to 67 minutes in the 12 months from July 2008 through June 2009 (P<0.001). Similarly, the percentage of patients for whom the door-to-balloon time was 90 minutes or less increased from 59.7% in the first year to 83.1% in the last year (P<0.001). Despite improvements in door-to-balloon times, there was no significant overall change in unadjusted in-hospital mortality (4.8% in 2005-2006 and 4.7% in 2008-2009, P=0.43 for trend) or in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality (5.0% in 2005-2006 and 4.7% in 2008-2009, P=0.34), nor was a significant difference observed in unadjusted 30-day mortality (P=0.64). Although national door-to-balloon times have improved significantly for patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality has remained virtually unchanged. These data suggest that additional strategies are needed to reduce in-hospital mortality in this population. (Funded by the National Cardiovascular Data Registry of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.).

  7. Effect of platelet inhibition with cangrelor during PCI on ischemic events.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Stone, Gregg W; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Gibson, C Michael; Steg, P Gabriel; Hamm, Christian W; Price, Matthew J; Leonardi, Sergio; Gallup, Dianne; Bramucci, Ezio; Radke, Peter W; Widimský, Petr; Tousek, Frantisek; Tauth, Jeffrey; Spriggs, Douglas; McLaurin, Brent T; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Généreux, Philippe; Liu, Tiepu; Prats, Jayne; Todd, Meredith; Skerjanec, Simona; White, Harvey D; Harrington, Robert A

    2013-04-04

    The intensity of antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important determinant of PCI-related ischemic complications. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist that acts rapidly and has quickly reversible effects. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 11,145 patients who were undergoing either urgent or elective PCI and were receiving guideline-recommended therapy to receive a bolus and infusion of cangrelor or to receive a loading dose of 600 mg or 300 mg of clopidogrel. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours after randomization; the key secondary end point was stent thrombosis at 48 hours. The primary safety end point was severe bleeding at 48 hours. The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 4.7% in the cangrelor group and 5.9% in the clopidogrel group (adjusted odds ratio with cangrelor, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.005). The rate of the primary safety end point was 0.16% in the cangrelor group and 0.11% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.53 to 4.22; P=0.44). Stent thrombosis developed in 0.8% of the patients in the cangrelor group and in 1.4% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.90; P=0.01). The rates of adverse events related to the study treatment were low in both groups, though transient dyspnea occurred significantly more frequently with cangrelor than with clopidogrel (1.2% vs. 0.3%). The benefit from cangrelor with respect to the primary end point was consistent across multiple prespecified subgroups. Cangrelor significantly reduced the rate of ischemic events, including stent thrombosis, during PCI, with no significant increase in severe bleeding. (Funded by the Medicines Company; CHAMPION PHOENIX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01156571.).

  8. Temporal Trends in Clinical Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 1984-2010 - Report From the Juntendo PCI Registry.

    PubMed

    Naito, Ryo; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Ogita, Manabu; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Okazaki, Shinya; Isoda, Kikuo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of PCI in 1977, it has evolved along with advances in the technology, improvement in operator technique and establishment of medical therapy. However, little is known of the improvement in clinical outcome following PCI. Data from the Juntendo PCI Registry during 1984-2010 were analyzed. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to date of index PCI: POBA era, January 1984-December 1997; BMS era, January 1998-July 2004; and DES era, August 2004-February 2010. The primary endpoint was a composite of MACE including all-cause mortality, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke and revascularization. A total of 3,831 patients were examined (POBA era, n=1,147; BMS era, n=1,180; DES era, n=1,504). Mean age was highest in the DES era. The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was higher in the DES and BMS eras than in the POBA era. Unadjusted cumulative event-free survival rate for 2-year MACE was significantly different across the 3 eras. Adjusted relative risk reduction for 2-year MACE was 56% in the DES era and 34% in the BMS era, both compared with the POBA era. Age, ACS, and LVEF were associated with the incidence of MACE. Clinical outcome of PCI improved across the 26-year study period, despite the higher patient risk profile in the recent era.

  9. A validation study of the Brazilian version of the pornography consumption inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Luísa de Souza Gatti, Ana; Henrique de Oliveira, Vitor; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; Almeida de Souza Aranha e Silva, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Although men constitute the widest consumer group of pornography, the Internet has facilitated both the production of and access to pornographic material by women as well. However, few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, which can compromise the reliability of statements regarding the harmful use of pornography. Our study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students in Brazil. The PCI is a four-factor, 15-item, five-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the PCI, it was administered to 105 female medical students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity. The results supported the four-factor model of the PCI. The model showed adequate internal reliability and good fit indices (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.09), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08). Overall, the findings from this study support the use of the PCI in Portuguese-speaking women.

  10. Estimating incidence of organ cancer related to PCI radiation exposure in patients treated for acute and chronic total occlusions.

    PubMed

    Godino, Cosmo; Maccagni, Davide; Pavon, Anna Giulia; Viani, Giacomo; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Minimal data exist on the number of additional cancer cases related to radiation exposure following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence for individual organs following radiation exposure during PCI in the context of two opposite sides of the angiographic spectrum of coronary occlusive disease: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and chronic coronary total occlusion (CTO). We identified all consecutive patients treated with PCI for STEMI (n = 555) and for CTO (n = 543) in a tertiary care center in 6 years. The LARs of cancer incidence for 6 organs were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII model. The estimated LAR of cancer incidence for individual organs was found to markedly increase as the age of the patient decreased and was significantly higher for the lung (additional risk up to 18/100,000 persons exposed in CTO and 9/100,000 persons exposed in STEMI patients, respectively; P<.0001) and for the red bone marrow (up to 3.5/100,000 persons exposed and 1.5/100,000 persons exposed, respectively; P<.0001). In PCI procedures, the lung was the organ with the highest radiation absorbed. The number of additional estimated cancer cases for individual organs was on average two times higher in patients treated with PCI for CTO and the highest estimated LARs were for lung and red bone marrow cancers.

  11. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  12. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-04

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  13. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  14. Women with Recurrent Miscarriage Have Decreased Expression of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-Hydroxylase by the Fetal-Maternal Interface

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chun-fang; Zhang, Xin-wen; Hui, Ling-yun; Xue, Mingzhan; Yu, Xue-wen

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy have been associated with some adverse pregnancy outcomes. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) is integral to the vitamin D metabolic pathway. The enzyme catalyzes localized conversion of pro-hormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Our aim was to investigate the expression of CYP27B1 at the fetal-maternal interface in the first trimester pregnancy and to determine whether CYP27B1 was associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). Methods Expressions of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villi and decidua from 20 women undergoing primary miscarriage, 20 women with RM and 20 women with normal pregnancy were evaluated by western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. The co-localization of CYP27B1 and certain cytokines including IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were examined using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Results Women with RM had a significantly lower expression of CYP27B1 mRNA and protein in villous and decidual tissues compared with the normal pregnant women (P = 0.000 in villus, P = 0.002 in decidua for mRNA; P = 0.036 in villus, P = 0.007 in decidua for protein.). Compared with the normal pregnancy, immunostaining for CYP27B1 was significantly decreased in villous trophoblasts and decidual glandular epithelial cells in RM women. No significant differences in the localization of CYP27B1, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression were identified between the normal pregnant and RM women. Conclusions Women with RM have a lower level of CYP27B1 expression in chorionic villi and decidua compared with normal pregnant women, suggesting that reduced CYP27B1 expression may be associated with RM. The consistent localization of CYP27B1 and IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 expression in villous and decidual tissues suggests the importance of the local production of 1,25(OH)2D3 at the fetal-maternal interface to regulate cytokine responses. PMID:28033387

  15. Differential expression of the metastasis suppressor KAI1 in decidual cells and trophoblast giant cells at the feto-maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tae Bon; Han, Min-Su; Tadashi, Yamashita; Seong, Won Joon; Choi, Je-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue is essential for establishing mature feto-maternal circulation. The trophoblast invasion associated with placentation is similar to tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1, an anti-metastasis factor, at the maternal-fetal interface during placentation. Mouse embryos were obtained from gestational days 5.5 (E5.5) to E13.5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that KAI1 was expressed on decidual cells around the track made when a fertilized ovum invaded the endometrium, at days E5.5 and E7.5, and on trophoblast giant cells, along the central maternal artery of the placenta at E9.5. KAI1 in trophoblast giant cells was increased at E11.5, and then decreased at E13.5. Furthermore, KAI1 was upregulated during the forskolinmediated trophoblastic differentiation of BeWo cells. Collectively, these results indicate that KAI1 is differentially expressed in decidual cells and trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface, suggesting that KAI1 prevents trophoblast invasion during placentation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10): 507-512] PMID:24148772

  16. Sodium pump distribution is not reversed in the DBA/2FG-pcy, polycystic kidney disease model mouse.

    PubMed

    Kawa, G; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, A; Omori, K; Komatz, Y; Takahashi, H; Tashiro, Y

    1994-06-01

    Recently, it has been reported that Na,K-ATPase in the renal epithelia of human autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and cpk mouse, a murine model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, mislocates to apical plasma membrane and that mislocated Na,K-ATPase causes the cyst formation. Whether the DBA/2FG-pcy mice, which are presumably a suitable model for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, also exhibit the reversal polarity of Na,K-ATPase localization was examined. Kidneys of newborn DBA/2FG-pcy mice, and those at early and late stages of cyst development were examined by immunohistochemical techniques. At any stage, abnormal distribution of Na,K-ATPase on the apical membranes of tubular epithelial cells could not be detected. It is suggested that cysts can be formed without reversed polarity of Na,K-ATPase distribution in pcy mice.

  17. Subepicardial haematoma, a rare and potentially lethal complication of CTO-PCI: case of an exceptional recovery after conservative management.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Annemiek M J; van der Schaaf, Rene J

    2014-10-09

    We present the case of an 82-year-old woman undergoing high-risk chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) of the right coronary artery. Hours after the procedure, a subepicardial haematoma was diagnosed as a result of coronary perforation during the procedure. This rare and potentially lethal complication evolved exceptionally benignly after conservative management; our patient fully recovered. Increasingly complex procedures in high-risk patient categories warrant awareness of procedural complications, especially those that are subtle and appear relatively late, and are therefore most hazardous. Recognition of this rare complication and choosing the optimal strategy is of the utmost importance when dealing with patients who undergo PCI. We here describe the rare case of a potential lethal complication in high-risk CTO-PCI, which evolved relatively benignly. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Characterisation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1: a novel basal lamina component expressed at cell-tooth interfaces.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Pierre; Wazen, Rima M; Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Nanci, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Functional genomic screening of the rat enamel organ (EO) has led to the identification of a number of secreted proteins expressed during the maturation stage of amelogenesis, including amelotin (AMTN) and odontogenic ameloblast-associated (ODAM). In this study, we characterise the gene, protein and pattern of expression of a related protein called secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein-proline-glutamine-rich 1 (SCPPPQ1). The Scpppq1 gene resides within the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (Scpp) cluster. SCPPPQ1 is a highly conserved, 75-residue, secreted protein rich in proline, leucine, glutamine and phenylalanine. In silico data mining has revealed no correlation to any known sequences. Northern blotting of various rat tissues suggests that the expression of Scpppq1 is restricted to tooth and associated tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the protein is expressed during the late maturation stage of amelogenesis and in the junctional epithelium where it localises to an atypical basal lamina at the cell-tooth interface. This discrete localisation suggests that SCPPPQ1, together with AMTN and ODAM, participates in structuring the basal lamina and in mediating attachment of epithelia cells to mineralised tooth surfaces.

  19. Gender Related Survival Differences in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Kanic, Vojko; Vollrath, Maja; Naji, Franjo Husam; Sinkovic, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data about gender as an independent risk factor for death in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is still contrasting. Aim was to assess how gender influences in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our region. Methods: We analysed data from 2069 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in our institution from January 2009-December 2014, of whom 28.9% were women. In-hospital and long-term mortality were observed in women and men. The effect of gender on in-hospital mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression modelling and by Cox regression analysis for long-term mortality. Results: Women were older (68.3±61.8 vs 61.8±12.0 years; p<0.0001), with a higher prevalence of diabetes (13.7% vs 9.9%; p=0.013) and tend to be more frequently admitted in cardiogenic shock (8.4% vs 6.3%; p =0.085). They were less frequently treated with bivalirudin (15.9% vs 20.3%; p=0.022). In-hospital mortality was higher among women (14.2% vs 7.8%; p<0.0001). After adjustment, age (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock at admission (adjusted OR: 24.56; 95% CI: 11.98 to 50.35; p < 0.001), but not sex (adjusted OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.71) were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. During the median follow-up of 27 months (25th, 75th percentile: 9, 48) the mortality rate (23.6% vs 15.1%; p<0.0001) was significantly higher in women. The multivariate adjusted Cox regression model identified age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.07; p<0.0001), cardiogenic shock at admission (HR 6.09; 95% CI 3.78-9.81; p<0.0001), hypertension (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.02-2.18; p<0.046), but not sex (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47) as independent prognostic factors of follow-up mortality. Conclusion: Older age and worse clinical presentation rather than gender may explain the higher mortality rate in women with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:27279793

  20. Gender Related Survival Differences in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Kanic, Vojko; Vollrath, Maja; Naji, Franjo Husam; Sinkovic, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Data about gender as an independent risk factor for death in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is still contrasting. Aim was to assess how gender influences in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our region. We analysed data from 2069 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in our institution from January 2009-December 2014, of whom 28.9% were women. In-hospital and long-term mortality were observed in women and men. The effect of gender on in-hospital mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression modelling and by Cox regression analysis for long-term mortality. Women were older (68.3±61.8 vs 61.8±12.0 years; p<0.0001), with a higher prevalence of diabetes (13.7% vs 9.9%; p=0.013) and tend to be more frequently admitted in cardiogenic shock (8.4% vs 6.3%; p =0.085). They were less frequently treated with bivalirudin (15.9% vs 20.3%; p=0.022). In-hospital mortality was higher among women (14.2% vs 7.8%; p<0.0001). After adjustment, age (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock at admission (adjusted OR: 24.56; 95% CI: 11.98 to 50.35; p < 0.001), but not sex (adjusted OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.71) were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. During the median follow-up of 27 months (25th, 75th percentile: 9, 48) the mortality rate (23.6% vs 15.1%; p<0.0001) was significantly higher in women. The multivariate adjusted Cox regression model identified age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.07; p<0.0001), cardiogenic shock at admission (HR 6.09; 95% CI 3.78-9.81; p<0.0001), hypertension (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.02-2.18; p<0.046), but not sex (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47) as independent prognostic factors of follow-up mortality. Older age and worse clinical presentation rather than gender may explain the higher mortality rate in women with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  1. [Prediction of adverse cardiac events in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction treated with PCI].

    PubMed

    Wita, Krystian; Filipecki, Artur; Szczogiel, Jan; Drzewiecka-Gerber, Agnieszka; Rybicka, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Wróbel, Wojciech; Szydło, Krzysztof; Urbańczyk, Dagmara; Turski, Maciej; Tabor, Zbigniew; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Mróz, Ilona; Trusz-Gluza, Maria

    2006-07-01

    Despite common use of reperfusion therapy, particularly primary PCI during acute myocardial infarction, steadily increasing number of patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction, with heart failure (HF), requiring frequent rehospitalisation justifies the study establishing the best indices of prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurrence. The aim of the study was to define the frequency of MACE (death, re MI, sVT, rehospitalisation for HF) in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction in 6 month follow up and the factors determinatig its occurence. The 115 consecutive patients (86 males of age 57.7 +/- 11 yrs) with first anterior MI were studied. After successful PCI (TIMI 3) the angiographic assessment was performed (MBG 0-1 - no perfusion, MBG 2-3 - perfusion preserved). During first 48 hours 12-lead ECG was monitored in order to analyse the time to reduction of ST elevation in the lead with the highest elevation (deltatST 50%). On 2nd day LV function (LVEF and WMSI) and dyssfunctional segment perfusion (RPSI) were assessed. On 5th day Holter monitoring with arrhythmia and time domain parameters (SDNN, rMSSD) of heart rate variability were performed, on 30 day TWA test was done. During 180 follow-up 18 MACE occurred (3 death, 2 MI, 11 rehospitalisations for HF). In univariate analysis cigarette smoking, higher maximum troponin I value, LVEDV, LVESV, ST elevation sum, longer time to reduction of ST elevation, lower LVEF and RPSI, lack of microvessel integrity and positive TWA test had significant relationship with occurrence of MACE. The multivariate analysis of Cox proportional risk regression demonstrated that only lower value of RPSI and LVEF, longer time of ST elevation reduction in the lead with the highest ST elevation and positive TWA test were independent indices of MACE prediction. Cumulative evaluation of LVEF, indices of preserved perfusion and results of TWA test turned out to be the best predictors of MACE

  2. Switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI: A meta-analytic overview.

    PubMed

    Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated benefits of Prasugrel, a new generation thienopyridine, in the prevention of thrombotic complications after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS), its use is still precluded to those many patients arriving to the cath lab pre-treated with Clopidogrel. Conclusive data on the strategy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel are still missing, therefore we aimed to perform a meta-analysis of current studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of switching from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel (PS) as compared to a standard thienopyridine therapy with Clopidogrel or Prasugrel in patients undergoing PCI. Literature archives and main scientific sessions' abstracts were scanned for studies comparing a switching strategy from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel vs. Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. Primary efficacy endpoint was overall mortality. Secondary endpoints were: non-fatal myocardial infarction and definite/probable stent thrombosis. Safety endpoint was the rate of major bleedings according to a per-protocol definition. A total of 12 studies, involving 3956 patients, were included. Among them, 1396 patients (35.3%), received Prasugrel after a Clopidogrel treatment (PS), while 2560 (64.7%) received either Prasugrel or Clopidogrel. The switch from Clopidogrel to Prasugrel was in the majority of the studies periprocedural. The mortality was numerically lower, but not statistically significant, in the PS group as compared with patients who did not switch (1.7% vs. 3.8%, OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.40,1.15], p = 0.15, phet = 0.61), without any relationship with patients' risk profile (r = -0.68 [-2.09, 0.73], p = 0.35). Similar results were obtained for secondary efficacy endpoints and at sensitivity analysis in the majority of subgroups evaluated. Moreover, the PS strategy did not increase major bleedings as compared with standard therapy (1.4% vs. 2.5%, OR [95% CI = 0.70 [0.39, 1.25], p = 0.23, phet = 0.6). The present meta

  3. The Tnfrh1 (Tnfrsf23) gene is weakly imprinted in several organs and expressed at the trophoblast-decidua interface

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Lorraine; Wei, Michelle; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Tycko, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background The Tnfrh1 gene (gene symbol Tnfrsf23) is located near one end of a megabase-scale imprinted region on mouse distal chromosome 7, about 350 kb distant from the nearest known imprinting control element. Within 20 kb of Tnfrh1 is a related gene called Tnfrh2 (Tnfrsf22) These duplicated genes encode putative decoy receptors in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. Although other genes in this chromosomal region show conserved synteny with genes on human Chr11p15.5, there are no obvious human orthologues of Tnfrh1 or Tnfrh2. Results We analyzed Tnfrh1 for evidence of parental imprinting, and characterized its tissue-specific expression. Tnfrh1 mRNA is detectable in multiple adult and fetal tissues, with highest expression in placenta, where in situ hybridization reveals a distinctive population of Tnfrh1-positive cells in maternal decidua, directly beneath the trophoblast giant cells. In offspring of interspecific mouse crosses, Tnfrh1 shows a consistent parent-of-origin-dependent allelic expression bias, with relative repression, but not silencing, of the paternal allele in several organs including fetal liver and adult spleen. Conclusions Genes preferentially expressed in the placenta are predicted to evolve rapidly, and Tnfrh1 appears to be an example of this phenomenon. In view of its strong expression in cells at the fetal-maternal boundary, Tnfrh1 warrants further study as a gene that might modulate immune or trophic interactions between the invasive placental trophoblast and the maternal decidua. The preferential expression of Tnfrh1 from the maternal allele indicates weak functional imprinting of this locus in some tissues. PMID:12102730

  4. PCI data acquisition and signal processing hardware modules for long pulse operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, J.; Batista, A.J.N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R.; Correia, Miguel; Cruz, N.; Carvalho, P.; Correia, Carlos; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2004-10-01

    A set of PCI instrumentation modules was developed at the EURATOM/IST Association. The modules were engineered around a reconfigurable hardware core which permits one to reduce the development time of instrument for new applications, provide support for long time or even continuous operation, and is able to perform real-time digital signal processing. The core was engineered at low cost and the modules incorporate a high number of channels, which contribute to reduce the total cost per channel. Field results are as expected in terms of performance both in data throughput and input characteristics. Currently, a 2 MSPS, 14-bit, eight channel galvanic isolated transient recorder; a 200 MSPS, 8-bit, four channel pulse digitizer; an eight channel time-to-digital-converter with a resolution of 0.4 ns, and a reconfigurable hardware expandable board, are implemented.

  5. Improving the Process of Informed Consent for PCI: Patient Outcomes from the ePRISM Study

    PubMed Central

    Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard; Bethea, Charles; Chhatriwalla, Adnan; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Gialde, Elizabeth; Guerrero, Mayra; Gosch, Kensey; Jones, Philip; Kugelmass, Aaron; Leonard, Bradley M.; McNulty, Edward J.; Shelton, Marc; Ting, Henry H.; Decker, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Background While the process of informed consent is designed to transfer knowledge of the risks and benefits of treatment and to engage patients in shared medical decision-making, this is poorly done in routine clinical care. We assessed the impact of a novel informed consent form for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) that is more simply written, includes images of the procedure and embeds individualized estimates of outcomes on multiple domains of successful informed consent and shared decision-making. Methods We interviewed 590 PCI patients receiving traditional consent documents and 527 patients receiving novel ePRISM consents at 9 US centers and compared patients' perceptions, knowledge transfer and engagement in medical decision-making. Heterogeneity across sites was assessed and adjusted for using hierarchical models. Results Site-adjusted analyses revealed more frequent review (72% for ePRISM vs. 45% for original consents) and better understanding of the ePRISM consents (odds ratios (ORs)=1.8–3.0, depending upon the outcome) with marked heterogeneity across sites (median relative difference (MRD) in the ORs of ePRISM's effect = 2–3.2). Patients receiving ePRISM consents better understood the purposes and risks of the procedure (ORs=1.9–3.9, MRDs=1.1–6.2), engaged more in shared decision-making (proportional OR=2.1 [95%CI=1.02–4.4], MRD=2.2) and discussed stent options with their physicians (58% vs. 31%; site-adjusted odds ratio=2.7 [95% CI=1.2, 6.3], MRD=2.6) more often. Conclusions A personalized consent document improved the process of informed consent and shared decision-making. Marked heterogeneity across hospitals highlights that consent documents are but one aspect of engaging patients in understanding and participating in treatment. PMID:25641532

  6. Accurate and adequate spatiotemporal expression and localization of RPW8.2 is key to activation of resistance at the host-pathogen interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenming; Berkey, Robert; Wen, Yingqiang; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2010-08-01

    Numerous fungal and oomycete pathogens penetrate the plant cell wall and extract nutrition from the host cells by a feeding structure called the haustorium. We recently revealed that the Arabidopsis resistance protein RPW8.2 is specifically targeted to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) for activation of haustorium-targeted resistance to powdery mildew pathogens. Consistent with its EHM-localization, RPW8.2 contains a putative transmembrane (TM) domain at its N-terminus. Here, we show that translational fusion of YFP to the N-terminus of RPW8.2 results in localization of YFP-RPW8.2 to both the plasma membrane and the EHM, and loss of RPW8.2's defense function. We also show that deletion of the TM domain results in mis-localization of the RPW8.2-YFP fusion protein and extremely low levels of accumulation. These results indicate that an intact N-terminal TM domain is necessary for EHM-specific localization and defense function of RPW8.2. In addition, we show that when expressed from the strong constitutive 35S viral promoter, RPW8.2 accumulates at low levels in the EHM insufficient to activate resistance, highlighting the importance of stronger spatiotemporal expression of RPW8.2 from its native promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that accurate and adequate spatiotemporal expression and localization of RPW8.2 is key to activation of resistance at the host-pathogen interface.

  7. Accurate and adequate spatiotemporal expression and localization of RPW8.2 is key to activation of resistance at the host-pathogen interface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenming; Berkey, Robert; Wen, Yingqiang

    2010-01-01

    Numerous fungal and oomycete pathogens penetrate the plant cell wall and extract nutrition from the host cells by a feeding structure called the haustorium. We recently revealed that the Arabidopsis resistance protein RPW8.2 is specifically targeted to the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM) for activation of haustorium-targeted resistance to powdery mildew pathogens. Consistent with its EHM-localization, RPW8.2 contains a putative transmembrane (TM) domain at its N-terminus. Here, we show that translational fusion of YFP to the N-terminus of RPW8.2 results in localization of YFP-RPW8.2 to both the plasma membrane and the EHM, and loss of RPW8.2's defense function. We also show that deletion of the TM domain results in mis-localization of the RPW8.2-YFP fusion protein and extremely low levels of accumulation. These results indicate that an intact N-terminal TM domain is necessary for EHM-specific localization and defense function of RPW8.2. In addition, we show that when expressed from the strong constitutive 35S viral promoter, RPW8.2 accumulates at low levels in the EHM insufficient to activate resistance, highlighting the importance of strong spatiotemporal expression of RPW8.2 from its native promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that accurate and adequate spatiotemporal expression and localization of RPW8.2 is key to activation of resistance at the host-pathogen interface. PMID:20864817

  8. Expression of P450 aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at fetal-maternal interface during tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Qin, Li; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yan-Ling; Herva, Riitta; Leng, Jin-Hua; Lang, Jing-He; Isomaa, Veli; Piao, Yun-Shang

    2003-12-01

    Steroidogenesis in the placenta has been studied widely, but little is known about steroid metabolism in ectopic pregnancy. Previous studies have indicated that trophoblast invasion and placentation in the uterus and the fallopian tube may be controlled by similar mechanisms. As far as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) production is concerned, it has been well demonstrated that its biosynthesis in the placenta involves the action of P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of P450arom and 17HSD1 at the fetal-maternal interface, particularly in various trophoblast cells, in tubal pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, P450arom mRNA was localized in syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells, which are mainly responsible for hormone production during pregnancy, whereas no signal was detected in villous cytotrophoblast (VCT), column CT and extravillous CT (EVCT) cells. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that 17HSD1 is present in ST cells, a large portion of EVCT cells and 20% of column CT cells. On the other hand, no expression of 17HSD1 was detected in VCT cells. In addition, 17HSD1 was found in epithelial cells of the fallopian tube. Interestingly, the expression level of 17HSD1 in fallopian tube epithelium during tubal pregnancy was significantly higher than that during normal cycle. Our data provide the first evidence that normal and tubal pregnancies possess identical expression of P450arom and 17HSD1 in ST cells and therefore, similar E(2) production in the placenta. Further, the association of 17HSD1 with EVCT cells indicates that 17HSD1 perhaps play a role in trophoblast invasion. Finally, increased expression of 17HSD1 in epithelial cells of fallopian tube may lead to a local E(2) supply sufficient for the maintenance of tubal pregnancy.

  9. An efficient rhythmic component expression and weighting synthesis strategy for classifying motor imagery EEG in a brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; He, Bin

    2004-03-01

    The recognition of mental states during motor imagery tasks is crucial for EEG-based brain computer interface research. We have developed a new algorithm by means of frequency decomposition and weighting synthesis strategy for recognizing imagined right- and left-hand movements. A frequency range from 5 to 25 Hz was divided into 20 band bins for each trial, and the corresponding envelopes of filtered EEG signals for each trial were extracted as a measure of instantaneous power at each frequency band. The dimensionality of the feature space was reduced from 200 (corresponding to 2 s) to 3 by down-sampling of envelopes of the feature signals, and subsequently applying principal component analysis. The linear discriminate analysis algorithm was then used to classify the features, due to its generalization capability. Each frequency band bin was weighted by a function determined according to the classification accuracy during the training process. The present classification algorithm was applied to a dataset of nine human subjects, and achieved a success rate of classification of 90% in training and 77% in testing. The present promising results suggest that the present classification algorithm can be used in initiating a general-purpose mental state recognition based on motor imagery tasks.

  10. Intrapericardial synthetic glue injection--a last resort effort to salvage recurrent cardiac tamponade secondary to coronary microleak post PCI.

    PubMed

    Goel, Pravin K; Kapoor, Aditya; Batra, Aditya

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of cardiac tamponade caused by a coronary microleak from an unapparent site that was successfully managed by sealing of the pericardial space with intrapericardial injection of sterile synthetic glue which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of its kind for post-PCI coronary leaks.

  11. CD146 Expression Influences Periapical Cyst Mesenchymal Stem Cell Properties.

    PubMed

    Paduano, Francesco; Marrelli, Massimo; Palmieri, Francesca; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have identified a new human dental derived progenitor cell population with multi-lineage differentiation potential referred to as human periapical cyst mesenchymal stem cells (hPCy-MSCs). In the present study, we compared two subpopulations of hPCy-MSCs characterised by the low or high expression of CD146 to establish whether this expression can regulate their stem cell properties. Using flow cytometry, we evaluated the stem cell marker profile of hPCy-MSCs during passaging. Furthermore, CD146(Low) and CD146(High) cells were sorted by magnetic beads and subsequently both cell populations were evaluated for differences in their proliferation, self-renewal, stem cell surface markers, stemness genes expression and osteogenic differentiation potential.We found that hPCy-MSCs possessed a stable expression of several mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, whereas CD146 expression declined during passaging.In addition, sorted CD146(Low) cells proliferated significantly faster, displayed higher colony-forming unit-fibroblast capacity and showed higher expression of Klf4 when compared to the CD146(High) subset. Significantly, the osteogenic potential of hPCy-MSCs was greater in the CD146(Low) than in CD146(High) population. These results demonstrate that CD146 is spontaneously downregulated with passaging at both mRNA and protein levels and that the high expression of CD146 reduces the proliferative, self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation potential of hPCy-MSCs. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that changes in the expression of CD146 can influence the stem cell properties of hPCy-MSCs.

  12. Coronary Catheterization and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in China: 10-Year Results From China PEACE-Retrospective CathPCI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xin; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Yongfei; Yang, Yuejin; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Li, Xi; Li, Jing; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Downing, Nicholas S.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The use of coronary catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing in China, but there are no nationally representative assessments of the quality of care and outcomes of patients undergoing these procedures. OBJECTIVE To assess quality of care and outcomes of patients undergoing coronary catheterization and PCI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We used a two-stage random sampling strategy to create a nationally representative sample of 11 241 patients undergoing coronary catheterization and PCI at 55 urban Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006, and 2011. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, quality of care and outcomes associated with these procedures and changes over time. RESULTS Between 2001 and 2011, national rates of hospitalizations for coronary catheterization and PCI increased by 17 fold and 21 fold, respectively. More than half of stable patients undergoing coronary catheterization had non-obstructive coronary artery disease; which did not change over time (2001: 60.3% [95% CI, 56.1–64.5%]; 2011: 57.5% [95% CI, 55.8–59.3%], Ptrend=.05). The proportion of PCI procedures performed via radial approach increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7–5.3%) in 2001 to 79.0% (95% CI, 77.7–80.3%) in 2011 (Ptrend<.001). The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) increased from 18.0% (95% CI, 14.2–21.7%) in 2001 to 97.3% (95% CI, 96.9–97.7%) in 2011 (Ptrend<.001), largely due to increased use of domestic DES. The median length of stay decreased from 14 days (IQR 9–20) in 2001 to 10 days (IQR 7–14) in 2011 (Ptrend <.001). In-hospital mortality did not change significantly, but both adjusted risk of any bleeding (OR 0.53 [95% CI 0.36–0.79], Ptrend <.001) and access bleeding (OR 0.23 [95% CI 0.12–0.43], Ptrend <.001) were decreased between 2001 and 2011. The medical record lacked documentation needed to calculate commonly used process metrics including door to balloon times for primary PCI, and the

  13. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Rainer N

    2015-05-01

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. The new model preserves the accuracy of previous temperature

  14. New Interface for Accessing Archived European Space Agency Planetary Science Data, Such as the New Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Gonzalez, J.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.

    2015-12-01

    All Venus Express (VEX) instruments delivered their data products according to the Planetary Data System version 3 (PDS3) standard, and the atmospheric drag experiment (ADE) data was no exception. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at www.rssd.esa.int/PSA, is being upgraded to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Thus, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be accessible via the new interface as well. We will preview some of the new methods of accessing legacy VEX data via the new interface, with a focus being placed on the ADE data set. We will show how the ADE data can be accessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and our plans for making this and other data sets compatible with the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory. From February 2010 through March 2014, ESA's Venus Express mission conducted 11 ADE campaigns. During these observation campaigns, VEX's pericenter was in the range of 165 to 190 km, while the spacecraft was near Venus' North pole, and the entire spacecraft was used to make in situ measurements of the atmospheric density. This was done by rotating the solar panels in a manner that somewhat resembles a windmill. Also, VEX 's attitude and orbit control system was tasked with maintaining the spacecraft in a 3-axis stabilized mode during these pericenter passes. The torques that the reaction wheels had to exert to maintain this attitude were then analyzed to yield density readings.

