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Sample records for pci express interface

  1. A flexible compatible PCI interface for nuclear experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.; Engels, R.; Reinartz, R.; Reinhart, P.; Rongen, F.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper a PCI Initiator/Target Interface is introduced, where a single chip design (XILINX XC4010E) is used to implement a PCI Local Bus Interface, revision 2.1, protocol and timing compliance. The flexible design can be easily adapted for specific interface requirements. This interface card was used for some physical applications, reading data from 2-dimensional scintillation detectors, and different types of ADCs. It was tested with data sampling rates of up to 0.7 MS/s. The collected data can be compared with look up table contents controlling acceptance or rejection of data. The I/O space registers are used for control signals, Run, Stop, Read Status, and Write the memory base address in the Target Mode. The Initiator Mode is used to read and write data from and to the memory. The design configuration is loaded into the XILNX chip from an EPROM in a master parallel mode. The EPROM is reloaded by the XILINX chip through the read and write Target commands of the PCI memory space. More than 40% of the chip area is available for the application logic.

  2. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  3. PCI express bus design of large format array IRFPA high-speed acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zewu; Zheng, Xing; Zeng, Xingxin; Liu, Ziji

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel solution of PCI Express Bus was designed to improve the data transfer rate for large format array infrared imaging acquisition system. In this structure, an embedded PCI Express hard intellectual property (IP) block of Stratix IV GX FPGA was used, and the protocol stack module is totally compliant with PCI Express base specification Gen 2.0 which includes PHY-MAC, Data Link, and transaction layers. In order to communicate with CPU through computer PCIe root port, a pipeline structure was established with two SSRAMs to carry out the function of real-time data process. The DMA mode was adopted for the high-speed data transmission on the PCI Express Bus. Some other control logic parts such as detector drive signal generator - display controller and PCIe configuration module were also designed and introduced in this paper. According to the evaluation, the data transmission speed was up to 5.6Gbps, which means that this system could meet the qualifications of infrared imaging data acquisition. Compared with traditional infrared imaging data acquisition systems, this solution is more integrated and faster, so it is suitable for larger format and higher frame rate of infrared focal plane image acquisition in nowadays and future.

  4. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  5. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems.

  6. The Evaluation of Plasma and Leukocytic IL-37 Expression in Early Inflammation in Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Xiangna; Chen, Lan; Xu, Duanmin; Li, Jilin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ASTEMI) is accompanied by increased expression of inflammation and decreased expression of anti-inflammation. IL-37 was found to be involved in the atherosclerosis-related diseases and increased in acute coronary syndrome. However, the level of IL-37 in blood plasma and leukocytes from patients with ASTEMI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been explored. Methods. We collected peripheral venous blood from consented patients at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after PCI and healthy volunteers. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, IL-18-binding protein (BP), and high sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP) were quantified by ELISA and leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 by immunoblotting. Results. Plasma IL-37, IL-18, and IL-18 BP expression decreased compared to those in healthy volunteers while hs-CRP level was high. Both leukocytic IL-37 and ICAM-1 were highest expressed at 12 h point but significantly decreased at 48 h point. Conclusion. These findings suggest L-37 does not play an important role in the systematic inflammatory response but may be involved in leukocytic inflammation in ASTEMI after PCI. PMID:25960620

  7. Bioresorbable Stents in PCI.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Daniel; James, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention has been considerable. Coronary stents were introduced to avoid vessel recoil and reduce acute and late vessel complications. Later, drug-eluting stents were developed to decrease the neointimal hyperplasia associated with bare metal stents in order to reduce restenosis. However, very late stent thrombosis remains problematic, and the permanent presence of a metal stent could be associated with local inflammation and impaired vascular physiology. Thus, bioresorbable stents have been developed, to prevent recoil initially when this risk is the highest, with subsequent degradation over time, to avoid long-term complications of the presence of stents in the coronary vasculature. Here, we review the current status of bioresorbable stents in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with focus on the platforms that have been studied the most: ABSORB, DESolve, and DREAMS. In terms of clinical outcomes, bioresorbable stents have not yet shown superiority compared with current generation drug-eluting stents, but rather a signal of increased stent thrombosis. Further development and longer-term studies are needed before the routine implementation of bioresorbable stents in clinical practice. PMID:27312934

  8. PCI bus bridge for MC680x0-based computer system using PLD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewski, Grzegorz

    2004-07-01

    Peripherial Connect Interface (PCI) is a well established industry standard bus used for connecting CPU to peripherial devices. PCI gives access to many good quality and inexpensive peripherials. There are plenty of PCI host bridge chips for commonly used CPUs like x86 compatible or PowerPC. It is sometimes necessary to interface PCI device with an older or specific computer systems based on other processors, to expand their capabilities. If dedicated bridge chip is not available (or even do not exists) the bus can be interfaced via PLD integrated circuits. The paper describes ad-on PCI bridgeboard for Amiga 4000 computer (based on Motorola MC68060 CPU), designed with Altera MAX7000 PLD chips.

  9. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  10. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance. PMID:12349572

  11. A low cost PCI-VME controller for control and data acquisition systems on fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A universal hardware interface system that allows the transparent use of digital instrumentation of different buses has been developed using the VMEbus as the host platform. In this article a new controller for the VME system, based on a desktop-type PCI Pentium motherboard and a locally developed PCI-VME interconnector is described. This interconnector is composed of two boards, which are connected by an ac-terminated flexible cable and inserted into slots of the PCI motherboard and VME crate. This system decreases the cost of the global system and permits low priced and modular upgradeability. The software drivers have been developed for a UNIX environment using the LINUX-LAB project in a user-friendly approach.

  12. Evidence of Systematic Duplication by New PCI Programs

    PubMed Central

    Concannon, Thomas W.; Nelson, Jason; Kent, David M.; Griffith, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that recent and projected future investments in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) programs at U.S. hospitals fail to increase access to timely reperfusion for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and Results We set out to estimate the annual number and costs of new PCI programs in U.S. hospitals from 2004–2008, and to identify the characteristics of hospitals, neighborhoods and states where new PCI programs have been introduced. We estimated a discrete-time hazard model to measure the influence of these characteristics on a hospital’s decision to introduce a new PCI program. In 2008, 1739 U.S. hospitals were capable of performing PCI, a relative increase of 16.5% (251 hospitals) over 2004. The percent of the U.S. population with projected access to timely PCI grew by 1.8%. New PCI programs were more likely to be introduced in areas that already had a PCI program with more competition for market share, near populations with higher rates of private insurance, in states that had weak or no regulation of new cardiac catheterization labs, and in wealthier and larger hospitals. Conclusions Our data show that new PCI programs were systematically duplicative of existing programs and did not help patients gain access to timely PCI. The total cost of recent U.S. investments in new PCI programs is large and of questionable value for patients. PMID:23838110

  13. PCI-based WILDFIRE reconfigurable computing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fross, Bradley K.; Donaldson, Robert L.; Palmer, Douglas J.

    1996-10-01

    WILDFORCE is the first PCI-based custom reconfigurable computer that is based on the Splash 2 technology transferred from the National Security Agency and the Institute for Defense Analyses, Supercomputing Research Center (SRC). The WILDFORCE architecture has many of the features of the WILDFIRE computer, such as field- programmable gate array (FPGA) based processing elements, linear array and crossbar interconnection, and high- performance memory and I/O subsystems. New features introduced in the PCI-based WILDFIRE systems include memory/processor options that can be added to any processing element. These options include static and dynamic memory, digital signal processors (DSPs), FPGAs, and microprocessors. In addition to memory/processor options, many different application specific connectors can be used to extend the I/O capabilities of the system, including systolic I/O, camera input and video display output. This paper also discusses how this new PCI-based reconfigurable computing engine is used for rapid-prototyping, real-time video processing and other DSP applications.

  14. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  15. Expression of PAPPA2 in human fetomaternal interface and involvement in trophoblast invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Zhang, Z; Yu, S

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A 2 (PAPPA2) is a placental-enriched gene that is important for normal human placentation and defects in the gene can cause complications in pregnancy. Yet the exact expression pattern and role of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface are not clear. In this study, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to examine the spatial and temporal expression of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface. IHC results exhibited wide expression of PAPPA2 in the fetomaternal interface, with placental syncytiatrophoblast (STB) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) showing strong expression and the cytotrophoblast (CTB) showing weak expression of PAPPA2. These results were confirmed by ISH. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot showed the elevation of PAPPA2 in first trimester EVT differentiation and term CTB spontaneous syncytialization. PAPPA2-siRNA transfection significantly depressed the invasion and migration ability of a trophoblast cell line (HTR8/SVneo) in a transwell migration and Matrigel invasion model compared to a negative control siRNA (P < 0.05), also revealing that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) secretion is downregulated. This was confirmed using a human first trimester placental villi explant culture model. Our results reveal the spatial and temporal expression of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface and show the positive regulatory role of PAPPA2 in human trophoblast invasion and migration through the secretion of MMP9. PMID:27525857

  16. [Current strategy in PCI for CTO].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Yasushi

    2011-02-01

    Recently, CTO PCI has come into wide use all over the world and it has been standardized. The 1st step is an antegrade approach using single wire. The 2nd strategy would be parallel wire technique. And the next would be a retrograde approach. In this method, retrograde wiring with Corsair is done at first. If it is successful, externalization is established using 300 cm wire, and this system is able to provide strong back-up support. If it fails, reverse CART technique is the next step. IVUS guided wiring is a last resort. The 2nd wire is manipulated with IVUS guidance. Now, initial success rate is more than 90% with these methods.

  17. Interventional cardiology. Nonprimary PCI at centres without onsite surgical backup.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Hiroki; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    A new systematic review and meta-analysis by Lee and colleagues confirms the safety of nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at centres without onsite surgical backup. In daily clinical practice at PCI centres without onsite surgical facilities, quality assurance and improvement programmes are important to ensure high-quality care.