  15. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous

  16. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of

  17. Treatment referral before and after the introduction of the Liverpool Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) into routine head and neck oncology outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Kanatas, Anastasios; Langley, Daniel J R; Scott, Barry; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2011-11-01

    Holistic needs assessment is a key recommendation in improving supportive and palliative care in adults with cancer. The Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) is a holistic needs assessment tool designed for head and neck cancer survivors in outpatient setting. Routine screening of potential unmet needs in a clinic may result in increased onward referrals, thus placing a burden on existing healthcare services. The aim of this study was to compare the referral trends following consultation in the time periods before and after introduction of PCI in an oncology outpatient clinic. A cross-sectional cohort of disease-free survivors of oral/oropharyngeal cancers of a single consultant was prospectively exposed to PCI from July 2007 to April 2009. The PCI is a self-completed questionnaire consisting of 55 items of patient needs/concern and a list of multidisciplinary professionals, whom patients may wish to talk to or be referred to. Retrospective analysis of referral patterns from clinic letters in two periods in the pre-PCI and post-PCI exposure was performed. Prospective analysis of consultations was performed to determine the outcome of PCI-highlighted items. There was no change in the prevalence of onward referral with the introduction of PCI, i.e. 21 referrals per 100 patients seen in outpatients. However, the proportion of referrals to oral rehabilitation and psychological support increased. Referrals to certain services, e.g. speech and language and dentistry, remained consistently in demand. Many PCI-highlighted needs were dealt in a clinic with by the consultant and/or other professionals during a multidisciplinary consultation. Routine use of PCI promotes target efficiency by directing and apportioning appropriate services to meet the needs for supportive care of head and neck cancer survivors.

  18. Fluoroscopy Assisted Scoring of Myocardial Hypoperfusion (FLASH) ratio as a novel predictor of mortality after primary PCI in STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Biesbroek, P Stefan; Roos, Sebastiaan T; van Hout, Max; van der Gragt, Jack; Teunissen, Paul F A; de Waard, Guus A; Knaapen, Paul; Kamp, Otto; van Royen, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Fluoroscopy Assisted Scoring of Myocardial Hypoperfusion (FLASH) enabled a more accurate assessment of coronary blood flow and prediction of cardiac mortality after primary PCI (pPCI), than the presently used angiographic scores of reperfusion. We included 453 STEMI patients who received pPCI at our hospital. Using the novel FLASH algorithm, based on contrast passage time and quantitative coronary analysis, FLASH flow was measured after pPCI and was used to calculate FLASH ratio of culprit and reference artery. In 28 of the 453 patients, FLASH flow was compared to Doppler-derived-flow. FLASH flow had a good correlation with Doppler derived flow (Pearson's R=0.65, p<0.001) and had a high inter-observer agreement (ICC=0.83). FLASH flow was significantly lower in patients that died of cardiac death within six months (25.9±17.7 ml/min vs. 38.2±18.8 ml/min, p=0.004). FLASH ratio had a high accuracy of predicting cardiac mortality with a significant higher area under the curve as compared with CTFC and QuBe (p=0.041 and p=0.008). FLASH ratio was an independent predictor of mortality at 6 months (HR=0.98 per 1% increase, p=0.014). FLASH is a simple non-invasive method to estimate coronary blood flow and predict mortality directly following pPCI in STEMI patients, with a higher accuracy compared to the presently used angiographic scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship of the distance between non-PCI hospitals and primary PCI centers, mode of transport, and reperfusion time among ground and air interhospital transfers using NCDR's ACTION Registry-GWTG: a report from the American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline Program.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Benjamin D; Dhindsa, Harinder S; Roe, Matthew T; Chen, Anita Y; Jollis, James G; Kontos, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    ST-segment myocardial infarction patients frequently present to non-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) hospitals and require interhospital transfer for primary PCI. The effect of distance and mode of transport to the PCI center and the frequency that recommended primary PCI times are met are not clear. Data from the ACTION Registry(®)-GWTG™ were used to determine the distance between the Non-PCI and PCI center and first door time to balloon time based on transfer mode (ground and air) for patients having interhospital transfer for primary PCI. From July 1, 2008, to December 31, 2012, 17 052 ST-segment myocardial infarction patients were transferred to 413 PCI hospitals. The median distance from the non-PCI hospital to the primary PCI center was 31.9 miles (Q1, Q3: 19.1, 47.9; ground 25.2 miles; air 43.9 miles; P<0.001). At distances <40 miles, ground transport was the primary transport method, whereas at distances >40 miles air transport predominanted. Median first door time to balloon time time for patients transferred for primary PCI was 118 minutes (Q1, Q3: 95 152), with time for patients transported by air significantly longer (median 124 versus 113 minutes; respectively, P<0.001) than for patients transported by ground. Fifty-three percent of patients had a first door time to balloon time ≤120 minutes, with only 20% ≤90 minutes. A first door time to balloon time ≤120 minutes was more likely in ground than in air transport patients (57.0% versus 45.6%; P<0.001). Interhospital transfer for primary PCI is associated with prolonged reperfusion times. These delays should prompt increased consideration of fibrinolytic therapy, emergency medical services hospital bypass protocols, and improved systems of care for ST-segment myocardial infarction patients requiring transfer. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Platelet-rich plasma increases transforming growth factor-beta1 expression at graft-host interface following autologous osteochondral transplantation in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Lorraine A; Ross, Keir A; Pinski, John M; Smyth, Niall A; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Fortier, Lisa A; Kennedy, John G

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of platelet-rich plasma on protein expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in cartilage following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in a rabbit knee cartilage defect model. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits received bilateral AOT. In each rabbit, one knee was randomized to receive an autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection and the contralateral knee received saline injection. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 6 and 12 wk post-operatively. Articular cartilage sections were stained with TGF-β1 antibody. Histological regions of interest (ROI) (left, right and center of the autologous grafts interfaces) were evaluated using MetaMorph. Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was then assessed. RESULTS: Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was higher in PRP treated knees for selected ROIs (left; P = 0.03, center; P = 0.05) compared to control and was also higher in the PRP group at each post-operative time point (P = 6.6 × 10-4, 3.1 × 10-4 and 7.3 × 10-3 for 3, 6 and 12 wk, respectively). TGF-β1 expression was higher in chondrocytes of PRP-treated knees (36% ± 29% vs 15% ± 18%) (P = 1.8 × 10-6) overall for each post-operative time point and ROI. CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage of rabbits treated with AOT and PRP exhibit increased TGF-β1 expression compared to those treated with AOT and saline. Our findings suggest that adjunctive PRP may increase TGF-β1 expression, which may play a role in the chondrogenic effect of PRP in vivo. PMID:26716092

  1. A survey of canine expressed sequence tags and a display of their annotations through a flexible web-based interface.

    PubMed

    Palmer, L E; O'Shaughnessy, A L; Preston, R R; Santos, L; Balija, V S; Nascimento, L U; Zutavern, T L; Henthorn, P S; Hannon, G J; McCombie, W R

    2003-01-01

    We have initially sequenced approximately 8,000 canine expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from several complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries: testes, whole brain, and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Analysis of these sequences shows that they provide partial sequence information for about 5%-10% of the canine genes. An analysis pipeline has been created to cluster the ESTs and to map individual ESTs as well as clustered ESTs to both the human genome and the human proteome. Gene ontology (GO) terms have been assigned to the ESTs and clusters based on their top matches to the International Protein Index (IPI) set of human proteins. The data generated is stored in a MySQL relational database for analysis and display. A Web-based Perl script has been written to display the analyzed data to the scientific community.

  2. Differential expression of angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 receptors at the maternal-fetal interface: potential roles in early placental development.

    PubMed

    Tower, C L; Lui, S; Charlesworth, N R; Smith, S D; Aplin, J D; Jones, R L

    2010-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is locally generated in the placenta and regulates syncytial transport, vascular contractility and trophoblast invasion. It acts through two receptor subtypes, AGTR1 and AGTR2 (AT1 and AT2), which typically mediate antagonising actions. The objectives of this study are to characterise the cellular distribution of AGTR1 and AGTR2 at the maternal-fetal interface and explore the effects on cytotrophoblast turnover. Low levels of AGTR2 mRNA were detected in first trimester placental homogenates using real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against AGTR1 and AGTR2 detected the receptors in first trimester placenta, decidua basalis and villous tip outgrowths in culture. Serial staining with cytokeratin-7 was used to identify extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). AGTR1 was found in the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane, in a subpopulation of villous cytotrophoblasts, and in Hofbauer cells. AGTR1 was strongly upregulated in cytotrophoblasts in cell columns and villous tip outgrowths, but was absent in interstitial and endovascular EVTs within the decidua. AGTR2 immunostaining was present in Hofbauer cells and villous cytotrophoblasts, but was absent from syncytiotrophoblast. Faint staining was detected in cell column cytotrophoblasts and villous outgrowths, but not in EVTs within the decidua. Both receptors were detected in placental homogenates by western blotting. Ang II significantly increased proliferation of cytotrophoblasts in both villous explants and villous tip outgrowths, but did not affect apoptosis. Blockade of AGTR1 and AGTR2 together abrogated this effect. This study shows specific expression patterns for AGTR1 and AGTR2 in distinct trophoblast populations at the maternal-fetal interface and suggests that Ang II plays a role in placental development and generation of EVTs.

  3. Quality of Life after PCI vs. CABG among Patients with Diabetes and Multivessel CAD: Results from the FREEDOM Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Mouin S.; Wang, Kaijun; Magnuson, Elizabeth A.; Spertus, John A.; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin; Cohen, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The FREEDOM trial demonstrated that among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery results in lower rates of death and MI but a higher risk of stroke as compared with percutaneous coronary intervention using drug-eluting stents (DES-PCI). Whether there are benefits in terms of health status as assessed from the patient's perspective is unknown. Objectives To compare the impact of CABG vs. DES-PCI on health status among patients with DM and multivessel CAD. Design, Setting and Participants Between 2005 and 2010, 1900 patients from 18 countries with DM and multivessel CAD were randomized to undergo either CABG (n=947) or DES-PCI (n=953) as an initial treatment strategy. Of these, a total of 1880 patients had baseline health status assessed (935 CABG, 945 DES-PCI) and comprised the primary analytic sample. Interventions Initial revascularization with CABG or DES-PCI. Main Outcome Measure Health status was assessed using the angina frequency (AF), physical limitations (PL), and quality of life (QOL) domains of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) at baseline, 1, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. For each scale, scores range from 0 to 100 where higher scores represent better health. The effect of CABG vs. DES-PCI was evaluated using longitudinal mixed effect models. Results At baseline, mean (± standard deviation) scores were 70.9±25.1, 67.3±24.4 and 47.8±25.0 for the SAQ-AF, SAQ-PL and SAQ-QOL subscales for the CABG group and 71.4±24.7, 69.9±23.2 and 49.2±25.7 for the DES-PCI group. At 2 year follow up, mean scores were 96.0±11.9, 87.8±18.7 and 82.2±18.9 after CABG and 94.7±14.3, 86.0±19.3 and 80.4±19.6 after DES-PCI with significantly greater benefit of CABG on each domain (mean treatment benefit 1.3 [95% CI 0.3 to 2.2], 4.4 [95% CI 2.7 to 6.1], and 2.2 [95% CI 0.7 to 3.8] points, respectively; p<0.01 for each comparison). Beyond 2 years, there

  4. Impact of Timing of Eptifibatide Administration on Preprocedural Infarct-Related Artery Patency in Acute STEMI Patients Undergoing Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Firdaus, Isman; Danny, Siska Suridanda; Juzar, Dafsah A; Wardeh, Alexander J; Jukema, J Wouter; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2014-09-01

    The appropriate timing of eptifibatide initiation for acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the impact of timing of eptifibatide administration on infarct-related artery (IRA) patency in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. Acute STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI (n = 324) were enrolled in this retrospective study; 164 patients received eptifibatide bolus ≤ 30 minutes after emergency department (ED) admission (group A) and 160 patients received eptifibatide bolus > 30 minutes after ED admission (group B). The primary endpoint was preprocedural IRA patency. Most patients in group A (90%) and group B (89%) were late presenters (> 2 hours after symptom onset). The two groups had similar preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 2 or 3 flow of the IRA (26 vs. 24%, p = not significant [NS]), similar creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels at 8 hours after admission (339 vs. 281 U/L, p = NS), similar left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (52 vs. 50%, p = NS), and similar 30-day mortality (2 vs. 7%, p = NS). Compared with group B, patients in group A had shorter door-to-device time (p < 0.001) and shorter procedural time (p = 0.004), without increased bleeding risk (13 vs. 18%, p = NS). Earlier intravenous administration of eptifibatide before primary PCI did not improve preprocedural IRA patency, CK-MB level at 8 hours after admission, LVEF and 30-day mortality compared with patients who received intravenous eptifibatide that was administered later.

  5. Feasibility of repeated sequential treatments of RIF-1 tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Dale R.; Parker, Lynn M.; Thiemann, Patricia A.; Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Young, Stuart W.

    1997-05-01

    Lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123) is currently in clinical trials as a PDT agent for the treatment of cancer patients. The drug is cleared rapidly from the plasma, and photoirradiation can be performed shortly after drug administration.T He photosensitizer as yet does not appear to elicit any significant skin photosensitivity. These characteristics favor frequent multiple PDT treatments with PCI-0123. In order to support repeated PDT treatments in the clinic, the safety of multiple drug dosing was studied in rats and mice. In rats, each group received 5 consecutive daily intravenous administrations of 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg/day of PCI-0123. There were no deaths in any of the groups, and no drug-related effects were detected in the 5 mg/kg/day group. In mice, there were no observable signs of toxicity after consecutive daily administration of 10 micrometers ol/kg/day of PCI-0123 for 13 days. The feasibility and efficacy of repeated PDT treatments were assessed in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. Repeated PDT proved to be superior to a single PDT treatment. Repeated PDT treatments were well tolerated. Seven PDT treatments were administered over a nine day period without significant toxicity while achieving good therapeutic responses. All six groups receiving repeated PDT treatments showed an improved response compared to groups receiving a single PDT cycle, and the improvement was statistically significant for five of these groups. Sixty-two percent of mice receiving four sequential daily treatments were cured, and daily treatments were superior to regimens with longer intervals between PDT cycles.

  6. Comparison of 4 different strategies of DAPT after PCI in ACS real world population from a Northern Italy registry.

    PubMed

    Rasia, Marta; Solinas, Emilia; Marino, Massimiliano; Guastaroba, Paolo; Menozzi, Alberto; Cattabiani, Maria Alberta; Tadonio, Iacopo; De Palma, Rossana; Vignali, Luigi

    2017-10-09

    Aim of the study was to compare four different strategies of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with PCI. DAPT with Clopidogrel, Ticagrelor and Prasugrel has proved to be effective in patients with ACS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by reducing major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (MACE). However, the effect of the different strategies in a real-world population deserves further verification. A retrospective analysis of 2404 discharged ACS patients treated with PCI was performed, with a median follow-up of 1 year. The study population was stratified in four drug treatment cohorts: ASA + Clopidogrel (A-C), ASA + Plavix (A-PLx), ASA + Ticagrelor (A-T), ASA + Prasugrel (A-P). We assessed the incidence of net adverse cardiovascular events (NACE): all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), stroke and bleeding during follow-up. At 1-year, the use of A-C and A-PLx was associated with the highest cumulative incidence of NACE in comparison with A-T and A-P therapies (respectively 14.8 and 29.6% vs. 9.2 and 6%). This difference was mainly driven by the mortality and TVR outcomes. Considering selection bias and differences in the patients baseline characteristics, the association of A-T and A-P seems to be superior in comparison with a DAPT strategy of A-C and A-PLx in low risk ACS-PCI patients from real world. In our Region the prescription is consistent with guidelines recommendations and Clopidogrel and Plavix are still predominantly used in older patients with more comorbidities, and this could partially explain the inferiority of this association.

  7. Safety and feasibility of prehospital thrombolysis in combination with active rescue PCI strategy for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Firanescu, C.; Wilbers, R.; Meeder, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives The purpose of this observational study was to provide an impression of the outcomes of prehospital thrombolysis in combination with an active coronary angioplasty intervention (PCI) strategy for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods In a group of 151 consecutive patients the following parameters were measured: time delay, percentage of reperfusion, reocclusion, stroke, death, need for PCI and the number of protocol violations. Results The diagnosis by the ambulance paramedics was made in 8±6 minutes, followed by thrombolysis in 13±7 minutes (median±SD). In 2% (3) of the patients the thrombolytic agent was erroneously administered without complications. The elapsed time from onset of symptoms to treatment was a median of 112±77 minutes. Five percent (7) of the patients died in the first 30 days and 2% (3) suffered an intracerebral haemorrhage. Reperfusion was documented in 76% (112) of the patients, from which 18% (20) reoccluded in the following 24 hours. In patients where reperfusion was not established or reocclusion occurred, patients underwent rescue/facilitated PCI: in total 37% (55 patients). After three months 9% (13) of the patients had severly impaired (EF <40%) left ventricular function. Conclusion In our region, we successfully implemented the prehospital thrombolysis system achieving a competitive call-to-needle time and reperfusion rate. The percentage of patients who violated the protocol, suffered an intracerebral haemorrhage, died and/or had severely impaired left ventricular function was acceptable. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:25696516

  8. Selective anti-scatter grid removal during coronary angiography and PCI: a simple and safe technique for radiation reduction.

    PubMed

    Roy, James R; Sun, Philip; Ison, Glenn; Prasan, Ananth M; Ford, Tom; Hopkins, Andrew; Ramsay, David R; Weaver, James C

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to quantify the radiation dose reduction during coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) through removal of the anti-scatter grid (ASG), and to assess its impact on image quality in adult patients with a low body mass index (BMI). Methods A phantom with different thicknesses of acrylic was used with a Westmead Test Object to simulate patient sizes and assess image quality. 129 low BMI patients underwent coronary angiography or PCI with or without the ASG in situ. Radiation dose was compared between both patient groups. Results With the same imaging system and a comparable patient population, ASG removal was associated with a 47% reduction in total dose-area product (DAP) (p < 0.001). Peak skin dose was reduced by 54% (p < 0.001). Operator scatter was reduced to a similar degree and was significantly reduced through removal of the ASG. Using an image quality phantom it was demonstrated that image quality remained satisfactory. Conclusions Removal of the ASG is a simple and effective method to significantly reduce radiation dose in coronary angiography and PCI. This was achieved while maintaining adequate diagnostic image quality. Selective removal of the ASG is likely to improve the radiation safety of cardiac angiography and interventions.

  9. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    PubMed Central

    Forment, Javier; Gilabert, Francisco; Robles, Antonio; Conejero, Vicente; Nuez, Fernando; Blanca, Jose M

    2008-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at . This site also provides detailed instructions for

  10. Use and outcomes of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (from the EHS-PCI Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Zeymer, Uwe; Hochadel, Matthias; Möllmann, Helge; Weidinger, Franz; Zahn, Ralf; Nef, Holger M; Hamm, Christian W; Marco, Jean; Gitt, Anselm K

    2012-04-01

    The value of multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) and multivessel disease (MVD) is still unclear because randomized controlled trials are missing. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the impact of MV-PCI on in-hospital outcomes of patients with MVD presenting with CS: 336 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by CS and ≥70% stenoses in ≥2 major epicardial vessels were included in this analysis of the Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 82, 24%) were compared to those with single-vessel PCI (n = 254, 76%). The rate of 3-vessel disease (60% vs 57%, p = 0.63) was similar in the 2 cohorts. Presentation with resuscitation (48 vs 46%, p = 0.76) and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (83 vs 87%, p = 0.31) was frequent in patients with MV-PCI and single-vessel PCI. Patients with ventilation were more likely to receive MV-PCI (30% vs 19%, p = 0.05). There was a tendency toward a higher hospital mortality in patients with MV-PCI (48.8% vs 37.4%, p = 0.07). After adjustment for confounding variables, no significant difference for in-hospital mortality (odd ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72 to 2.28) could be observed between the 2 groups. Age (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.77), 3-vessel disease (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.03), ventilation (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.68), and previous resuscitation (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.39) were independent predictors of hospital death. In conclusion, MV-PCI is currently used in only 1/4 of patients with CS and MVD. An additional nonculprit PCI was not associated with a survival benefit in these high risk patients.

  11. Fluoroscopy-guided femoral artery puncture reduces the risk of PCI-related vascular complications.

    PubMed

    Fitts, James; Ver Lee, Peter; Hofmaster, Patricia; Malenka, David

    2008-06-01

    In previous work by the Northern New England Cardiovascular Study Group, risk factors for vascular access site complications in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were identified and a regional effort to reduce these complications was initiated. As part of this effort we considered making a regional recommendation that location of the femoral head as seen on fluoroscopy (fluoro) be used to help determine the site of femoral artery puncture. Therefore, we assessed the use of fluoro to determine whether it actually reduced the rate of vascular complications and shortened length of stay. Data were collected prospectively on 2,651 consecutive PCIs at Eastern Maine Medical Center from 2000 to 2003 including use of fluoro, vascular access site complications (bleeding, pseudoaneurysm formation, hematoma, embolic event or thrombus, A-V fistula), and length of stay. Use of fluoro among eight interventionists was variable: 3 < 20%, 3 35-50%, 2 > 70%. Among all interventions, 48% were performed with fluoro to guide vascular access. The use of fluoro was associated with a significantly lower incidence of pseudoaneurysms (0.3% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.017) and any arterial injury (0.7% vs. 1.9%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in bleeding (1.6% vs. 1.8%, P = 0.69). For each physician, there were fewer vascular injuries when fluoro was used. Average length of stay was significantly lower among patients in the fluoro group (2.1 days vs. 2.4, P < 0.01). We conclude that using fluoro to guide vascular access leads to lower complication rates and a shorter length of stay. This approach may become our regional standard of care.

  12. Radial PCI and the obesity paradox: Insights from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium (BMC2).

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Jonathan R; Seth, Milan; LaLonde, Thomas A; Khandewal, Akshay K; Wohns, David H; Dixon, Simon R; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2016-02-01

    To examine if transradial approach (TRA) negates the increased risk associated with femoral access in lean and morbidly obese patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients at extremes of body mass are at increased risk of bleeding after PCI. TRA has been associated with lower overall rates of bleeding compared to femoral approach. We studied patients undergoing emergent and elective PCI from 2010 to 2012 across 47 hospitals in Michigan who participate in the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium PCI registry. The primary outcomes were the incidences of bleeding and postprocedure transfusion. Propensity matching (PM) was used to adjust for nonrandomized use of TRA. TRA was used in 10,235 procedures. In PM analyses, use of TRA was associated with a reduction in bleeding (0.80 vs. 1.9%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32-0.54, P < 0.001) and need for transfusion (1.4 vs. 2.5%, OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.45-0.69, P < 0.001) compared with femoral access. The absolute difference in bleeding and transfusion associated with TRA was largest in patients with lean body mass (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)): Lean patients undergoing TRA had a rate of bleeding of 1.2 versus 2.8% for femoral access (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.24-0.77, P = 0.002); and rate of transfusion of 2.4 versus 3.9% (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.40-0.94, P = 0.019). The morbidly obese had a rate of bleeding of 0.8% for TRA versus 2.4% for femoral access (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.44-0.72, P = 0.004); and rate of transfusion of 1.7 versus 3.0%, (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.0, P = 0.051). Compared with the femoral approach, TRA is associated with a reduction in bleeding across all patients undergoing PCI and the absolute benefit was greatest in those with extremely low or high BMI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ziliang; Su, Qiang; Li, Lang

    2017-01-01

    Many scholars have studied the effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. Finally, 16 articles, including 1616 patients, were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that: (1) Nicorandil can reduce the level of CK-MB after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (2) Nicorandil can reduce the level of TnT after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (3) Nicorandil can reduce the incidence of adverse reactions after PCI. (4) Nicorandil cannot reduce the level of MVP after PCI, including at 12 hours and 24 hours. (5) Subgroup analysis showed that nicorandil can reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for Chinese’s population (P < 0.05), but can not reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for non Chinese’s population (P > 0.05). Our meta-analysis indicate that nicorandil can reduce myocardial injury and reduce the incidence of adverse reaction caused by PCI for Chinese’s population, but is not obvious for non Chinese’s population. However, this conclusion still needs to be confirmed in the future. PMID:28322321

  14. 6.5 Years of Slow Slip Events in Cascadia: A Catalogue of SSE Surface Expressions, Interface Slip Distributions, Event Magnitudes and Relationship to Tremor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Wallace, L. M.; Haines, A. J.; Bartlow, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) in Cascadia occur at ~30-50 km depth, every 10-19 months, and typically involve slip of a few cm, producing surface displacements on the order of a few mm up to ~1cm. Are there smaller SSE signals that are currently not recognized geodetically? What is the spatial, temporal and size distribution of SSEs, and how are SSE related to tremor? We address these questions with a catalogue of all detectable SSEs spanning the last 6.5 years using a new methodology based on Vertical Derivatives of Horizontal Stress (VDoHS) rates obtained from cGPS times series. VDoHS rates, calculated by solving the force balance equations at the Earth's surface, represent the most inclusive and spatially compact surface expressions of subsurface deformation sources: VDoHS rate vectors are tightly localized above the sources and point in the direction of push or pull. We compare our results with those from the Network Inversion Filter (NIF) for selected events. We identify and characterize a spectrum of SSEs, including events with moment release at least two orders of magnitudes smaller than has been previously identified with GPS data. We catalogue events timing, interface slip distribution and moment release, and compare our results with existing tremor catalogues. VDoHS rates also reveal the boundaries between the locked and unlocked portions of the megathrust, and we can track how this varies throughout the SSE cycle. Above the locked interface, the pull of the subducted plate generates shear tractions in the overlying plate in the direction of subduction, while above the creeping section shear tractions are in the opposite direction, which is reflected in the VDoHS rates. We show that sections of the Cascadia megathrust unlock prior to some SSEs and lock thereafter, with the locked zone propagating downdip and eastward after the SSEs over weeks to months. The catalogue and movies of events will be available at http://www.ig.utexas.edu/people/staff/lada/SSEs.

  15. Analysis of performance improvements for host and GPU interface of the APENet+ 3D Torus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola A, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    APEnet+ is an INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics) project aiming to develop a custom 3-Dimensional torus interconnect network optimized for hybrid clusters CPU-GPU dedicated to High Performance scientific Computing. The APEnet+ interconnect fabric is built on a FPGA-based PCI-express board with 6 bi-directional off-board links showing 34 Gbps of raw bandwidth per direction, and leverages upon peer-to-peer capabilities of Fermi and Kepler-class NVIDIA GPUs to obtain real zero-copy, GPU-to-GPU low latency transfers. The minimization of APEnet+ transfer latency is achieved through the adoption of RDMA protocol implemented in FPGA with specialized hardware blocks tightly coupled with embedded microprocessor. This architecture provides a high performance low latency offload engine for both trasmit and receive side of data transactions: preliminary results are encouraging, showing 50% of bandwidth increase for large packet size transfers. In this paper we describe the APEnet+ architecture, detailing the hardware implementation and discuss the impact of such RDMA specialized hardware on host interface latency and bandwidth.

  16. Two-year follow-up data from the STEPP-AMI study: A prospective, observational, multicenter study comparing tenecteplase-facilitated PCI versus primary PCI in Indian patients with STEMI.

    PubMed

    Victor, Suma M; Vijayakumar, S; Alexander, Thomas; Bahuleyan, C G; Srinivas, Arun; Selvamani, S; Priya, S Marutha; Kamaleswari, K; Mullasari, Ajit S

    2016-01-01

    A pharmacoinvasive strategy may alleviate the logistical and geographical barriers in timely reperfusion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially in a developing country like India. To assess the safety and efficacy of pharmacoinvasive strategy versus primary PCI in STEMI patients at 2 years. Patients enrolled in STEPP-AMI, an observational, multicenter, prospective study of 200 patients presenting with STEMI, were followed up for 2 years. Group 'A' comprised of patients with pharmacoinvasive strategy (n=45), and patients who underwent primary PCI (n=155) formed group 'B'. Primary endpoint was composite of death, cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, repeat revascularization of the culprit artery, or congestive heart failure at 30 days, with follow-up till 2 years. The primary endpoint occurred in 11.1% and 17.8% in group A and in 3.9% and 13.6% in group B, at 30 days and 2 years, respectively (p=0.07, RR=2.87; 95% CI: 0.92-8.97 at 30 days and p=0.47, RR=1.31; 95% CI: 0.62-2.76). There was no difference in bleeding risk between groups, 2.2% in group A and 0.6% in group B ('p'=0.4). The infarct-related artery patency varied at angiogram; it was 82.2% in arm A and 22.6% in arm B ('p'<0.001). In group A, failed fibrinolysis occurred in 12.1%. A pharmacoinvasive strategy resulted in outcomes that were comparable with primary PCI at 2 years, suggesting it might be a viable option in India. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Five-year outcomes of percutaneous versus surgical coronary revascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2015-04-15

    We investigated the impact of diabetes mellitus on long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the drug-eluting stent era versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a real-world population with advanced coronary disease. We identified 3,982 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary Revascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (patients without diabetes: n = 1,984 [PCI: n = 1,123 and CABG: n = 861], and patients with diabetes: n = 1,998 [PCI: n = 1,065 and CABG: n = 933]). Cumulative 5-year incidence of all-cause death after PCI was significantly higher than after CABG both in patients without and with diabetes (19.8% vs 16.2%, p = 0.01, and 22.9% vs 19.0%, p = 0.046, respectively). After adjusting confounders, the excess mortality risk of PCI relative to CABG was no longer significant (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88 to 1.54; p = 0.29) in patients without diabetes, whereas it remained significant (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.70; p = 0.04) in patients with diabetes. The excess adjusted risks of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and any coronary revascularization were significant in both patients without (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.87, p = 0.01; and HR 3.30, 95% CI 2.55 to 4.25, p <0.001, respectively) and with diabetes (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.51, p = 0.047; HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.08, p = 0.004; and HR 3.70, 95% CI 2.91 to 4.69, p <0.001, respectively). There was no interaction between diabetic status and the effect of PCI relative to CABG for all-cause death, cardiac death, MI, and any revascularization. In conclusion, in both patients without and with diabetes with 3-vessel and/or left main disease, CABG compared with PCI was associated with better 5-year outcomes in terms of cardiac death, MI, and any coronary

  18. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration.

    PubMed

    Forment, Javier; Gilabert, Francisco; Robles, Antonio; Conejero, Vicente; Nuez, Fernando; Blanca, Jose M

    2008-01-07

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at http://bioinf.comav.upv.es/est2uni. This site also provides detailed instructions

  19. Prognostic impact of anaemia on patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Krishnaraj S; Jones, Daniel A; Rathod, Vrijraj S; Bromage, Daniel; Guttmann, Oliver; Gallagher, Sean M; Mohiddin, Saidi; Rothman, Martin T; Knight, Charles; Jain, Ajay K; Kapur, Akhil; Mathur, Anthony; Timmis, Adam D; Amersey, Rajiv; Wragg, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baseline anaemia on the outcome in patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This study was a retrospective cohort study of 2418 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by PPCI between January 2004 and August 2010 at a single centre. We investigated the outcome in patients with anaemia compared with that in patients with a normal haemoglobin (Hb) level. Anaemia was defined according to the WHO definition as an Hb level less than 12 g/dl for female individuals and less than 13 g/dl for male individuals. We also calculated hazard ratios using a stratified model according to the Hb level. A total of 471 (19%) patients were anaemic at presentation. The anaemic cohort was older (72.2 vs. 62.4 years, P<0.0001) and had a higher incidence of diabetes (28 vs. 16%, P<0.0001), hypertension (57 vs. 43%, P=0.01), hypercholesterolaemia (48 vs. 40%, P=0.007), previous PCI (15 vs. 9%, P<0.0001), previous myocardial infarction (23 vs. 12%, P=0.002), and cardiogenic shock (12 vs. 5%, P<0.0001). Over a mean follow-up period of 3 years there was significantly higher all-cause mortality in the anaemic group compared with the normal Hb group (20.4 vs. 13.5%, P<0.0001). However, after adjustment for all variables using multivariate analysis, anaemia (on the basis of the WHO definitions) was found not to be an independent predictor of mortality or major adverse cardiac events over the follow-up period. Further, when we used a model stratified by g/dl, we found that there was an increased risk for adverse outcomes among men with low Hb levels. There appeared to be a threshold value of Hb (13 g/dl) associated with increased risk. Although a similar trend was observed among women, no significant difference was observed. Patients with anaemia undergoing PPCI are at a higher risk of an adverse outcome. Anaemia is a simple and powerful marker of poor

  20. Description of a Heart Team approach to coronary revascularization and its beneficial long-term effect on clinical events after PCI.