  18. RuvBL2 Is Involved in Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PCI-24781-Induced Cell Death in SK-N-DZ Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Lu, Yonghai; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor diagnosed during infancy. The survival rate among children with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 40%, highlighting the urgent needs for new treatment strategies. PCI-24781 is a novel hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has high efficacy and safety for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of PCI-24781 are not clearly elucidated in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PCI-24781 treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at very low doses in neuroblastoma cells SK-N-DZ, not in normal cell line HS-68. However, PCI-24781 caused the accumulation of acetylated histone H3 both in SK-N-DZ and HS-68 cell line. Treatment of SK-N-DZ with PCI-24781 also induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and activated apoptosis signaling pathways via the up-regulation of DR4, p21, p53 and caspase 3. Further proteomic analysis revealed differential protein expression profiles between non-treated and PCI-24781 treated SK-N-DZ cells. Totally 42 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system. Western blotting confirmed the expression level of five candidate proteins including prohibitin, hHR23a, RuvBL2, TRAP1 and PDCD6IP. Selective knockdown of RuvBL2 rescued cells from PCI-24781-induced cell death, implying that RuvBL2 might play an important role in anti-tumor activity of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cells. The present results provide a new insight into the potential mechanism of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cell line. PMID:23977108

  19. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin; O’Brien, Susan

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell survival. Many kinases in the BCR signaling pathway are currently being studied as potential therapeutic targets. These include Lyn, Syk, PI3 and Bruton tyrosine (BTK). Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is a novel first-in-class selective inhibitor of BTK. Preclinical evidence suggests that ibrutinib inhibits CLL cell survival and proliferation. In addition, it also affects CLL cell migration and homing. Early clinical data in CLL and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients is very encouraging. In relapsed-refractory patients with CLL, a 67% response rate was observed (420mg dose cohort) with single-agent ibrutinib. Long-term follow-up of these studies and other ongoing/planned studies of ibrutinib either as single-agent or in combination with monoclonal antibodies and chemoimmunotherapy is eagerly awaited. It is likely that ibrutinib and other drugs targeting the BCR pathway will become an integral component of CLL therapy. PMID:23915749

  20. Acquisition of the syntax–discourse interface: The expression of point of view

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposal that the syntax–discourse interface is particularly vulnerable, and therefore components of this interface are acquired later than those of the syntax–semantics interface. The proposal is examined using data from the native language acquisition of markers of point of view in American Sign Language and Brazilian Sign Language, known as constructed action (CA). CA was observed in the spontaneous production of two case studies from as early as 1 year, 7 months of age, with the correct eye-gaze, facial expression, and manner of movement. However, the children sometimes failed to indicate the referent whose point of view was being expressed, and were not skilled at maintaining point of view marking across discourse. The results are interpreted as providing support for the vulnerability of the syntax–discourse interface, and for the interpretation of this vulnerability in connection with children’s relatively poor ability to assume an identical discourse context with their interlocutor. PMID:21528016

  1. [Military assistance in transportation of patients for an emergency PCI intervention].

    PubMed

    Rothmann, Susani; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Eriksen, Jon Lindskov

    2011-12-01

    Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or fibrinolysis. pPCI is superior to fibrinolysis when initiated timely. However, geography and weather sometimes become obstacles for transporting the patient to a PCI centre. In this case story teamwork between hospital instances and the military enabled transport to a PCI centre for a PCI intervention even though the weather conditions were unfavourable.

  2. Phase correlation imaging (PCI) for cell dynamics investigation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihong; Gannavarpu, Rajshekhar; Wang, Ru; Bhaduri, Basanta; Sridharan, Shamira; Mir, Mustafa A.; Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Supriya G.; Millet, Larry; Gillette, Martha U.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    We present a new method, referred to as phase correlation imaging (PCI), to study cell dynamics and function through temporal phase correlation analysis. PCI offers label-free, high-performance, simple-design, as well as suitability for operation in a conventional microscopy setting. PCI works without the need for controlled or synchronized photoactivation and sophisticated acquisition schemes, and only involves taking a sequence of phase images. The PCI image incorporates information on the phase fluctuations induced by both Brownian motion and deterministic motion of intracellular transport across large scales. We employed spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) recently developed in our laboratory to experimentally measure quantitative phase information which renders the thickness and refractive index of cellular components without adding contrast agents. The acquisition process is repeated to obtain time-lapse phase images. We calculate the correlation time at each pixel for acquired time-lapse phase images and obtain the correlation time map in space. By temporal correlation analysis, PCI reveals cell dynamics information, which is complementary to quantitative phase imaging itself.

  3. PCI card with DMA capabilities for digital imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Viviana; Marzeddu, Roberto; Randaccio, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    A readout card based on the standard PCI 32-bit/33 MHz bus has been developed for the fast readout of digital systems. The PCI card exploits a PCI bridge chip with Direct Memory Access (DMA) capabilities which permits to obtain a measured throughput up to 90 Mbytes/s. The PCI card has two high-density 80-pin connectors for data I/O; an external system acquisition card can be connected through two flat cables. A powerful programmable logic FPGA provides the management of the I/O lines; by default, 32 input and 32 output single-ended lines (CMOS) plus six LVDS lines are provided, but the FPGA allows several different I/O configurations depending on the specific application requirements. Another programmable device manages the control and status signals of the local bus and the Synchronous Static RAM available for data storage. Due to its main features like the configurable I/O patterns and the high throughput, this PCI card is suitable for applications like the fast readout of imaging acquisition systems.

  4. Expression pattern of CD34 at the maternal-foetal interface during pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hong, L; Hou, C; Li, X; Li, C; Yu, M

    2013-10-01

    The pig exhibits a non-invasive, epitheliochorial placentation. Adhesion molecules are indispensable for successful implantation and establishment of placentation. CD34 is an adhesion molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). To take the first step to investigate the role of CD34 in placentation, we examined the expression pattern of CD34 at the maternal-foetal interface in Yorkshire gilts on days 15, 26, 50 or 95 and in Meishan gilts on days 26, 50 or 95 of pregnancy (n = 3 gilts/breed/day of pregnancy) by immunohistochemical technique. The CD34-positive signals were detected in uterine luminal epithelium and trophectoderm in Yorkshire pigs; the staining for CD34 was located in trophectoderm but barely detectable at the uterine luminal epithelium on day 15 of pregnancy. Then, the expression of CD34 increased dramatically in both the uterine luminal epithelium and trophectoderm by day 26, and weak staining intensity was observed at the maternal-foetal interface on days 50 and 95 of pregnancy. The expression pattern of CD34 in Meishan pigs is similar to that in Yorkshire pigs except that only a few positive signals were observed at the luminal epithelium on day 26 of pregnancy. These results suggest that CD34 may be involved in mediating the cell-to-cell adhesion between trophectoderm and the luminal epithelial cells during early pregnancy in pigs.

  5. An optimized ERP brain-computer interface based on facial expression changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Interferences from spatially adjacent non-target stimuli are known to evoke event-related potentials (ERPs) during non-target flashes and, therefore, lead to false positives. This phenomenon was commonly seen in visual attention-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using conspicuous stimuli and is known to adversely affect the performance of BCI systems. Although users try to focus on the target stimulus, they cannot help but be affected by conspicuous changes of the stimuli (such as flashes or presenting images) which were adjacent to the target stimulus. Furthermore, subjects have reported that conspicuous stimuli made them tired and annoyed. In view of this, the aim of this study was to reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue using a new stimulus presentation pattern based upon facial expression changes. Our goal was not to design a new pattern which could evoke larger ERPs than the face pattern, but to design a new pattern which could reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue, and evoke ERPs as good as those observed during the face pattern. Approach. Positive facial expressions could be changed to negative facial expressions by minor changes to the original facial image. Although the changes are minor, the contrast is big enough to evoke strong ERPs. In this paper, a facial expression change pattern between positive and negative facial expressions was used to attempt to minimize interference effects. This was compared against two different conditions, a shuffled pattern containing the same shapes and colours as the facial expression change pattern, but without the semantic content associated with a change in expression, and a face versus no face pattern. Comparisons were made in terms of classification accuracy and information transfer rate as well as user supplied subjective measures. Main results. The results showed that interferences from adjacent stimuli, annoyance and the fatigue experienced by the subjects could be

  6. Regulation of protein C inhibitor (PCI) activity by specific oxidized and negatively charged phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Malleier, Julia M; Oskolkova, Olga; Bochkov, Valery; Jerabek, Ingrid; Sokolikova, Barbora; Perkmann, Thomas; Breuss, Johannes; Binder, Bernd R; Geiger, Margarethe

    2007-06-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with affinity for heparin and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We analyzed the interaction of PCI with different phospholipids and their oxidized forms. PCI bound to oxidized PE (OxPE), and oxidized and unoxidized phosphatidylserine (PS) immobilized on microtiter plates and in aqueous suspension. Binding to OxPE and PS was competed by heparin, but not by the aminophospholipid-binding protein annexin V or the PCI-binding lipid retinoic acid. PS and OxPE stimulated the inhibition of activated protein C (aPC) by PCI in a Ca(++)-dependent manner, indicating that binding of both, aPC (Ca(++) dependent) and PCI (Ca(++) independent), to phospholipids is necessary. A peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding site of PCI abolished the stimulatory effect of PS on aPC inhibition. No stimulatory effect of phospholipids on aPC inhibition was seen with a PCI mutant lacking the heparin-binding site. A heparin-like effect of phospholipids (OxPE) was not seen with antithrombin III, another heparin-binding serpin, suggesting that it is specific for PCI. PCI and annexin V were found to be endogenously colocalized in atherosclerotic plaques, supporting the hypothesis that exposure of oxidized PE and/or PS may be important for the local regulation of PCI activity in vivo.