    PubMed

    Bonzel, Tassilo; Schächinger, Volker; Dörge, Hilmar

    2016-05-01

    We present a first description of a Heart Team (HT)-guided approach to coronary revascularization and its long-term effect on clinical events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The HT approach is a structured process to decide for coronary bypass grafting (CABG), PCI or conservative therapy in ad hoc situations as well as in HT conferences. As a hypothesis, during the long-term course after a PCI performed according to HT rules, a low number of late revascularizations, especially CABGs, are expected (F-PCI study). In this monocentric study, the HT approach to an all-comer population was first analyzed and described in general with the help of a database. Next the use of a HT approach was described for a more homogeneous subgroup with newly detected CAD (1.CAD). Those patients in whom the HT decision was PCI (which was a 1.PCI) were then studied with the help of questionnaires for clinical events during a very long-term follow-up. Events were CABG, PCI, diagnostic catheterization (DCath) and death. A significant number of patients were presented to HT conferences: 22 % out of all 11,174 catheterizations, 24 % out of all 7867 CAD cases and 35 % out of 3408 1.CAD cases. Most of these patients had multi-vessel disease (MVD). Conference decisions were isolated CABG in 46-66 %, PCI in 10-14 %, valvular surgery in 9-16 %, HTx in 10-21 % (Endstage heart failure candidates for surgery) and conservative therapy (Medical or no therapy, additional diagnostic procedures or no adherence to recommended therapy) in 2-3 %. However, most PCIs, ad hoc and elective, were performed under Heart Team rules, but without conference. During follow-up of 1.PCI patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis), CABG occurred in only 15 % of patients, PCI in 37 % and DCath in 65 %; mortality of any course was 51 %. Mortalities were similar in one-vessel disease and in a population of the same year, matched for age and sex (p < 0.057), but mortality was higher in 1.PCI patients with

  1. Association of monocyte to HDL cholesterol level with contrast induced nephropathy in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Sağ, Saim; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Aydin Kaderli, Aysel; Gül, Bülent Cuma; Bedir, Ömer; Ceğilli, Ercan; Özdemir, Bülent; Can, Fatma Ezgi; Aydınlar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) has been proven to be a clinical condition related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In recent studies, the monocyte to high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has been postulated as a novel parameter associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. In this study we investigated the association of MHR with CIN in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI were prospectively recruited. Subjects were categorized into two groups; as patients who developed CIN (CIN+) and patients who did not develop CIN (CIN-) during hospitalization. CIN was defined as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline or 44.20 µmol/L increase in absolute value, within 72 h of intravenous contrast administration. A total number of 209 patients were included in the study. Thirty-two patients developed CIN (15.3%). In the CIN (+) patients, monocytes were higher [1.02 (0.83-1.39) vs. 0.69 (0.53-0.90) 109/L, p<0.01] and HDL cholesterol levels were lower [0.88 (0.78-1.01) vs. 0.98 (0.88-1.14) mmol/L, p<0.01]. In addition, MHR was significantly higher in the CIN (+) group [1.16 (0.89-2.16) vs. 0.72 (0.53-0.95) 109/mmol, p<0.01]. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, MHR, Mehran score, AGEF score and CV/eGFR were independently correlated with CIN. Higher MHR levels may predict CIN development after primary PCI in STEMI patients.

  2. HDL Cholesterol Level Is Associated with Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Chan Joon; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung Won; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk; Jin, Dong Chan; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study included 1592 CKD patients extracted from a prospective multicenter, all comer-based registry of patients undergoing PCI. In multivariate logistic analysis for CI-AKI development, a significant linear trend was observed between the quartiles of HDL-C (quartile 1 vs. 2: odds ratio [OR], 0.716; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.421–1.219; quartile 1 vs. 3: OR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.301–0.947; quartile 1 vs. 4: OR, 0.173; 95% CI, 0.079–0.377; P for trend < 0.001). HDL-C quartiles were also negatively correlated with the incidence of CI-AKI; 19.0%, 12.1%, 8.7%, and 3.7% for quartile 1(Q1) (<34 mg/dL), Q2 (34–40 mg/dL), Q3 (40–48 mg/dL), and Q4 (>48 mg/dL) respectively (P < 0.001 overall and for the trend). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for the long term mortality, the highest HDL-C quartile was associated with decreased mortality compared with the lowest HDL-C quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 0.516, 95% CI, 0.320–0.832, P = 0.007). Our study suggests more intensive strategies should be considered for preventing CI-AKI in CKD patients with low serum HDL-C level who is planned for PCI. PMID:27775043

  3. A low-cost PCI-bus-based ultrasound system for use in image-guided neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Richard, W D; Zar, D M; LaPresto, E L; Steiner, C P

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost PCI-bus-based ultrasound sub-system has been developed and integrated into the image-guided neurosurgery system currently in use at the Cleveland Clinic. Two software applications have been developed that integrate real-time ultrasound images with preoperative MR and CT data sets. By tracking the position of the ultrasound probe during surgery, it is possible to display a real time ultrasound image and the corresponding (preoperative) oblique CT or MR slice. This provides immediate positional feedback to the neurosurgeon during the surgical procedure.

  4. Dietary flax oil rich in α-linolenic acid reduces renal disease and oxylipin abnormalities, including formation of docosahexaenoic acid derived oxylipins in the CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Gabbs, Melissa; Ravandi, Amir; Nagao, Shizuko; Aukema, Harold M

    2015-03-01

    The CD1-pcy/pcy mouse model of nephronophthisis displays reduced renal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and alterations in renal cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase oxylipins derived from n-6 fatty acids. Since dietary flax oil ameliorates disease progression, its effect on renal fatty acids and oxylipins was examined. Sixteen weeks of feeding resulted in reduced disease progression and enrichment of renal phospholipid α-linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid, reduction in arachidonic acid (AA), but no change in linoleic acid (LA) or DHA. In diseased kidneys, flax oil feeding mitigated the elevated levels of renal cyclooxygenase derived oxylipins formed from AA and the lowered lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 derived oxylipins formed from ALA and DHA. Increased DHA oxylipins occurred with flax feeding despite not altering DHA levels. Dietary flax oil may therefore reduce disease progression via mitigation of oxylipin abnormalities. This study also provides evidence of in vivo ALA conversion to DHA in amounts necessary to restore DHA oxylipin levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Change in Coronary Blood Flow After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Relation to Baseline Lesion Physiology Results of the JUSTIFY-PCI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A.; Foale, Rodney A.; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P.; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J.; Davies, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Methods and Results Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (P<0.001). In significant stenoses, flow velocity over the resting wave-free period and hyperemic flow velocity did not differ statistically. After PCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P<0.01). The greatest increase in hyperemic flow velocity was observed when treating stenoses below physiological cut points; treating stenoses with fractional flow reserve ≤0.80 gained Δ28.5±3.8 cm/s, whereas those fractional flow reserve >0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; P<0.001). The change in pressure-only physiological indices demonstrated a curvilinear relationship to the change in hyperemic flow velocity but was flat for resting flow velocity. Conclusions Pre-PCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. PMID:26025217

  6. Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Berman, M; El-Amin, O; McLaughlin, R T; Bates, E R

    2007-10-01

    There is general consensus that emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), so long as it can be delivered in a timely fashion, by an experienced' operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) team. STEMI is both a functional and structural issue. Although it has been recognized since the work of pioneering cardiologists and surgeons in Spokane, Washington, that approximately 88% of patients presenting within 6 hours of onset of STEMI have an occluded coronary artery, it is the pathophysiology of myocardial necrosis, and the varied consequences of necrosis that characterize STEMI. Accordingly, experience' of both primary operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) crew, in performing an emergency PCI for STEMI, are as much a function of experience with the treatment of complex MI patients, as experience with coronary intervention. Rapidly achieving normal coronary artery flow, at both the macro and micro vascular levels, is the recognized key to aborting the otherwise progressive wavefront' of myocardial necrosis. The time urgency of decisions (Time is muscle') make emergency PCI for patients with on-going necrosis, more like emergency room (ER) care, than like most in-hospital or outpatient care. In general, most patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are currently thought to have plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent thrombosis and embolization. Consequences of thrombo-embolism, such as slow flow' or no-reflow' are in addition to, the structural (anatomic) considerations of PCI in stable patients (such as ostial location; bifurcation involvement; heavy calcification; tortuosity of lesion or access to it; length of disease; caliber of infarct-artery; etc.). Good quality studies have provided strong support for the specific added value of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (especially abciximab), dual antiplatelet therapy (the addition of

  7. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of contemporary vascular closure devices for the prevention of vascular complications after percutaneous coronary interventions in an all-comers PCI population.

    PubMed

    Kerré, Steven; Kustermans, Lise; Vandendriessche, Tom; Bosmans, Johan; Haine, Steven E; Miljoen, Hielko; Vrints, Christiaan J; Beutels, Philippe; Wouters, Kristien; Claeys, Marc J

    2014-06-01

    The present observational case-control study assessed the cost-effectiveness of contemporary vascular closure devices (VCDs) for the prevention of vascular complications in an all-comers transfemoral percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) population. A total of 8,292 consecutive PCI patients were enrolled from a single-centre prospective registry from January 2005 to December 2010. VCDs were available from July 2007 and, from that time point, VCDs were implanted in 1,780 of the 5,394 patients (33%). Vascular complications occurred in 221 (2.7%) patients. The use of VCDs was independently associated with a 53% risk reduction (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.3-0.7) in vascular complications (3.0% vs. 1.5%) and with a 65% risk reduction (IRR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.32-0.43) in the post-PCI length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean 2.8 vs. 1.5 days). Mainly due to the reduced LOS, the patients with VCDs accrued vascular direct medical costs (VCD, diagnosis and treatment of vascular complications, post-PCI LOS) that were on average 498€ less than those accrued by the non-VCD patients. The cost-effectiveness was present across all vascular risk profiles. In this large, all-comers transfemoral PCI population, the use of VCDs was independently associated with a reduction in the rate of vascular complications and the post-PCI length of hospital stay and proved to be cost-saving across all vascular risk profiles.

  9. Feelings of being disabled as a prognostic factor for mortality in men and women post-PCI up to 12years.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michael J; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; de Jager, Tom A J; Radhoe, Sumant P; Daemen, Joost; Lenzen, Mattie J; van Domburg, Ron T; Dulfer, Karolijn

    2017-09-14

    It remains unclear whether feelings of being disabled are a relevant psychological factor that determines long term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, we evaluated 'feelings of being disabled' as an independent risk factor for mortality 12years post-PCI. The study population comprised a consecutive series of CAD patients (n=845) treated with PCI as part of the Taxus-Stent Evaluated At Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital (T-SEARCH) registry. Of these patients n=646 (age 63years, 75% male) completed the subscale 'feelings of being disabled' of the Heart Patients Psychological Questionnaire (HPPQ), within the first month after PCI. At 12year follow-up, n=209 patients (32%) died. Of the 162 females n=73 (45%) experienced high feelings of being disabled (High-FOBD) and of the 484 males, n=134 (28%) reported high-FOBD. Patients with high feelings of being disabled had a two-fold increased risk of mortality at 12-year follow-up (HR=1.86, 95% CI=1.41-2.45). After adjusting, high feelings of being disabled remained a predictor of 12-year mortality (HR=2.53, 95% CI=1.30-4.90). This study confirms that psychosocial variables like feelings of being disabled influence cardiac morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, there is no difference in mortality between men and women with high feelings of being disabled 12years post-PCI. It is important that clinicians are aware that PCI-patients who feel disabled have a less favorable survival and that the difference in survival is even greater for women who feel disabled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting emergency coronary artery bypass graft following PCI: application of a computational model to refer patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgical backup.

    PubMed

    Syed, Zeeshan; Moscucci, Mauro; Share, David; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2015-01-01

    Clinical tools to stratify patients for emergency coronary artery bypass graft (ECABG) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) create the opportunity to selectively assign patients undergoing procedures to hospitals with and without onsite surgical facilities for dealing with potential complications while balancing load across providers. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of a computational model directly optimised for cohort-level performance to predict ECABG in PCI patients for this application. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium registry data with 69 pre-procedural and angiographic risk variables from 68 022 PCI procedures in 2004-2007 were used to develop a support vector machine (SVM) model for ECABG. The SVM model was optimised for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) at the level of the training cohort and validated on 42 310 PCI procedures performed in 2008-2009. There were 87 cases of ECABG (0.21%) in the validation cohort. The SVM model achieved an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.86). Patients in the predicted top decile were at a significantly increased risk relative to the remaining patients (OR 9.74, 95% CI 6.39 to 14.85, p<0.001) for ECABG. The SVM model optimised for the AUROC on the training cohort significantly improved discrimination, net reclassification and calibration over logistic regression and traditional SVM classification optimised for univariate performance. Computational risk stratification directly optimising cohort-level performance holds the potential of high levels of discrimination for ECABG following PCI. This approach has value in selectively referring PCI patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgery.

  11. Insertion and C-C coupling processes in reactions of the unsaturated hydride [W2Cp2(H)(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; García-Vivó, Daniel; Ruiz, Miguel A; Vega, M Fernanda

    2016-03-28

    The title compound reacted with p-tolylacetylene at room temperature to give the 32-electron σ:π-bound alkenyl complexes trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(p-tol)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] and trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2], with the former complex fully rearranging into the latter one after 1 h at 363 K. Both compounds exist in solution as an isomeric equilibrium mixture (rapid on the NMR timescale) involving the alternate π-coordination of the alkenyl ligand to each of the tungsten atoms. In the presence of CO or certain solvents (THF or CH2Cl2) the α-substituted alkenyl complex was transformed instead into the cis-dicarbonyl isomer cis-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(p-tol)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] (W-W = 2.7273(8) Å). In contrast, the β-substituted alkenyl complex reacted with CO to give the saturated tricarbonyl [W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2)(CO)3], and with excess alkyne (under moderate heating) to yield the alkyne/alkenyl complex [W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2){η(2)-CHC(p-tol)}(CO)], with both products also displaying a cisoid disposition of the Cp ligands. In contrast, reactions of the title hydride with tert-butylacetylene were significantly slower and led to very air-sensitive compounds, the only isolable product from these reactions being the oxo alkenyl complex trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH((t)Bu)}(O)(μ-PCy2)(CO)]. The title hydride reacted with methyl propiolate at room temperature to give selectively the α-substituted alkenyl complex cis-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(CO2Me)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2], but yielded instead the dienyl complex [W2Cp2{μ-κ(2):η(3)-CH(CO2Me)CHC(CO2Me)CH}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] (W-W = 2.944(1) Å) when the reaction was carried out at high temperature (393 K), with the latter generated from an alkenyl/alkyne C-C coupling process. The title hydride also reacted with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to give three products mainly depending on the reaction temperature; at moderate temperature (343 K) this reaction led exclusively to

  12. Inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Quilis, Jordi; López-García, Belén; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-04-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. Insect adaptation to PI ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of PIs. In this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. The two PIs were linked using either the processing site of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B precursor protein or the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Expression of each fusion gene was driven by the wound- and pathogen-inducible mpi promoter. The mpi-pci fusion gene was stably inherited for at least three generations with no penalty on plant phenotype. An important reduction in larval weight of Chilo suppressalis fed on mpi-pci rice, compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants, was observed. Expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene confers resistance to C. suppressalis (striped stem borer), one of the most important insect pest of rice. The mpi-pci expression systems described may represent a suitable strategy for insect pest control, better than strategies based on the use of single PI genes, by preventing insect adaptive responses. The rice plants expressing the mpi-pci fusion gene also showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Our results illustrate the usefulness of the inducible expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene for dual resistance against insects and pathogens in rice plants.

  13. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) successfully applied in one patient in same sitting.

    PubMed

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery.

  14. FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions: 2-year clinical results with 2nd or newer generation DES

    PubMed Central

    Arvydas, Baranauskas; Vilhelmas, Bajoras; Povilas, Budrys; Aleksandras, Laucevičius; Giedrius, Davidavičius

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in drug-eluting stent (DES) technology, treatment strategies for long coronary artery lesions remain a controversial issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate the long-term clinical results after FFR guided PCI on long coronary lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 74 consecutive patients with significant (mean FFR 0.61 ± 0.11) coronary artery lesions ≥30 mm in length were included in the prospective study. All patients were treated with FFR guided PCI implanting newer generation Biolimus, Everolimus or Zotarolimus eluting stents. Clinical endpoints – target vessel revascularization (TVR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) – were recorded at 1 and 2 years. Results. 100% angiographic procedure success was achieved, the mean post procedural FFR was 0.88 ± 0.06. At 2-year follow-up, 6 (8.1%) patients had ischemia driven TVR, all within the first 12 months. There were no target vessel related acute coronary syndromes and definite stent thromboses in the study group. At 2 years, the total MACE rate was 29.7%. There was a trend towards a higher TVR rate in patients with overlapping DES vs single DES implanted (9.6 vs 4.5%, p = 0.6). On regression analysis, the total stent length had no influence on the TVR rate. Conclusions. At 2 years after stenting long coronary lesions with newer generation DES the TVR rate was 8.1%, which is acceptable in the high cardiovascular risk population with diffuse coronary artery disease. The total stent length did not affect the long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:28356786

  15. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Newly developed photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) simulation for non-invasive and continuous diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2011-07-01

    We have sought for non-invasive diagnosis of blood during the extracorporeal circulation support. To achieve the goal, we have newly developed a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model for optical propagation through blood. The pciMC actually describes the interaction of photons with 3-dimentional biconcave RBCs. The scattering is described by micro-scopical RBC boundary condition based on geometric optics. By using pciMC, we modeled the RBCs inside the extracorporeal circuit will be oriented by the blood flow. The RBCs' orientation was defined as their long axis being directed to the center of the circulation tube. Simultaneously the RBCs were allowed to randomly rotate about the long axis direction. As a result, as flow rate increased, the orientation rate increased and converged to approximately 22% at 0.5 L/min flow rate and above. And finally, by using this model, the pciMC non-invasively and absolutely predicted Hct and hemoglobin with the accuracies of 0.84+/-0.82 [HCT%] and 0.42+/-0.28 [g/dL] respectively against measurements by a blood gas analyzer.

  17. The relationship between admission monocyte HDL-C ratio with short-term and long-term mortality among STEMI patients treated with successful primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Çiçek, Gökhan; Kundi, Harun; Bozbay, Mehmet; Yayla, Cagrı; Uyarel, Hüseyin

    2016-05-01

    Monocyte to HDL-C ratio (MHR) represents a simple assessment method for inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MHR may be of short-term and long-term prognostic value in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who have undergone a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 682 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent successful primary PCI between March 2013 and September 2015 were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups according to their admission MHR values. Clinical follow-up data of participating patients were obtained through an outpatient examination 30 months after PCI. The study population included 172 patients with an MHR less than 1.16 (Q1), 169 patients with an MHR 1.16-1.59 (Q2), 161 patients with an MHR 1.60-2.21 (Q3), and 180 patients with an MHR greater than 2.21 (Q4). Rates of in-hospital mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, dialysis, use of inotropic agents, shock, late mortality, target vessel revascularization, stroke, and reinfarct were higher in the Q4 group compared with the other MHR quartile groups. The results of this study have indicated that admission MHR is associated independently and significantly with short-term and long-term mortality in STEMI patients who undergo successful primary PCI.

  18. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  19. Interface standardization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R.; Wong, V.

    1983-01-01

    Central-station applications create a large and attractive market for photovoltaics in the near future. However, some significant barriers lie between the industry of today and realization of that market. Manufacturing capacity and price are two principal impediments. The Utilities, which are the future system owners, are gaining experience with central-station PV power through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Hesperia and similar small central-station installations. SMUD has recognized that competition must be maintained to help reduce prices. So little standardization exists that the cost is driven upward to redefine mechanical and electrical interfaces for each vendor. New structues are required for each vendor and nonoptimum field geometries result from attempts to include more than one vendor in an array field. Standards at some hardware level are required.

  20. Funnel plots for comparing performance of PCI performing hospitals and cardiologists: demonstration of utility using the New York hospital mortality data.

    PubMed

    Kunadian, Babu; Dunning, Joel; Roberts, Anthony P; Morley, Robert; de Belder, Mark A

    2009-04-01

    The New York State Department of Health collects and reports outcome data on the hospitals and cardiologists who perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to allow them to examine their quality of care. Results are provided in tabular form. However funnel plots are the display method of choice for comparison of institutions and operators, using the principles of statistical process control (SPC). We aimed to demonstrate that funnel plots, which aid a meaningful interpretation of the results, can be derived from the New York PCI dataset. The risk-adjusted mortality rates for 48 hospitals and cardiologists performing PCI were used for this analysis. Funnel plots (with control limits at 3 and 2 sigma) of all hospitals and operators performing PCI procedures were generated. Separate plots for emergency and nonemergency PCI procedures were derived. 149,888 patients underwent PCI procedures between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004. The 3-year risk-adjusted mortality rates for all PCI patients ranged from 0.00 to 1.37%. The funnel plots show risk-adjusted mortality rates against the denominator for that percentage (number of cases), displayed as a scatter plot and compared with the binomial funnel plot calculated around the mean for all cases reported. The risk-adjusted mortality rates of all hospitals were within 3 sigma (99.8%) upper control limits. The risk-adjusted mortality rates for three hospitals were above or on the upper warning limit (2 sigma control limit, equating to the 95% confidence interval) and three hospitals had risk-adjusted mortality rates below the 2 and 3 sigma control limits. The SPC funnel plot is an easy-to-interpret, risk-adjusted means of identifying units whose performance, in terms of mortality, diverges significantly from the population mean. Funnel plots may be applied to a complex dataset and allow a visual comparison of data derived from multiple healthcare units. Variation is readily identified permitting hospitals and

  1. Achieving timely percutaneous reperfusion for rural ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients by direct transport to an urban PCI-hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga K; Ibrahim, Saif; Al-Saffar, Farah; Box, Lyndon C; Strom, Joel A

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines recommend reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ≤ 90 min from time of first medical contact (FMC). This strategy is challenging in rural areas lacking a nearby PCI-capable hospital. Recommended reperfusion times can be achieved for STEMI patients presenting in rural areas without a nearby PCI-capable hospital by ground transportation to a central PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven emergency medical service (EMS) STEMI field triage protocol. Methods Sixty STEMI patients directly transported by EMS from three rural counties (Nassau, Camden and Charlton Counties) within a 50-mile radius of University of Florida Health-Jacksonville (UFHJ) from 01/01/2009 to 12/31/2013 were identified from its PCI registry. The STEMI field triage protocol incorporated three elements: (1) a cooperative agreement between each of the rural emergency medical service (EMS) agency and UFHJ; (2) performance of a pre-hospital ECG to facilitate STEMI identification and laboratory activation; and (3) direct transfer by ground transportation to the UFHJ cardiac catheterization laboratory. FMC-to-device (FMC2D), door-to-device (D2D), and transit times, the day of week, time of day, and EMS shift times were recorded, and odds ratio (OR) of achieving FMC2D times was calculated. Results FMC2D times were shorter for in-state STEMIs (81 ± 17 vs. 87 ± 19 min), but D2D times were similar (37 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 21 min). FMC2D ≤ 90 min were achieved in 82.7% in-state STEMIs compared to 52.2% for out-of-state STEMIs (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.24–15.57; P = 0.018). FMC2D times were homogenous after adjusting for weekday vs. weekend, EMS shift times. Nine patients did not meet FMC2D ≤ 90 min. Six were within 10 min of target; all patient achieved FMC2D ≤ 120 min. Conclusions Guideline-compliant FMC2D ≤ 90 min is achievable for rural STEMI patients within a 50 mile radius of a PCI-capable hospital by use

  2. Achieving timely percutaneous reperfusion for rural ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients by direct transport to an urban PCI-hospital.

    PubMed

    Bennin, Charles-Lwanga K; Ibrahim, Saif; Al-Saffar, Farah; Box, Lyndon C; Strom, Joel A

    2016-10-01

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) guidelines recommend reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ≤ 90 min from time of first medical contact (FMC). This strategy is challenging in rural areas lacking a nearby PCI-capable hospital. Recommended reperfusion times can be achieved for STEMI patients presenting in rural areas without a nearby PCI-capable hospital by ground transportation to a central PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven emergency medical service (EMS) STEMI field triage protocol. Sixty STEMI patients directly transported by EMS from three rural counties (Nassau, Camden and Charlton Counties) within a 50-mile radius of University of Florida Health-Jacksonville (UFHJ) from 01/01/2009 to 12/31/2013 were identified from its PCI registry. The STEMI field triage protocol incorporated three elements: (1) a cooperative agreement between each of the rural emergency medical service (EMS) agency and UFHJ; (2) performance of a pre-hospital ECG to facilitate STEMI identification and laboratory activation; and (3) direct transfer by ground transportation to the UFHJ cardiac catheterization laboratory. FMC-to-device (FMC2D), door-to-device (D2D), and transit times, the day of week, time of day, and EMS shift times were recorded, and odds ratio (OR) of achieving FMC2D times was calculated. FMC2D times were shorter for in-state STEMIs (81 ± 17 vs. 87 ± 19 min), but D2D times were similar (37 ± 18 vs. 39 ± 21 min). FMC2D ≤ 90 min were achieved in 82.7% in-state STEMIs compared to 52.2% for out-of-state STEMIs (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.24-15.57; P = 0.018). FMC2D times were homogenous after adjusting for weekday vs. weekend, EMS shift times. Nine patients did not meet FMC2D ≤ 90 min. Six were within 10 min of target; all patient achieved FMC2D ≤ 120 min. Guideline-compliant FMC2D ≤ 90 min is achievable for rural STEMI patients within a 50 mile radius of a PCI-capable hospital by use of protocol-driven EMS ground

  3. Heterometallic derivatives of [Fe2Cp2(μ-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)2]: rational synthesis of polynuclear complexes from neutral precursors having pyramidal-phosphinidene bridges.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; González, Rocío; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2011-08-15

    The title complex (Cp = η(5)-C(5)H(5)) reacted with the labile carbonyl complexes [M(CO)(5)(THF)] (M = Cr, Mo, W) and [MnCp'(CO)(2)(THF)] (Cp' = η(5)-C(5)H(4)Me) to give phosphinidene-bridged trimetallic compounds of formula [Fe(2)MCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(7)] (Cr-P = 2.479(1) Å) and [Fe(2)MnCp(2)Cp'(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(4)], respectively, after formation of a new M-P bond in each case, and related heterometallic complexes [Fe(2)MClCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)] (M = Cu, Au; Au-P = 2.262(1) Å) were cleanly formed upon reaction with CuCl or the labile tetrahydrothiophene (THT) complex [AuCl(THT)]. The reaction with [Fe(2)(CO)(9)] proceeded analogously to give the triiron derivative [Fe(3)Cp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(6)] in high yield (new Fe-P bond =2.318(1) Å), along with a small amount of the pentanuclear compound [{Fe(CO)(3)}{(μ(3)-PCy)Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)}(2)], the latter displaying a central Fe(CO)(3)P(2) core with a distorted bipyramidal geometry (P-Fe-P = 164.2(1)°). In contrast, the reaction with [Co(2)(CO)(8)] resulted in a full disproportionation process to give the salt [{Co(CO)(3)}{(μ(3)-PCy)Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)}(2)][Co(CO)(4)], having a pentanuclear Fe(4)Co cation comparable to the above Fe(5) complex (P-Co-P = 165.3(2)°). The attempted photochemical decarbonylation of the above trinuclear complexes gave results strongly dependent on the added metal fragment. Thus, the irradiation with visible or visible-UV light of the new Fe(3) and Fe(2)Cr species caused no decarbonylation but a tautomerization of the metal framework to give the corresponding isomers [Fe(2)MCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(n)] now exhibiting a dangling FeCp(CO)(2) moiety (M = Cr, n = 7, Cr-Fe = 2.7370(3) Å; M = Fe, n = 6, new Fe-Fe bond = 2.6092(9) Å) as a result of the cleavage of the Fe-Fe bond in the precursor and subsequent formation of a new M-Fe bond. These processes are reversible, since the new isomers gave back the starting complexes under low (Cr) or

  4. A contemporary view of diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention in the United States: a report from the CathPCI Registry of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, 2010 through June 2011.

    PubMed

    Dehmer, Gregory J; Weaver, Douglas; Roe, Matthew T; Milford-Beland, Sarah; Fitzgerald, Susan; Hermann, Anthony; Messenger, John; Moussa, Issam; Garratt, Kirk; Rumsfeld, John; Brindis, Ralph G

    2012-11-13

    This study sought to provide a report to the public of data from the CathPCI Registry of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. The CathPCI Registry collects data from approximately 85% of the cardiac catheterization laboratories in the United States. Data were summarized for 6 consecutive calendar quarters beginning January 1, 2010, and ending June 30, 2011. This report includes 1,110,150 patients undergoing only diagnostic cardiac catheterization and 941,248 undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Some notable findings include, for example, that on-site cardiac surgery was not available in 83% of facilities performing fewer than 200 PCIs annually, with these facilities representing 32.6% of the facilities reporting, but performing only 12.4% of the PCIs in this data sample. Patients 65 years of age or older represented 38.7% of those undergoing PCI, with 12.3% being 80 years of age or older. Almost 80% of PCI patients were overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)), 80% had dyslipidemia, and 27.6% were current or recent smokers. Among patients undergoing elective PCI, 52% underwent a stress study before the procedure, with stress myocardial perfusion being used most frequently. Calcium scores and coronary computed tomography angiography were used very infrequently (<3%) before diagnostic or PCI procedures. Radial artery access was used in 8.3% of diagnostic and 6.9% of PCI procedures. Primary PCI was performed with a median door-to-balloon time of 64.5 min for nontransfer patients and 121 min for transfer patients. In-hospital risk-adjusted mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients was 5.2% in this sample. Data from the CathPCI Registry provide a contemporary view of the current practice of invasive cardiology in the United States. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous quantification of lenalidomide, ibrutinib and its active metabolite PCI-45227 in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Viswanadha, Srikant; Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan; Govindarajulu, Babu; Vakkalanka, Swaroopkumar; Rangasamy, Manivannan

    2015-03-25

    Efficacy assessments using a combination of ibrutinib and lenalidomide necessitate the development of an analytical method for determination of both drugs in plasma with precision. A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of lenalidomide, ibrutinib, and its active metabolite PCI45227 in rat plasma. Extraction of lenalidomide, ibrutinib, PCI45227 and tolbutamide (internal standard; IS) from 50 μl rat plasma was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate:dichloromethane (90:10) ratio. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on YMC pack ODS AM (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column under gradient conditions with acetonitrile:0.1% formic acid buffer as the mobile phases at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Precursor ion and product ion transition for analytes and IS were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated in the selective reaction monitoring with positive ionization mode. Method was validated over a concentration range of 0.72-183.20 ng/ml for ibrutinib, 0.76-194.33 ng/ml for PCI-45227 and 1.87-479.16 ng/ml for lenalidomide. Mean extraction recovery for ibrutinib, PCI-45227, lenalidomide and IS of 75.2%, 84.5%, 97.3% and 92.3% were consistent across low, medium, and high QC levels. Precision and accuracy at low, medium and high quality control levels were less than 15% across analytes. Bench top, wet, freeze-thaw and long term stability was evaluated for all the analytes. The analytical method was applied to support a pharmacokinetic study of simultaneous estimation of lenalidomide, ibrutinib, and its active metabolite PCI-45227 in Wistar rat. Assay reproducibility was demonstrated by re-analysis of 18 incurred samples.

  6. ECG-guided immediate intervention at the time of primary PCI to reduce door-to-balloon time in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Philippe; Déry, Jean-Pierre; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Barbeau, G Erald; Noël, Bernard; Bertrand, Olivier F; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Nguyen, Can M; Proulx, Guy; Gleeton, Onil; Larose, Eric; Roy, Louis; Delarochelliére, Robert

    2008-11-01

    In ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), all efforts must be made to improve door-to-balloon (DTB) times. This study was designed to assess the impact of electrocardiographic-guided immediate intervention (EGII) without performing a complete coronary evaluation on DTB times and clinical outcomes of STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. Consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI at Laval Hospital between May 2006 and August 2007 were considered for inclusion. Patients with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 2-3 flow in the culprit vessel on initial angiography and patients with previous coronary bypass surgery were excluded from the analysis. The primary evaluation was DTB time. Clinical outcomes consisted of cardiac death, reinfarction, revascularization or stroke. Two hundred seventy-nine (279) patients were included in the present analysis. Eighty-seven (87) patients underwent EGII (Group 1) and 192 underwent PCI after a complete angiographic diagnostic evaluation (Group 2). Median catheterization laboratory DTB was 21 minutes in Group 1 and 25.5 minutes in Group 2 (p < 0.0001). The median DTB time was 80 minutes for patients in Group 1, compared to 90 minutes for patients in Group 2 (p = 0.01). More patients in Group 1 received timely reperfusion (DTB < 90 min) than patients in Group 2 (63% vs. 49%; p = 0.04). There was a trend towards reduced mortality in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (p = 0.11, unadjusted). A strategy of EGII reduces DTB times with a possible impact on clinical outcomes in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.

  7. Relating Interface Evolution to Interface Mechanics Based on Interface Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Devendra; Biswas, Sudipta; Prakash, Chandra; Tomar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The current article focuses on recent work done in understanding the role of processing techniques on interface evolution and connecting interface evolution to interface thickness-dependent properties. Special emphasis is placed on interface evolution during the sintering process of tungsten ( W). Sintering with additives such as nickel significantly changes grain boundary properties in W, leading to issues such as grain boundary embrittlement. When one has to mechanically describe properties of polycrystalline W with an account of the influence of grain boundary embrittlement, one must explicitly consider grain boundary properties. This issue is the focus of the present work on the mechanical properties of interfaces. Overall, a phase field modeling-based approach is shown to be an excellent computational tool for predicting the interface evolution. The influences of the interface thickness, chemistry, and orientation of phases around interfaces are analyzed using extended finite element simulations for polycrystalline W.