  7. Cilostazol and primary-PCI: mirage or good alternative?

    PubMed

    Porto, Italo; D'Amario, Domenico; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    Oral anti-platelet agents targeting the platelet P2Y12 receptor are an integral component of treating patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Advancements in the design of stents and catheters are pushing the technique towards treatment of high risk lesions whose failure would expose patients to catastrophic events. Success of these complex procedures largely lays on efficacy of anti-platelet drugs and the limitation of stent restenosis and/or thrombosis. Clopidogrel has been the most commonly used agent in this respect worldwide. However, there are certain shortcomings of clopidogrel, the most important of which is the wide response variability of platelet inhibition. Thus, clinicians are facing challenges in treating patients where high inhibition of platelets is necessary and the response to clopidogrel may be insufficient. In the last few years, cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor, has been tested in the setting of acute coronary syndromes: it exerts not only anti-platelet actions, but also pleiotropic effects, including inhibition on neointimal hyperplasia, therefore preventing both stent restenosis and thrombosis. Therefore, cilostazol may be considered, on top of our current anti-platelet therapy, as a potential candidate to achieve optimal platelet inhibition especially in patients undergoing primary-PCI (p-PCI) or high risk procedures. This review will focus on the pharmacological characteristics of cilostazol and the initial evidences that support the use of this drug in the setting of p-PCI. PMID:22329616

  8. A high-rate PCI-based telemetry processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, R.

    2002-07-01

    The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are based on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-rate data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data rate signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system based on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-based telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required rate.

  9. Gene expression of four adhesive proteins in the early healing of bone defect and bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Xia, Haibin; Wang, Yining; Peng, Cong; Li, Yuhong; Pan, Xinhua

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of four bone-related adhesive proteins during the early healing of bone defect and bone-implant interface in animal experiments. T-shaped hollow pure titanium implants with dual acid-etched surfaces were placed into femurs of 17 Sprague-Dawley rats, and bone defects with the same size were made in the same site in 15 rats. Newly formed bone was harvested at 5 days, 8 days and 16 days respectively. The gene expression of fibronectin (FN), collagen I (COL I), bone sialoprotein II (BSP II) and osteopontin (OPN) in non-implant and bone-implant defects were examined using semi-quantity reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The gene expression of OPN in the non-implant defect was slightly higher than that in the bone-implant interface. At 8 days postoperation, FN, COL I and BSP II expression were significantly up-regulated in the bone-implant group. All four proteins peaked at 8 days. The results indicate that the gene expression of the four adhesive proteins is different between bone defect and bone-implant interface. Intracellular synthesis of FN, COL I and BSP II was accelerated in the early healing stages of the bone-implant interface. PMID:17946089

  10. Photochemical internalization (PCI) enhanced nonviral transfection of tumor suppressor and pro-drug activating genes; a potential treatment modality for gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen; Kwon, Young Jik; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate the utility of photochemical internalization for the enhanced nonviral transfection of genes into cells. We have examined, in detail, the evaluation of photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral introduction of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and the PCI mediated transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) pro drug activating gene into glioma cell monolayers and multi-cell tumor spheroids. Expression of the CD gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

  11. Mössbauer spectrometer as a virtual instrument in the PXI/Compact PCI modular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechousek, J.; Mashlan, M.

    2005-07-01

    A new programming method has been used for building a computer-based Mössbauer spectrometer. Data acquisition is realized via two commercially available PXI/Compact-PCI modules or PCI devices which are supported by relevant software drivers. Both modules, the digital oscilloscope NI 5102 and the function generator NI 5401 (National Instruments Inc.), can be used in the PXI or PC standard. The synchronization between the velocity signal generation and the impulse detection is controlled by a RTSI (Real-Time System Integration) bus. A virtual Mössbauer spectrometer is implemented by the graphical programming language called LabVIEW 7 Express. The amplitude selection of impulses from the detector output is realized with an assistance of the Waveform Peak Detection.vi function. The sampling rate of the detector output signal and the frequency of the velocity signal determinate the number of registration channels of measured Mössbauer spectrum. The Mössbauer spectra can be accumulated in the constant or variable velocity modes; moreover, there is a possibility to register gamma-ray spectra in the multichannel analyzer mode.

  12. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  13. Genetic identification of two major modifier loci of polycystic kidney disease progression in pcy mice.

    PubMed Central

    Woo, D D; Nguyen, D K; Khatibi, N; Olsen, P

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the uniform disease progression in inbred animals, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) progression within human families can be highly variable. This may be due to environmental or genetic factors or both. To determine if PKD severity can be influenced by modifier genes, we carried out an intercross between DBA/2-pcy/pcy and Mus m. castaneous involving 3,105 6-wk-old F2 mice. Large differences in PKD severity were observed in this cross. In addition, 23/ 800 phenotypically normal mice were pcy/pcy genotypically. These results demonstrated that PKD progression in pcy/ pcy mice is a quantitative trait that is strongly modulated by modifier genes. Whole genome quantitative trait loci mapping of 114 selected pcy/pcy mice (68 with the mild PKD and 46 with severe PKD) identified two loci, MOP1 and MOP2 that strongly modulate PKD progression. MOP1 (max LOD score = 10.3 at D4Mit111) and MOP2 (max LOD score = 13.8 at D16Mit1) accounted for 36.7 and 46.8% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Two-factor ANOVA of the phenotypes and genotypes of all 673 pcy/pcy mice from our cross indicated that MOP1 and MOP2 alleles regulate PKD progression in a complex additive manner. Characterization of these novel modifying loci may provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of polycystic kidney diseases. PMID:9329956

  14. Size Regulation in the Segmentation of Drosophila: Interacting Interfaces between Localized Domains of Gene Expression Ensure Robust Spatial Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Manu; Reinitz, John; Radulescu, Ovidiu

    2009-10-01

    We propose a new mechanism for robust biological patterning. The mechanism bears analogy to interface dynamics in condensed media. We apply this method to study how gene networks control segmentation of Drosophila. The proposed model is minimal involving only 4 genes and a morphogen gradient. We discuss experimental data for which developmental genes are expressed within domains spatially limited by kinks (interfaces) and the gene interaction scheme contains both weak and strong repulsion. We show how kink-kink interactions can be calculated from the gene interactions and how the gene interaction scheme ensures the control of proportions (size regulation).

  15. Genetic mapping of the polycystic kidney gene, pcy, on mouse chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Shizuko; Ogiso, Noboru; Takahashi, Hisahide

    1995-12-01

    The murine polycystic kidney disease gene, pcy, is an autosomal recessive trait located on chromosome 9. To determine the genetic locus of pcy, 222 intraspecific backcross mice were obtained by mating C57BL/6FG-pcy and Mus molossinus. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 70 of the 222 backcross progeny showed that pcy, dilute coat color (d), and cholecystokinin (Cck) were located in the order d-pcy-Cck from the centromere. Simple sequence repeat length polymorphism analysis of DNA of all 222 backcross mice was carried out using four markers which were located near the central regions of d and Cck. One and eight recombinations were detected between D9Mit24 and pcy and between D9Mit16 and pcy, respectively. However, no recombinant was observed among pcy, D9Mit14, and D9Mit148. These findings strongly suggest that D9Mit14 and D9Mit148 are located near the pcy gene and are good markers for chromosomal walking to this gene. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato. PMID:27246499

  17. Type VII Collagen Expression in the Human Vitreoretinal Interface, Corpora Amylacea and Inner Retinal Layers.

    PubMed

    Wullink, Bart; Pas, Hendri H; Van der Worp, Roelofje J; Kuijer, Roel; Los, Leonoor I

    2015-01-01

    Type VII collagen, as a major component of anchoring fibrils found at basement membrane zones, is crucial in anchoring epithelial tissue layers to their underlying stroma. Recently, type VII collagen was discovered in the inner human retina by means of immunohistochemistry, while proteomic investigations demonstrated type VII collagen at the vitreoretinal interface of chicken. Because of its potential anchoring function at the vitreoretinal interface, we further assessed the presence of type VII collagen at this site. We evaluated the vitreoretinal interface of human donor eyes by means of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blotting. Firstly, type VII collagen was detected alongside vitreous fibers6 at the vitreoretinal interface. Because of its known anchoring function, it is likely that type VII collagen is involved in vitreoretinal attachment. Secondly, type VII collagen was found within cytoplasmic vesicles of inner retinal cells. These cells resided most frequently in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. Thirdly, type VII collagen was found in astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, known as corpora amylacea. The intraretinal presence of type VII collagen was confirmed by Western blotting of homogenized retinal preparations. These data add to the understanding of vitreoretinal attachment, which is important for a better comprehension of common vitreoretinal attachment pathologies.

  18. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  19. Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography and Hospital-Level PCI Appropriateness: Insights from the NCDR®

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Steven M.; Spertus, John A.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Chan, Paul S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Bryson, Chris L.; Malenka, David J.; Rumsfeld, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Diagnostic coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients may lead to inappropriate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to a diagnostic to therapeutic cascade. Understanding the relationship between patient selection for coronary angiography and PCI appropriateness may inform strategies to minimize inappropriate procedures. Objective To determine if hospitals that frequently perform coronary angiography in asymptomatic patients, a clinical scenario wherein the benefit of angiography is less clear, are more likely to perform inappropriate PCI. Design, Setting and Participants Multicenter observational study of 544 hospitals participating in the CathPCI Registry® between July 2009 and September 2013. Measures Hospital proportion of asymptomatic patients at diagnostic coronary angiography and a hospital's rate of inappropriate PCI, as defined by 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for coronary revascularization. Results Of 1,225,562 patients who underwent elective coronary angiography, 308,083 (25.1%) were asymptomatic. The hospital proportion of angiograms in asymptomatic patients ranged from 1.0% to 73.6% (median 24.7%, interquartile range 15.9% to 35.9%). By hospital quartiles of asymptomatic patients at angiography, hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography had higher median rates of inappropriate PCI (14.8% vs. 20.2% vs. 24.0 vs. 29.4% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). This was attributable to more frequent use of PCI in asymptomatic patients at hospitals with higher rates of angiography in asymptomatic patients (inappropriate and asymptomatic PCI; 5.4% vs. 9.9% vs. 14.7% vs. 21.6% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Hospitals with higher rates of asymptomatic patients at angiography also had lower rates of appropriate PCI (38.6% vs. 33.0% vs. 32.3% vs. 32.9%% from lowest to highest quartile, P<.001 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance In a national sample of hospitals, performing coronary

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  1. Integrative transcriptome meta-analysis reveals widespread sex-biased gene expression at the human fetal–maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Buckberry, Sam; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Bent, Stephen J.; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2014-01-01

    As males and females share highly similar genomes, the regulation of many sexually dimorphic traits is constrained to occur through sex-biased gene regulation. There is strong evidence that human males and females differ in terms of growth and development in utero and that these divergent growth strategies appear to place males at increased risk when in sub-optimal conditions. Since the placenta is the interface of maternal–fetal exchange throughout pregnancy, these developmental differences are most likely orchestrated by differential placental function. To date, progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in placental gene expression. Therefore, our motivation in this study was to characterize sex-biased gene expression in the human placenta. We obtained gene expression data for >300 non-pathological placenta samples from 11 microarray datasets and applied mapping-based array probe re-annotation and inverse-variance meta-analysis methods which showed that >140 genes (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05) are differentially expressed between male and female placentae. A majority of these genes (>60%) are autosomal, many of which are involved in high-level regulatory processes such as gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation and hormonal function. Of particular interest, we detected higher female expression from all seven genes in the LHB-CGB cluster, which includes genes involved in placental development, the maintenance of pregnancy and maternal immune tolerance of the conceptus. These results demonstrate that sex-biased gene expression in the normal human placenta occurs across the genome and includes genes that are central to growth, development and the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24867328

  2. Use and outcome of thrombus aspiration in patients with primary PCI for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the multinational Euro Heart Survey PCI Registry.

    PubMed

    Weipert, Kay F; Bauer, Timm; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2016-09-01

    The clinical benefit of thrombus aspiration (TA) in patients presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not well defined. Furthermore, there is a large variation in the use of TA in real-world registries. Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 7146 consecutive patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI were prospectively enrolled into the PCI Registry of the Euro Heart Survey Programme. For the present analysis, patients treated additionally with TA (n = 897, 12.6 %) were compared with those without TA (n = 6249, 87.4 %). Patients with hemodynamic instability at initial presentation (15.1 vs. 11.0 %; p < 0.001) and resuscitation prior to PCI (10.4 vs. 7.4 %; p = 0.002) were more frequently treated with TA. TIMI flow grade 0/1 before PCI was more often found among those with TA (73.5 vs. 58.6 %; p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding factors in the propensity score analysis, TA was not associated with improved in-hospital survival (risk difference -1.1 %, 95 % confidence interval -2.7 to 0.6 %). In this European real-world registry, the rate of TA use was low. Hemodynamically unstable patients were more likely to be treated with TA. Consistent with the results of the TASTE study and the TOTAL trial, TA was not associated with a significant reduction in short-term mortality.

  3. Expression of Cell Competition Markers at the Interface between p53 Signature and Normal Epithelium in the Human Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Masahiko; Maeda, Daichi; Kudo-Asabe, Yukitsugu; Sato, Naoki; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Terada, Yukihiro; Goto, Akiteru

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence regarding cell competition between normal and mutant mammalian cells, which suggest that it may play a defensive role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. In vitro study in the past has shown that overexpression of vimentin in normal epithelial cells at the contact surface with transformed cells is essential for the cell competition involved in epithelial defense against cancer. In this study, we attempted to examine cell competition in human tissue in vivo by investigating surgically resected human fallopian tubes that contain p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), a linear expansion of p53-immunopositive/TP53 mutant tubal epithelial cells that are considered as precursors of pelvic high grade serous carcinoma. Immunofluorescence double staining for p53 and the cell competition marker vimentin was performed in 21 sections of human fallopian tube tissue containing 17 p53 signatures and 4 STILs. The intensities of vimentin expression at the interface between p53-positive cells at the end of the p53 signature/STIL and adjacent p53-negative normal tubal epithelial cells were compared with the background tubal epithelium. As a result, the average vimentin intensity at the interfaces relative to the background intensity was 1.076 (95% CI, 0.9412 – 1.211 for p53 signature and 0.9790 (95% CI, 0.7206 – 1.237) for STIL. Thus, it can be concluded that overexpression of the cell competition marker vimentin are not observed in human tissue with TP53 alterations. PMID:27258067

  4. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  5. Comparison of the radial and femoral approaches in left main PCI: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ziakas, A; Klinke, P; Mildenberger, R; Fretz, E; Williams, M B; Della Siega, A; Kinloch, R D; Hilton, J D

    2004-03-01

    Transradial percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a safe and effective method of percutaneous revascularization. However, there are no data on the efficacy of the transradial approach in left main (LM) PCI. We studied 80 patients (pts) who underwent LM PCI between February 1994 and January 2002, and compared the radial (27 pts) and femoral (53 pts) approaches. Patients were considered free of restenosis if they were free of angina and had a negative treadmill or nuclear imaging study 6 months post-PCI. Mean follow-up time was 27.4+/-23.0 months. Reason for PCI (stable angina, unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction) and lesion location (ostial, mid, distal) were similar in both groups (p>0.05), whereas mean ejection fraction was higher in the radial group (56.5+/-11.1% versus 49.2+/-14.7%, respectively; p<0.05). Sheath size (7 or 8 French; 44.4% radial versus 77.3% femoral) and amount of heparin used (9,192+/-3,645 IU versus 11,468+/-5,083 IU) were significantly larger in the femoral group (p<0.05), and the use of intra-aortic balloon pump was significantly more frequent (3.7% versus 22.6%). Mean fluoroscopy time (21.3+/-12.8 minutes versus 16.7+/-8.5 minutes), amount of contrast used (227+/-92 ml versus 225+/-85 ml), mean procedural time (67.0+/-27.6 minutes versus 73.4+/-32.7 minutes), procedure success (96.3% versus 98.1%), in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE; 7.4% versus 5.6%) and 6-month MACE (14.8% versus 25.5%) were similar in the 2 groups (p>0.05). However, major vascular complications occurred only in the femoral group (5.7%). Radial LM PCI is as fast and successful as the femoral approach and results in fewer vascular complications.

  6. Hospital PCI Appropriateness and In-Hospital Procedural Outcomes: Insights from the NCDR®

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Steven M.; Chan, Paul S.; Spertus, John A.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Patel, Manesh R.; Anderson, H. Vernon; Ting, Henry H.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Measurement of hospital quality has traditionally focused on processes of care and post-procedure outcomes. Appropriateness measures for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) assess quality as it relates to patient selection in the context of anticipated benefits relative to potential harm. The association, if any, between patient selection for PCI and processes of care and post-procedural outcomes is unknown. Defining whether these measures are redundant or complementary can inform the optimal range of metrics for monitoring quality. Methods We included patients undergoing non-acute (elective) PCI within the NCDR CathPCI Registry® between July 2009 and April 2011. We examined the association between a hospital’s proportion of non-acute PCIs categorized as inappropriate by the 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Coronary Revascularization and in-hospital mortality, bleeding complications, and use of optimal guideline-directed medical therapy at discharge (i.e. aspirin, thienopyridines, and statins). Results A total of 203,531 non-acute PCIs from 779 hospitals were classified by the AUC. Of these, 101,779 (50.0%) were classified as appropriate, 77,220 (35.5%) as uncertain, and 24,532 (12.1%) as inappropriate. When categorized as hospital tertiles, the range of inappropriate PCI was 0.0 to 8.1% in the lowest-tertile, 8.1 to 15.2% in the middle-tertile, and 15.2 to 58.6% in the highest-tertile. Compared with lowest-tertile hospitals, mortality was not significantly different at middle-tertile (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73 to 1.19) or highest-tertile hospitals (OR 1.12; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.43; p=0.35 for differences between any tertile). Similarly, risk-adjusted bleeding did not vary significantly (middle-tertile OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16; highest-tertile OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.16; p=0.07 for differences between any tertile) nor did use of optimal therapy at discharge after PCI (85.3% vs. 85.7% vs. 85.2%; P=0

  7. A primate subfamily of galectins expressed at the maternal–fetal interface that promote immune cell death

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Goodman, Morris; Weckle, Amy; Xing, Jun; Dong, Zhong; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Szilagyi, Andras; Gal, Peter; Hou, Zhuocheng; Tarca, Adi L.; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Jung-Sun; Haidarian, Saied; Uddin, Monica; Bohn, Hans; Benirschke, Kurt; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Erez, Offer; Hassan, Sonia S.; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Wildman, Derek E.

    2009-01-01

    Galectins are proteins that regulate immune responses through the recognition of cell-surface glycans. We present evidence that 16 human galectin genes are expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and demonstrate that a cluster of 5 galectin genes on human chromosome 19 emerged during primate evolution as a result of duplication and rearrangement of genes and pseudogenes via a birth and death process primarily mediated by transposable long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs). Genes in the cluster are found only in anthropoids, a group of primate species that differ from their strepsirrhine counterparts by having relatively large brains and long gestations. Three of the human cluster genes (LGALS13, -14, and -16) were found to be placenta-specific. Homology modeling revealed conserved three-dimensional structures of galectins in the human cluster; however, analyses of 24 newly derived and 69 publicly available sequences in 10 anthropoid species indicate functional diversification by evidence of positive selection and amino acid replacements in carbohydrate-recognition domains. Moreover, we demonstrate altered sugar-binding capacities of 6 recombinant galectins in the cluster. We show that human placenta-specific galectins are predominantly expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast, a primary site of metabolic exchange where, early during pregnancy, the fetus comes in contact with immune cells circulating in maternal blood. Because ex vivo functional assays demonstrate that placenta-specific galectins induce the apoptosis of T lymphocytes, we propose that these galectins reduce the danger of maternal immune attacks on the fetal semiallograft, presumably conferring additional immune tolerance mechanisms and in turn sustaining hemochorial placentation during the long gestation of anthropoid primates. PMID:19497882

  8. Insights into the Proton Transfer Mechanism of a Bilin Reductase PcyA Following Neutron Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Unno, Masaki; Ishikawa-Suto, Kumiko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Tamada, Taro; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Sugishima, Masakazu; Wada, Kei; Yamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Kuroki, Ryota; Inaka, Koji; Ishihara, Makiko; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2015-04-29

    Phycocyanobilin, a light-harvesting and photoreceptor pigment in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, is synthesized from biliverdin IXα (BV) by phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) via two steps of two-proton-coupled two-electron reduction. We determined the neutron structure of PcyA from cyanobacteria complexed with BV, revealing the exact location of the hydrogen atoms involved in catalysis. Notably, approximately half of the BV bound to PcyA was BVH(+), a state in which all four pyrrole nitrogen atoms were protonated. The protonation states of BV complemented the protonation of adjacent Asp105. The "axial" water molecule that interacts with the neutral pyrrole nitrogen of the A-ring was identified. His88 Nδ was protonated to form a hydrogen bond with the lactam O atom of the BV A-ring. His88 and His74 were linked by hydrogen bonds via H3O(+). These results imply that Asp105, His88, and the axial water molecule contribute to proton transfer during PcyA catalysis. PMID:25872660