  8. Bivalirudin inhibits periprocedural platelet function and tissue factor expression of human smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Pepke, Wojciech; Eisenreich, Andreas; Jaster, Markus; Ayral, Yunus; Bobbert, Peter; Mayer, Alexander; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Rauch, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    A major concern of stent implantation after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is acute stent thrombosis. Effective inhibition of periprocedural platelet function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) leads to an improved outcome. In this study, we examined the periprocedural platelet reactivity after administrating bivalirudin during PCI compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) administration. Further, the effect of bivalirudin on induced tissue factor (TF) expression in smooth muscle cells (SMC) was determined. Patients with CAD (n = 58) and double antithrombotic medication were treated intraprocedural with UFH (n = 30) or bivalirudin (n = 28). Platelet activation markers were flow cytometrically measured before and after stenting. The expression of TF in SMC was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The thrombogenicity of platelet-derived microparticles and SMC was assessed via a TF activity assay. Bivalirudin significantly diminished the agonist-induced platelet reactivity post-PCI. Compared to UFH treatment, the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-induced thrombospondin expression post-PCI was reduced when bivalirudin was administrated during intervention. In contrast to UFH, bivalirudin reduced the P-selectin expression of unstimulated and ADP-induced platelets post-PCI. Moreover, bivalirudin inhibited the thrombin-, but not FVIIa- or FVIIa/FX-induced TF expression and pro-coagulant TF activity of SMC. Moreover, bivalirudin reduced the TF activity of platelet-derived microparticles postinduction with TRAP or ADP. Bivalirudin is better than UFH in reducing periprocedural platelet activation. Moreover, thrombin-induced TF expression is inhibited by bivalirudin. Thus, bivalirudin seems to be a better anticoagulant during PCI than UFH. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis (5-year outcomes of the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-08-15

    Ischemic heart disease is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, long-term benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) relative to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in those patients is still unclear in the drug-eluting stent era. We identified 388 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis among 15,939 patients undergoing first coronary revascularization enrolled in the Coronary REvascularization Demonstrating Outcome Study in Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2 (PCI: 258 patients and CABG: 130 patients). The CABG group included more patients with 3-vessel (38% vs 57%, p <0.001) and left main disease (10% vs 34%, p <0.001). Preprocedural Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score in the CABG group was significantly higher than that in the PCI group (23.5 ± 8.7 vs 29.4 ± 11.0, p <0.001). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was 2.7% for PCI and 5.4% for CABG. Cumulative 5-year all-cause mortality was 52.3% for PCI and 49.9% for CABG. Propensity score-adjusted all-cause mortality was not different between PCI and CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85 to 2.09, p = 0.219). However, the excess risk of PCI relative to CABG for cardiac death was significant (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.96, p = 0.02). The risk of sudden death was also higher after PCI (HR 4.83, 95% CI 1.01 to 23.08, p = 0.049). The risk of myocardial infarction after PCI tended to be higher than after CABG (HR 3.30, 95% CI 0.72 to 15.09, p = 0.12). The risk of any coronary revascularization after PCI was markedly higher after CABG (HR 3.78, 95% CI 1.91 to 7.50, p <0.001). Among the 201 patients who died during the follow-up, 94 patients (47%) died from noncardiac morbidities such as stroke, respiratory failure, and renal failure. In patients with multivessel and/or left main disease undergoing dialysis, 5-year

  10. Properties of interfaces and transport across them.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, H

    2000-01-01

    Much of the biological activity in cell cytoplasm occurs in compartments some of which may be formed, as suggested in this book, by phase separation, and many of the functions of such compartments depend on the transport or exchange of molecules across interfaces. Thus a fundamentally based discussion of the properties of phases, interfaces, and diffusive transport across interfaces has been given to further elucidate these phenomena. An operational criterion for the width of interfaces is given in terms of molecular and physical arguments, and the properties of molecules inside phases and interfaces are discussed in terms of molecular arguments. In general, the properties of the interface become important when the molecules diffusing across are smaller than the width of the interface. Equilibrium partitioning, Donnan phenomena, and electrochemical potentials at interfaces are also discussed in detail. The mathematical expressions for modeling transport across interfaces are discussed in detail. These describe a practical and detailed model for transport across interfaces. For molecules smaller than the width of the interface, this includes a detailed model for diffusion inside the interface. Last, the question of the time scale for phase formation and equilibration in biological systems is discussed.

  11. Are there gender differences in coronary artery disease? The Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database - Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD-PCI) Registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chuey Yan; Hairi, Noran N; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Ismail, Omar; Liew, Houng Bang; Zambahari, Robaayah; Ali, Rosli Mohd; Fong, Alan Yean Yip; Sim, Kui Hian

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether gender differences exist in the clinical presentation, angiographic severity, management and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The study comprised of 1,961 women and 8,593 men who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and were included in the Malaysian NCVD-PCI Registry from 2007-2009. Significant stenosis was defined as ≥70% stenosis in at least one of the epicardial vessels. Women were significantly older and had significantly higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure, new onset angina and prior history of heart failure whereas smokers and past history of myocardial infarction were higher in men. In the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort, more women were in Killip class III-IV, had longer door-to-balloon time (169.5 min. vs 127.3 min, p<0.052) and significantly longer transfer time (300.4 min vs 166.3 min, p<0.039). Overall, women had significantly more left main stem (LMS) disease (1.3% vs 0.6%, p<0.003) and smaller diameter vessels (<3.0 mm: 45.5% vs 34.8%, p<0.001). In-hospital mortality rates for all PCI, STEMI, Non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina for women and men were 1.99% vs 0.98%, Odds ratio (OR): 2.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40 to 3.01), 6.19% vs 2.88%, OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.31 to 3.79), 2.90% vs 0.79%, OR: 3.75 (95% CI: 1.58 to 8.90) and 1.79% vs 0.29%, OR: 6.18 (95% CI: 0.56 to 68.83), respectively. Six-month adjusted OR for mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI in women were 2.18 (95% CI: 0.97 to 4.90), 2.68 (95% CI: 0.37 to 19.61) and 2.66 (95% CI: 0.73 to 9.69), respectively. Women who underwent PCI were older with more co-morbidities. In-hospital and six-month mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI were higher due largely to significantly more LMS disease, smaller diameter vessels, longer door-to-balloon and transfer time in women.

  12. Fetal membranes as an interface between inflammation and metabolism: increased aquaporin 9 expression in the presence of spontaneous labor at term and chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Pooja; Romero, Roberto; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Tromp, Gerard; Tarca, Adi L; Kim, Yeon Mee; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Than, Nandor Gabor; Hassan, Sonia S

    2009-12-01

    Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is a water channel protein characterized by its high permeability to nutrients such as lactate and glycerol, as well as urea and other small solutes. These unique properties of AQP9 suggest that this molecule may play a role in the modulation of nutrient flux through the fetal membranes in conditions associated with increased metabolic demand, such as spontaneous labor and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of AQP9 in the chorioamniotic membranes from women with and without term labor, as well as those with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) with and without histologic chorioamnionitis. A cross-sectional study was performed which included patients in the following groups: (1) term not in labor (TNL; n = 14); (2) term, spontaneous labor (n = 14); and (3) PPROM with (n = 20) and without (n = 17) histologic chorioamnionitis. AQP9 mRNA expression in fetal membranes was quantified using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and analyzed with a linear model including gestational age as a covariate. (1) AQP9 mRNA expression was identified in all chorioamniotic membrane specimens; (2) AQP9 expression in fetal membranes was significantly higher in spontaneous term labor when compared with TNL (fold change 3.6; p = 0.01); and (3) Among patients with PPROM, the presence of histologic chorioamnionitis was associated with a higher expression of AQP9 in the chorioamniotic membranes compared with those from women without histologic chorioamnionitis (fold change 8.7; p < 0.001). Aquaporin 9 mRNA expression is higher in the fetal membranes from patients with spontaneous term labor and those with PPROM and histologic chorioamnionitis. These findings are novel, and suggest a role for aquaporin 9 in membrane-mediated transfer of nutrients to support the increased metabolic demands associated with the host immune response of the terminal pathway of parturition and histologic

  13. Visual User Interfaces for Information Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneiderman, Ben

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of human-computer interfaces focuses on the use of graphical and direct manipulation approaches to improve the user interface. Topics discussed include information seeking; computerized search capabilities, including full-text string searches, index searches, and hypertext; Boolean expressions; dynamic or direct manipulation queries;…

  14. Influence of carbon structure and mineral association of coals on their combustion characteristics for pulverized coal injection (PCI) application

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Al-Omari, Y.; Sahajwalla, V.; French, D.

    2006-06-15

    The influence of carbon structure and mineral matter of three pulverized coals on their char characteristics including reactivity was studied under a range of combustion conditions in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric (TGA) furnace for PCI application. Physical and chemical properties of coals and their combustion derivatives were characterized by automated reflectogram. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and BET N{sub 2} adsorption. The QEMSCAN{asterisk} technique was used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of minerals of discrete coal particles. The TGA char reactivity was related to the proportion of coal particles displaying strong association of calcium/sulfur phases with carbon matrix to highlight the catalytic influence of minerals on char reactivity at low temperatures. The study suggested that during DTF combustion tests at 1200{sup o}C, char reaction rates might have been catalyzed by coal minerals, particularly due to illite and its association with carbon. Under the same combustion conditions, most of the coal minerals did not transform significantly to slag phases. Coal burnout was found to improve significantly in a combustion temperature range of 1200 to 1500{sup o}C. The improvement of coal burnout with temperature appeared to be influenced by coal properties, particularly as a function of the chemical nature of minerals, as well as the degree of associations with other minerals. The study implies that coals with similar mineral compositions might not necessarily reflect similar combustion behavior due to the differences in their associations with other phases.

  15. Study of Fluctuations with the PCI Diagnostic During the Search for an I-Mode on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; White, A. E.; Whyte, D. G.; Burrell, K. H.; Osborne, T. H.

    2013-10-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D explored the operational space required to achieve the I-mode regime observed on Alcator C-Mod. This regime features an edge energy transport barrier without an accompanying particle barrier, and broadband instabilities known as WCM. Although none of the DIII-D plasmas exhibited all those characteristics, preceding the H-mode transition, the edge electron temperature slowly and intermittently evolved towards a pedestal-like profile 0.4 keV high while maintaining a typical L-mode edge density profile. During this prelude phase, edge density fluctuations measured with the recently upgraded Phase Contrast Interferometer (PCI) are observed to be qualitatively similar to those seen in H-mode: the intensity of fluctuations is reduced, and the frequency spectrum is broadened in the range of 300 kHz and is non-monotonic. The 2D k-f spectra also approach those typical of an H-mode, showing broad fluctuations in k-space and group velocities increasing to 10 km/s. Several branches are observed in 2D spectra, possibly indicating multiple instabilities at play. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  16. Analysis of the Best Timing for Applying Tirofiban in PCI Operation for the Patients with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhang; Xiaoming, Zhong; Yan, Hong; Ming, Zhong Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the best timing for applying tirofiban in the PCI emergency treatment for STEMI patients. We selected 109 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from October 2013 to October 2014 and divided them into two groups, the early treatment group (53 cases) received tirofiban during the operation and the later treatment group (56 cases) received tirofiban after operation. The analysis was then conducted. Results: The proportion of IRA forward flow in TIMI2-3 for the 1st group during the radiography was higher than 2nd group, 50 cases with TIMI3 blood flow and 52 cases with TIMI3 blood flow in later treatment group. Comparing the TIMI3 flow of both groups, the difference was not statistically significant; for the CK-MB 4h and 8h after operation as well as the LVEF after operation, the differences are were not statistically significant. The occurrence rate of hemorrhage complication was low for both groups. The early use of tirofiban can make the thrombus fully dissolve and coronary blood flow remains in a good state, which is not only beneficial for myocardial perfusion but also helpful for deciding the length and side branch situation of coronary artery pathological changes. PMID:28352723

  17. Coronary Catheterization and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in China: 10-Year Results From the China PEACE-Retrospective CathPCI Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Curtis, Jeptha P; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Yongfei; Yang, Yuejin; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Li, Xi; Li, Jing; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Downing, Nicholas S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-04-01

    The use of coronary catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasing in China, but, to date, there are no nationally representative assessments of the quality of care and outcomes in patients undergoing these procedures. To assess the quality of care and outcomes of patients undergoing coronary catheterization and PCI in China. In a clinical observational study (China PEACE [Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events]-Retrospective CathPCI Study), we used a 2-stage, random sampling strategy to create a nationally representative sample of 11 241 patients undergoing coronary catheterization and PCI at 55 urban Chinese hospitals in calendar years 2001, 2006, and 2011. Data analysis was performed from July 11, 2014, to November 20, 2015. Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, quality of care, and outcomes associated with these procedures and changes over time. Of the 11 241 patients included in the study, the samples included, for 2001, 285 women (weighted percentage, 28.6%); for 2006, 826 women (weighted percentage, 32.2%), and for 2011, 2588 women (weighted percentage, 35.7%). Mean (SD) ages were 58 (8), 60 (11), and 61 (11) years, respectively. Between 2001 and 2011, estimated national rates of hospitalizations for coronary catheterization increased from 26 570 to 452 784 and for PCI, from 9678 to 208 954 (17-fold and 21-fold), respectively. More than half of stable patients undergoing coronary catheterization had nonobstructive coronary artery disease; this amount did not change significantly over time (2001: 60.3% [95% CI, 56.1%-64.5%]; 2011: 57.5% [95% CI, 55.8%-59.3%], P = .05 for trend). The proportion of PCI procedures performed via radial approach increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 1.7%-5.3%) in 2001 to 79.0% (95% CI, 77.7%-80.3%) in 2011 (P < . 001 for trend). The use of drug-eluting stents (DESs) increased from 18.0% (95% CI, 14.2%-21.7%) in 2001 to 97.3% (95% CI, 96.9%-97.7%) in 2011 (P < .001 for

  18. The Tradeoff between Travel Time from Home to Hospital and Door to Balloon Time in Determining Mortality among STEMI Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Cappai, Giovanna; Sciattella, Paolo; Belleudi, Valeria; Di Martino, Mirko; Agabiti, Nera; Mataloni, Francesca; Ricci, Roberto; Perucci, Carlo Alberto; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), even in presence of short door to balloon time (DTBT), timely reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is hampered by pre-hospital delays. Travel time (TT) constitutes a relevant part of these delays and may contribute to worse outcomes. Objective To evaluate the relationship between TT from home to hospital and DTBT on 30-day mortality after PCI among patients with STEMI. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 3,608 STEMI patients with a DTBT within 120 minutes who underwent PCI between years 2009 and 2013 in Lazio Region (Italy). We calculated the minimum travel time from residential address to emergency department where the first medical contact occurred. We defined system delay as the sum of travel time and DTBT time. Logistic regression models, including clinical and demographic characteristics were used to estimate the effect of TT and DTBT on mortality. Results Among patients with 0–90 minutes of system delay, TT above the median value is positively associated with mortality (OR = 2.46; P = 0.009). Survival benefit associated with DTBT below the median results only among patients with TT below the median (OR for DTBT below the median = 0.39; P = 0.013), (OR for interaction between TT and DTBT = 2.36; p = 0.076). Conclusion TT affects survival after PCI for STEMI, even in the presence of health care systems compliant with current guidelines. Results emphasize the importance of health system initiatives to reduce pre-hospital delay. Utilization of TT can contribute to a better estimate of patient mortality risk in the evaluation of quality of care. PMID:27336859

  19. P2Y12 receptor inhibition and effect of morphine in patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The PRIVATE-ATLANTIC study.

    PubMed

    Silvain, Johanne; Storey, Robert F; Cayla, Guillaume; Esteve, Jean-Baptiste; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Rousseau, Hélène; Tsatsaris, Anne; Baradat, Caroline; Salhi, Néjoua; Hamm, Christian W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Van't Hof, Arnoud W; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    PRIVATE-ATLANTIC (P2Y12 Receptor Inhibition with VASP Testing using Elisa kit during the ATLANTIC study) is a pre-specified substudy of the randomised, double-blind ATLANTIC trial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, designed to help interpret the main trial results. The primary objective of ATLANTIC was to assess coronary reperfusion prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with pre- vs in-hospital ticagrelor 180 mg loading dose (LD). PRIVATE-ATLANTIC assessed platelet inhibition in 37 patients by measurement of vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) platelet reactivity index (PRI) and VerifyNow platelet reactivity units (PRU) before angiogram (T1), immediately after PCI (T2), 1 (T3), and 6 (T4) hours (h) after PCI, and before next study drug administration (T5). The median time difference between the two ticagrelor LD was 41 minutes. Platelet reactivity was unaffected at T1 when measured by VASP-PRI (89.8 vs 93.9 % for pre- and in-hospital ticagrelor, respectively; p = 0.18) or PRU (239 vs 241; p = 0.82). Numerical differences were apparent at T2 and maximal at T3. Morphine administration significantly delayed onset of platelet inhibition at T3 (VASP-PRI 78.2 vs 23.4 % without morphine; p = 0.0116) and T4 (33.1 vs 11.0 %; p = 0.0057). In conclusion, platelet inhibition in ATLANTIC was unaffected by pre-hospital ticagrelor administration at the time of initial angiogram due to the short transfer delay. The maximum difference in platelet inhibition was detected 1 h after PCI (T3). Morphine administration was associated with delayed onset of action of ticagrelor and appeared more important than timing of ticagrelor administration.

  20. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  1. The effect of statin treatment on the prevention of stent mediated flow limited edge dissections during PCI in patients with stable angina.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Fatih; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Yayla, Cagrı; Canpolat, Ugur; Murat, Sani Namık; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2016-10-01

    The effect of statin therapy before PCI with direct stenting may reduce the development of flow limited edge dissections (ED) in patients with stable angina. Flow limited ED after PCI is associated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Statin therapy induces important changes in the plaque composition which have been previously identified as strong predictors of ED. 100 patients complicated with flow limited ED and 100 control patients with successful procedure were enrolled into the study. EDs were described as the 5-mm regions that were immediately adjacent to the stent borders, both distally and proximally on the coronary angiography. Rate of statin use and duration of statin use were significantly higher in patients with non-ED group (63%) versus ED group (25%) (p<0.001). In addition, patients in ED group had significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) at admission (9.9mg/dL (5.89-16.45) vs. 4.40mg/dL (3.5-7.09), respectively, p=0.014). Our findings suggested that maintenance statin treatment before PCI with direct stenting may reduce the development of flow limited ED in patients with stable angina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ticagrelor versus prasugrel in patients with high on-clopidogrel treatment platelet reactivity after PCI: The ISAR-ADAPT-PF study.

    PubMed

    Bernlochner, Isabell; Mayer, Katharina; Orban, Martin; Morath, Tanja; Jaitner, Juliane; Rössner, Lisa; Gross, Lisa; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Kastrati, Adnan; Sibbing, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) on clopidogrel are at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of the ISAR-ADAPT-PF study was to assess the antiplatelet efficacy of ticagrelor versus prasugrel in patients with HTPR on clopidogrel. In a prospective and randomized clinical study, 70 patients with HTPR on clopidogrel loading dose (LD) within 24 h post PCI were assigned to receive either ticagrelor [180 mg LD followed by 90 mg maintenance dose (MD) twice daily] or prasugrel (60 mg LD followed by 10 mg MD once daily). The adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation assessed on the Multiplate analyzer on day 2 after randomization (primary end point) was as follows: the mean difference between the two treatment groups was 6 aggregation units (AU) × min with an upper 95% confidence interval (CI) of 41 AU × min, which was greater than the predefined noninferiority margin of 18 AU × min (P for noninferiority = 0.29). However, no significant differences in absolute platelet reactivity levels between ticagrelor- versus prasugrel-treated patients at that time point were observed (138 ± 100 AU × min vs. 132 ± 64 AU × min, P for superiority = 0.77). In conclusion, neither drug was statistically more effective for inhibition of platelet aggregation in patients with HTPR on clopidogrel post PCI, although the study could not formally demonstrate the assumed noninferiority of ticagrelor versus prasugrel.

  3. Adverse event rates following primary PCI for STEMI at US and non-US hospitals: three-year analysis from the HORIZONS-AMI trial.

    PubMed

    Tobbia, Patrick; Brodie, Bruce R; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Metzger, Chris; Guagliumi, Giulio; Yu, Jennifer; Kellett, Mirle A; Stuckey, Thomas; Fahy, Martin; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2013-02-22

    To examine outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at US sites versus sites outside the US (OUS). In the HORIZONS-AMI trial 3,602 STEMI patients in 11 countries were randomised to primary PCI with bivalirudin versus heparin + glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. US patients (n=814) had more diabetes, prior infarction, prior bypass surgery, and renal insufficiency. OUS patients (n=2,788) had longer door-to-balloon times, more radial access, fewer bypass surgeries, and were discharged more often on beta-blockers and statins. At three years US patients had higher mortality (9.7% vs. 6.0%, p=0.0003), reinfarction (10.2% vs. 6.4%, p=0.001), major adverse cardiac events (MACE; 28.2% vs. 20.1%, p<0.0001), major bleeding (16.9% vs. 6.4%, p<0.0001) and net adverse clinical events (NACE; 36.6% vs. 23.8%, p<0.0001), which persisted after adjusting for baseline risk. In the HORIZONS-AMI trial, STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI at US versus OUS sites had higher rates of adverse events, which persisted after adjusting for baseline risk. The reasons for these differences are not clear but may be due to unmeasured confounders, different thresholds for event reporting, or valid differences in systems of care and treatments.

  4. Curcumin and hydroxamate-derivative (PCI-34058) interfere with histone deacetylase I catalytic core Asp-His charge relay system: atomistic simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Omotuyi, I O; Abiodun, M O; Komolafe, K; Ejelonu, O C; Olusanya, O

    2015-05-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are representative targets for the natural and synthetic chemicals used to transform cells to confer antitumor properties. In the current study, curcumin and hydroxamate-derivative PCI-34058-bound HDAC1 were subjected to atomistic simulation. The results support the view that fitting of curcumin and PCI-34058 within the HDAC1 pocket depends on extensive interactions between the aromatic moieties of the inhibitors and the extensive network of aromatic amino acid side chains lining the pocket of HDAC1. The interaction forces a local perturbation of the coiled structures connecting the pocket residues resulting in ligand-induced tightening of the pocket. In addition to the competitive occupancy of the histone-acetyl-lysine binding pocket by the inhibitors, interference with the in-pocket aspartate-histidine (ASP-HIS) charge relay system was also observed in inhibitor-bound HDAC1 systems. In conclusion, curcumin and PCI-34058-mediated ligand-dependent HDAC1 tunnel closure interferes negatively with the ASP-HIS charge relay system in HDAC1. Future design of HDAC inhibitors may benefit from optimizing competitive interaction with the ligand site and interference with the charge relay system.

  5. Routine diversion of patients with STEMI to high-volume PCI centres: modelling the financial impact on referral hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Elizabeth Barnett; Comins, Meg M; Forsyth, Colin J; Strom, Joel A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify possible revenue losses from proposed ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patient diversion policies for small hospitals that lack high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) capability status (ie, ‘STEMI referral hospitals’). Background Negative financial impacts on STEMI referral hospitals have been discussed as an important barrier to implementing regional STEMI bypass/transfer protocols. However, there is little empirical data available that directly quantifies this potential financial impact. Methods Using detailed financial charges from Florida hospital discharge data, we examined the potential negative financial impact on 112 STEMI referral hospitals from losing all inpatient STEMI revenue. The main outcome was projected revenue loss (PRL), defined as total annual patient with STEMI charges as a proportion of total annual charges for all patients. We hypothesised that for most community hospitals (>90%), STEMI revenue represented only a small fraction of total revenue (<1%). We further examined the financial impact of the ‘worst case’ scenario of loss of all acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (ie, chest pain) patients. Results PRLs were $0.33 for every $100 of patient revenue statewide for STEMI and $1.73 for ACS. At the individual hospital level, the 90th centile PRL was $0.74 for STEMI and $2.77 for ACS. PRLs for STEMI were not greater in rural areas compared with major metropolitan areas. Hospital revenue centres that would be most impacted by loss of patients with STEMI were cardiology procedures and intensive care units. Conclusions Loss of patient with STEMI revenues would result in only a small financial impact on STEMI referral hospitals in Florida under proposed STEMI diversion/rapid transfer protocols. However, spillover loss of patients with ACS would increase revenue loss for many hospitals. PMID:26196014

  6. Spotlight on unmet needs in stroke prevention: The PIONEER AF-PCI, NAVIGATE ESUS and GALILEO trials.

    PubMed

    Hemmrich, Melanie; Peterson, Eric D; Thomitzek, Karen; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2016-09-28

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major healthcare concern, being associated with an estimated five-fold risk of ischaemic stroke. In patients with AF, anticoagulants reduce stroke risk to a greater extent than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with ASA plus clopidogrel. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now a widely-accepted therapeutic option for stroke prevention in non-valvular AF (NVAF). There are particular patient types with NVAF for whom treatment challenges remain, owing to sparse clinical data, their high-risk nature or a need to harmonise anticoagulant and antiplatelet regimens if co-administered. This article focuses on three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that are investigating the utility of rivaroxaban, a direct, oral, factor Xa inhibitor, in additional areas of stroke prevention where data for anticoagulants are lacking: oPen-label, randomized, controlled, multicentre study explorIng twO treatmeNt stratEgiEs of Rivaroxaban and a dose-adjusted oral vitamin K antagonist treatment (PIONEER AF-PCI); New Approach riVaroxoban Inhibition of factor Xa in a Global trial vs Aspirin to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE ESUS); and Global study comparing a rivAroxaban-based antithrombotic strategy to an antipLatelet-based strategy after transcatheter aortIc vaLve rEplacement to Optimize clinical outcomes (GALILEO). Data from these studies present collaborative efforts to build upon existing registrational Phase III data for rivaroxaban, driving the need for effective and safe treatment of a wider range of patients for stroke prevention.

  7. Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Has Significant Activity in Patients With Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Buggy, Joseph J.; Sharman, Jeff P.; Smith, Sonali M.; Boyd, Thomas E.; Grant, Barbara; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Furman, Richard R.; Rodriguez, Sara; Chang, Betty Y.; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Izumi, Raquel; Hamdy, Ahmed; Hedrick, Eric; Fowler, Nathan H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survival and progression of mature B-cell malignancies depend on signals from the B-cell antigen receptor, and Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical signaling kinase in this pathway. We evaluated ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a small-molecule irreversible inhibitor of BTK, in patients with B-cell malignancies. Patients and Methods Patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia received escalating oral doses of ibrutinib. Two schedules were evaluated: one, 28 days on, 7 days off; and two, once-daily continuous dosing. Occupancy of BTK by ibrutinib in peripheral blood was monitored using a fluorescent affinity probe. Dose escalation proceeded until either the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was achieved or, in the absence of MTD, until three dose levels above full BTK occupancy by ibrutinib. Response was evaluated every two cycles. Results Fifty-six patients with a variety of B-cell malignancies were treated over seven cohorts. Most adverse events were grade 1 and 2 in severity and self-limited. Dose-limiting events were not observed, even with prolonged dosing. Full occupancy of the BTK active site occurred at 2.5 mg/kg per day, and dose escalation continued to 12.5 mg/kg per day without reaching MTD. Pharmacokinetic data indicated rapid absorption and elimination, yet BTK occupancy was maintained for at least 24 hours, consistent with the irreversible mechanism. Objective response rate in 50 evaluable patients was 60%, including complete response of 16%. Median progression-free survival in all patients was 13.6 months. Conclusion Ibrutinib, a novel BTK-targeting inhibitor, is well tolerated, with substantial activity across B-cell histologies. PMID:23045577

  8. Mortality pattern and cause of death in a long-term follow-up of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Moloi, Soniah; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Farshid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the pattern of mortality and cause of death in a cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 2006–2013 were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (1–8.4 years). We used hospital and general practice records and mortality data from The Australian National Death Index. Results Among 1313 patients (22.5% female) with mean age of 62.3±13.1 years, 181 patients (13.7%) died during long-term follow-up. In the first 7 days, 45 patients (3.4%) died, 76% of these due to cardiogenic shock. Between 7 days and 1 year, another 50 patients died (3.9%), 58% from cardiovascular causes and 22% from cancer. Beyond 1 year, there were 86 deaths with an estimated mean mortality rate of 2.05% per year, 36% of deaths were cardiovascular and 52% non-cardiovascular, including 29% cancer-related deaths. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, history of diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 and symptom-to-balloon time >360 min were independent predictors of long-term mortality. In 16 patients who died of sudden cardiac death postdischarge, only 4 (25%) had ejection fraction ≤35% and would have been eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions In the era of routine primary PCI, we found a mortality rate of 7.3% at 1 year, and 2.05% per year thereafter. Cause of death was predominantly cardiovascular in the first year and mainly non-cardiovascular after 1 year. Age, diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, eGFR <60 and delayed treatment were independent predictors of mortality. PMID:27099764

  9. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  10. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  11. Uric acid levels and the risk of Contrast Induced Nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography or PCI.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, L; Verdoia, M; Schaffer, A; Cassetti, E; Marino, P; Suryapranata, H; De Luca, G

    2015-02-01

    Contrast Induced Nephropathy (CIN) is a common complication of procedures that require the use of contrast media, and seems to be mediated by oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species generation. Hyperuricemia is characterized by inhibited nitric oxide system and enhanced synthesis of reactive oxygen species. However, few studies have so far investigated the association between hyperuricemia and CIN that is therefore the aim of the current study among patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous intervention. We analyzed a total of 1950 patients with Creatinine clearance <90 ml/min) undergoing elective or urgent coronary angiography and/or angioplasty. Patients were divided according to tertiles of baseline uric acid (Group 1, ≤ 5.5 mg/dL n = 653; Group 2, 5.6-7.0 mg/dL, n = 654; Group 3, ≥ 7.0 mg/dL, n = 643). CIN was defined as an absolute ≥ 0.5 mg/dl or a relative ≥ 25% increase in the serum creatinine level at 24 or 48 h after the procedure. Patients with higher uric acid levels were older, previous smokers, with higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes, but with lower family history of CAD. They had more often history of a previous CABG and baseline renal dysfunction. Patients of the third Tertile had also higher levels of white blood cells, higher triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol and higher percentage of dilated cardiomyopathy/valvular disease as indication for angiography and consequently a lower prevalence of PCI. Patients with higher SUA were more often on therapy with ACE inhibitors and diuretics, but less often with statins, nitrate, ASA and Clopidogrel at admission. The occurrence of CIN was observed in 251 patients (12.9%), and was significantly associated with uric acid levels (12.3% in Group 1, 10.4% in Group 2 and 16.0% in Group 3; p = 0.04). Similar results were observed when the analysis was performed according to each tertiles values in both male and female gender. The association between elevated uric acid (

  12. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  13. In-Hospital and One-Year Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in a Tertiary Hospital in Oman: Oman PCI Registry

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Rashidi, Majdah; Al-Hajri, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the in-hospital and one-year clinical outcome of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Methods We conducted a retrospective, single-center, observational study looking at patients > 18 years old who underwent a PCI from 1 January to 31 December 2013. The primary end point was the occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), defined as death, any myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) with either repeat PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Secondary end-points included procedural success rate, angina status, stent thrombosis, and the rate of redo-PCI/CABG for in-stent restenosis. Results A total of 1 045 consecutive patients were analyzed. The mean age of the cohort was 58.2±11.2 years. Hyperlipidemia (66.8%), hypertension (55.1%), and diabetes mellitus (45.9%) were the predominant risk factors. Stable angina, ST-elevation MI, non-ST-elevation MI, and post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were common indications (approximately 20.0% each). The angiographic and procedural success rate was 95.0%. Forty-six percent of patients had single-vessel disease, 34.4% had double vessel disease, and triple vessel disease was seen in 19.1% of patients. Ninety-eight percent had balloon angioplasty with stenting, and only 1.9% of patients had balloon angioplasty without stenting. The majority of patients had single-vessel stenting (81.3%). A drug-eluting stent was used in 88.4% of patients, and a bare-metal stent in 11.6%. In-hospital MACE was 3.6%. There were 19 in-hospital deaths (1.8%), and four patients (0.4%) had CVA/MI. Out of 1 026 patients discharged, 100 patients were lost to follow-up. Among the 926 patients followed-up, 673 patients (72.7%) were asymptomatic. One-year MACE was 17.0%, including 5.0% death and 6.0% MI. Repeat revascularization was performed in 53 patients (5

  14. The Comparison of the Outcomes between Primary PCI, Fibrinolysis, and No Reperfusion in Patients ≥ 75 Years Old with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Chinese Acute Myocardial Infarction (CAMI) Registry

    PubMed Central

    Peiyuan, He; Jingang, Yang; Haiyan, Xu; Xiaojin, Gao; Ying, Xian; Yuan, Wu; Wei, Li; Yang, Wang; Xinran, Tang; Ruohua, Yan; Chen, Jin; Lei, Song; Xuan, Zhang; Rui, Fu; Yunqing, Ye; Qiuting, Dong; Hui, Sun; Xinxin, Yan; Runlin, Gao; Yuejin, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Only a few randomized trials have analyzed the clinical outcomes of elderly ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (≥ 75 years old). Therefore, the best reperfusion strategy has not been well established. An observational study focused on clinical outcomes was performed in this population. Methods Based on the national registry on STEMI patients, the in-hospital outcomes of elderly patients with different reperfusion strategies were compared. The primary endpoint was defined as death. Secondary endpoints included recurrent myocardial infarction, ischemia driven revascularization, myocardial infarction related complications, and major bleeding. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for the baseline disparities between the groups. Results Patients who had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or fibrinolysis were relatively younger. They came to hospital earlier, and had lower risk of death compared with patients who had no reperfusion. The guideline recommended medications were more frequently used in patients with primary PCI during the hospitalization and at discharge. The rates of death were 7.7%, 15.0%, and 19.9% respectively, with primary PCI, fibrinolysis, and no reperfusion (P < 0.001). Patients having primary PCI also had lower rates of heart failure, mechanical complications, and cardiac arrest compared with fibrinolysis and no reperfusion (P < 0.05). The rates of hemorrhage stroke (0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.1%) and other major bleeding (3.0%, 5.0%, and 3.1%) were similar in the primary PCI, fibrinolysis, and no reperfusion group (P > 0.05). In the multivariable regression analysis, primary PCI outweighs no reperfusion in predicting the in-hospital death in patients ≥ 75 years old. However, fibrinolysis does not. Conclusions Early reperfusion, especially primary PCI was safe and effective with absolute reduction of mortality compared with no reperfusion. However, certain randomized trials were

  15. Comparison of long-term outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Hayano, Mamoru; Furukawa, Yutaka; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Tazaki, Junichi; Imai, Masao; Yamaji, Kyohei; Tada, Tomohisa; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Saijo, Sayaka; Funakoshi, Shunsuke; Nagao, Kazuya; Hanazawa, Koji; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Kadota, Kazushige; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shizuta, Satoshi; Abe, Mitsuru; Sakata, Ryuzo; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Hanyu, Michiya; Yamazaki, Fumio; Shimamoto, Mitsuomi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Imoto, Yutaka; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Horie, Minoru; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2012-10-01

    The long-term outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) remains to be investigated. We identified 1,005 patients with ULMCAD of 15,939 patients with first coronary revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2. Cumulative 3-year incidence of a composite of death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke was significantly higher in the PCI group than in the CABG group (22.7% vs 14.8%, p = 0.0006, log-rank test). However, the adjusted outcome was not different between the PCI and CABG groups (hazard ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79 to 2.15, p = 0.30). Stratified analysis using the SYNTAX score demonstrated that risk for a composite of death/MI/stroke was not different between the 2 treatment groups in patients with low (<23) and intermediate (23 to 33) SYNTAX scores (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.76, p = 0.19; adjusted HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.99, p = 0.72, respectively), whereas in patients with a high SYNTAX score (≥33), it was significantly higher after PCI than after CABG (adjusted HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.32 to 5.16, p = 0.006). In conclusion, risk of PCI for serious adverse events seemed to be comparable to that after CABG in patients with ULMCAD with a low or intermediate SYNTAX score, whereas PCI compared with CABG was associated with a higher risk for serious adverse events in patients with a high SYNTAX score.