  9. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  10. Insights into the Proton Transfer Mechanism of a Bilin Reductase PcyA Following Neutron Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Unno, Masaki; Ishikawa-Suto, Kumiko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Tamada, Taro; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Sugishima, Masakazu; Wada, Kei; Yamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Kuroki, Ryota; Inaka, Koji; Ishihara, Makiko; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2015-04-29

    Phycocyanobilin, a light-harvesting and photoreceptor pigment in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, is synthesized from biliverdin IXα (BV) by phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) via two steps of two-proton-coupled two-electron reduction. We determined the neutron structure of PcyA from cyanobacteria complexed with BV, revealing the exact location of the hydrogen atoms involved in catalysis. Notably, approximately half of the BV bound to PcyA was BVH(+), a state in which all four pyrrole nitrogen atoms were protonated. The protonation states of BV complemented the protonation of adjacent Asp105. The "axial" water molecule that interacts with the neutral pyrrole nitrogen of the A-ring was identified. His88 Nδ was protonated to form a hydrogen bond with the lactam O atom of the BV A-ring. His88 and His74 were linked by hydrogen bonds via H3O(+). These results imply that Asp105, His88, and the axial water molecule contribute to proton transfer during PcyA catalysis.

  11. Answer the call: let's make 2015 the year of magical thinking in CTO PCI.

    PubMed

    Heuser, Richard R

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of chronic total occlusions (CTO's) is as high as 50% in angiographic series Patients are helped with successful recanalization of CTO's In spite of current improved success rates in CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), only 10-12% of CTO's are currently attempted.

  12. Primary PCI during off-hours is not related to increased mortality

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Sanneke PM; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Lenzen, Mattie J; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Schultz, Carl; Akkerhuis, K Martijn; van Leeuwen, Maarten AH; Zijlstra, Felix; van Domburg, Ron T; Serruys, Patrick WJC

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Previous studies have shown contradictory outcomes in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) during off-hours versus regular ‘office’ hours. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between pPCI timing (off-hours versus regular hours) and mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI. Methods: The study population comprised 4352 consecutive STEMI patients treated with pPCI in a high-volume centre with a 24/7 programme during 2000–2009. Descriptive statistics and multivariable survival analyses were applied to evaluate the relationship between treatment during off-hours (Monday–Friday, 6.00 pm–8.00 am and weekends) versus regular hours and the incidence of all-cause mortality at 30-day and 4-year follow-up. Results: A total of 2760 patients (63.4%) were treated during off-hours and 1592 patients (36.6%) during regular hours. With the exception of smoking, diabetes mellitus, use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists and calcium antagonists, no major differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the groups. Mortality at 30-day follow-up was similar in patients treated during off-hours and those treated during regular hours (7.7% vs 7.7%; hazard ratio adjusted for potential confounders 1.03; 95% CI 0.82–1.28). Four-year mortality was similar (17.3% vs 17.3%; adjusted hazard ratio 0.95; 95% CI 0.81–1.11). Conclusion: In STEMI patients who present during off-hours in a high-volume centre with 24/7 service, pPCI provides similar survival as patients who were treated during regular hours. PMID:24062885

  13. The development of a Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to help reveal patients concerns in the head and neck clinic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; El-Sheikha, J; Lowe, D

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) is to identify the concerns that patients would like to discuss during their consultation. The PCI covers a range of issues including hearing, intimacy, fatigue, financial/benefits, PEG tube, relationships, regret, support for family, and wound healing. It also lists MDT members that patients would like to see or be referred on to. The PCI is completed using a touch-screen computer (TST) immediately before consultation. Responses are networked into the consultation room. A 28 weeks pilot for one consultant ran from August 2007 with 123 (of maximum 150) patients. The median time to complete the TST was 8min. Patients most frequently selected fear of recurrence (37%), dental health/teeth (27%), chewing (24%), pain in head/neck (20%), fatigue/tiredness (19%), saliva (18%) and swallowing (18%). The two MDT members they wished to see were dentist (19%) and speech/language therapist (10%). The vast majority felt the PCI made a difference (quite a bit/very much) to their consultation as it made it 'a bit more personal', 'reminds them of the points they want discussed', 'allows the consultation to get straight to the point'. Although the PCI can raise many issues it did not noticeably prolong the consultation (median 8min with PCI, 7min without PCI). The Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) helps focus the consultation onto patient needs and promotes multidisciplinary care. Following this very successful pilot the PCI is being rolled out to other consultants in the H & N clinic.

  14. Single-chip correlator implementation for PCI-bus personal computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Perlmutter, Stephen H.; Wolt, Barry

    2000-03-01

    We have previously reported on the design and operation of a novel single-chip optical correlator prototype. Two ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs and a high-speed APS camera were built into a single CMOS integrated circuit. Diffractive Fourier transform lenses were fabricated onto the surface of a window which was mounted on top of the chip. We are now working towards implementing the correlator as a business card-sized module mounted on a PCI card which can be plugged into the motherboard of industry standard PCs. We are also upgrading the SLMs to have analog optical modulation capability. The PCI card contains input and output image buffers, plus high-speed circuitry which digitizes the four analog output channels of the correlator's camera. This paper describes the system we are developing, some of the electronic and optical engineering issues involved, and the present status of our work.

  15. Start-up of the PCI Facility at Stelco Hilton Works

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, J.B.; Hutchinson, S.; Brown, R.

    1996-12-31

    In the late 1980`s it became apparent that the future coke requirements for the two Blast Furnaces at Stelco`s Hilton Works would be greater than the projected internal coke production levels. The three older coke batteries had been producing for forty years and were expected to be shutdown by the mid 1990`s due to age and environmental considerations. Although the purchase of coke from external sources to supplement needs was accepted as a short term solution, it was not considered a viable long term strategy. Decreasing world coke production forecasted increasing coke purchase costs and availability constraints. Construction of a new coke battery represented a large capital investment, high operating costs, and new environmental implications. Early studies suggested pulverized coal injection was the most viable solution to the coke shortfall problem. PCI rates had advanced significantly during the 1980`s and the process continued to be a leading edge technology entering the 1990`s. To return Hilton Works to a near self sufficient coke state, a team was formed whose efforts were directed towards investigating the available PCI technologies, selecting a process which was most suitable, and arranging acceptable financing. The facility design was to be based on Kawasaki technology. Construction of the facility and injection lines to the Blast Furnaces occurred over 13 months. On Dec. 18, 1995, injection began to E Blast Furnace followed by injection to D Blast Furnace on January 16, 1996. This paper will provide a description of Hilton Works` Blast Furnaces and the PCI Facility. The start-up and current status of PCI will also be examined.

  16. Modifying angiographic syntax score according to PCI strategy: lessons learnt from ERACI IV Study.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Alfredo E; Fernandez-Pereira, Carlos; Mieres, Juan; Santaera, Omar; Antoniucci, David

    2015-01-01

    In recent years an angiographic score was introduced in clinical practice to stratified different levels of risk after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with drug eluting stents. The SYNTAX score (SS) classified patients in three different risk levels and was included in revascularization guidelines that patients allocated with low SS could be equally treated with either PCI or CABG, whereas those with intermediate or high SS were better off with CABG. However, using original SS each coronary lesion with a diameter stenosis ≥50% in vessels ≥1.5 mm was scored. In ERACI IV registry we used a revascularization strategy during PCI where operators were advised to only treat lesions≥than 70% in a≥2.0 mm reference vessel; therefore, no intermediate lesions should be treated, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm was discouraged as well. If we recalculated SS using the above-mentioned operators' advices all intermediate lesions were not scored, and severe stenosis in vessels<2.0 mm were excluded for the analysis, including bifurcations, trifurcations and chronic total occlusions; after this new scoring, the original SS dropped significantly which is in accordance with the goal of complete functional revascularization strategy of the ERACI IV study and the low one year adverse events of such study. In conclusion, if we performed an SS scoring, only severe stenosis in vessels with a reference diameter ≥2.0 mm would allow a more rational assessment of coronary anatomy, and the use of a more conservative PCI strategy. PMID:26254552

  17. Comparison of radial to femoral PCI in acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumeet; Kakar, Ron; Overgaard, Christopher B

    2015-07-01

    In randomized control trials and meta-analyses in patients with acute MI undergoing PCI, the radial artery (RA) approach compared to the femoral artery (FA) approach has shown to safely reduce access site related bleeding, length of hospitalization, and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates. However, these studies have excluded patients with cardiogenic shock. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve studies that investigated the safety of RA to FA PCI in patients with AMI and cardiogenic shock. Primary outcomes of interest was the pooled relative risk ratio (RR) of access site related bleeding. Secondary outcomes included (i) 30-day all cause mortality, (ii) major bleeding, (iii) final TIMI 3 flow, (iv) fluoroscopy time, and (v) amount of contrast volume administered. 6 observational studies with 7,753 patients met inclusion; 5,347 (69 %) with STEMI, 2,406 (31 %) with non-STEMI. In comparison of RA to FA PCI, there was less access site related bleeding (relative risk (RR) 0.11, p = 0.001), less 30-day mortality (RR 0.65, p = 0.0 < 0.001), and less major bleeding (RR of 0.46 p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in final TIMI 3 flow (p = 0.27), fluoroscopy time (p = 0.95), and contrast volume administered (p = 0.59). In conclution, despite its limitations, our analysis demonstrates an association towards lower adverse events in the RA PCI group. Although we believe that the choice of access site in a high-risk setting should be at the operator discretion, if technically feasible, the RA appears to be a reasonable vascular access approach in high-risk patients in cardiogenic shock.

  18. Secondary prevention after PCI: the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, S.; Scuffham, P.A.; Alon, M.; van den Boom, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data from the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS). In the LIPS trial, patients with normal-to-moderate hypercholesterolaemia who had undergone a first PCI were randomised to receive either fluvastatin 40 mg twice-daily plus dietary counselling or dietary counselling alone. A Markov model was used to estimate the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and life year gained (LYG). Costs were based on prices and reimbursed charges, utility data were drawn from literature. Monte Carlo simulations and multivariate analysis were used to assess uncertainty. Results Routine statin treatment costs an additional €734 (SD €686) per patient over ten years compared with controls. It resulted in an additional 0.078 (0.047) QALYs or 0.082 (0.041) LYG. The incremental costs per QALY and LYG were €9312 (€14,648) and €8954 (€16,617) respectively. Anticipating a willingness to pay of €20,000 per QALY, there is a 75.1% chance that fluvastatin treatment is cost-effective. Conclusion Statin therapy with fluvastatin is economically efficient with regard to reducing heart disease in the Netherlands when given routinely to all patients following PCI. PMID:25696357

  19. Mechanistic Considerations Used in the Development of the PROFIT PCI Failure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pankaskie, P. J.

    1980-05-01

    A fuel Pellet-Zircaloy Cladding (thermo-mechanical-chemical) Interactions (PC!) failure model for estimating the probability of failure in !ransient increases in power (PROFIT) was developed. PROFIT is based on 1) standard statistical methods applied to available PC! fuel failure data and 2) a mechanistic analysis of the environmental and strain-rate-dependent stress versus strain characteristics of Zircaloy cladding. The statistical analysis of fuel failures attributable to PCI suggested that parameters in addition to power, transient increase in power, and burnup are needed to define PCI fuel failures in terms of probability estimates with known confidence limits. The PROFIT model, therefore, introduces an environmental and strain-rate dependent strain energy absorption to failure (SEAF) concept to account for the stress versus strain anomalies attributable to interstitial-disloction interaction effects in the Zircaloy cladding. Assuming that the power ramping rate is the operating corollary of strain-rate in the Zircaloy cladding, then the variables of first order importance in the PCI fuel failure phenomenon are postulated to be: 1. pre-transient fuel rod power, P{sub I}, 2. transient increase in fuel rod power, {Delta}P, 3. fuel burnup, Bu, and 4. the constitutive material property of the Zircaloy cladding, SEAF.

  20. Functional genomics of a generalist parasitic plant: Laser microdissection of host-parasite interface reveals host-specific patterns of parasite gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orobanchaceae is the only plant family with members representing the full range of parasitic lifestyles plus a free-living lineage sister to all parasitic lineages, Lindenbergia. A generalist member of this family, and an important parasitic plant model, Triphysaria versicolor regularly feeds upon a wide range of host plants. Here, we compare de novo assembled transcriptomes generated from laser micro-dissected tissues at the host-parasite interface to uncover details of the largely uncharacterized interaction between parasitic plants and their hosts. Results The interaction of Triphysaria with the distantly related hosts Zea mays and Medicago truncatula reveals dramatic host-specific gene expression patterns. Relative to above ground tissues, gene families are disproportionally represented at the interface including enrichment for transcription factors and genes of unknown function. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of a T. versicolor β-expansin shows strong differential (120x) upregulation in response to the monocot host Z. mays; a result that is concordant with our read count estimates. Pathogenesis-related proteins, other cell wall modifying enzymes, and orthologs of genes with unknown function (annotated as such in sequenced plant genomes) are among the parasite genes highly expressed by T. versicolor at the parasite-host interface. Conclusions Laser capture microdissection makes it possible to sample the small region of cells at the epicenter of parasite host interactions. The results of our analysis suggest that T. versicolor’s generalist strategy involves a reliance on overlapping but distinct gene sets, depending upon the host plant it is parasitizing. The massive upregulation of a T. versicolor β-expansin is suggestive of a mechanism for parasite success on grass hosts. In this preliminary study of the interface transcriptomes, we have shown that T. versicolor, and the Orobanchaceae in general, provide excellent opportunities for the

  1. Iberian pig early pregnancy: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor system expression in the maternofetal interface in healthy and arresting conceptuses.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, R A; Sánchez Pérez, M A; Sánchez Maldonado, B; García-Palencia, P; Naranjo Freixa, C; Palomo Yagüe, A; Flores, J M

    2015-02-01

    In Iberian pigs, a high conceptus loss occurs during the first 30 days of gestation. Although the exact causes for these losses have not been determined to date, the importance of blood vessel development during early pregnancy has been noted. The aim of this study was to analyze the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of VEGF-rs (vascular endothelial growth factor, the VEGFR1, and the VEGFR2 receptor system) and elucidate a possible relationship with the conceptus status (healthy or arrested) on gestational Days (gd) 22 and 32. Both mRNA and protein expression for VEGF-rs molecules were consistently expressed in conceptuses and endometrium during the pregnancy period analyzed. In endometrium, a significant increase in VEGF mRNA and VEGFR2 mRNA expression in healthy sites was observed as pregnancy advances (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas VEGFR1 mRNA expression was maintained at a constant level. Interestingly, a significantly elevated VEGFR2 mRNA expression (P < 0.05) was observed on gd 22 in endometrium from arrested conceptuses. Furthermore, VEGF mRNA and VEGFR1 mRNA expression in trophoblasts from healthy conceptuses decreased as pregnancy proceeded (P < 0.001). Arrested trophoblasts on gd 32 showed higher VEGFR2 mRNA expression than healthy conceptuses (P < 0.05). Although, in endometrium attachment sites, the pattern of VEGF-rs immunostaning was not affected by conceptus status, the immunoexpression of VEGF-rs in healthy attachment sites increased slightly but consistently as gestation proceeded. In arresting trophoblasts, VEGF and VEGFR2 staining decreased from gd 22 to 32. Moreover, the number of VEGF and VEGFR1-positive capillaries in the subepithelial vascular plexus of endometrium was related to the conceptus status, showing a moderate increase in healthy sites as pregnancy advances. In conclusion, it appears that VEGF-rs is expressed and related to vascular development in Iberian pigs between gd 22 and 32. The

  2. A validation study of the Brazilian version of the pornography consumption inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Luísa de Souza Gatti, Ana; Henrique de Oliveira, Vitor; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; Almeida de Souza Aranha e Silva, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Although men constitute the widest consumer group of pornography, the Internet has facilitated both the production of and access to pornographic material by women as well. However, few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, which can compromise the reliability of statements regarding the harmful use of pornography. Our study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students in Brazil. The PCI is a four-factor, 15-item, five-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the PCI, it was administered to 105 female medical students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity. The results supported the four-factor model of the PCI. The model showed adequate internal reliability and good fit indices (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.09), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08). Overall, the findings from this study support the use of the PCI in Portuguese-speaking women. PMID:26724562

  3. Swine leukocyte antigen-DQ expression and its regulation by interferon-gamma at the maternal-fetal interface in pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Shim, Jangsoo; Bazer, Fuller W; Ka, Hakhyun

    2012-02-01

    Successful pregnancy requires an appropriate intrauterine immune response to the conceptus, which is a semiallograft within the uterus. We reported that swine leukocyte antigen-DQA (SLA-DQA), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene, is expressed in the uterine endometrium at the time of conceptus implantation in pigs. Because MHC molecules play critical roles in the immune system, SLA-DQ was hypothesized to be involved in immune regulation during pregnancy. Therefore, we examined expression of SLA-DQ in uterine endometrial tissues obtained during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. SLA-DQA and SLA-DQB mRNAs were detected as 1.3-kb and 1.2-kb bands, respectively. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that SLA-DQA and SLA-DQB mRNA expression was affected by day and pregnancy status, with the highest expression on Day 15 of pregnancy. SLA-DQ was localized primarily to subepithelial stromal cells and endothelial cells of the uterus. Using endometrial explant cultures from Day 12 of the estrous cycle, we determined that expression of SLA-DQA and SLA-DQB mRNAs increased in response to interferon-gamma (IFNG), which is produced by pig conceptus trophectoderm between Days 14 and 18 of pregnancy. The abundance of SLA-DQ protein was less in endometria from gilts with conceptuses resulting from somatic cell nuclear transfer compared with endometria from gilts with conceptuses resulting from natural mating. These results support our hypothesis that SLA-DQ is expressed in response to IFNG from the conceptus, and likely regulates immune response at the maternal-fetal interface to support the maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  4. Effect of transosseous application of low-intensity ultrasound at the tendon graft-bone interface healing: gene expression and histological analysis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Poultsides, Lazaros A; Hantes, Michael E; Grafanaki, Katerina; Giannouli, Stamatina; Ioannou, Maria G; Koukoulis, Georgios K; Protopappas, Vasilios C; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigates the effect of transosseous low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LiUS) on the healing at tendon graft-bone interface, in molecular and histological level. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both knees of 52 New Zealand White rabbits was excised and replaced with the long digital extensor. A custom-made ultrasound transducer was implanted onto the medial tibial condyle, adjacent to the surface of the bone tunnel at both knees of the rabbits. The LiUS-treated right knees received 200-mus bursts of 1 MHz sine waves at a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz and with 30 mW/cm(2) spatial-average temporal-average intensity for 20 min daily (study group), while the left knee received no LiUS (control group). Thirty-six rabbits were used to perform semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis from both study and control groups for transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), biglycan and collagen I. RT-PCR products showed statistically significant upregulation of biglycan and collagen I gene expression in the study group, while TGF-beta1 gene expression exhibited a bimodal profile. Histological examination performed in 16 rabbits from both groups supported the findings of the molecular analysis, indicating a faster healing rate and a more efficient ligamentization process after ultrasound treatment. These findings suggest that transosseous application of LiUS enhances the healing rate of the tendon graft-bone interface, possibly by affecting the expression levels of genes significant for the tendon to bone healing process.