  16. Graphical Interfaces for Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollan, J. D.; And Others

    This document presents a discussion of the development of a set of software tools to assist in the construction of interfaces to simulations and real-time systems. Presuppositions to the approach to interface design that was used are surveyed, the tools are described, and the conclusions drawn from these experiences in graphical interface design…

  17. Assisted circulation using the TandemHeart during very high-risk PCI of the unprotected left main coronary artery in patients declined for CABG.

    PubMed

    Vranckx, Pascal; Schultz, Carl Johann; Valgimigli, Marco; Eindhoven, Janette A; Kappetein, Arie P; Regar, Evelin S; Van Domburg, Ron; Serruys, Patrick W

    2009-08-01

    In a single center experience, we retrospectively evaluated the short-term safety and efficacy of the TandemHeart percutaneous transseptal left ventricular assist (PTVA) system to deliver extracorporeal circulatory support during catheter based treatment of the unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA). Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of the ULMCA usually has been restricted to patients who are hemodynamically unstable or ineligible for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). High-risk patients for CABG should be considered at increased risk for PCI as well. In these patients the TandemHeart PTVA System (p-LVAD) may provide a valuable safeguard to reduce procedural risks. Between July 2002 and May 2008 the TandemHeart was used in 9 very high risk patients (Logistic Euro score: 13.64 (7.46-29.67); Syntax score:43 (41-50); Mayo Clinic Risk score (MCRS) 7 (6-8); age: median 65 (range 55-71) undergoing elective PCI for the novo lesions on the ULMCA. All patients were declined for CABG by a heart team. A ''true'' percutaneous insertion technique was used in all patients, technical success rate was 100%. The median (range) time for implementation of circulatory support was 27 min (24-30). A median (range) pump flow up to 4.36 (3.40-5.54) L/min was achieved with significant reduction of left ventricular filling pressures, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and a small increase of systemic arterial pressures. Median (range) duration of support was 93 min (50.4-102). Successful weaning was achieved in all patients. There was no in hospital death, survival at 6 months was (89%), whereas vascular access site complications were seen in 4 patients (44.4%). In very high risk PCI, assisted circulation using the TandemHeart-PTVA provides effective, total left ventricular support and may contribute to a reduced procedural risk and improved survival. The rate of device related cardiac and vascular complications was acceptable. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Measuring change in perceived well-being of family caregivers: validation of the Spanish version of the Perceived Change Index (PCI-S) in Chilean dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Aravena, José M; Albala, Cecilia; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-05-16

    Few instruments evaluate family caregiver perceptions of challenges caring for persons with dementia and improvement or worsening in these areas. To address this measurement gap, we examine psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the 13-item Perceived Change Index (PCI-S), originally validated with English-speaking caregivers. Cross-sectional study with 94 caregivers of persons with mild to moderate dementia in Chile. Interviews included caregiver demographics, burden, health perception, distress with behaviours, dementia severity, behavioural symptoms and functionality. Caregiver mean age was 55.9 (SD ± 14.14) years and mean years caregiving was 3 (SD ± 2.60). The scale had strong internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.94), and inter-observer consistency (CCI = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.95-0.99). Two factors were identified: Management skills (α = 0.89), and somatic well-being and affects (α = 0.92), explaining 63% of scale variance. Significant associations supporting convergent validity were observed for PCI-S and subscales with caregiver burden (p < 0.01), health perceptions (p < 0.01), depressive symptoms (p < 0.01) and distress with behaviours (p < 0.01); and in persons with dementia, functionality (p < 0.05), dementia severity (p < 0.05) and behavioural symptoms (p < 0.01) in expected directions. In logistic regression models, perceived worsening (PCI-S and subscale scores) was associated with more behavioural symptoms (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.03-1.15) and caregiver burden (OR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.18-1.86); whereas perceived improvement was associated with higher physical functioning (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91-0.99) in persons with dementia. PCI-S scores were not associated with socio-demographic characteristics reflecting divergent validity. Spanish version of the 13-item Perceived Change Index and its two-factor solution is a valid and reliable measure with clinical utility to detect improvement or worsening in

  19. AlAr3(THF): highly efficient reagents for cross-couplings with aryl bromides and chlorides catalyzed by the economic palladium complex of PCy3.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shih-Lun; Hui, Xin-Ping; Chen, Chien-An; Kuo, Yi-Ying; Gau, Han-Mou

    2007-10-07

    Novel and highly efficient cross couplings of aryl bromides and chlorides with AlAr3(THF) (Ar = Ph, 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, 2-naphthyl or 4-Me3SiC6H4) catalyzed by the economic palladium catalyst of PCy3 are reported without the use of a base and under mild reaction conditions at room temperature or temperatures < or = 60 degrees C even for couplings of bulky aryl halides and the Al(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3(THF) reagent.

  20. [Clopidogrel before and after percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE and CREDO studies do not support long-term therapy. Shorter treatment saves millions].

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Peter

    2003-10-09

    The ideal time to start treatment with clopidogrel prior to a percutaneous coronary intervention, the most efficacious loading-dose and the optimal duration of treatment following the procedure are not known in detail. PCI-CURE and CREDO both support pre-treatment with clopidogrel. Extended treatment beyond the first few months after the procedure is not, however, supported by the data. Accordingly, 300 mg clopidogrel should be given at least 6 hours and ideally 12 hours before the procedure. If the intervention must be undertaken sooner, a doubling of the loading-dose is recommended. After the procedure, clopidogrel 75 mg once daily should be continued for one to three months.

  1. Change to a primary PCI program increases number of patients offered reperfusion therapy and significantly reduces mortality: a real life experience evaluating the initiation of a primary PCI service at a single center without on site heart surgery in Western Norway.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Alf Inge; Melberg, Tor H; Bonarjee, Vernon; Barvik, Ståle; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2008-07-04

    After changing our treatment regimen from thrombolytic therapy to primary percutaneous intervention (PCI), we decided to perform a real-life retrospective comparison of the results obtained by thrombolytic therapy in 2000 with the results obtained by primary PCI in 2004 at our center which has no on-site cardiac surgery. All patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during 2000 and 2004 were included in our study. The charts were scrutinized by one of the authors to ensure accurate information on diagnostics and timing. Relevant data, which were predefined, were noted and compared in patients treated during the two time-periods. During the year of 2000, 197 patients were admitted with STEMI. Thrombolytics were administered to 138 of these patients. During 2004, 175 patients were admitted with STEMI and PCI was performed in 173 of these patients. Door-to-needle time was 28min and door-to-balloon time 80min, respectively. In-hospital mortality was significantly reduced from 2000 to 2004 (19.3% vs 8.6%, p=0.003). 30 day-mortality was likewise reduced from 21.3% to 8.6%, (p=0.0001), and this difference remained significant after excluding patients not receiving thrombolytics in the year 2000. In-hospital stay was reduced from 9.4 to 6.4 days, (p<0.001). None of the patients required transfer to a tertiary center for acute coronary artery bypass grafting. Initiation of a primary PCI program at a center without on site cardiac surgery is associated with a substantial increase in number of patients offered reperfusion therapy and a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality.

  2. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  3. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  4. User interface support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Clayton; Wilde, Nick

    1989-01-01

    Space construction will require heavy investment in the development of a wide variety of user interfaces for the computer-based tools that will be involved at every stage of construction operations. Using today's technology, user interface development is very expensive for two reasons: (1) specialized and scarce programming skills are required to implement the necessary graphical representations and complex control regimes for high-quality interfaces; (2) iteration on prototypes is required to meet user and task requirements, since these are difficult to anticipate with current (and foreseeable) design knowledge. We are attacking this problem by building a user interface development tool based on extensions to the spreadsheet model of computation. The tool provides high-level support for graphical user interfaces and permits dynamic modification of interfaces, without requiring conventional programming concepts and skills.

  5. Viscoelasticity of stepped interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirlo, S. A.; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics modeling, we show that interfaces in sputter deposited Cu-Nb superlattices exhibit time-dependent elasticity, i.e., viscoelasticity, under shear loading. In the high temperature and small strain rate limit, the interfacial shear modulus approaches a value proportional to the density of steps in the interface. It may therefore be possible to tailor the low-frequency shear moduli of interfaces by controlling their step densities.

  6. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  7. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid.

  8. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  9. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  10. Fracture interface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Boliang; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.

    1996-01-01

    Interface waves on a single fracture in an elastic solid are investigated theoretically and numerically using plane wave analysis and a boundary element method. The finite mechanical stiffness of a fracture is modeled as a displacement discontinuity. Analysis for inhomogeneous plane wave propagation along a fracture yields two dispersive equations for symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves. The basic form of these equations are similar to the classic Rayleigh equation for a surface wave on a half-space, except that the displacements and velocities of the symmetric and antisymmetric fracture interface waves are each controlled by a normalized fracture stiffness. For low values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the symmetric and antisymmetric interface waves degenerate to the classic Rayleigh wave on a traction-free surface. For large values of the normalized fracture stiffness, the antisymmetric and symmetric interface waves become a body S wave and a body P wave, respectively, which propagate parallel to the fracture. For intermediate values of the normalized fracture stiffness, both interface waves are dispersive. Numerical modeling performed using a boundary element method demonstrates that a line source generates a P-type interface wave, in addition to the two Rayleigh-type interface waves. The magnitude of the normalized fracture stiffness is observed to control the velocities of the interface waves and the partitioning of seismic energy among the various waves near the fracture.

  11. trans-Chloro(1-naphthyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II)/PCy3 catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl and heteroaryl neopentylglycolboronates with aryl and heteroaryl mesylates and sulfamates at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Leowanawat, Pawaret; Zhang, Na; Safi, Mehtap; Hoffman, David J; Fryberger, Miriam C; George, Aiswaria; Percec, Virgil

    2012-03-16

    trans-Chloro(1-naphthyl)bis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) complex/PCy(3) system has been successfully applied as catalyst for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl and heteroaryl neopentylglycolboronates with aryl and heteroaryl mesylates and sulfamates in THF at room temperature. This cross-coupling reaction tolerates various functional groups, including keto, imino, ester, ether, and cyano. Together with the nickel-catalyzed, one-pot, two-step neopentylglycolborylation, this bench stable and inexpensive Ni(II)-based catalyst can be utilized as an alternative to Ni(COD)(2)/PCy(3) to provide an inexpensive, robust, and convenient synthesis of biaryl and heterobiaryl compounds.

  12. Comparison of five-year outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with left ventricular ejection fractions≤50% versus >50% (from the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2).

    PubMed

    Marui, Akira; Kimura, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Noboru; Mitsudo, Kazuaki; Komiya, Tatsuhiko; Hanyu, Michiya; Shiomi, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shiro; Sakata, Ryuzo

    2014-10-01

    Coronary heart disease is a major risk factor for left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, limited data are available regarding long-term benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the era of drug-eluting stent or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with LV systolic dysfunction with severe coronary artery disease. We identified 3,584 patients with 3-vessel and/or left main disease of 15,939 patients undergoing first myocardial revascularization enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto PCI/CABG Registry Cohort-2. Of them, 2,676 patients had preserved LV systolic function, defined as an LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of >50% and 908 had impaired LV systolic function (LVEF≤50%). In patients with preserved LV function, 5-year outcomes were not different between PCI and CABG regarding propensity score-adjusted risk of all-cause and cardiac deaths. In contrast, in patients with impaired LV systolic function, the risks of all-cause and cardiac deaths after PCI were significantly greater than those after CABG (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 2.14, p=0.03 and hazard ratio 2.39, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 3.98, p<0.01). In both patients with moderate (35%PCI was significantly greater than that after CABG (hazard ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.15 to 4.40, p=0.02 and hazard ratio 4.42, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 13.24, p=0.01). Similarly, the risk of all-cause death tended to be greater after PCI than after CABG in both patients with moderate and severe LV systolic dysfunction without significant interaction (hazard ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 2.56, p=0.07 and hazard ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 2.82, p=0.32; interaction p=0.91). CABG was associated with better 5-year survival outcomes than PCI in patients with impaired LV systolic function (LVEF≤50%) with complex coronary disease in the era

  13. Motexafin gadolinium: gadolinium (III) texaphyrin, gadolinium texaphyrin, Gd-Tex, GdT2B2, PCI 0120.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    Motexafin gadolinium [gadolinium (III) texaphyrin, gadolinium texaphyrin, Gd-Tex, GdT2B2, PCI 0120] is a radiosensitising agent developed for use in cancer therapy. It is cytotoxic in haematological malignancies by selectively localising in cancer cells that have high rates of metabolism. Motexafin gadolinium inhibits cellular respiration resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis. It is being developed by Pharmacyclics in the US. Bulk motexafin gadolinium is supplied to Pharmacyclics by the US company, Celanese, through a manufacturing and supply agreement between the two companies. In June 2003, at the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2003), the importance of having an agent for the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer was highlighted. Results of a phase III study were presented that showed that motexafin gadolinium treatment was associated with a delay in time to neurological and neurocognitive progression in lung cancer patients. This was an important finding, as 46.6% of lung cancer patients already have brain metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, compared with only 2.7% of breast cancer patients. Brain metastases are also often the only site of metastatic disease in patients with lung cancer. In December 2002, Pharmacyclics began a phase III trial of motexafin gadolinium in patients with brain metastases (brain cancer in phase table) from lung cancer in the US, Europe, Canada and Australia. The trial is known as the Study of neurologic progression with Motexafin gadolinium And Radiation Therapy (SMART) and will compare whole-brain irradiation with whole-brain irradiation plus motexafin gadolinium in 550 patients. The primary efficacy endpoint is time to neurological progression and the secondary endpoints are survival and neurocognitive function. In January 2003, the US FDA completed its Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) of the SMART trial with a positive result and by

  14. Fluxionality and Isomerism of the Bis(dihydrogen) Complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2): INS, NMR, and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Venancio; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane; Chaudret, Bruno; Thoburn, John; Ulrich, Stefan; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Eckert, Juergen; Barthelat, Jean-Claude; Hussein, Khansaa; Marsden, Colin J.

    1998-07-13

    To study the fluxionality of the bis(dihydrogen) complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (1), NMR spectra were recorded in Freons (mixture of CDCl(3), CDFCl(2), and CDF(2)Cl). 1 was found to remain fluxional at all temperatures, but the presence of CDCl(3) necessary for its solubilization induces its transformation into, first, RuHCl(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (3) and the new ruthenium(IV) dihydride RuH(2)Cl(2)(PCy(3))(2) (4). 4 is produced selectively in pure CDCl(3) but reacts further to give a mixture of chloro complexes. 4 was isolated from the reaction of 1 with aqueous HCl in Et(2)O and shows a fluxional process attributed to the interconversion between two symmetrical isomers. The activation parameters of this process were obtained by (1)H NMR line shape analysis, as well as those corresponding to the exchange between 3 and free dihydrogen. The fluxionality of the dihydrogen-hydride system is also evident at a much faster time scale than that of NMR studies in the inelastic neutron scattering observations of the rotation of the dihydrogen ligands. The geometries and relative energies of several isomers of complexes 1, 3, and 4 were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods, together with a few coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) calculations. In contrast to what might have been expected, the two hydrides and the two H(2) units of 1 lie in the same plane, due to the attractive "cis effect" created by the hydrides. The two H(2) ligands adopt cis positions in the lowest-energy isomer. Rotation of the two dihydrogen ligands has been analyzed using DFT calculations. A slight preference for a C(2) conrotatory pathway has been found with a calculated barrier in good agreement with the experimental INS value. Two low-energy isomers of 4 have been characterized computationally, both of which have C(2)(v)() symmetry, consistent with the solution NMR spectra.

  15. Capillary migration of microdisks on curved interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Liu, Iris B; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2015-07-01

    The capillary energy landscape for particles on curved fluid interfaces is strongly influenced by the particle wetting conditions. Contact line pinning has now been widely reported for colloidal particles, but its implications in capillary interactions have not been addressed. Here, we present experiment and analysis for disks with pinned contact lines on curved fluid interfaces. In experiment, we study microdisk migration on a host interface with zero mean curvature; the microdisks have contact lines pinned at their sharp edges and are sufficiently small that gravitational effects are negligible. The disks migrate away from planar regions toward regions of steep curvature with capillary energies inferred from the dissipation along particle trajectories which are linear in the deviatoric curvature. We derive the curvature capillary energy for an interface with arbitrary curvature, and discuss each contribution to the expression. By adsorbing to a curved interface, a particle eliminates a patch of fluid interface and perturbs the surrounding interface shape. Analysis predicts that perfectly smooth, circular disks do not migrate, and that nanometric deviations from a planar circular, contact line, like those around a weakly roughened planar disk, will drive migration with linear dependence on deviatoric curvature, in agreement with experiment.

  16. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  17. Metaphors for Interface Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin

    This discussion of the utilization by computer designers and users of metaphors as organizing structures for dealing with the complexity of behavior of human/computer interfaces begins by identifying three types of metaphor that describe various aspects of human-computer interface design, i.e., activity, mode of interaction, and task domain. The…

  18. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, H. Carter

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  19. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  20. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  1. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  2. Plasma DPP4 activity is associated with no-reflow and major bleeding events in Chinese PCI-treated STEMI patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing Wei; Chen, Yun Dai; Chen, Wei Ren; Jing, Jing; Liu, Jie; Yang, Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is an important regulator of incretins and inflammation, and it is involved in the pathophysiological process of myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigated the role of plasma DPP4 activity (DPP4a) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We recruited 747 consecutive PCI-treated STEMI patients from a tertiary referral center from January 2014 to October 2015. The outcomes of interest were the rates of no-reflow, in-hospital major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (iMACCE), in-hospital complications (IHC) and in-hospital major bleeding. The DPP4a was lower in STEMI patients compared with the controls (p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic-regression analyses (adjusted for confounding variables) showed that a 1 U/L increase in DPP4a was associated with an increased rate of no-reflow events (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02–1.11; p < 0.01) and a decreased rate of major bleeding events (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98; p = 0.02). There were no associations between DPP4a and either iMACCE or IHC. In conclusions, high levels of DPP4a are independently associated with an increased rate of no-reflow events and a decreased rate of major bleeding events in PCT-treated STEMI patients. PMID:28000723

  3. The value of Sonoclot detection technology to guide the clinical medication of the perioperative anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing emergent PCI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wu-Xiao; Lai, Chun-Lin; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Ji-Rong; Ji, You-Rui; Wang, Dong-Xia

    2017-06-01

    The value of Sonoclot detection technology to guide the clinical medication of the perioperative anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was estimated. One hundred and twenty-eight patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group with 64 cases in each group. Control group adopted routine blood coagulation indexes, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen and plasma thrombin time, platelet count and platelet aggregation turbidity analysis; observation group adopted Sonoclot detection technology, including activated clotting time, coagulation rate and platelet function. Anticoagulant therapy selected was of low molecular weight heparin calcium perioperatively, intraoperative unfractionated heparin, and clopidogrel (75 mg) combined with aspirin enteric-coated tablets (100 mg) as antiplatelet drugs. The therapy was administered in accordance with blood coagulation results. The blood coagulation time, postoperative creatine kinase isoenzyme MB, cardiac troponin I and B-type natriuretic peptide levels in the observation group are significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05) though the operating time and specifications of the stenting did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). The incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction, microembolism, acute and subacute thrombosis and bleeding events in the observation group are significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the control group, there is no difference in the coagulation indexes of the patients with thrombosis events or bleeding events or no event (P>0.05). Whereas, in the observation group, there is significant difference in coagulation indexes of the patients with thrombosis events or bleeding events or no event (P<0.05). In conclusion, Sonoclot detection technology instructs emergent PCI treatment in AMI

  4. Guidewire-induced coronary artery perforation and tamponade during PCI: in-hospital outcomes and impact on long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Kossidas, Konstantinos; Jimenez, Marcelo; Garratt, Kirk

    2014-08-01

    Guidewire-induced coronary perforation (CP) rate is reported to have increased. We analyzed 23,399 PCIs and identified 73 patients complicated by CP, of which 31 were guidewire induced. Patients were divided into two groups: group A (guidewire-induced CP) and group B (non-guidewire induced CP). Characteristics and outcomes were compared and a multivariate model was developed to evaluate the independent contribution of guidewire-induced CP on mortality. Group A patients had more PCIs on CTO lesions (P=.001). Group A showed a trend for higher tamponade (P=.08). Delayed tamponade occurred only in group A (P<.001). Polytetrafluoroethylene stents were used more often in group B (P<.01). In-hospital mortality was similar between groups (3.2% vs. 7.1%; P=NS). Emergent cardiac surgery was needed in 5.5% of all CP patients and was similar between groups. Group A had a trend for better survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-1.10; P=.07). Tamponade conferred a 3-fold increase in the long-term probability of death (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.07-8.13; P=.04). Guidewire-induced CP during elective PCI had the best survival (HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11-0.87; P=.03). Guidewire-induced CP rate is low. In-hospital mortality was similar for patients with guidewire-induced and non-guidewire induced perforations. Presentation of tamponade was occasionally delayed and associated with increased early and late death. Percutaneous coronary intervention of lesions with an expected increased risk of CP should be undertaken with consideration of the short- and long-term risk, particularly during non-elective PCI since tamponade in this setting increased the risk of late death by nearly 3-fold.

  5. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam–Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  6. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  7. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  8. Immediate and midterm outcomes following primary PCI with bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with ST-segment myocardial infarction: insights from the multicentre "Registro ABSORB Italiano" (RAI registry).

    PubMed

    Ielasi, Alfonso; Cortese, Bernardo; Varricchio, Attilio; Tespili, Maurizio; Sesana, Marco; Pisano, Francesco; Loi, Bruno; Granata, Francesco; Moscarella, Elisabetta; Silva Orrego, Pedro; La Vecchia, Luigi; Steffenino, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    In this multicentre prospective registry we sought to evaluate the immediate and midterm clinical outcomes following single or multiple overlapping bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation in the STEMI setting. A prospective cohort analysis was performed on all STEMI patients who underwent primary PCI with BVS implantation. Between December 2012 and February 2014, 1,232 STEMI patients underwent primary PCI at the participating centres. Of these, 74 (6.0%) received a BVS, 18 (24.3%) of them were multiple and overlapping. Procedural success was obtained in 72 (97.3%) cases without differences between the groups (overlapping BVS 100% vs. single BVS 96.4%, p=0.5). One patient experienced a reinfarction due to subacute BVS thrombosis which was successfully managed with balloon-only PCI while the other patient had a "slow-flow" phenomenon (final TIMI flow 2). At six-month follow-up, two non-fatal MI (2.7%), three target lesion revascularisations (4.1%), and one subacute BVS thrombosis were reported in three patients (one [5.6%] overlapping BVS and two [3.6%] in the single BVS group, p=0.5). All the events were successfully managed with re-PCI. BVS implantation in STEMI patients can be successfully performed with a high procedural success rate and encouraging midterm outcomes. Larger randomised trials and longer follow-up are needed to assess the potential clinical benefit of BVS versus new-generation DES in this setting.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - REMOVAL OF PRECURSORS TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER, PCI MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FYNE PROCESS MODEL ROP 1434 WITH AFC-30 NANOFILTRATON AT BARROW, AK - NSF 00/19/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equipment testing and verification of PCI Membrane Systems Inc. Fyne Process nanofiltraton systems Model ROP 1434 equipped with a C10 module containing AFC-30 tubular membranes was conducted from 3/16-5/11/2000 in Barrow, AS. The source water was a moderate alkalinity, moderately...

  10. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and the Framingham Risk Score in patients undergoing percutaneous intervention over the last 17 years by gender: time-trend analysis from the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Hong, Jee-Young; Li, Jing; Lennon, Ryan J; Lerman, Amir

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to investigate trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles over 17 years in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients at the Mayo Clinic. We performed a time-trend analysis within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry from 1994 to 2010. Results were the incidence and prevalence of CVD risk factors as estimate by the Framingham risk score. Between 1994 and 2010, 25 519 patients underwent a PCI. During the time assessed, the mean age at PCI became older, but the gender distribution did not change. A significant trend towards higher body mass index and more prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes was found over time. The prevalence of current smokers remained unchanged. The prevalence of ever-smokers decreased among males, but increased among females. However, overall CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score (FRS) and 10-year CVD risk significantly decreased. The use of most of medications elevated from 1994 to 2010, except for β-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors decreased after 2007 and 2006 in both baseline and discharge, respectively. Most of the major risk factors improved and the FRS and 10-year CVD risk declined in this population of PCI patients. However, obesity, history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and medication use increased substantially. Improvements to blood pressure and lipid profile management because of medication use may have influenced the positive trends. This study aims to investigate trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles over 17 years in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients at the Mayo Clinic. We performed a time-trend analysis within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry from 1994 to 2010. Results were the incidence and prevalence of CVD risk factors as estimate by the Framingham risk score. Between 1994 and 2010, 25 519 patients underwent a PCI. During the time assessed, the mean age at PCI became older, but the gender

  11. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Strength of Polymer Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-25

    FRACTURE, FATIGUE, LAMINATION, DIFFUSION r c.~wC~&La 1 ~ 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbe.) "- Studies df...nature of diffuse interfaces. Several experimental methods are used to probe the weld structure and compare with theoretical scaling laws. Results are...the polymer chains, the chemical compatibility, and the fractal nature of diffuse interfaces. Several experimental methods are used to probe the weld

  13. Polarizable Ions at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Yan

    2009-04-01

    A nonperturbative theory is presented which allows us to calculate the solvation free energy of polarizable ions near water-vapor and water-oil interfaces. The theory predicts that larger halogen anions are adsorbed at the interface, while the alkali metal cations are repelled from it. The density profiles calculated theoretically are similar to those obtained using molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable force fields.

  14. Data Reorganization Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Data Reorganization Interface Kenneth Cain Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Phone: (978)-967-1645 Email Address: kcain@mc.com Abstract...6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Mercury Computer Systems...18 © 2003 Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. Data Reorganization Interface (DRI) Kenneth Cain Jr. Mercury Computer Systems, Inc. High Performance

  15. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  16. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  17. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  18. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  19. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  20. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bourasseau, E; Malfreyt, P; Ghoufi, A

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  1. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  2. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Blocks Hairy Cell Leukaemia Survival, Proliferation and BCR Signalling: A New Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sivina, Mariela; Kreitman, Robert J.; Arons, Evgeny; Ravandi, Farhad; Burger, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling plays a critical role in the progression of several B-cell malignancies, but its role in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is ambiguous. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key player in BCR signalling, migration and adhesion, can be targeted with ibrutinib, a selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor. We analysed BTK expression and function in HCL and analysed the effects of ibrutinib on HCL cells. We demonstrated uniform BTK protein expression in HCL cells. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited HCL proliferation and cell cycle progression. Accordingly, ibrutinib also reduced HCL cell survival after BCR triggering with anti-immunoglobulins (A, G, and M) and abrogated the activation of kinases downstream of the BCR (PI3K and MAPK). Ibrutinib also inhibited BCR-dependent secretion of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by HCL cells. Interestingly, ibrutinib inhibited CXCL12-induced signalling, a key pathway for bone marrow homing. Collectively, our data support the clinical development of ibrutinib in patients with HCL. PMID:24697238

  3. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  4. Interface Analysis of ID Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Castelle G.; Trimby, Madeline J.

    This chapter considers methods of interface analysis, the stage in the instructional development process that involves the identification, interpretation, and prioritization of essential points of contact among systems and subsystem boundaries. The structure of interfaces, types of interfaces, interface characteristics, and a procedural model for…

  5. Non-coherent energetic interfaces accounting for degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Ali; Steinmann, Paul; Javili, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Within the continuum mechanics framework, there are two main approaches to model interfaces: classical cohesive zone modeling (CZM) and interface elasticity theory. The classical CZM deals with geometrically non-coherent interfaces for which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of traction-separation laws. However, CZM lacks any response related to the stretch of the mid-plane of the interface. This issue becomes problematic particularly at small scales with increasing interface area to bulk volume ratios, where interface elasticity is no longer negligible. The interface elasticity theory, in contrast to CZM, deals with coherent interfaces that are endowed with their own energetic structures, and thus is capable of capturing elastic resistance to tangential stretch. Nonetheless, the interface elasticity theory suffers from the lack of inelastic material response, regardless of the strain level. The objective of this contribution therefore is to introduce a generalized mechanical interface model that couples both the elastic response along the interface and the cohesive response across the interface whereby interface degradation is taken into account. The material degradation of the interface mid-plane is captured by a non-local damage model of integral-type. The out-of-plane decohesion is described by a classical cohesive zone model. These models are then coupled through their corresponding damage variables. The non-linear governing equations and the weak forms thereof are derived. The numerical implementation is carried out using the finite element method and consistent tangents are derived. Finally, a series of numerical examples is studied to provide further insight into the problem and to carefully elucidate key features of the proposed theory.

  6. Shock wave refraction enhancing conditions on an extended interface

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.

    2013-04-15

    We determined the law of shock wave refraction for a class of extended interfaces with continuously variable gradients. When the interface is extended or when the gas parameters vary fast enough, the interface cannot be considered as sharp or smooth and the existing calculation methods cannot be applied. The expressions we derived are general enough to cover all three types of the interface and are valid for any law of continuously varying parameters. We apply the equations to the case of exponentially increasing temperature on the boundary and compare the results for all three types of interfaces. We have demonstrated that the type of interface can increase or inhibit the shock wave refraction. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the results obtained in energy deposition experiments as well as for controlling the shock-plasma interaction in other settings.

  7. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  8. High temperature interface superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, we conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  9. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  10. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  11. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the ransition temperature.

  12. Electronic Structure of Semiconductor Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    no localized Interface states In the thermal gap If all the SI atoms at the Interface are saturated. In a second paper, 13 we showed how localized...OF INTERFACE STATES Various authors3 8 have called attention to the fact that there is often a sharp peak In the density of Si /Si0 2 interface states ...generating bulk amorphous Si clusters from random hard-sphere configuratlons. 7 , 8 Finally, the local electronic density of states near the interface Is

  13. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  14. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  15. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  16. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  17. Virtual interface environment workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. S.; Wenzel, E. M.; Coler, C.; Mcgreevy, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed at NASA's Ames Research Center for use as a multipurpose interface environment. This Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW) system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, research scenarios, and research directions are described.

  18. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  19. Intracoronary adenosine versus intravenous adenosine during primary PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: which one offers better outcomes in terms of microvascular obstruction?

    PubMed

    Doolub, Gemina; Dall'armellina, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Previous studies have suggested that intravenous administration of adenosine improves myocardial reperfusion and reduces infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Intracoronary administration of adenosine has shown conflicting results. Methods. In this retrospective, single-centre, blinded clinical study, we assessed whether selective intracoronary administration of adenosine distal to the occlusion site immediately before initial balloon inflation reduces microvascular obstruction (MVO) as assessed with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using contrast-enhanced sequences, microvascular obstruction (MVO) was calculated. We found 81 patients presenting with STEMI within 12 h from symptom onset who were eligible for the study. In 80/81 (100%) patients receiving the study drug, MRI was performed on Day 1 after primary angioplasty. Results. The prevalence of MVO was reduced in the patients treated with intracoronary adenosine, (45%) compared to 85% of patients who were administered intravenous adenosine (P = 0.0043). We found that the size of MVO in patients receiving intracoronary adenosine was significantly reduced compared to 0.91 g in the intravenous-treated group (P = 0.027). There was no statistically significant difference in TIMI flow and clinical outcomes after primary PCI. Conclusion. We found significant evidence that selective high-dose intracoronary administration of adenosine distal to the occlusion site of the culprit lesion in STEMI patients results in a decrease in microvascular obstruction.

  20. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  1. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria M; Campagne, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/).

  2. Soldier-Computer Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  3. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  4. Interfacing the Digital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Steve

    In the last 5 years, there has been at times heated debate not only about how best to present digital and specifically networked art in an institutional context but also whether to do so at all. Not all of the discussion revolves around issues of physical interfaces to such works, but their onsite presentation is a critical concern for both…

  5. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  6. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  7. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  8. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  9. Semiconductor Oxide Interface States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    essentially coincides. The density of state curves of the interface states based on the Terman method are shown in Fig. 7 for the three conditions: (i...terrestrial applications. A visit was made at the NASA Lewis Research Center with Dr. Brandhorst on August 31, 1979. The PI has attended DOE meetings on

  10. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  11. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  12. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  13. the EXFOR interface

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D. A.