  5. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-04

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  6. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  7. Predictors of Knowledge of Coronary Intervention in a Group of PCI Patients

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Bilal, Muhammad; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Amir, Raamish Bin; Hussain, Sahibzada Muhammad Hamid; Mian, Sharmeen Kamran; Javed, Maheen; Sultan, Ayesha; Arfeen, Arham Amir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to assess the knowledge of CAD risk factors and post management of coronary intervention among sample of population who were hospitalized for PCI. Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted in Cardiology ward of a tertiary care hospital from July 2013 to May 2015 on 600 patients. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the patients. In univariate analysis, t-tests were employed to assess association of knowledge of CAD risk factors with gender, education level and monthly household income. Results: The mean score of participants with no education was 4.42 and patients with education of bachelors or higher was 8.59 (p-value: 0.01). Similarly, the mean score for participants with monthly household income less than 5000 was 3.32 and participants with income higher than 50,000 had a score of 8.31 (p-value: 0.01). Furthermore, only 28% (N=168) claimed aerobic exercise as a key part of angioplasty recovery. Conclusions: Our results indicate the lack of good level of knowledge of risk factors for CAD and post management of coronary intervention among PCI patients of Pakistan. There is urgent need for targeted educational programs on national basis to reduce mortality associated with CAD in Pakistani population. PMID:26755481

  8. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  9. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  10. Subepicardial haematoma, a rare and potentially lethal complication of CTO-PCI: case of an exceptional recovery after conservative management.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Annemiek M J; van der Schaaf, Rene J

    2014-10-09

    We present the case of an 82-year-old woman undergoing high-risk chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) of the right coronary artery. Hours after the procedure, a subepicardial haematoma was diagnosed as a result of coronary perforation during the procedure. This rare and potentially lethal complication evolved exceptionally benignly after conservative management; our patient fully recovered. Increasingly complex procedures in high-risk patient categories warrant awareness of procedural complications, especially those that are subtle and appear relatively late, and are therefore most hazardous. Recognition of this rare complication and choosing the optimal strategy is of the utmost importance when dealing with patients who undergo PCI. We here describe the rare case of a potential lethal complication in high-risk CTO-PCI, which evolved relatively benignly.

  11. PCI Strategies in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Bates, Eric R; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E; Bittl, John A; O'Gara, Patrick T; Levine, Glenn N

    2016-09-01

    Recent randomized controlled trials have suggested that patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease may benefit more from multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with culprit vessel-only primary PCI. The American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions recently published an updated recommendation on this topic. The purpose of this State-of-the-Art Review is to accurately document existing published reports, describe their limitations, and establish a base for future studies. PMID:27585512

  12. An efficient rhythmic component expression and weighting synthesis strategy for classifying motor imagery EEG in a brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; He, Bin

    2004-03-01

    The recognition of mental states during motor imagery tasks is crucial for EEG-based brain computer interface research. We have developed a new algorithm by means of frequency decomposition and weighting synthesis strategy for recognizing imagined right- and left-hand movements. A frequency range from 5 to 25 Hz was divided into 20 band bins for each trial, and the corresponding envelopes of filtered EEG signals for each trial were extracted as a measure of instantaneous power at each frequency band. The dimensionality of the feature space was reduced from 200 (corresponding to 2 s) to 3 by down-sampling of envelopes of the feature signals, and subsequently applying principal component analysis. The linear discriminate analysis algorithm was then used to classify the features, due to its generalization capability. Each frequency band bin was weighted by a function determined according to the classification accuracy during the training process. The present classification algorithm was applied to a dataset of nine human subjects, and achieved a success rate of classification of 90% in training and 77% in testing. The present promising results suggest that the present classification algorithm can be used in initiating a general-purpose mental state recognition based on motor imagery tasks.

  13. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of

  14. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous

  15. New Interface for Accessing Archived European Space Agency Planetary Science Data, Such as the New Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Gonzalez, J.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.

    2015-12-01

    All Venus Express (VEX) instruments delivered their data products according to the Planetary Data System version 3 (PDS3) standard, and the atmospheric drag experiment (ADE) data was no exception. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at www.rssd.esa.int/PSA, is being upgraded to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Thus, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be accessible via the new interface as well. We will preview some of the new methods of accessing legacy VEX data via the new interface, with a focus being placed on the ADE data set. We will show how the ADE data can be accessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and our plans for making this and other data sets compatible with the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory. From February 2010 through March 2014, ESA's Venus Express mission conducted 11 ADE campaigns. During these observation campaigns, VEX's pericenter was in the range of 165 to 190 km, while the spacecraft was near Venus' North pole, and the entire spacecraft was used to make in situ measurements of the atmospheric density. This was done by rotating the solar panels in a manner that somewhat resembles a windmill. Also, VEX 's attitude and orbit control system was tasked with maintaining the spacecraft in a 3-axis stabilized mode during these pericenter passes. The torques that the reaction wheels had to exert to maintain this attitude were then analyzed to yield density readings.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma increases transforming growth factor-beta1 expression at graft-host interface following autologous osteochondral transplantation in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Lorraine A; Ross, Keir A; Pinski, John M; Smyth, Niall A; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Fortier, Lisa A; Kennedy, John G

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of platelet-rich plasma on protein expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in cartilage following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in a rabbit knee cartilage defect model. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits received bilateral AOT. In each rabbit, one knee was randomized to receive an autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection and the contralateral knee received saline injection. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 6 and 12 wk post-operatively. Articular cartilage sections were stained with TGF-β1 antibody. Histological regions of interest (ROI) (left, right and center of the autologous grafts interfaces) were evaluated using MetaMorph. Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was then assessed. RESULTS: Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was higher in PRP treated knees for selected ROIs (left; P = 0.03, center; P = 0.05) compared to control and was also higher in the PRP group at each post-operative time point (P = 6.6 × 10-4, 3.1 × 10-4 and 7.3 × 10-3 for 3, 6 and 12 wk, respectively). TGF-β1 expression was higher in chondrocytes of PRP-treated knees (36% ± 29% vs 15% ± 18%) (P = 1.8 × 10-6) overall for each post-operative time point and ROI. CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage of rabbits treated with AOT and PRP exhibit increased TGF-β1 expression compared to those treated with AOT and saline. Our findings suggest that adjunctive PRP may increase TGF-β1 expression, which may play a role in the chondrogenic effect of PRP in vivo. PMID:26716092

  17. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    PubMed Central

    Forment, Javier; Gilabert, Francisco; Robles, Antonio; Conejero, Vicente; Nuez, Fernando; Blanca, Jose M

    2008-01-01

    Background Expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at . This site also provides detailed instructions for

  18. Reinfarction Following PCI or Medical Management using the Universal Definition in Patients With Total Occlusion After Myocardial Infarction: Results from Long Term Follow up of the OAT Cohort

    PubMed Central

    White, Harvey D.; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Carvalho, Antonio C.; Pearte, Camille A.; Liu, Li; Martin, C. Edwin; Knatterud, Genell L.; Džavík, Vladimír; Kruk, Mariusz; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Cantor, Warren J.; Menon, Venu; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) randomized 2201 patients with a totally occluded infarct-related artery on days 3–28 (>24 hours) following myocardial infarction (MI) to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or medical treatment (MED). There was no difference in the primary endpoint of death, reinfarction or heart failure at 2.9 year or 6-year mean follow-up. However in patients randomized to PCI there was a trend for an increase in reinfarction. Methods We analyzed the characteristics and types of reinfarction according to the universal definition. Independent predictors of reinfarction were determined using Cox proportional hazard models with follow up to 9 years. Results There were 169 reinfarctions; 9.4% PCI vs 8.0% MED, HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.97 −1.77, p=0.08. Spontaneous reinfarction (type 1) occurred with similar frequency in the groups; 4.9% PCI vs 6.7% MED, HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 – 1.15, p=0.21. Rates of type 2 (secondary) and 3 (sudden death) MI were similar in both groups. There was an increase in type 4a reinfarctions (related to protocol or repeat PCI), 0.8% PCI vs 0.1% MED, p=0.01 and type 4b reinfarctions (stent thrombosis); 2.7% PCI vs 0.6% MED, p<0.001. Multivariate predictors of reinfarction were history of PCI prior to study entry (p=0.001), diabetes (p=0.005), and absence of new Q waves with the index infarction (p=0.01). Conclusions There was a trend for reMI to be more frequent with PCI. Opening an occluded infarct-related artery in stable patients late post-MI exposes them to a risk of subsequent reinfarction related to reocclusion and stent thrombosis. PMID:22520521

  19. 6.5 Years of Slow Slip Events in Cascadia: A Catalogue of SSE Surface Expressions, Interface Slip Distributions, Event Magnitudes and Relationship to Tremor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Wallace, L. M.; Haines, A. J.; Bartlow, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) in Cascadia occur at ~30-50 km depth, every 10-19 months, and typically involve slip of a few cm, producing surface displacements on the order of a few mm up to ~1cm. Are there smaller SSE signals that are currently not recognized geodetically? What is the spatial, temporal and size distribution of SSEs, and how are SSE related to tremor? We address these questions with a catalogue of all detectable SSEs spanning the last 6.5 years using a new methodology based on Vertical Derivatives of Horizontal Stress (VDoHS) rates obtained from cGPS times series. VDoHS rates, calculated by solving the force balance equations at the Earth's surface, represent the most inclusive and spatially compact surface expressions of subsurface deformation sources: VDoHS rate vectors are tightly localized above the sources and point in the direction of push or pull. We compare our results with those from the Network Inversion Filter (NIF) for selected events. We identify and characterize a spectrum of SSEs, including events with moment release at least two orders of magnitudes smaller than has been previously identified with GPS data. We catalogue events timing, interface slip distribution and moment release, and compare our results with existing tremor catalogues. VDoHS rates also reveal the boundaries between the locked and unlocked portions of the megathrust, and we can track how this varies throughout the SSE cycle. Above the locked interface, the pull of the subducted plate generates shear tractions in the overlying plate in the direction of subduction, while above the creeping section shear tractions are in the opposite direction, which is reflected in the VDoHS rates. We show that sections of the Cascadia megathrust unlock prior to some SSEs and lock thereafter, with the locked zone propagating downdip and eastward after the SSEs over weeks to months. The catalogue and movies of events will be available at http://www.ig.utexas.edu/people/staff/lada/SSEs.