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  14. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  15. Tetranuclear phosphide- and phosphinidene-bridged derivatives of the diphosphenyl complex [Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2):κ(2)-P2Me)(CO)2].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; Lozano, Raquel; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2015-03-02

    Reaction of the title complex with excess [Fe2(CO)9] at room temperature gave the tetranuclear derivative [Fe2Mo2Cp2(μ4-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)9], following from formal insertion of an Fe(CO)3 fragment in the P-P bond of the diphosphenyl ligand with formation of a new heterometallic bond (Mo-Fe = 2.935 (1) Å), and coordination of an Fe(CO)4 fragment through the lone electron pair of the resulting phosphide ligand (P-Fe = 2.359(2) Å). Reactions of the title complex with excess of the tetrahydrofuran (THF) adducts [MLn(THF)] (MLn = MnCp'(CO)2, W(CO)5) led instead to tetranuclear diphosphenyl-bridged complexes [M2Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2):κ(1):κ(1):κ(1)-P2Me)(CO)2L2n] displaying a Mo-Mo double bond (Mo-Mo = 2.760(2) Å when M = W), along with the phosphide- and phosphinidene-bridged complex [Mo2W2Cp2(μ3-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)10], with the latter displaying a Mo-Mo triple bond (Mo-Mo = 2.5542(4) Å) and a trigonal planar phosphide ligand. Reaction of the title complex with excess [Mo(CO)4(THF)2] also resulted in facile P-P bond cleavage of the diphosphenyl ligand to give [Mo4Cp2(μ4-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)9], a cluster built on a Mo3 triangular core bridged by phosphinidene and phosphide ligands, with the latter further coordinated to an exocyclic Mo(CO)5 fragment. The related Mo2W2 complex [Mo2W2Cp2(μ3-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)9] could be rationally synthesized upon reaction of the trinuclear cluster [Mo2WCp2(μ3-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)6] with the adduct [W(CO)5(THF)]. The title complex reacted photochemically with [M2(CO)10] (M = Mn, Re) to give the 66-electron tetranuclear derivatives [M2Mo2Cp2(μ4-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ3-PMe)(CO)9], after formation of a new Mo-M bond (Mo-Mn = 2.9988(7) Å, Mo-Re = 3.1003(4) Å) and cleavage of the diphosphenyl P-P bond. In contrast, its room-temperature reaction with [Co2(CO)8] gave the 64-electron square-planar cluster [Co2Mo2Cp2(μ4-P)(μ-PCy2)(μ4-PMe)(μ-CO)(CO)6] resulting from formation of two new Mo-Co bonds (Mo-Co = 2

  16. Foreword: Quasicrystals at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournée, Vincent; Ledieu, Julian; Thiel, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    The term 'quasicrystals' stands for quasiperiodic crystals and by no means signifies that they are imperfect crystals. Quasicrystals represent a well-ordered state of matter just like periodic crystals, characterized by diffraction peaks as sharp as those for nearly perfect crystals such as silicon. But their long range order is aperiodic, and therefore they cannot be described by the periodic repetition of a small unit cell like normal crystals. Instead, quasiperiodic structures can be described as the three-dimensional restriction of a periodic structure embedded in a hyperspace of dimension N > 3. For example, a six-dimensional cubic lattice is used to generate the icosahedral quasilattice in three-dimensions. This is a general property of quasiperiodic functions, an archetype being the function f(x) = cos(x) + cos(√2x), which is the sum of two periodic functions with incommensurate periods. This function can be regarded as the restriction along the line with irrational slope y = √2x of the function F(x, y) = cos(x) + cos(y), which is periodic in the (x, y) plan. Quasicrystalline materials were discovered 25 years ago by D Shechtman et al in rapidly solidified Al-Mn alloys. Many quasicrystals have been identified since then in binary and ternary systems. Most of them present non-crystallographic rotational symmetry like five-fold or ten-fold axes. Interest in this new class of materials was further driven by their potentially useful physical properties, either in the form of functional coatings or as reinforcement particle in composites. These practical aspects in turn raised fundamental questions about the nature of interfaces between periodic and quasiperiodic materials. Interfaces are regions of high energy compared to the bulk, where atomic positions need to be adjusted on both sides of the interface to accommodate the two different lattices. How to describe interfaces and how nature minimizes the interface energy between a periodic and a quasiperiodic

  17. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  18. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  19. A Concept-Centric Framework for Building Natural Language Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio; Hasegawa, Yuji; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    Natural language interfaces are expected to come into practical use in many situations. It is, however, not practical to expect to achieve a universal interface because language use is so diverse. To that end, not only advancements in speech and language technologies but also well-designed development frameworks are required so that developers can build domain-specific interfaces rapidly and easily. This paper proposes KNOLU, a framework for building natural language interfaces of a broad range of applications. Developers using this framework can easily build an interface capable of understanding subsets of natural language expressions just by providing an ontology (a concept hierarchy with semantic frames and a lexicon), an onomasticon (a set of instances and their names) and API functions that provide procedural knowledge required to connect the interface to a target application. To develop an interface using KNOLU, first developers define a concept hierarchy for a target domain. Then they provide other declarative and procedural knowledge components with these knowledge components asscicated to the hierarchy. This developmental flow affords an unobstructed view both for development and maintanance. KNOLU uses an existing general-purpose parser and requires neither grammar rules nor expression patterns. It does not require rules to generate semantic interpretations from parsing results, either. Therefore, developers can build an interface without deep knowledge and experience of natural language processing. We applied KNOLU to two applications and confirmed the effectiveness.

  20. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  1. Randomized comparison of new dual-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, prasugrel) and triple-antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazol) using P2Y12 point-of-care assay in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae-Hyun; Jin, Han-Young; Choi, Kyu-Nam; Do, Ungjeong; Kim, Hyung Jun; Chung, Sang-Ryul; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Jang, Jae-Sik; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2013-09-20

    Both new dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT; aspirin and prasugrel) and triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT; aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol) are more potent than classic DAT (aspirin and clopidogrel). We compared the antiplatelet efficacy between new DAT and TAT in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary coronary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Forty patients who were eligible for primary PCI were prospectively randomized to DAT group (n=20) or TAT group (n=20) immediately after hospital arrival. The primary end point was P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) determined with the VerifyNow P2Y12 point-of-care assay at the time of discharge. PRU value at discharge was significantly lower in patients receiving DAT compared with that of TAT (84.5 ± 44.7 vs. 128.4 ± 74.9, p=0.032). Percent platelet inhibition was significantly higher for DAT compared with TAT at discharge (72.1 ± 12.2 vs. 57.5 ± 23.5, p=0.020). Inter-patient variability of PRU values at discharge was significantly smaller in patient taking DAT compared with TAT (p=0.026). A new DAT is more potent antiplatelet therapy than TAT in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunochemistry at interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, H; Stenberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The immunochemistry of antibody binding to solid-phase immobilized antigen is reviewed. Experimental data are compared with different theoretical models of reaction mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces. It was found that reactions at the solid-liquid interface can become limited by the diffusion rate due to depletion of reactants close to the surface, even though the intrinsic bimolecular reaction at the surface is reaction-rate limited. The forward reaction-rate constant decreases with increasing concentration of bound antibodies at the surface, and when not limited by diffusion the forward reaction rate can be more than 1000-fold slower than the corresponding reaction in a liquid solution. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. The dissociation of bound antibodies is a slow process at solid phases. The antigen-antibody complexes formed are practically irreversible. Some evidence is presented which indicates that the stability of these complexes can be due to attractive lateral interactions between bound antibodies. PMID:2649437

  3. Multifunctional microcontrollable interface module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Mark B.; Zavracky, Paul M.; Rensing, Noa M.; Crawford, J.; Hockman, Angela H.; Aquilino, P. D.; Girolamo, Henry J.

    2001-08-01

    This paper reports the development of a complete eyeglass- mounted computer interface system including display, camera and audio subsystems. The display system provides an SVGA image with a 20 degree horizontal field of view. The camera system has been optimized for face recognition and provides a 19 degree horizontal field of view. A microphone and built-in pre-amp optimized for voice recognition and a speaker on an articulated arm are included for audio. An important feature of the system is a high degree of adjustability and reconfigurability. The system has been developed for testing by the Military Police, in a complete system comprising the eyeglass-mounted interface, a wearable computer, and an RF link. Details of the design, construction, and performance of the eyeglass-based system are discussed.

  4. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  5. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  6. Interface Board Connector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    circuit board components are generally soldered. Typically, a printed circuit board is mechanically supported by a dielectric base plate . The printed...transmission line on balun board 1. [0032] Element seat plates 12 of connectors 10 are supported by dielectric 14 and prior art partition...1. As noted previously with respect to FIG. 2, the configuration of plate 12 depends on the architecture of the interface board . For illustrative

  7. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  8. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  9. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  10. Ground Station Digital Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    reduction equipment. Aircraft evaluation studies involve the measurement of many physical quantities. Some quantities such as vibration displacement...Panel Components 28 3.11 Computer Interrupt Controller 28 4. PERFORMANCE OF INTERFACE UNIT 28 5. REVIEW OF DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM 29 6. SUMMARY 30...requirement for aircraft performance studies. In a system for airborne data 1ogging- 2 adopted at these laboratories the acquired data are stored on magnetic

  11. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependant FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers if contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work. 2 figs.

  12. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  13. User Interface Software Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    97. 19. Mark A. Flecchia and R. Daniel Bergeron. Specifying Complex Dialogs in ALGAE. Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI+GI󈨛, Toronto, Ont...Spreadsheet Model. Tech. Rept. GIT-GVU-93-20, Georgia Tech Graphics, Visualization and Usability Center, May, 1993. 35. Daniel H.H. Ingalls. "I’he Smalltalk...Interactive Graphical Applications". Comm. ACM 36,4 (April 1993), 41-55. User Interface Software Tools -39 38. Anthony Karrer and Walt Scacchi . Requirements

  14. Semiconductor Properties Near Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-31

    electron multi- plication with a scintillation counter. This detECtor , described in the appendix, provides very low background without sacrifice of...k ADA095 858 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES F/G 20/12I SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES NEAR INTERFACES.(U) JUL GO0 DB WITTRY. S Y YIN, F GUO...improvements in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyzer; in the course of the investioations in improved inn detector was developed and a microcomrnu*e

  15. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  16. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the transition temperature. During the next project period the P.I. proposes to (1) extend the variable frequency FMR measurements to low temperature, where extremely large interface anisotropies are known to obtain in Ni/Mo and Ni/V and are proposed to exist in Ni/W; (2) obtain accurate dc anisotropies via a novel, variable temperature torque magnetometer currently under construction; (3) expand upon his initial findings in Fe/Cu multilayer investigations; (4) begin anisotropy investigations on Co/Ag and CoCr/Ag multilayers where the easy magnetization direction depends upon the Cr concentration; (4) make and characterize Bi based superconductors according to resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power and construct YBaCuO based superconducting loop-gap'' resonators for use in his magnetic resonance work.

  17. User Interface Design Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    the beginning of our research) led us to Glade (glade.gnome.org), a cross- platform GUI builder platform that saves its descriptive files in XML format...Major consideration was initially given to Java Netbeans and Java Eclipse, and later extended to Glade .) The saved XML files fully describe... Glade -designed user interfaces. Glade libraries are available for numerous programming languages on many computing platforms. This makes the choice of

  18. Optical Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Melissa R.; Cardin, Jessica A.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical actuators and indicators have changed the landscape of neuroscience, enabling targetable control and readout of specific components of intact neural circuits in behaving animals. Here, we review the development of optical neural interfaces, focusing on hardware designed for optical control of neural activity, integrated optical control and electrical readout, and optical readout of population and single-cell neural activity in freely moving mammals. PMID:25014785

  19. Systems interface biology.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-10-22

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines.

  20. Rationale and design of the randomized, double-blind trial testing INtraveNous and Oral administration of elinogrel, a selective and reversible P2Y(12)-receptor inhibitor, versus clopidogrel to eVAluate Tolerability and Efficacy in nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Interventions patients (INNOVATE-PCI).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Sergio; Rao, Sunil V; Harrington, Robert A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Gibson, C Michael; Roe, Matthew T; Kochman, Janusz; Huber, Kurt; Zeymer, Uwe; Madan, Mina; Gretler, Daniel D; McClure, Matthew W; Paynter, Gayle E; Thompson, Vivian; Welsh, Robert C

    2010-07-01

    Despite current dual-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, adverse clinical events continue to occur during and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The failure of clopidogrel to provide optimal protection may be related to delayed onset of action, interpatient variability in its effect, and an insufficient level of platelet inhibition. Furthermore, the irreversible binding of clopidogrel to the P2Y(12) receptor for the life span of the platelet is associated with increased bleeding risk especially during urgent or emergency surgery. Novel antiplatelet agents are required to improve management of patients undergoing PCI. Elinogrel is a potent, direct-acting (ie, non-prodrug), selective, competitive, and reversible P2Y(12) inhibitor available in both intravenous and oral formulations. The INNOVATE-PCI study is a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, clopidogrel-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of this novel antiplatelet agent in patients undergoing nonurgent PCI.

  1. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  2. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  3. ADAM -- Interface Module Reference Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, A. J.; Kelly, B. D.; Wright, S. L.

    ADAM Interface Modules provide an interface between ADAM application programs and the rest of the system. This document describes in detail the facilities available with ADAM Interface Modules and the rules for using them. It is intended as a reference manual and should shed light on some of the finer points of the ADAM parameter system. Readers requiring an introduction to Interface Modules should read SG/4.

  4. Defining predictive values using three different platelet function tests for CYP2C19 phenotype status on maintenance dual antiplatelet therapy after PCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Zhe; Kim, Moo Hyun; Han, Jin-Yeong; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Published data suggests that the presence of CYP2C19*2 or *3 loss of function (LOF) alleles is indicative of increased platelet aggregation and a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events after clopidogrel administration. We sought to determine cut-off values using three different assays for prediction of the CYP2C19 phenotype in Korean percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. We enrolled 244 patients with drug-eluting stent implantation who were receiving clopidogrel and aspirin maintenance therapy for one month or more. Platelet reactivity was assessed with light transmittance aggregometry (LTA), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay (VN). The CYP2C19 genotype was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and snapshot method. The frequency of CYP2C19 LOF allele carriers was 58.6%. The cut-off values from LTA, MEA and VerifyNow for the identification of LOF allele carriers were as follows: 10 µM ADP-induced LTA ≥ 48 %, VN>242 PRU and MEA ≥ 37 U. Between the three tests, correlation was higher between LTA vs. VN assays (r=0.69) and LTA vs. MEA (r=0.56), with moderate agreement (κ=0.46 and κ=0.46), but between VN assay and MEA, both devices using whole blood showed a lower correlation (r=0.42) and agreement (κ=0.3). Our results provide guidance regarding cut-off levels for LTA, VerifyNow and MEA assays to detect the CYP2C19 LOF allele in patients during dual antiplatelet maintenance therapy.

  5. Prasugrel vs clopidogrel in cardiogenic shock patients undergoing primary PCI for acute myocardial infarction. Results of the ISAR-SHOCK registry.

    PubMed

    Orban, M; Mayer, K; Morath, T; Bernlochner, I; Hadamitzky, M; Braun, S; Schulz, S; Hoppmann, P; Hausleiter, J; Tiroch, K; Mehilli, J; Schunkert, H; Massberg, S; Laugwitz, K-L; Sibbing, D; Kastrati, A

    2014-12-01

    There is limited clinical data comparing different P2Y12-receptor inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. The aim of the ISAR-SHOCK registry was to compare the clinical outcome of patients treated with clopidogrel vs prasugrel in this setting. Patients (n=145) with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock and undergoing primary PCI in two centres (Deutsches Herzzentrum München and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich) between January 2009 and May 2012 were included in this registry. The use of prasugrel for patients within this registry reflected co-morbidities and platelet function testing results during the acute AMI phase. Early outcome at 30-days was reported with regard to all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding events. With regard to antiplatelet treatment in the 145 cardiogenic shock patients, 50 patients were initially treated or immediately switched to prasugrel while 95 patients were treated with clopidogrel. All-cause mortality was lower in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients (30 % vs 50.5%, HR: 0.51, 95% CI [0.29-0.92], p=0.025). No significant differences in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients were observed for the occurrence of MI (p=0.233), ST (p=0.306) or TIMI major bleedings (p=0.571). Results of the ISAR-SHOCK registry suggest that the use of prasugrel in AMI patients complicated by cardiogenic shock might be associated with a lower mortality risk as compared to clopidogrel therapy without increasing the risk of bleeding. These findings, however, need confirmation from specifically designed randomised studies in this high-risk cohort of patients.

  6. A comparative cohort study on personalised antiplatelet therapy in PCI-treated patients with high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. Results of the ISAR-HPR registry.

    PubMed

    Mayer, K; Schulz, S; Bernlochner, I; Morath, T; Braun, S; Hausleiter, J; Massberg, S; Schunkert, H; Laugwitz, K-L; Kastrati, A; Sibbing, D

    2014-08-01

    In clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), high platelet reactivity (HPR) is associated with a higher risk for thrombotic events including stent thrombosis (ST). A personalised therapy with selective intensification of treatment may improve HPR patients´ outcome in this setting although recent randomised trials are against this hypothesis. The aim of the ISAR-HPR registry was to assess whether clopidogrel-treated HPR patients benefit from selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor inhibition. For the registry, outcomes were compared between two cohorts. We identified 428 clopidogrel treated HPR patients (AU x min ≥468 on the Multiplate analyser) between 2007-2008 (historical control cohort) without a change of treatment based on platelet function (PF) testing results. Between 2009-2011, we identified 571 HPR patients (guided therapy cohort) and used this information for guidance and selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor directed treatment (reloading with clopidogrel, switch to prasugrel, re-testing) in a setting of routine PF testing. The primary outcome was the composite of death from any cause or ST after 30 days. Major bleeding according to TIMI criteria was also monitored. The incidence of the primary outcome was significantly lower in the guided vs the control cohort (7 [1.2%] vs 16 [3.7%] events; HR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.79; p=0.009). The incidence of major bleeding was numerically but not statistically higher in the guided vs the control cohort (1.9 vs 0.7%; p=0.10). In conclusion, present findings are in support for a PF testing guided antiplatelet therapy with selective intensification of P2Y12 receptor inhibition. The issue of personalised antiplatelet treatment warrants further investigation in randomized and well-controlled clinical trials.

  7. Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Transient and Persistent No-Reflow Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI): A Multi-Center Australian Registry.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Stavroula; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Duffy, Stephen J; Brennan, Angela L; Ajani, Andrew E; Clark, David J; Reid, Christopher M; Freeman, Melanie; Sebastian, Martin; Selkrig, Laura; Yudi, Matias B; Noaman, Samer Q; Chan, William

    2017-10-03

    To evaluate long-term outcomes of transient versus persistent no-reflow. 17,547 patients with normal flow post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were compared to 590 patients (3.2%) with transient no-reflow and 144 patients (0.8%) with persistent no-reflow. Long-term all-cause mortality was obtained by linkage with the National Death Index (NDI). No-reflow patients were more likely to have presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) or cardiogenic shock (all p<0.01). Long-term NDI-linked all-cause mortality was highest in patients with persistent no-reflow (31%) followed by transient no-reflow (22%) and normal flow (14%) over a median follow-up of 5.2, 5.5 and 4.5 years respectively (all p<0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates demonstrated a graded increase in all-cause mortality from normal flow, to transient to persistent no-reflow (p<0.01), with the highest mortality occurring early (<30 days) in the persistent no-reflow group (p<0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modelling identified glomerular filtration rate <30mL/min, ejection fraction <30%, persistent no-reflow and transient no-reflow as independent predictors of increased hazard for all-cause mortality (all p<0.05). Transient and persistent no-reflow were associated with step-wise reduction in long-term survival. The presence of even transient no-reflow appears to be an important predictor of adverse long-term outcome.

  8. Triple Antithrombotic Therapy after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) in Patients with Indication for Oral Anticoagulation: Data from a Single Center Registry

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Dawid L.; Kaiser, Michael; Hehrlein, Christoph; Bode, Christoph; Ahrens, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy consisting of a dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) and oral anti-coagulation (OAC) with a vitamin k antagonist is often referred to as triple therapy. This combined anticoagulation is applied in patients undergoing coronary artery stent implantation while also having an indication for OAC. Triple therapy increases the risk for bleeding events compared to either DAPT or OAC alone and thereby might be associated with adverse outcomes. Clinical data on the frequency of bleeding events in patients on triple therapy from clinical trials derives from pre-selected patients and may differ from the real world patients. We report data on patient characteristics and bleeding incidence of patients dismissed on triple therapy from a single university hospital. Within the time span from January 2000 to December 2012, we identified a total of 213 patients undergoing PCI who were prescribed a triple therapy for at least 4 weeks (representing 0.86% of all patients treated). The usage of triple therapy significantly increased over the observed time period. The average CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 3.1 ± 1.1 with an average HAS-BLED score of 2.5 ± 0.86 representing a high-risk group for thromboembolic events as well as considerable risk for bleeding events. An on-treatment bleeding incidence of 9.4% was detected, with gastrointestinal and airway bleeding being the most frequent (5.1% and 1.4%, respectively). This is consistent with data from clinical trials and confirms the high risk of bleeding in patients on DAPT plus OAC. 29.0% of all patients receiving triple therapy had an indication for OAC other than non-valvular atrial fibrillation. This substantial patient group is underrepresented by clinical trials and needs further attention. PMID:26439131

  9. Impact of left ventricular remodeling on ventricular repolarization and heart rate variability in patients after myocardial infarction treated with primary PCI: prospective 6 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Szydlo, Krzysztof; Wita, Krystian; Trusz-Gluza, Maria; Urbanczyk, Dagmara; Filipecki, Artur; Orszulak, Witold; Tabor, Zbigniew; Krauze, Jolanta; Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Myszor, Jaroslaw; Turski, Maciej; Kolasa, Jaroslaw; Szczogiel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The relation between postinfarction left ventricle remodeling (LVR), autonomic nervous system and repolarization process is unclear. Purpose of the study was to assess the influence of LVR on the early (QTpeak) and late (TpeakTend) repolarization periods in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) treated with primary PCI. The day-to-night differences of repolarization parameters and the relation between QT and heart rate variability (HRV) indices, as well left ventricle function were also assessed. The study cohort of 104 pts was examined 6 months after acute MI. HRV and QT indices (corrected to the heart rate) were obtained from the entire 24-hour Holter recording, daytime and nighttime periods. LVR was found in 33 patients (31.7%). The study groups (LVR+ vs LVR-) did not differ in age, the extent of coronary artery lesions and treatment. Left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was lower (38%+/- 11% vs 55%+/- 11%, P < 0.001), both QTc (443 +/- 26 ms vs 420 +/- 20 ms, P < 0.001) and TpeakTendc (98 +/- 11 ms vs 84 +/- 12 ms, P < 0.005) were longer in LVR + patients, with no differences for QTpeakc. Trends toward lower values of time-domain (SDRR, rMSSD) HRV parameters were found in LVR+ pts. Day-to-night difference was observed only for SDRR, more marked in LVR-group. Remarkable relations between delta LVEF (6 months minus baseline), delta LVEDV and TpeakTendc were found, with no such relationships for QTpeakc. The patients with LVR have longer repolarization time, especially the late phase-TpeakTend, which represents transmural dispersion of repolarization. Its prolongation seems to be related to local attributes of myocardium and global function of the left ventricle but unrelated to the autonomic nervous influences. Remodeling with moderate LV systolic dysfunction is associated with insignificant decrease in HRV indices and preserved circadian variability.

  10. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  11. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces. PMID:7479721

  12. User interfaces for voice applications.

    PubMed

    Kamm, C

    1995-10-24

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  13. User Interfaces for Voice Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Candace

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the aspects of task requirements, user expectations, and technological capabilities that influence the design of a voice interface and then identifies several components of user interfaces that are particularly critical in successful voice applications. Examples from several applications are provided to demonstrate how these components are used to produce effective voice interfaces.

  14. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  15. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  16. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  17. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  18. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  19. Single-interface Casimir torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-10-01

    A different type of Casimir-type interaction is theoretically predicted: a single-interface torque at a junction of an anisotropic material and a vacuum or another material system. The torque acts to reorient the polarizable microscopic units of the involved materials near the interface, and thus to change the internal structure of the materials. The single-interface torque depends on the zero-point energy of the interface localized and extended modes. Our theory demonstrates that the single-interface torque is essential to understand the Casimir physics of material systems with anisotropic elements and may influence the orientation of the director of nematic liquid crystals.

  20. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  1. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  2. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé's parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms.

  3. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  4. Films of bacteria at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Liana; Molaei, Mehdi; Niepa, Tagbo H R; Lee, Daeyeon; Leheny, Robert L; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are often discussed as active colloids, self-propelled organisms whose collective motion can be studied in the context of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In such studies, the behavior of bacteria confined to interfaces or in the proximity of an interface plays an important role. For instance, many studies have probed collective behavior of bacteria in quasi two-dimensional systems such as soap films. Since fluid interfaces can adsorb surfactants and other materials, the stress and velocity boundary conditions at interfaces can alter bacteria motion; hydrodynamic studies of interfaces with differing boundary conditions are reviewed. Also, bacteria in bulk can become trapped at or near fluid interfaces, where they colonize and form structures comprising secretions like exopolysaccharides, surfactants, living and dead bacteria, thereby creating Films of Bacteria at Interfaces (FBI). The formation of FBI is discussed at air-water, oil-water, and water-water interfaces, with an emphasis on film mechanics, and with some allusion to genetic functions guiding bacteria to restructure fluid interfaces. At air-water interfaces, bacteria form pellicles or interfacial biofilms. Studies are reviewed that reveal that pellicle material properties differ for different strains of bacteria, and that pellicle physicochemistry can act as a feedback mechanism to regulate film formation. At oil-water interfaces, a range of FBI form, depending on bacteria strain. Some bacteria-laden interfaces age from an initial active film, with dynamics dominated by motile bacteria, through viscoelastic states, to form an elastic film. Others remain active with no evidence of elastic film formation even at significant interface ages. Finally, bacteria can adhere to and colonize ultra-low surface tension interfaces such as aqueous-aqueous systems common in food industries. Relevant literature is reviewed, and areas of interest for potential application are discussed, ranging from health

  5. Dynamics of curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero, Carlos

    2009-08-15

    Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces are studied by means of stochastic partial differential equations. These are derived as counterparts of linear planar equations on a curved geometry after a reparametrization invariance principle has been applied. We examine differences and similarities with the classical planar equations. Some characteristic features are the loss of correlation through time and a particular behavior of the average fluctuations. Dependence on the metric is also explored. The diffusive model that propagates correlations ballistically in the planar situation is particularly interesting, as this propagation becomes nonuniversal in the new regime.

  6. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1986-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture has been developed for use as a multipurpose interface environment. The system provides a multisensory, interactive display environment in which a user can virtually explore a 360-degree synthesized or remotely sensed environment and can viscerally interact with its components. Primary applications of the system are in telerobotics, management of large-scale integrated information systems, and human factors research. System configuration, application scenarios, and research directions are described.

  7. Bidirectional Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Matthew R.; Thakor, Nitish V.

    2016-01-01

    A bidirectional neural interface is a device that transfers information into and out of the nervous system. This class of devices has potential to improve treatment and therapy in several patient populations. Progress in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) has advanced the design of complex integrated circuits. System-on-chip (SoC) devices are capable of recording neural electrical activity and altering natural activity with electrical stimulation. Often, these devices include wireless powering and telemetry functions. This review presents the state of the art of bidirectional circuits as applied to neuroprosthetic, neurorepair, and neurotherapeutic systems. PMID:26753776

  8. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  9. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  10. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  11. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  12. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  13. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  14. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  15. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, Maria E.; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the LixSi-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries.

  16. Ion-specific induced fluctuations and free energetics of aqueous protein hydrophobic interfaces: toward connecting to specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cui, Di; Ou, Shuching; Peters, Eric; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-05-01

    We explore anion-induced interface fluctuations near protein-water interfaces using coarse-grained representations of interfaces as proposed by Willard and Chandler ( J. Phys. Chem. B 2010 , 114 , 1954 - 1958 ). We use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics to compute potentials of mean force along a reaction coordinate bridging the state where the anion is fully solvated and one where it is biased via harmonic restraints to remain at the protein-water interface. Specifically, we focus on fluctuations of an interface between water and a hydrophobic region of hydrophobin-II (HFBII), a 71 amino acid residue protein expressed by filamentous fungi and known for its ability to form hydrophobically mediated self-assemblies at interfaces such as a water/air interface. We consider the anions chloride and iodide that have been shown previously by simulations as displaying specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces. We find that as in the case of a pure liquid-vapor interface, at the hydrophobic protein-water interface, the larger, less charge-dense iodide anion displays a marginal interfacial stability compared with that of the smaller, more charge-dense chloride anion. Furthermore, consistent with the results at aqueous liquid-vapor interfaces, we find that iodide induces larger fluctuations of the protein-water interface than chloride.

  17. Ion-Specific Induced Fluctuations and Free Energetics of Aqueous Protein Hydrophobic Interfaces: Toward Connecting to Specific-Ion Behaviors at Aqueous Liquid–Vapor Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We explore anion-induced interface fluctuations near protein–water interfaces using coarse-grained representations of interfaces as proposed by Willard and Chandler (J. Phys. Chem. B2010, 114, 1954−195820055377). We use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics to compute potentials of mean force along a reaction coordinate bridging the state where the anion is fully solvated and one where it is biased via harmonic restraints to remain at the protein–water interface. Specifically, we focus on fluctuations of an interface between water and a hydrophobic region of hydrophobin-II (HFBII), a 71 amino acid residue protein expressed by filamentous fungi and known for its ability to form hydrophobically mediated self-assemblies at interfaces such as a water/air interface. We consider the anions chloride and iodide that have been shown previously by simulations as displaying specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces. We find that as in the case of a pure liquid–vapor interface, at the hydrophobic protein–water interface, the larger, less charge-dense iodide anion displays a marginal interfacial stability compared with that of the smaller, more charge-dense chloride anion. Furthermore, consistent with the results at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces, we find that iodide induces larger fluctuations of the protein–water interface than chloride. PMID:24701961

  18. Comparison of outcomes after everolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients in the Tokyo-MD PCI study.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuji; Ashikaga, Takashi; Sasaoka, Taro; Kurihara, Ken; Yoshikawa, Syunji; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in those requiring insulin for treatment, is known to be a risk factor for adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents. However, the role of DM in patients treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) is less known. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate the outcomes of treatment with EES for DM patients both requiring and not requiring insulin, and to compare them with non-DM patients. Of patients treated with EES in the Tokyo-MD PCI study, an all-comer, multicenter, observational cohort study, we identified 199 insulin-requiring diabetics (IRDM), 575 non-insulin requiring diabetics (NIRDM), and 1092 non-diabetics (non-DM). The main outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and target lesion revascularization (TLR). The cumulative incidence of MACE and TLR was significantly greater in patients with IRDM than non-DM [MACE: hazard ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.90, p<0.01; TLR: hazard ratio 3.43, 2.07-5.55, p<0.0001] according to univariate Cox proportional hazards model. After adjusting for confounders using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, the risk of IRDM versus non-DM for TLR remained significant (hazard ratio 1.92, 1.10-3.29, p=0.02). The incidence of TLR in NIRDM was slightly greater than that in non-DM according to univariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.65, 1.07-2.54, p=0.02). However, the risk was not statistically different in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.52, 0.97-2.35, p=0.06). In this all-comer, observational study, the risk of TLR was greater in IRDM compared with non-DM after EES implantation, while the increased risk for TLR from NIRDM did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  20. Amino acid residue doublet propensity in the protein–RNA interface and its application to RNA interface prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oanh T. P.; Yura, Kei; Go, Nobuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Protein–RNA interactions play essential roles in a number of regulatory mechanisms for gene expression such as RNA splicing, transport, translation and post-transcriptional control. As the number of available protein–RNA complex 3D structures has increased, it is now possible to statistically examine protein–RNA interactions based on 3D structures. We performed computational analyses of 86 representative protein–RNA complexes retrieved from the Protein Data Bank. Interface residue propensity, a measure of the relative importance of different amino acid residues in the RNA interface, was calculated for each amino acid residue type (residue singlet interface propensity). In addition to the residue singlet propensity, we introduce a new residue-based propensity, which gives a measure of residue pairing preferences in the RNA interface of a protein (residue doublet interface propensity). The residue doublet interface propensity contains much more information than the sum of two singlet propensities alone. The prediction of the RNA interface using the two types of propensities plus a position-specific multiple sequence profile can achieve a specificity of about 80%. The prediction method was then applied to the 3D structure of two mRNA export factors, TAP (Mex67) and UAP56 (Sub2). The prediction enables us to point out candidate RNA interfaces, part of which are consistent with previous experimental studies and may contribute to elucidation of atomic mechanisms of mRNA export. PMID:17130160

  1. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  2. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  3. Reaction dynamics at liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-04-01

    The liquid interface is a narrow, highly anisotropic region, characterized by rapidly varying density, polarity, and molecular structure. I review several aspects of interfacial solvation and show how these affect reactivity at liquid/liquid interfaces. I specifically consider ion transfer, electron transfer, and SN2 reactions, showing that solvent effects on these reactions can be understood by examining the unique structure and dynamics of the liquid interface region.

  4. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  5. DETERMINING CORRECT LOCATION OF INTERFACES IN X-RAY IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B

    2004-09-28

    X-ray phase-contrast enhanced imaging enables characterization of objects otherwise transparent to x-rays. Such imaging is accomplished with a point-source or plane-wave x-rays and in the simplest implementation takes advantage of the refraction of x-rays at interfaces to provide contrast. The refraction of x-rays, while small, can lead to measurable displacements of interfaces in the image plane. A simple approximate analytical expression is obtained for the required correction. The resulting expression is verified with a full raytrace calculation.

  6. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  7. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  8. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  9. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  10. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  11. Genetic Polymorphism of CYP2C19 and Inhibitory Effects of Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel Towards Post-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Platelet Aggregation in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Yang, Xinchun; Bian, Suyan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to observe the effects of genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 on inhibitory effects of ticagrelor (Tic) and clopidogrel (Clo) towards post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) platelet aggregation (IPA) and major cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Material/Methods From August 2013 to March 2014, 166 patients with ACS undergoing PCI were selected. The patients were randomly grouped into the Tic group and the Clo group. IPA was detected by thromboelastography (TEG) at 1 week after taking the pills. Genotyping of CYP2C19 gene was determined by analysis of gene sequence detection. Patients were followed up for 1 month and MACE was observed. Results The total IPA in the Clo group was significantly increased compared with the Tic group (P<0.05). The IPAs in the 3 subgroups of Clo group were all significantly increased compared with the 3 subgroups of the Tic group (all P<0.05). MACE was not significantly different between Clo and Tic groups (P>0.05). MACE had no significant difference among the 3 subgroups of the Tic group (P>0.05). MACE in the low metabolism subgroup of the Clo group was significantly increased compared with the fast metabolism subgroup and middle metabolism subgroup of Clo group (P<0.05). MACE was not significant different between the fast metabolism subgroup and the middle metabolism subgroup of the Clo group (P>0.05). MACE in the low metabolism subgroup of the Tic group was significantly decreased compared with the low metabolism subgroup of the Clo group (P<0.05). Conclusions Ticagrelor has a better effect on inhibition platelet aggregation than Clopidogrel in ACS patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27977637

  12. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  13. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  14. Interfacing Ada and other languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul; West, Brian

    1986-01-01

    Interfacing two separately developed compilers is a complex task. The complexity arises because few design standards exist for compiler development. This, coupled with the many complicated design decisions inherent in compiler construction, usually guarantees noncompatibility. The interface subroutine which would link the two different run time environments would resolve as many of the dissimilarities as possible. The differences that could not be resolved would be responsible for the restrictions placed on the interface. Albeit restrictions would exist, the resulting interface may be well worthwhile.

  15. The Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, Dayo O.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Harris, James P.; Burrell, Justin C.; Petrov, Dmitriy; Chen, H. Isaac; Wolf, John A.; Cullen, D. Kacy

    2017-01-01

    The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research. Finally, we outline emerging research trends in an effort to explore the potential next generation of neuroprosthetic interfaces. PMID:27652455

  16. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  17. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  18. Interfaces in perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiangjian; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

    2015-06-03

    The interfacial atomic and electronic structures, charge transfer processes, and interface engineering in perovskite solar cells are discussed in this review. An effective heterojunction is found to exist at the window/perovskite absorber interface, contributing to the relatively fast extraction of free electrons. Moreover, the high photovoltage in this cell can be attributed to slow interfacial charge recombination due to the outstanding material and interfacial electronic properties. However, some fundamental questions including the interfacial atomic and electronic structures and the interface stability need to be further clarified. Designing and engineering the interfaces are also important for the next-stage development of this cell.

  19. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-01

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  20. Major bleeding events in Jordanian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): Incidence, associated factors, impact on prognosis, and predictability of the CRUSADE bleeding risk score. Results from the First Jordanian PCR (PCR1).

    PubMed

    Jarrah, Mohamad; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Okkeh, Osama; Khader, Yousef; Gharaibeh, Sahem; Nasser, Laith; Rasheed, Amro; Al-Hindi, Ayed; Mohealdeen, Mohammad; Kharabsheh, Haneen; Abunimeh, Hanan; Hijjih, Enas; Tashman, Lina; Omar, Delia; Kufoof, Nadeen

    2017-06-01

    Determine the incidence of major bleeding events, their risk factors, and their impact on prognosis in Jordanian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Evaluate the ability of the CRUSADE bleeding risk score (BRS) to predict major bleeding. Major bleeding events were defined according to the CRUSADE classification and their incidence was evaluated from hospital admission to one year of follow up. The CRUSADE bleeding risk score was calculated for each patient during the index admission. Incidence of major bleeding events was evaluated in each of the bleeding score quintiles. JoPCR1 is a prospective, observational, multicenter registry of consecutive patients who underwent PCI at 12 tertiary care centers in Jordan. A case report form was used to record data prospectively at hospital admission, at discharge, and at 1 and 12 months of follow-up. The study included 2426 consecutive patients who underwent PCI. During the index hospitalization, major and minor bleeding events occurred in 0.95% and 2.6% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that only two variables were significantly associated with major bleeding: female gender (OR=3.7; 95% CI 1.6, 8.5; p=0.002) and past history of cardiovascular disease (OR=2.6; 95% CI 1.1, 5.9; p=0.026). Patients who had in-hospital major bleeding events had higher cardiac mortality during index hospitalization (13.0% vs. 0.7%, p<0.005) and at one year of follow up (13.0% vs. 1.8%, p<0.005) compared to those who had no such events. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the CRUSADE BRS has a high ability to predict major bleeding. Major bleeding events were uncommon in this ME registry of a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing PCI but were associated with a higher mortality rate compared with those who did not have major bleeding events. CRUSADE BRS was highly predictive of the incidence of major bleeding events.

  1. Multimodal human-machine interface based on a brain-computer interface and an electrooculography interface.

    PubMed

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Ùbeda, Andrés; Azorín, José M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a multimodal interface that combines a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) with an electrooculography (EOG) interface. The non-invasive spontaneous BCI registers the electrical brain activity through surface electrodes. The EOG interface detects the eye movements through electrodes placed on the face around the eyes. Both kind of signals are registered together and processed to obtain the mental task that the user is thinking and the eye movement performed by the user. Both commands (mental task and eye movement) are combined in order to move a dot in a graphic user interface (GUI). Several experimental tests have been made where the users perform a trajectory to get closer to some targets. To perform the trajectory the user moves the dot in a plane with the EOG interface and using the BCI the dot changes its height.

  2. Generalized communicators in the message passing interface

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselmman, C.; Snir, M.

    1996-12-31

    We propose extensions to the Message Passing Interface (MPI) that generalize the MPI communicator concept to allow multiple communication endpoints per process, dynamic creation of endpoints, and the transfer of endpoints between processes. The generalized communicator construct can be used to express a wide range of interesting communication structures, including collective communication operations involving multiple threads per process, communications between dynamically created threads, and object- oriented applications in which communications are directed to specific objects. Furthermore. this enriched functionality can be provided in a manner that preserves backward compatibility with MPI. We describe the proposed extensions, illustrate their use with examples, and discuss implementation issues.

  3. Intelligent Multi-Media Integrated Interface Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    RADC-TR-90-128 Final Technical Report June 1090 AD- A225 973 INTELLIGENT MULTI-MEDIA INTEGRATED INTERFACE PROJECT Calspan-University of Buffalo...and circled. Next to each SAM icon, a small text box is added containing the expression "mobility: high" cr "mobility: !:.w", a- appropriate for the...uiI-ii~gui~i- 4 14 4 4 0 ,q, ~= 0~ ~ I 5 - 4- ~r. A -4 Hai I *~~ r-iJ vI Cr -E w IUUUUUUUMUUU!A-5 * .~ 6 -v -~- ~,.- ’-4., -4- K ~f2~ 4AA A A A A A

  4. Prolonged clopidogrel application reduces tissue factor expression after percutaneous coronary intervention in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ayral, Yunus; Rauch, Ursula; Goldin-Lang, Petra; Eisenreich, Andreas; Pepke, Wojciech; Deiner, Carolin; Schwimmbeck, Peter L; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Pels, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Late thrombotic events are important complications associated with intracoronary brachytherapy (ICBT) using ionizing radiation (IR) or with antiproliferative treatment modalities such as drug-eluting stents (DES). The mechanism mediating these thrombotic events is not well understood. This study assessed the effect of prolonged clopidogrel treatment on tissue factor (TF) expression in coronary arteries and on the circulating TF level after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty /ICBT in a porcine coronary model. Pigs were treated with aspirin plus a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel one day before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), followed by a daily dose of clopidogrel and aspirin. During PCI one of the two balloon-injured arteries was treated by brachytherapy. Animals were sacrificed at different time points. The pigs, which were sacrificed 3 months post-PCI, were divided into two groups (Group I: clopidogrel for 3 months; Group II: clopidogrel for 1 month). Plasma TF was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in blood samples taken from all pigs before and immediately after intervention and before sacrifice. Morphometric analysis was performed on digitalized images employing the software LUCIA G for TF staining. Vascular TF expression levels were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Prolonged clopidogrel application significantly reduced coronary TF at the protein (Group I vs. II, 8.975 ± 3.947% vs. 26.44 ± 5.375%, P = .007) and mRNA level [Group I vs. II, (0.3501 ± 0.0519) × 10(-3) vs. (0.7073 ± 0.0436) × 10(-3), P<.0005]. Circulating TF protein tended to be lower after 3 months than after 1 month clopidogrel treatment post-PCI (Group I vs. Group II, 488.3 ± 35.37 pg/ml vs. 572.3 ± 39.9 pg/ml, P = .130). Prolonged clopidogrel treatment reduced coronary TF expression and tended to reduce the blood TF level post-PCI, thus possibly modulating the risk of late thrombosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Ray tracing in discontinuous velocity model with implicit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxing; Yang, Qin; Meng, Xianhai; Li, Jigang

    2016-07-01

    Ray tracing in the velocity model containing complex discontinuities is still facing many challenges. The main difficulty arises from the detection of the spatial relationship between the rays and the interfaces that are usually described in non-linear parametric forms. We propose a novel model representation method that can facilitate the implementation of classical shooting-ray methods. In the representation scheme, each interface is expressed as the zero contour of a signed distance field. A multi-copy strategy is adopted to describe the volumetric properties within blocks. The implicit description of the interface makes it easier to detect the ray-interface intersection. The direct calculation of the intersection point is converted into the problem of judging the signs of a ray segment's endpoints. More importantly, the normal to the interface at the intersection point can be easily acquired according to the signed distance field of the interface. The multiple storage of the velocity property in the proximity of the interface can provide accurate and unambiguous velocity information of the intersection point. Thus, the departing ray path can be determined easily and robustly. In addition, the new representation method can describe velocity models containing very complex geological structures, such as faults, salt domes, intrusions, and pinches, without any simplification. The examples on synthetic and real models validate the robustness and accuracy of the ray tracing based on the proposed model representation scheme.

  6. The interface engine: experimental consequences.

    PubMed

    Tauer, Klaus; Kozempel, Steffen; Rother, Gudrun

    2007-08-15

    A light microscopy study confirms spontaneous emulsification at the quiescent, thermally equilibrated interface between pure oil and pure water during the chemical equilibration period. The process is qualitatively explained within the frame of the classical nucleation theory assuming a mixed interface layer between the two liquids in contact allowing supersaturation.

  7. Adaptive fast interface tracking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Jelena; Runborg, Olof

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a fast time adaptive numerical method for interface tracking. The method uses an explicit multiresolution description of the interface, which is represented by wavelet vectors that correspond to the details of the interface on different scale levels. The complexity of standard numerical methods for interface tracking, where the interface is described by N marker points, is O (N / Δt), when a time step Δt is used. The methods that we propose in this paper have O (TOL - 1 / p log ⁡ N + Nlog ⁡ N) computational cost, at least for uniformly smooth problems, where TOL is some given tolerance and p is the order of the time stepping method that is used for time advection of the interface. The adaptive method is robust in the sense that it can handle problems with both smooth and piecewise smooth interfaces (e.g. interfaces with corners) while keeping a low computational cost. We show numerical examples that verify these properties.

  8. Overview of Graphical User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulser, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of graphical user interfaces for online public access catalogs (OPACs) covers the history of OPACs; OPAC front-end design, including examples from Indiana University and the University of Illinois; and planning and implementation of a user interface. (10 references) (EA)

  9. Colloids at Curved Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebe, Kathleen

    2016-11-01

    Fluid interfaces are remarkable sites for colloidal assembly. When a colloid attaches to a fluid interface, it distorts a region around it; this distortion has an associated capillary energy, the product of its area and interfacial tension. The particle's capillary energy depends on the local interface curvature. By molding the interface, we can define curvature fields that drive microparticles along pre-determined paths. This example captures the emergent nature of the interactions. We discuss curvature fields as analogues to external electro-magnetic fields, and define curvatures that drive particles to well-defined locations, and to equilibrium sites far from boundaries. Particle-particle and particle-curvature interactions can guide particles into structures via interaction among many particles. This work demonstrates the potential importance of curvature capillary interactions in schemes to make reconfigurable materials, since interfaces and their associated capillary energy landscapes can be readily reconfigured. Analogies in other soft systems will be described. Support acknowledged from NSF DMR 1607878.

  10. Slow wave propagation in soft adhesive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan K; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    2016-11-16

    Stick-slip in sliding of soft adhesive surfaces has long been associated with the propagation of Schallamach waves, a type of slow surface wave. Recently it was demonstrated using in situ experiments that two other kinds of slow waves-separation pulses and slip pulses-also mediate stick-slip (Viswanathan et al., Soft Matter, 2016, 12, 5265-5275). While separation pulses, like Schallamach waves, involve local interface detachment, slip pulses are moving stress fronts with no detachment. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the propagation of these three waves in a linear elastodynamics framework. Different boundary conditions apply depending on whether or not local interface detachment occurs. It is shown that the interface dynamics accompanying slow waves is governed by a system of integral equations. Closed-form analytical expressions are obtained for the interfacial pressure, shear stress, displacements and velocities. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves emerge naturally as wave solutions of the integral equations, with oppositely oriented directions of propagation. Wave propagation is found to be stable in the stress regime where linearized elasticity is a physically valid approximation. Interestingly, the analysis reveals that slow traveling wave solutions are not possible in a Coulomb friction framework for slip pulses. The theory provides a unified picture of stick-slip dynamics and slow wave propagation in adhesive contacts, consistent with experimental observations.

  11. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  12. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  13. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  14. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  15. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  16. Cyclic di-GMP Modulates Gene Expression in Lyme Disease Spirochetes at the Tick-Mammal Interface To Promote Spirochete Survival during the Blood Meal and Tick-to-Mammal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dunham-Ems, Star; Allard, Anna M.; Cassera, Maria B.; Kenedy, Melisha; Radolf, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival and gene regulation throughout the enzootic cycle. Live imaging of B. burgdorferi caught in the act of being acquired revealed that the absence of RpoS and the consequent derepression of tick-phase genes impart a Stay signal required for midgut colonization. In addition to the behavioral changes brought on by the RpoS-off state, acquisition requires activation of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthesis by the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS; B. burgdorferi lacking either component is destroyed during the blood meal. Prior studies attributed this dramatic phenotype to a metabolic lesion stemming from reduced glycerol uptake and utilization. In a head-to-head comparison, however, the B. burgdorferi Δglp mutant had a markedly greater capacity to survive tick feeding than B. burgdorferi Δhk1 or Δrrp1 mutants, establishing unequivocally that glycerol metabolism is only one component of the protection afforded by c-di-GMP. Data presented herein suggest that the protective response mediated by c-di-GMP is multifactorial, involving chemotactic responses, utilization of alternate substrates for energy generation and intermediary metabolism, and remodeling of the cell envelope as a means of defending spirochetes against threats engendered during the blood meal. Expression profiling of c-di-GMP-regulated genes through the enzootic cycle supports our contention that the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS functions primarily, if not exclusively, in ticks. These data also raise the possibility that c-di-GMP enhances the expression of a subset of RpoS-dependent genes during nymphal transmission. PMID:25987708

  17. X-Ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency EPR, and DFT Characterization of the Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2n+ Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Jens; Westwood, Mark; Mardis, Kristy L.; Brown, Tiara L.; Pitts-McCoy, Anthony M.; Hopkins, Michael D.; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni(I) hydrogen oxidation catalyst [Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2]+ (1+; PCy2NtBu2= 1,5bis(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclo-hexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacychlooctane) has been studied using a combination of EPR techniques (X-, Q-, and D-band; electron-nuclear double resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Crystallographic and DFT studies indicate that the molecular structure of 1+ is highly symmetrical. EPR spectroscopy has allowed determination of the electronic g-tensor and the spin density distribution on the ligands, and revealed that the Ni(I) center does not interact strongly with the potentially coordinating solvents acetonitrile and butyronitrile. The EPR spectra and magnetic parameters of 1+ are found to be distinctly different from those for the related compound [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2]+ (4+). One significant contributor to these differences is that the molecular structure of 4+ is unsymmetrical, unlike that of 1+. DFT calculations on derivatives in which the R and R′ groups are systematically varied have allowed elucidation of structure/substituent relationships and their corresponding influence on the magnetic resonance parameters. PMID:26098955

  18. Reactivity of the anionic diphosphorus complex [Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2):κ(2)-P2)(CO)2]- toward phosphorus- and transition metal-based electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; García-Vivó, Daniel; Lozano, Raquel; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2013-08-05

    The reactions of the Li(+) salt of the title anion with chlorophosphines PR2Cl (R = Cy, Ph, (t)Bu) led in all cases to products of formula [Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2)(P,P)':κ(2)(P,P″)-P2PR2)(CO)2], with the PR2 group inserted in one of the Mo-P(basal) bonds of the anion to give novel tridentate phosphinodiphosphenyl ligands, as confirmed by the solid-state structure of the PCy2 compound. When R was the bulky (t)Bu group, this product was in equilibrium with an isomer of formula [Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2)(P,P)':κ(2)(P,P')-P2P(t)Bu2)(CO)2], in which the diphosphorus ligand of the anion binds the P(t)Bu2 group through the lone pair of electrons at the basal P atom in an "end-on" fashion (computed P-P-P(t)Bu2 = 114.7°); the latter isomer was more stable than the former, according to the NMR data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The title anion reacted with halide complexes of the type [MXLn] (MLn = FeCp(CO)2, MoCp(CO)3, ZrCpCl, Mn(CO)5, Re(CO)5) to give compounds of formula [Mo2MCp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-κ(2):κ(2):κ(1)-P2)(CO)2Ln] incorporating the organometallic fragment MLn also in an "end-on" position at the basal P atom of the anion, as confirmed by the solid-state structure of the Fe compound (P-P = 2.089(2) Å; P-P-Fe = 124.6(1)°). All these complexes, except the Zr compound, underwent a fluxional process in solution involving a swing of the P2 ligand around the Mo-Mo axis with concomitant exchange of the MLn fragment between the P atoms of the diphosphorus ligand, as revealed by variable-temperature NMR experiments. Thermal decarbonylation of the Mn and Re compounds gave hexanuclear derivatives of formula [Mo4M2Cp4(μ-PCy2)2(μ4-κ(1):κ(2):κ(2):κ(1)-P2)2(CO)12] (M = Mn, Re) as a mixture of two isomers derived from the different assembly of the asymmetric Mo2P2 subunits, as confirmed through X-ray analyses of both compounds. Each of the P2 ligands in these two complexes bind two Mo and two M atoms (M = Mn, Re), with the latter defining central P4M

  19. The character of elastic deformations on the interface by the passing of longitudinal wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertova, Nadezhda; Grinyaev, Yurii

    2016-11-01

    The problem of longitudinal wave passing through the interface of two elastic media is considered. The reflection and refraction coefficients obtained by solving this problem can be used to study the character of dynamic deformation on the interface. Expressions for various deformation modes and rotation at the interface revealing their dependences on the angle of incidence of a longitudinal wave and on the elastic properties of the contacting media have been analyzed.

  20. Interface roughening and pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Hansen, Alex

    1994-04-01

    We study a simple model for thé pinning of an interface by impurities with random strengths, and thé depinning due to thé applied pressure, in a quasi-static propagation lirait. The model is very close to thé so called "Robin Hood" model introduced by Zaitsev. It is designed to describe e.g. thé invasion of a wetting fluid (imbibition) in a heterogeneous porous medium containing a second immiscible fluid. The relation between this model and other previously proposed approaches is discussed. The front of thé invaded domain is shown to develop a self-affine structure with an increase of thé roughness as a power-law of thé injected volume. The value of thé apparent roughness exponent can be favorably compared to some experimental measurements although we argue that thé true roughness exponent is out of reach of commonly used methods. We show that thé distribution f(d, Δ t) of distances d between discrete local invasions at a time interval Δ t can be described by a scaling law f(d, Δ t) = d^{-1}\\varphi(d/sqrt{Δ t}). This form can be obtained from thé identification of a hierarchical structure of "bursts" in thé pressure signal. Those "bursts" are quahtatively similar to those observed in quasistatic drainage, (i.e. invasion percolation), although characterized by différent scaling indices. Nous étudions un modèle simple pour analyser l'accrochage d'une interface sur des impuretés et le décrochage sous l'effet d'une pression appliquée, dans une limite quasi-statique. Ce modèle est très voisin du modèle "Robin Hood" introduit par Zaitsev. Il s'applique en particulier à l'invasion d'un fluide mouillant (imbibition) dans un milieu poreux hétérogène contenant un fluide immiscible. Nous discutons les relations entre ce modèle et d'autres approches proposées pour décrire ce phénomène. Le front d'invasion acquiert une structure auto-affine, avec un développement de la rugosité selon une loi de puissance du volume injecté. La valeur de l

  1. User Interface to an ICAI System That Teaches Discrete Math

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    info reset title COMPLETED: 4/12/90 PERSONS: Keith Calcote & Rick Howard PURPOSE: Provides a the user with a leraning tool that drills the...Provides a the user with a leraning tool that drills the relationship between logic expressions and venn diagrams 274 /* header files */ #include...ADDING GRAPHICS TO LESSONS ........................................................ 13 H. ADDING LESSONS, EXAMS AND TOOLS TO THE INTERFACE

  2. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  3. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  4. DENTAL PULP STEM CELLS AND HUMAN PERIAPICAL CYST MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS IN BONE TISSUE REGENERATION: COMPARISON OF BASAL AND OSTEOGENIC DIFFERENTIATED GENE EXPRESSION OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL LINEAGE.

    PubMed

    Tatullo, M; Falisi, G; Amantea, M; Rastelli, C; Paduano, F; Marrelli, M

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration is an interesting field of biomedicine. The most recent studies are aimed to achieve a bone regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) taken from more accessible sites: oral and dental tissues have been widely investigated as a rich accessible source of MSCs. Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) and human Periapical Cysts Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hPCy-MSCs) represent the new generation MSCs. The aim of this study is to compare the gene expression of these two innovative cell types to highlight the advantages of their use in bone regeneration. The harvesting, culturing and differentiating of cells isolated from dental pulp as well as from periapical cystic tissue were carried out as described in previously published reports. qRT-PCR analyses were performed on osteogenic genes in undifferentiated and osteogenic differentiated cells of DPSC and hPCy-MSC lineage. Real-time RT-PCR data suggested that both DPSCs and hPCy-MSCs cultured in osteogenic media are able to differentiate into osteoblast/odontoblast-like cells: however, some differences indicated that DPSCs seem to be directed more towards dentinogenesis, while hPCy-MSCs seem to be directed more towards osteogenesis.

  5. Dynamics of interfaces in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, A.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The dynamics of an interface between the normal and superconducting phases under nonstationary external conditions is studied within the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, modified to include thermal fluctuations. An equation of motion for the interface is derived in two steps. First, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a diffusion equation for the magnetic field in the normal phase, with nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. These boundary conditions are a continuity equation which relates the gradient of the field at the interface to the normal velocity of the interface and a modified Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition for the field at the interface. Second, the boundary integral method is used to integrate out the magnetic field in favor of an equation of motion for the interface. This equation of motion, which is highly nonlinear and nonlocal, exhibits a diffusive instability (the Mullins-Sekerka instability) when the superconducting phase expands into the normal phase (i.e., when the external field is reduced below the critical field). In the limit of infinite diffusion constant the equation of motion becomes local in time and can be derived variationally from a static energy functional which includes the bulk-free energy difference between the two phases, the interfacial energy, and a long range self-interaction of the interface of the Biot-Savart form. In this limit the dynamics is identical to the interfacial dynamics of ferrofluid domains recently proposed by S.A. Langer et al. As shown by these authors, the Biot-Savart interaction leads to mechanical instabilities of the interface, resulting in highly branched labyrinthine patterns. The application of these ideas to the study of labyrinthine patterns in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors is briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  6. Nano-size Effect of Interface Energy and Its Effect on Interface Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L. H.; You, X. M.; Ma, H. S.; Wei, Y. G.

    2010-05-21

    An analytical model about size-dependent interface energy of metal/ceramic interfaces in nanoscale is developed by introducing both the chemical energy and the structure stain energy contributions. The dependence of interface energy on the interface thickness is determined by the melting enthalpy, the molar volume, and the shear modulus of two materials composing the interfaces, etc. The analytic prediction of the interface energy and the atomic scale simulation of the interface fracture strength are compared with each other for Ag/MgO and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces, the fracture strength of the interface with the lower chemical interface energy is found to be larger. The potential of Ag/MgO interface related to the interface energy is calculated, and the interface stress and the interface fracture strength are estimated further. The effect of the interface energy on the interface strength and the behind mechanism are discussed.

  7. Superconducting interfaces between insulating oxides.

    PubMed

    Reyren, N; Thiel, S; Caviglia, A D; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Hammerl, G; Richter, C; Schneider, C W; Kopp, T; Rüetschi, A-S; Jaccard, D; Gabay, M; Muller, D A; Triscone, J-M; Mannhart, J

    2007-08-31

    At interfaces between complex oxides, electronic systems with unusual electronic properties can be generated. We report on superconductivity in the electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating dielectric perovskite oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. The behavior of the electron gas is that of a two-dimensional superconductor, confined to a thin sheet at the interface. The superconducting transition temperature of congruent with 200 millikelvin provides a strict upper limit to the thickness of the superconducting layer of congruent with 10 nanometers.

  8. ARINC 653 Interface in RTEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, J.; Filipe, S.; Coutinho, M.; Santos, S.; Windsor, J.

    2007-08-01

    The ARINC 653 specification is assuming a key role in the provision of a standard operating system interface for safety-critical applications in the aeronautic market and it is foreseen to acquire a similar status on the space market. The ARINC 653 application interface is inde- pendent from the underlying hardware and from a given operating system implementation. This paper describes how RTEMS, the Real-Time Executive for Multiproces- sor Systems, can be adapted to offer the application interface and the functionality required by the ARINC 653 standard. The use of RTEMS is highly relevant given its qualification for on-board software of unmanned space programs.

  9. Hopping diffusion across material interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, J.; Wallis, R. F.; Balkanski, M.

    1993-11-01

    We generalize a one-dimensional lattice-gas model of particle diffusion across material interfaces to include a finite-width interface region, and an energy barrier at the interface. We use overvoltage measurements on InSe and dielectric loss measurements on B 2O+ 3-0.5 Li 2O-0.15 Li 2SO 4 to determine the hopping rates in the two materials. Numerical and analytical results for the particle density versus position are presented for representative values of the energy barrier and a range of hopping rates. The presence of the energy barrier is found to be a dominant factor in the problem.

  10. Fiber-matrix interface failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenberg, Lew; Marcus, Harris L.; Park, Hun Sub; Zong, Gui Sheng; Brown, Lloyd D.

    1989-01-01

    Interface fractures of aluminum-graphite composites under transverse loading are expected to occur within the graphite fibers, but very near the interface. Residual stresses in aluminum, reinforced with the new high modulus pitch-based fibers, are much lower than would be expected based on simple elasticity calculations. The excess stress may be relaxed by shearing internal to the fibers or at the interface rather than by plastic flow of the matrix. The internal shearing also occurs during repeated thermal cycling of these composites; the fibers are repeatedly intruded, then extruded, during repeated temperature excursions.

  11. A Method for Developing 3D User Interfaces of Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleros, Juan Manuel González; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Arteaga, Jaime Muñoz

    A transformational method for developing tri-dimensional user interfaces of interactive information systems is presented that starts from a task model and a domain model to progressively derive a final user interface. This method consists of three steps: deriving one or many abstract user interfaces from a task model and a domain model, deriving one or many concrete user interfaces from each abstract interface, and producing the code of the final user interfaces corresponding to each concrete interface. To ensure the two first steps, trans-formations are encoded as graph transformations performed on the involved models expressed in their graph equivalent. In addition, a graph grammar gathers relevant graph transformations for accomplishing the sub-steps involved in each step. Once a concrete user interface is resulting from these two first steps, it is converted in a development environment for 3D user interfaces where it can be edited for fine tuning and personalization. From this environment, the user interface code is automatically generated. The method is defined by its steps, input/output, and exemplified on a case study. By expressing the steps of the method through transformations between models, the method adheres to Model-Driven Engineering paradigm where models and transformations are explicitly defined and used

  12. Time-trend analysis on the Framingham risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention without prior history of coronary vascular disease over the last 17 years: a study from the Mayo Clinic PCI registry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo-Sik; Flammer, Andreas J; Li, Jing; Lennon, Ryan J; Singh, Mandeep; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2014-07-01

    There is a paucity of data on the temporal trends of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We investigated the secular trends of risk profiles of patients undergoing PCI without prior history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD risk factors are changed over time. This time-trend analysis from 1994 to 2010 was performed within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry. Outcome measures were prevalence of CVD risk factors, including the Framingham risk score (FRS), at the time of admission for PCI. During this period, 12,055 patients without a history of CVD (mean age, 65.0 ± 12.4 years, 67% male) underwent PCI at the Mayo Clinic. Age distribution slightly shifted toward older age (P for trend <0.05), but sex did not change over time. Despite a higher prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus over time, actual blood pressure and lipid profiles improved (P for trend <0.001). Over time, FRS and 10-year CVD risk improved significantly (7.3 ± 3.2 to 6.5 ± 3.3, P for trend <0.001; and 11.0 to 9.0, P for trend <0.001, respectively). Body mass index, not included in the FRS, increased significantly (29.0 ± 5.2 to 30.1 ± 6.2 kg/m(2) , P for trend <0.001), whereas smoking prevalence did not change. The current study demonstrates that although traditional FRS and its associated predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk declined over time, the prevalence of risk factors increased in patients undergoing PCI. The study suggests the need for a new risk-factor assessment in this patient population. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  14. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    SciTech Connect

    Kitta, Joseph P.

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  15. Antisite defects at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hanghui; Millis, Andrew

    We use ab initio calculations to estimate formation energies of cation (transition metal) antisite defects at oxide interfaces and to understand the basic physical effects that drive or suppress the formation of these defects. We find that antisite defects are favored in systems with substantial charge transfer across the interface, while Jahn-Teller distortions and itinerant ferromagnetism can prevent antisite defects and help stabilize atomically sharp interfaces. Our results enable identification of classes of systems that are more and less susceptible to the formation of antisite defects and motivate a range of experimental studies and further theoretical calculations to further explicate the oxide interface systems. This research was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1120296 (H. Chen) and DOE-ER-046169 (A. J. Millis).

  16. The HEASARC graphical user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Jacobs, P.; Oneel, B.

    1992-01-01

    An OSF/Motif-based graphical user interface has been developed to facilitate the use of the database and data analysis software packages available from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC). It can also be used as an interface to other, similar, routines. A small number of tables are constructed to specify the possible commands and command parameters for a given set of analysis routines. These tables can be modified by a designer to affect the appearance of the interface screens. They can also be dynamically changed in response to parameter adjustments made while the underlying program is running. Additionally, a communication protocol has been designed so that the interface can operate locally or across a network. It is intended that this software be able to run on a variety of workstations and X terminals.

  17. Getting a Grip on Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assetto, Antonio R.; Dowden, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the unique interfacing equipment for measuring muscle strength over time. Explains the materials, setup method, operation, and typical display. Suggests other activities with which to utilize this device. (YP)

  18. SKITTER/implement mechanical interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    SKITTER (Spacial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) is a three-legged transport vehicle designed to perform under the unique environment of the moon. The objective of this project was to design a mechanical interface for SKITTER. This mechanical latching interface will allow SKITTER to use a series of implements such as drills, cranes, etc., and perform different tasks on the moon. The design emphasized versatility and detachability; that is, the interface design is the same for all implements, and connection and detachment is simple. After consideration of many alternatives, a system of three identical latches at each of the three interface points was chosen. The latching mechanism satisfies the design constraints because it facilitates connection and detachment. Also, the moving parts are protected from the dusty environment by housing plates.

  19. Colloids at NAPL-Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Metz, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids in subsurface are relevant in the scope of contaminated sites as well as for enhanced oil recovery. In both cases colloids and engineered nanoparticles are applied to increase the efficiency of NAPL removal. Particle tracking experiments using fluoresecent latex beads and opaque particles have been run in micromodels mimicking the pore structure of subsurface media. The results show that the interface between NAPL and water is highly dynamic, especially in its early stage. There is a distinct circular flow pattern at the interface, effectively increasing the interfacial area. Concentration gradients measured with Raman Microspectrometry at low Peclet numbers suggest that the mass transfer of dissolved contaminants from the NAPL into the water is highly affected by the interface dynamics. On the other hand the interfaces themselves are less accessible, which has implications for the remediation of contaminated sites.

  20. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop

    NASA Image and Video Library

    At a g.tec-sponsored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) workshop at the National Institute of Aerospace in Hampton, Va., volunteers were able to spell out words on a computer screen using using a g.tec...

  1. Electronic interfaces to silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Cox, Jonathan A.; Zortman, William A.; Savignon, Daniel J.

    2014-03-01

    We describe the interface circuits to silicon photonics modulators, optical filters, and detectors that will be required to enable silicon photonics micro-ring and micro-disk devices to be integrated in dense wavelength division multiplexing circuitry.

  2. Superfluid interfaces in quantum solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay

    2005-03-01

    One scenario for the non-classical moment of inertia of solid ^4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Science, 305, 1941 (2004)] is the superfluidity of micro-crystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal---the checkerboard lattice solid---we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough inter-particle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in d=3 , while in d=2 the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  3. Superfluid Interfaces in Quantum Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burovski, Evgeni; Kozik, Evgeni; Kuklov, Anatoly; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2005-04-01

    One scenario for the nonclassical moment of inertia of solid 4He discovered by Kim and Chan [Nature (London), NATUAS, 0028-0836 427, 225 (2004), 10.1038/nature02220] is the superfluidity of microcrystallite interfaces. On the basis of the most simple model of a quantum crystal—the checkerboard lattice solid—we show that the superfluidity of interfaces between solid domains can exist in a wide range of parameters. At strong enough interparticle interaction, a superfluid interface becomes an insulator via a quantum phase transition. Under the conditions of particle-hole symmetry, the transition is of the standard U(1) universality class in 3D, while in 2D the onset of superfluidity is accompanied by the interface roughening, driven by fractionally charged topological excitations.

  4. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  5. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  6. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  7. The theory of interface slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a new tool which was developed to facilitate reuse-based software engineering, by addressing the following problems, needs, and issues: (1) size of systems incorporating reused modules; (2) knowledge requirements for program modification; (3) program understanding for reverse engineering; (4) module granularity and domain management; and (5) time and space complexity of conventional slicing. The definition of a form of static program analysis called interface slicing is addressed.

  8. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  9. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  10. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  11. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  12. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  13. Low-temperature N-O bond cleavage and reversible N-P bond formation processes in the reactions of the unsaturated anions [M2(η5-C5H5)2(μ-PCy2)(μ-CO)2]- (M = Mo, W) with the nitrosyl complex [Re(η5-C5H4Me)(CO)2(NO)]+.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; Ruiz, Miguel A; Toyos, Adrián; Vega, M Fernanda

    2013-04-01

    The unsaturated anion [Mo2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-CO)2](-) (Na(+) salt) reacted rapidly with [ReCp'(CO)2(NO)]BF4 in a dichloromethane solution at 253 K to give the oxo nitride tetracarbonyl complex [Mo2ReCp2Cp'(μ-N)(μ-O)(μ-PCy2)(CO)4] as the major product (Cp = η(5)-C5H5; Cp' = η(5)-C5H4Me). This complex underwent spontaneous decarbonylation at room temperature to give the unsaturated tricarbonyl derivative [Mo2ReCp2Cp'(μ-N)(μ-O)(μ-PCy2)(CO)3], a very dioxygen-sensitive molecule rapidly evolving upon manipulation to give the dioxo nitride dicarbonyl complex [Mo2ReCp2Cp'(μ-N)(μ-O)(μ-PCy2)(O)(CO)2] in modest yield. The latter product was obtained as a mixture of isomers, with the major ones differing in the relative arrangement (cis and trans) of their MoCp moieties [Mo-Mo = 2.7707(8) Å in the cis isomer]. The ditungsten anion [W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-CO)2](-) (Na(+) salt) also reacted rapidly with [ReCp'(CO)2(NO)]BF4 in a dichloromethane solution at 253 K to give an analogous oxo nitride complex, [W2ReCp2Cp'(μ-N)(μ-O)(μ-PCy2)(CO)4], but instead of releasing CO, this complex undergoes at room temperature a reversible insertion of the nitride ligand into a W-PCy2 bond, to reach an equilibrium with its phosphinoimido-bridged isomer [W2ReCp2Cp'(μ3-N:N:P-NPCy2)(O)(CO)4], which displays a V-shaped metal core [W-W = 3.0564(7) Å; W-Re = 2.9021(6) Å]. Decarbonylation of this mixture in a refluxing toluene solution led to partial degradation and condensation of these heterometallic species, to give [ReCp'(CO)3] and the pentanuclear oxo nitride complex [W4ReCp4Cp'(μ2-N)(μ3-N)(μ-O)(O)(μ-PCy2)2(CO)3], a very air-sensitive molecule displaying both linear and trigonal nitride ligands bound to rather unsaturated ditungsten centers [W-W = 2.7246(6) and 2.7900(6) Å].

  14. Low-temperature dynamics of kinks on Ising interfaces.

    PubMed

    Karma, Alain; Lobkovsky, Alexander E

    2005-03-01

    The anisotropic motion of an interface driven by its intrinsic curvature or by an external field is investigated in the context of the kinetic Ising model in both two and three dimensions. We derive in two dimensions (2D) a continuum evolution equation for the density of kinks by a time-dependent and nonlocal mapping to the asymmetric exclusion process. Whereas kinks execute random walks biased by the external field and pile up vertically on the physical 2D lattice, they execute hard-core biased random walks on a transformed 1D lattice. Their density obeys a nonlinear diffusion equation which can be transformed into the standard expression for the interface velocity, v=M [ (gamma+gamma'') kappa+H] , where M , gamma+gamma", and kappa are the interface mobility, stiffness, and curvature, respectively. In 3D, we obtain the velocity of a curved interface near the 100 orientation from an analysis of the self-similar evolution of 2D shrinking terraces. We show that this velocity is consistent with the one predicted from the 3D tensorial generalization of the law for anisotropic curvature-driven motion. In this generalization, both the interface stiffness tensor and the curvature tensor are singular at the 100 orientation. However, their product, which determines the interface velocity, is smooth. In addition, we illustrate how this kink-based kinetic description provides a useful framework for studying more complex situations by modeling the effect of immobile dilute impurities.

  15. Spoken Dialogue Interfaces: Integrating Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; Stavropoulou, Pepi; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

    Usability is a fundamental requirement for natural language interfaces. Usability evaluation reflects the impact of the interface and the acceptance from the users. This work examines the potential of usability evaluation in terms of issues and methodologies for spoken dialogue interfaces along with the appropriate designer-needs analysis. It unfolds the perspective to the usability integration in the spoken language interface design lifecycle and provides a framework description for creating and testing usable content and applications for conversational interfaces. Main concerns include the problem identification of design issues for usability design and evaluation, the use of customer experience for the design of voice interfaces and dialogue, and the problems that arise from real-life deployment. Moreover it presents a real-life paradigm of a hands-on approach for applying usability methodologies in a spoken dialogue application environment to compare against a DTMF approach. Finally, the scope and interpretation of results from both the designer and the user standpoint of usability evaluation are discussed.

  16. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  17. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  18. Interfaces in supersymmetric field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galakhov, Dmitrii

    Supersymmetry has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of non-perturbative dynamics in quantum field theory, gravity and string theory. In this thesis we consider supersymmetric interfaces. Interfaces are defects defined by spatially changing coupling constants. Interfaces can be used to probe the non-perturbative low energy dynamics of an underlying supersymmetric quantum field theory. We study interfaces in a set of four-dimensional quantum field theories with N = 2 supersymmetry known as theories of class S. Using these defects we probe the spin content of the spectrum of quantum states saturating the Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld bound. We also apply supersymmetric defects to the construction of knot and link invariants via quantum field theory. We associate to a knot -- presented as a tangle -- an interface de ned by a spatially varying superpotential in a 2d supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg model. We construct explicitly the Hilbert space of ground states on this interface as the cohomology of a nilpotent supercharge and prove that this Hilbert space is bi-graded by integers and is an invariant of the knot (or link). In explicit examples we show that the corresponding Poincare polynomial coincides with the Poincar e polynomial of the renowned Khovanov homology that categori es the Jones polynomial.

  19. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  20. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  1. A Modeling Pattern for Layered System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter M.; Sarrel, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Communications between systems is often initially represented at a single, high level of abstraction, a link between components. During design evolution it is usually necessary to elaborate the interface model, defining it from several different, related viewpoints and levels of abstraction. This paper presents a pattern to model such multi-layered interface architectures simply and efficiently, in a way that supports expression of technical complexity, interfaces and behavior, and analysis of complexity. Each viewpoint and layer of abstraction has its own properties and behaviors. System elements are logically connected both horizontally along the communication path, and vertically across the different layers of protocols. The performance of upper layers depends on the performance of lower layers, yet the implementation of lower layers is intentionally opaque to upper layers. Upper layers are hidden from lower layers except as sources and sinks of data. The system elements may not be linked directly at each horizontal layer but only via a communication path, and end-to-end communications may depend on intermediate components that are hidden from them, but may need to be shown in certain views and analyzed for certain purposes. This architectural model pattern uses methods described in ISO 42010, Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-intensive Systems and CCSDS 311.0-M-1, Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems (RASDS). A set of useful viewpoints and views are presented, along with the associated modeling representations, stakeholders and concerns. These viewpoints, views, and concerns then inform the modeling pattern. This pattern permits viewing the system from several different perspectives and at different layers of abstraction. An external viewpoint treats the systems of interest as black boxes and focuses on the applications view, another view exposes the details of the connections and other components between the black boxes

  2. Pericytes: brain-immune interface modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Cabañas-Morales, Adrian M.; Gómez-Gónzalez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The premise that the central nervous system is immune-privileged arose from the fact that direct contact between immune and nervous cells is hindered by the blood–brain barrier. However, the blood–brain barrier also comprises the interface between the immune and nervous systems by secreting chemo-attractant molecules and by modulating immune cell entry into the brain. The majority of published studies on the blood–brain barrier focus on endothelial cells (ECs), which are a critical component, but not the only one; other cellular components include astroglia, microglia, and pericytes. Pericytes are poorly studied in comparison with astrocytes or ECs; they are mesenchymal cells that can modify their ultrastructure and gene expression in response to changes in the central nervous system microenvironment. Pericytes have a unique synergistic relationship with brain ECs in the regulation of capillary permeability through secretion of cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinases, and by means of capillary contraction. Those pericyte manifestations are related to changes in blood–brain barrier permeability by an increase in endocytosis-mediated transport and by tight junction disruption. In addition, recent reports demonstrate that pericytes control the migration of leukocytes in response to inflammatory mediators by up-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules and releasing chemo-attractants; however, under physiological conditions they appear to be immune-suppressors. Better understanding of the immune properties of pericytes and their participation in the effects of brain infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and sleep loss will be achieved by analyzing pericyte ultrastructure, capillary coverage, and protein expression. That knowledge may provide a mechanism by which pericytes participate in the maintenance of the proper function of the brain-immune interface. PMID:24454281

  3. Coupled Optical Interface Modes in a Thue Morse Dielectric Superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sheng-Feng; Jin, Guo-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Hu, An

    2001-10-01

    We study the coupled optical interface modes in a Thue Morse dielectric superlattice. Based on the electrostatic continuum approximation, which is correct in the long wavelength limit, the transfer matrix method is used to derive the analytic expressions for frequency spectra and electrostatic potential distributions. The numerical calculations show that the frequency spectra are singular continuous, and the potential profiles are mostly extended and lattice-like. The common features and pronounced differences with coupled optical interface modes in periodic and Fibonacci dielectric superlattices as well as with electrons and acoustic phonons in Thue Morse structures are exposed. Furthermore, the possibility of experimental observation is discussed.

  4. Electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at an electrolyte interface.

    PubMed

    Majee, Arghya; Bier, Markus; Dietrich, S

    2014-04-28

    The electrostatic interaction between colloidal particles trapped at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions is studied in the limit of small inter-particle distances. Within an appropriate model analytic expressions for the electrostatic potential as well as for the surface and line interaction energies are obtained. They demonstrate that the widely used superposition approximation, which is commonly applied to large distances between the colloidal particles, fails qualitatively at small distances, and is quantitatively unreliable even at large distances. Our results contribute to an improved description of the interaction between colloidal particles trapped at fluid interfaces.

  5. Critical Interfaces in the Random-Bond Potts Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Jesper L.; Le Doussal, Pierre; Picco, Marco; Santachiara, Raoul; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2009-02-01

    We study geometrical properties of interfaces in the random-temperature q-states Potts model as an example of a conformal field theory weakly perturbed by quenched disorder. Using conformal perturbation theory in q-2 we compute the fractal dimension of Fortuin-Kasteleyn (FK) domain walls. We also compute it numerically both via the Wolff cluster algorithm for q=3 and via transfer-matrix evaluations. We also obtain numerical results for the fractal dimension of spin clusters interfaces for q=3. These are found numerically consistent with the duality κspinκFK=16 as expressed in putative SLE parameters.

  6. Critical interfaces in the random-bond Potts model.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jesper L; Le Doussal, Pierre; Picco, Marco; Santachiara, Raoul; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2009-02-20

    We study geometrical properties of interfaces in the random-temperature q-states Potts model as an example of a conformal field theory weakly perturbed by quenched disorder. Using conformal perturbation theory in q-2 we compute the fractal dimension of Fortuin-Kasteleyn (FK) domain walls. We also compute it numerically both via the Wolff cluster algorithm for q=3 and via transfer-matrix evaluations. We also obtain numerical results for the fractal dimension of spin clusters interfaces for q=3. These are found numerically consistent with the duality kappaspinkappaFK=16 as expressed in putative SLE parameters.

  7. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  8. Prognostic value and molecular correlates of a CT image-based quantitative pleural contact index in early stage NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juheon; Cui, Yi; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Bailiang; Wu, Jia; Li, Dengwang; Gensheimer, Michael F; Loo, Billy W; Diehn, Maximilian; Li, Ruijiang

    2017-08-07

    To evaluate the prognostic value and molecular basis of a CT-derived pleural contact index (PCI) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively analysed seven NSCLC cohorts. A quantitative PCI was defined on CT as the length of tumour-pleura interface normalised by tumour diameter. We evaluated the prognostic value of PCI in a discovery cohort (n = 117) and tested in an external cohort (n = 88) of stage I NSCLC. Additionally, we identified the molecular correlates and built a gene expression-based surrogate of PCI using another cohort of 89 patients. To further evaluate the prognostic relevance, we used four datasets totalling 775 stage I patients with publically available gene expression data and linked survival information. At a cutoff of 0.8, PCI stratified patients for overall survival in both imaging cohorts (log-rank p = 0.0076, 0.0304). Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling was enriched among genes associated with PCI (p = 0.0003). The genomic surrogate of PCI remained an independent predictor of overall survival in the gene expression cohorts (hazard ratio: 1.46, p = 0.0007) adjusting for age, gender, and tumour stage. CT-derived pleural contact index is associated with ECM remodelling and may serve as a noninvasive prognostic marker in early stage NSCLC. • A quantitative pleural contact index (PCI) predicts survival in early stage NSCLC. • PCI is associated with extracellular matrix organisation and collagen catabolic process. • A multi-gene surrogate of PCI is an independent predictor of survival. • PCI can be used to noninvasively identify patients with poor prognosis.

  9. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  10. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated by primary PCI results of the POSTEMI (POstconditioning in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Limalanathan, Shanmuganathan; Andersen, Geir Ø; Kløw, Nils-Einar; Abdelnoor, Michael; Hoffmann, Pavel; Eritsland, Jan

    2014-04-23

    Reduction of infarct size by ischemic postconditioning (IPost) has been reported in smaller proof-of-concept clinical studies, but has not been confirmed in other smaller studies. The principle needs to be evaluated in larger groups of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients before being implemented in clinical practice. This study assessed the effect of ischemic postcoditioning (IPost) on infarct size in patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with first-time STEMI, <6 hours from symptom onset, referred to primary PCI were randomized to IPost or control groups. IPost was administered by 4 cycles of 1-minute reocclusion and 1-minute reperfusion, starting 1 minute after opening, followed by stenting. In the control group, stenting was performed immediately after reperfusion. The primary endpoint was infarct size measured by cardiac magnetic resonance after 4 months. A total of 272 patients were randomized. Infarct size (percent of left ventricular mass) after 4 months (median values and interquartile range) was 14.4% (7.7, 24.6) and 13.5% (8.1, 19.3) in the control group and IPost group, respectively (P=0.18). No significant impact of IPost was found when controlling for baseline risk factors of infarct size in a multivariate linear regression model (P=0.16). The effects of IPost on secondary endpoints, including markers of necrosis, myocardial salvage, and ejection fraction, as well as adverse cardiac events during follow-up, were consistently neutral. In contrast to several smaller trials reported previously, we found no significant effects of IPost on infarct size or secondary study outcomes. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT.No.PO1506.

  11. Interface dynamics of competing tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podewitz, Nils; Jülicher, Frank; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Tissues can be characterized by their homeostatic stress, i.e. the value of stress for which cell division and cell death balance. When two different tissues grow in competition, a difference of their homeostatic stresses determines which tissue grows at the expense of the second. This then leads to the propagation of the interface separating the tissues. Here, we study structural and dynamical properties of this interface by combining continuum theory with mesoscopic simulations of a cell-based model. Using a simulation box that moves with the interface, we find that a stationary state exists in which the interface has a finite width and propagates with a constant velocity. The propagation velocity in the simulations depends linearly on the homeostatic stress difference, in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions. This agreement is also seen for the stress and velocity profiles. Finally, we analyzed the interface growth and roughness as a function of time and system size. We estimated growth and roughness exponents, which differ from those previously obtained for simple tissue growth.

  12. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  13. Interface fluctuations during rapid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Monem; Toussaint, Renaud; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Moura, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally study the interface dynamics of an immiscible fluid as it invades a monolayer of saturated porous medium through rapid drainage. The seemingly stable and continuous motion of the interface at macroscale, involves numerous abrupt pore-scale jumps and local reconfigurations of the interface. By computing the velocity fluctuations along the invasion front from sequences of images captured at high frame rate, we are able to study both the local and global behavior. The latter displays an intermittent behavior with power-law distributed avalanches in size and duration. As the system is drained potential surface energy is stored at the interface up to a given threshold in pressure. The energy released generates elastic waves at the confining plate, which we detect using piezoelectric type acoustic sensors. By detecting pore-scale events emanating from the depinning of the interface, we look to develop techniques for localizing the displacement front. To assess the quality of these techniques, optical monitoring is done in parallel using a high speed camera.

  14. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development and flocks of birds. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit whose movement depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed clusters which exert forces but no active torques, encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds and clusters with active torques, they show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times, becoming trapped at the interface and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection of the low velocity clusters. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  15. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casajus Ramo, A.; Sapunov, M.

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  16. Design of Interfaces for Information Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchionini, Gary; Komlodi, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines the current state of user interface design for information seeking. Topics include technology push and interdisciplinarity; research and development; literature trends; user-centered interface design; information seeking in electronic environments; online information retrieval system interfaces; online public access catalog interfaces;…

  17. EVA-glass interface bond stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface bond stability was investigated. Special methods to determine the structure of polymer/glass interface were developed. Structural changes related to hydrothermal degradation of polymer/glass interface are examined. Methods to inhibit the degradation reaction which occur at polymer/glass interface are developed.

  18. The Evaluation of Interface Design on CDROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jennifer; Slack, Frances

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the design and evaluation of user interfaces on CD-ROM. Defines interfaces, dialogs and interaction and explores diversity in, and issues associated with, standardization in interface design for CD-ROMs. Reviews current criteria and guidelines for the evaluation of CD-ROM interfaces and proposes alternative guidelines.…

  19. Human/Computer Interfacing in Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    This discussion of educational applications of user interfaces covers the benefits of adopting database techniques in organizing multimedia materials; the evolution of user interface technology, including teletype interfaces, analogic overlay graphics, window interfaces, and adaptive systems; application design problems, including the…

  20. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  1. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  2. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxide during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.

  3. The transmission interface constraint problem

    SciTech Connect

    Baldick, R.; Kahn, E.

    1993-10-01

    Electric power transmission systems exhibit a number of complex constraints on their operation and usage. When a network is subject to a constraint that limits the amount of power that can be moved from one region to another, there is said to be an interface limit. The power systems literature gives no general treatment of the engineering-economics of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Particular aspects of interface limits are typically discussed in sophisticated technical detail, but the general engineering-economic trade-offs involved in relieving interface constraints have not been systematically addressed. We approach this problem in the spirit of a heuristic model. Such models are quite valuable under current industry conditions because they delineate technical opportunities and choices in situations where there may be conflicting views among competing parties and regulatory authorities. We organize and enumerate the choices, clarify the practical conditions that dictate the optimum in particular cases, and help to motivate the final choices made by planners.

  4. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  5. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  6. Interfacing with the Computational Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface (MCI) and brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury. PMID:21659037

  7. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  8. Intersurf: dynamic interface between proteins.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nicolas; Cavin, Xavier; Paul, Jean-Claude; Maigret, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Protein docking is a fundamental biological process that links two proteins. This link is typically defined by an interaction between two large zones of the protein boundaries. Visualizing such an interface is useful to understand the process thanks to 3D protein structures, to estimate the quality of docking simulation results, and to classify interactions in order to predict docking affinity between classes of interacting zones. Since the interface may be defined by a surface that separates the two proteins, it is possible to create a map of interaction that allows comparisons to be performed in 2D. This paper presents a very fast algorithm that extracts an interface surface and creates a valid and low-distorted interaction map. Another benefit of our approach is that a pre-computed part of the algorithm enables the surface to be updated in real-time while residues are moved.

  9. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    DOE PAGES

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxidemore » during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.« less

  10. Computational Approaches to Interface Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Tools which make use of computational processes - mathematical, algorithmic and/or knowledge-based - to perform portions of the design, evaluation and/or construction of interfaces have become increasingly available and powerful. Nevertheless, there is little agreement as to the appropriate role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process. Current tools fall into broad classes depending on which portions, and how much, of the design process they automate. The purpose of this panel is to review and generalize about computational approaches developed to date, discuss the tasks which for which they are suited, and suggest methods to enhance their utility and acceptance. Panel participants represent a wide diversity of application domains and methodologies. This should provide for lively discussion about implementation approaches, accuracy of design decisions, acceptability of representational tradeoffs and the optimal role for a computational tool to play in the interface design process.

  11. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  12. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  13. DHMI: dynamic holographic microscopy interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuefei; Zheng, Yujie; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) is a powerful in-vitro biological imaging tool. In this paper, we report a fully automated off-axis digital holographic microscopy system completed with a graphical user interface in the Matlab environment. The interface primarily includes Fourier domain processing, phase reconstruction, aberration compensation and autofocusing. A variety of imaging operations such as region of interest selection, de-noising mode (filtering and averaging), low frame rate imaging for immediate reconstruction and high frame rate imaging routine ( 27 fps) are implemented to facilitate ease of use.

  14. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A Portable Natural Language Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    interfaces have been solved; there are still gaps in both theory and in implementation. No natural language interface yet implemented has full linguistic ...the structure of the phrase in which it appears. 2.1 THE THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Our work in this project was influenced by several linguistic theories ...WEEEEEEEiiEEEEEEEEEEEohE EEEEEEEEEEol ~~*L2.5lie. M j~.5 114 1 e. - -w w w w e’ -,w Iw W -ra S S -.- OiIC FILE COPY RADC-TR-87-15 Final Technical Rport September 1967 A

  16. Segmental interpenetration at polymer interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, T.P.; Fleming, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    During the first year of this proposal significant strides have been made in understanding the nature of the interface in symmetric, diblock copolymers and the nature of the interface formed between immiscible homopolymers. Emphasis has been placed on the symmetric, diblock copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) since these diblock copolymers and the corresponding homopolymers are available over a wide range of molecular weight with narrow molecular weight distributions. In addition, the homopolymers and copolymers can be obtained with different levels of deuteration. Thus, these materials form a model system by which systematic studies on the interfacial behavior of homopolymers and block copolymers can be performed.

  17. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  18. Interface standards for computer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The ability to configure data systems using modules provided by independent manufacturers is complicated by the wide range of electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics exhibited within the equipment provided by different manufacturers of computers, peripherals, and terminal devices. A number of international organizations were and still are involved in the creation of standards that enable devices to be interconnected with minimal difficulty, usually involving only a cable or data bus connection that is defined by the standard. The elements covered by an interface standard are covered and the most prominent interface standards presently in use are identified and described.

  19. Inhomogeneous interface laser mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Ledger, A M

    1979-09-01

    Methods of improving the durability of thin-film laser mirror coatings for 10.6 microm using thorium fluoride, zinc selenide, and zinc sulfide materials have been investigated. The largest improvement in film durability was obtained by using inhomogeneous interface fabrication for all the dielectric-dielectric interfaces and by incorporating cerium fluoride protective overcoating material into the film design. Experimental results are given for enhanced reflectors, polarization-selective coatings, and buried-grating aperture-sharing coatings designed for high-power laser applications.

  20. A database for TMT interface control documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Roberts, Scott; Brighton, Allan; Rogers, John

    2016-08-01

    The TMT Software System consists of software components that interact with one another through a software infrastructure called TMT Common Software (CSW). CSW consists of software services and library code that is used by developers to create the subsystems and components that participate in the software system. CSW also defines the types of components that can be constructed and their roles. The use of common component types and shared middleware services allows standardized software interfaces for the components. A software system called the TMT Interface Database System was constructed to support the documentation of the interfaces for components based on CSW. The programmer describes a subsystem and each of its components using JSON-style text files. A command interface file describes each command a component can receive and any commands a component sends. The event interface files describe status, alarms, and events a component publishes and status and events subscribed to by a component. A web application was created to provide a user interface for the required features. Files are ingested into the software system's database. The user interface allows browsing subsystem interfaces, publishing versions of subsystem interfaces, and constructing and publishing interface control documents that consist of the intersection of two subsystem interfaces. All published subsystem interfaces and interface control documents are versioned for configuration control and follow the standard TMT change control processes. Subsystem interfaces and interface control documents can be visualized in the browser or exported as PDF files.

  1. Wetting and strength issues at Al/alpha-alumina interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2003-04-15

    The wetting behavior and strength at aluminum/alumina interfaces has been an active subject of research. Al/alumina applications include ceramic-metal composites and several applications for electronic industries. In this paper the interface strength and microstructure of Al/alpha-alumina was investigated. We discovered that in a solid-state joining, the strength of the joint increases with increasing joining temperature. In a liquid-state joining, the strength of the joint gradually decreases due to the formation of unbonded areas. The strength, sigma sub b, is expressed by the following equation as a function of unbonded area, A: sigma sub b = 2.22 A + 143 (70 percent {le} A {le} 100 percent). The highest strength reached 400 MPa when the interface was formed at around the melting temperature of aluminum. An aluminum layer close to the interface became a single crystal when it was bonded to a sapphire. The following crystallographic orientation relationship is established: (1{bar 1}1){sub Al}//(001){sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, (110){sub Al}//<100>{sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Amorphous alumina islands were formed at the interface. In the amorphous alumina, gamma-alumina nanocrystals grew from the sapphire, with the same orientation relationship to sapphire as above.

  2. Coaxial flow-gating interface for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2017-08-01

    A coaxial flow-gating interface is described in which the separation capillary passes through the sampling capillary. Continuous flow of the sample solution flowing out of the sampling capillary is directed away from the injection end of the separation capillary by counter-current flow of the gating solution. During the injection, the flow of the gating solution is interrupted, so that a plug of solution is formed at the inlet into the separation capillary, from which the sample is hydrodynamically injected. Flow-gating interfaces are originally designed for on-line connection of capillary electrophoresis with analytical flow-through methods. The basic properties of the described coaxial flow-gating interface were obtained in a simplified arrangement in which a syringe pump with sample solution has substituted analytical flow-through method. Under the optimized conditions, the properties of the tested interface were determined by separation of K(+) , Ba(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) and Li(+) ions in aqueous solution at equimolar concentrations of 50 μM. The repeatability of the migration times and peak areas evaluated for K(+) , Ba(2+) and Li(+) ions and expressed as relative standard deviation did not exceed 1.4%. The interface was used to determine lithium in mineral water and taurine in an energy drink. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The human/robot interface.

    PubMed

    Wiker, S F

    1993-10-01

    The use of telerobotic technology in space exploration is examined. Early aspirations for anthropomorphic designs and advances in the field are reviewed. The application of human factors engineering to robotics design and the human-machine interface are examined. New strategies in design and automation are presented.

  4. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  5. Human-computer interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  6. The Human Interface Technology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Washington Technology Center.

    This booklet contains information about the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HITL), which was established by the Washington Technology Center at the University of Washington to transform virtual world concepts and research into practical, economically viable technology products. The booklet is divided into seven sections: (1) a brief…

  7. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  8. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  9. Graphical fiber shaping control interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Eric T.; Ninomiya, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved graphical user interface for defining single-pass novel shaping techniques on glass processing machines that allows for streamlined process development. This approach offers unique modularity and debugging capability to researchers during the process development phase not usually afforded with similar scripting languages.

  10. Tapered-Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulin, Elizabeth C.

    1992-01-01

    Two meshing sets of tapered fins used as thermal interface with relatively low clamping forces. When in contact, fins provide large area for transfer of heat. Taper ensures easy mating and demating of fins and transfers clamping force to surfaces in contact; improving contact and transfer of heat. Fins arranged in rows, concentric rings, or other configurations.

  11. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  12. Intelligent interfaces for expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, James A.; Wang, Lui

    1988-01-01

    Vital to the success of an expert system is an interface to the user which performs intelligently. A generic intelligent interface is being developed for expert systems. This intelligent interface was developed around the in-house developed Expert System for the Flight Analysis System (ESFAS). The Flight Analysis System (FAS) is comprised of 84 configuration controlled FORTRAN subroutines that are used in the preflight analysis of the space shuttle. In order to use FAS proficiently, a person must be knowledgeable in the areas of flight mechanics, the procedures involved in deploying a certain payload, and an overall understanding of the FAS. ESFAS, still in its developmental stage, is taking into account much of this knowledge. The generic intelligent interface involves the integration of a speech recognizer and synthesizer, a preparser, and a natural language parser to ESFAS. The speech recognizer being used is capable of recognizing 1000 words of connected speech. The natural language parser is a commercial software package which uses caseframe instantiation in processing the streams of words from the speech recognizer or the keyboard. The systems configuration is described along with capabilities and drawbacks.

  13. Interface Reconstruction with Directional Walking

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J

    2009-05-22

    Young's interface reconstruction with three-dimensional arbitrary mesh, in general, is rather tedious to implement compared to the case of a regular mesh. The main difficulty comes from the construction of a planar facet that bounds a certain volume inside a cell. Unlike the five basic configurations with a Cartesian mesh, there can be a great number of different configurations in the case of a general mesh. We represent a simple method that can derive the topology/geometry of the intersection of arbitrary planar objects in a uniform way. The method is based on a directional walking on the surface of objects, and links the intersection points with the paths of the walking naturally defining the intersection of objects. The method works in both two and three dimensions. The method does not take advantage of convexity, thus decomposition of an object is not necessary. Therefore, the solution with this method will have a reduced number of edges and less data storage, compared with methods that use shape decomposition. The treatment is general for arbitrary polyhedrons, and no look-up tables are needed. The same operation can easily be extended for curved geometry. The implementation of this new algorithm shall allow the interface reconstruction on an arbitrary mesh to be as simple as it is on a regular mesh. Furthermore, we exactly compute the integral of partial cell volume bounded by quadratic interface. Therefore, interface reconstruction with higher than second order accuracy can be achieved on an arbitrary mesh.

  14. Development of Virtual Auditory Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    However, externalized in azimuth and elevation (Wightman & the design of auditory interfaces has lagged behind. Kistler, 1989; Begault & Wenzel, 1993...D.R., Sadralodabai, T., Saberi, K. & Strybel, Begault , D.R. & Wenzel, E.M. (1993). Headphone T.Z. (1991). Aurally aided visual search in the

  15. Coal-rock interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, S. D.; Crouch, C. E.; Jones, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-rock interface detector is presented which employs a radioactive source and radiation sensor. The source and sensor are separately and independently suspended and positioned against a mine surface of hydraulic pistons, which are biased from an air cushioned source of pressurized hydraulic fluid.

  16. Compound semiconductor surfaces and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsen, C. W.

    All semiconductor devices and integrated circuits require dielectric layers for interconnect isolation, gate oxides, passivation, etc. Thermally grown SiO2 is the primary dielectric film for silicon technology. This ONR contract investigated the chemistry and electrical properties of the interface between III-V compound semiconductors and electrical properties of grown and deposited oxides. When this study began, very little was known about these oxides or their interfaces. The results of the research supported by this contract has added substantially to the fundamental understanding of the oxide growth, properties and electronic structure. Much of the experimental work was obtained with surface analytical techniques and significant contributions were also made in this field. The original ONR contract began in October 1975 and initially concentrated on the grown oxides of InP and GaAs. This work evolved over the years to include the study of deposited insulator/InP interfaces and trapping at the interface. The ONR contract has supported the publication of 31 journal articles and book chapters and numerous conference presentations.

  17. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  18. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  19. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  20. Geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Zou, Jianwei; Tian, Feifei; Shang, Zhicai

    2009-12-01

    A new method is described to measure the geometric similarity between protein-RNA interfaces quantitatively. The method is based on a procedure that dissects the interface geometry in terms of the spatial relationships between individual amino acid nucleotide pairs. Using this technique, we performed an all-on-all comparison of 586 protein-RNA interfaces deposited in the current Protein Data Bank, as the result, an interface-interface similarity score matrix was obtained. Based upon this matrix, hierarchical clustering was carried out which yielded a complete clustering tree for the 586 protein-RNA interfaces. By investigating the organizing behavior of the clustering tree and the SCOP classification of protein partners in complexes, a geometrically nonredundant, diverse data set (representative data set) consisting of 45 distinct protein-RNA interfaces was extracted for the purpose of studying protein-RNA interactions, RNA regulations, and drug design. We classified protein-RNA interfaces into three types. In type I, the families and interface structural classes of the protein partners, as well as the interface geometries are all similar. In type II, the interface geometries and the interface structural classes are similar, whereas the protein families are different. In type III, only the interface geometries are similar but the protein families and the interface structural classes are distinct. Furthermore, we also show two new RNA recognition themes derived from the representative data set.