  20. The catalytic performance of Ru–NHC alkylidene complexes: PCy3 versus pyridine as the dissociating ligand

    PubMed Central

    Krehl, Stefan; Geißler, Diana; Hauke, Sylvia; Kunz, Oliver; Staude, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Summary The catalytic performance of NHC-ligated Ru-indenylidene or benzylidene complexes bearing a tricyclohexylphosphine or a pyridine ligand in ring closing metathesis (RCM), cross metathesis, and ring closing enyne metathesis (RCEYM) reactions is compared. While the PCy3 complexes perform significantly better in RCM and RCEYM reactions than the pyridine complex, all catalysts show similar activity in cross metathesis reactions. PMID:21283561

  1. Feasibility of repeated sequential treatments of RIF-1 tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Dale R.; Parker, Lynn M.; Thiemann, Patricia A.; Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Young, Stuart W.

    1997-05-01

    Lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123) is currently in clinical trials as a PDT agent for the treatment of cancer patients. The drug is cleared rapidly from the plasma, and photoirradiation can be performed shortly after drug administration.T He photosensitizer as yet does not appear to elicit any significant skin photosensitivity. These characteristics favor frequent multiple PDT treatments with PCI-0123. In order to support repeated PDT treatments in the clinic, the safety of multiple drug dosing was studied in rats and mice. In rats, each group received 5 consecutive daily intravenous administrations of 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg/day of PCI-0123. There were no deaths in any of the groups, and no drug-related effects were detected in the 5 mg/kg/day group. In mice, there were no observable signs of toxicity after consecutive daily administration of 10 micrometers ol/kg/day of PCI-0123 for 13 days. The feasibility and efficacy of repeated PDT treatments were assessed in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. Repeated PDT proved to be superior to a single PDT treatment. Repeated PDT treatments were well tolerated. Seven PDT treatments were administered over a nine day period without significant toxicity while achieving good therapeutic responses. All six groups receiving repeated PDT treatments showed an improved response compared to groups receiving a single PDT cycle, and the improvement was statistically significant for five of these groups. Sixty-two percent of mice receiving four sequential daily treatments were cured, and daily treatments were superior to regimens with longer intervals between PDT cycles.

  2. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention network in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Where are we now and how to improve PCI network.

    PubMed

    Dilić, M; Terzić, I; Kulić, M

    2016-08-01

    Reperfusion is the most effective therapy for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Time from symptom onset to reperfusion is the most important factor influencing short and long-term mortality. There are several modes of reperfusion therapy. Fibrinolysis (either in pre-hospital or in-hospital setting), and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or a combination of both are the most relevant treatment options. Primary p-PCI is the preferred option in centers with experienced teams and a high volume of reperfusion procedures. Cardiovascular mortality rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is among the highest in Europe, 545/100,000, and the rate of acute myocardial infarction is approximately 7000 per year. Despite recent improvement in reperfusion therapy in the last 5years, mortality of STEMI still patients remains high. The goal of this perspective article is to describe the current situation of p-PCI network in B&H. Establishing networks of reperfusion at regional and national level, implies a broad spectrum and close collaboration between all the actors involved in reperfusion therapy, namely hospitals, cardiology units emergency medical services, and primary care physicians. PMID:27381862

  3. N-glycans of Human Protein C Inhibitor: Tissue-Specific Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Åke; Sooriyaarachchi, Sanjeewani; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Hreinsson, Julius; Wånggren, Kjell; Clark, Gary F.; Dell, Anne; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia

    2011-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin type of serine protease inhibitor that is found in many tissues and fluids in human, including blood plasma, seminal plasma and urine. This inhibitor displays an unusually broad protease specificity compared with other serpins. Previous studies have shown that the N-glycan(s) and the NH2-terminus affect some blood-related functions of PCI. In this study, we have for the first time determined the N-glycan profile of seminal plasma PCI, by mass spectrometry. The N-glycan structures differed markedly compared with those of both blood-derived and urinary PCI, providing evidence that the N-glycans of PCI are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The most abundant structure (m/z 2592.9) had a composition of Fuc3Hex5HexNAc4, consistent with a core fucosylated bi-antennary glycan with terminal Lewisx. A major serine protease in semen, prostate specific antigen (PSA), was used to evaluate the effects of N-glycans and the NH2-terminus on a PCI function related to the reproductive tract. Second-order rate constants for PSA inhibition by PCI were 4.3±0.2 and 4.1±0.5 M−1s−1 for the natural full-length PCI and a form lacking six amino acids at the NH2-terminus, respectively, whereas these constants were 4.8±0.1 and 29±7 M−1s−1 for the corresponding PNGase F-treated forms. The 7–8-fold higher rate constants obtained when both the N-glycans and the NH2-terminus had been removed suggest that these structures jointly affect the rate of PSA inhibition, presumably by together hindering conformational changes of PCI required to bind to the catalytic pocket of PSA. PMID:22205989

  4. Structural and Computational Studies of Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3, a Complex with a Bound BF4- Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tan-Yun; Szalda, David J.; Franz, James A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2010-02-15

    Hydride transfer from Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoH to Ph3C+BF4 gives Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3, and the crystal structure of this complex was determined. In the weakly bound FBF3 ligand, the B-F(bridging) bond length is 1.475(8) Å, which is 0.15 Å longer than the average length of the three B-F(terminal) bonds. The PCy3 and FBF3 ligands are cis to each other in the four-legged piano stool structure. Electronic structure (DFT) calculations predict the trans isomer of Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3 to be 9.5 kcal/mol (in ΔGog,298)) less stable than the cis isomer that was crystallographically characterized. Hydride transfer from Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoH to Ph3C+BAr'4 [Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] in CH2Cl2 solvent produces [Cp(CO)2(PCy3)Mo(ClCH2Cl)]+[BAr'4] , in which CH2Cl2 is coordinated to the metal. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  5. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  6. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  7. Validated Contemporary Risk Model of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: Insights From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Cath‐PCI Registry

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Thomas T.; Patel, Uptal D.; Chang, Tara I.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Matheny, Michael E.; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Amin, Amit P.; Weintraub, William S.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Messenger, John C.; Rumsfeld, John S.; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed risk models for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) and AKI requiring dialysis (AKI‐D) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to support quality assessment and the use of preventative strategies. Methods and Results AKI was defined as an absolute increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL or a relative increase of 50% in serum creatinine (AKIN Stage 1 or greater) and AKI‐D was a new requirement for dialysis following PCI. Data from 947 012 consecutive PCI patients and 1253 sites participating in the NCDR Cath/PCI registry between 6/09 and 7/11 were used to develop the model, with 70% randomly assigned to a derivation cohort and 30% for validation. AKI occurred in 7.33% of the derivation and validation cohorts. Eleven variables were associated with AKI: older age, baseline renal impairment (categorized as mild, moderate, and severe), prior cerebrovascular disease, prior heart failure, prior PCI, presentation (non‐ACS versus NSTEMI versus STEMI), diabetes, chronic lung disease, hypertension, cardiac arrest, anemia, heart failure on presentation, balloon pump use, and cardiogenic shock. STEMI presentation, cardiogenic shock, and severe baseline CKD were the strongest predictors for AKI. The full model showed good discrimination in the derivation and validation cohorts (c‐statistic of 0.72 and 0.71, respectively) and identical calibration (slope of calibration line=1.01). The AKI‐D model had even better discrimination (c‐statistic=0.89) and good calibration (slope of calibration line=0.99). Conclusion The NCDR AKI prediction models can successfully risk‐stratify patients undergoing PCI. The potential for this tool to aid clinicians in counseling patients regarding the risk of PCI, identify patients for preventative strategies, and support local quality improvement efforts should be prospectively tested. PMID:25516439

  8. Analog and digital interface solutions for the common large-area display set (CLADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1997-07-01

    Battelle is under contract with Warner Robins Air Logistics Center to design a common large area display set (CLADS) for use in multiple airborne command, control, communications, computers and intelligence applications that currently use unique 19 inch cathode ray tubes (CRTs). The CLADS is a modular design, with common modules used wherever possible. Each CLADS includes an application-specific integration kit, which incorporates all of the unique interface components. Since there is no existing digital video interface standard for high resolution workstations, a standard interface was developed for CLADS and documented as an interface specification.One of the application-specific modules, the application video interface module (AVIM), readily incorporates most of the required application electrical interfaces for a given system into a single module. The analog AVIM, however, poses unique design problems when folding multiple application interface requirements into a single common AVIM for the most prevalent workstation display interface: analog RGB video. Future workstation display interfaces will incorporate fully digital video between the graphics hardware and the digital display device. A digital AVIM is described which utilizes a fiber channel interface to deliver high speed 1280 by 1024, 24- bit, 60 Hz digital video from a PCI graphics card to the CLADS. A video recording and playback device is described, as well as other common CLADS modules, including the display controller and power supply. This paper will discuss both the analog and digital AVIM interfaces, application BIT and power interfaces, as well as CLADS internal interfaces.

  9. HDL Cholesterol Level Is Associated with Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Chan Joon; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung Won; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hee-Yeol; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk; Jin, Dong Chan; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study included 1592 CKD patients extracted from a prospective multicenter, all comer-based registry of patients undergoing PCI. In multivariate logistic analysis for CI-AKI development, a significant linear trend was observed between the quartiles of HDL-C (quartile 1 vs. 2: odds ratio [OR], 0.716; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.421–1.219; quartile 1 vs. 3: OR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.301–0.947; quartile 1 vs. 4: OR, 0.173; 95% CI, 0.079–0.377; P for trend < 0.001). HDL-C quartiles were also negatively correlated with the incidence of CI-AKI; 19.0%, 12.1%, 8.7%, and 3.7% for quartile 1(Q1) (<34 mg/dL), Q2 (34–40 mg/dL), Q3 (40–48 mg/dL), and Q4 (>48 mg/dL) respectively (P < 0.001 overall and for the trend). Multivariate Cox regression analysis for the long term mortality, the highest HDL-C quartile was associated with decreased mortality compared with the lowest HDL-C quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 0.516, 95% CI, 0.320–0.832, P = 0.007). Our study suggests more intensive strategies should be considered for preventing CI-AKI in CKD patients with low serum HDL-C level who is planned for PCI. PMID:27775043

  10. A low-cost PCI-bus-based ultrasound system for use in image-guided neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Richard, W D; Zar, D M; LaPresto, E L; Steiner, C P

    1999-01-01

    A low-cost PCI-bus-based ultrasound sub-system has been developed and integrated into the image-guided neurosurgery system currently in use at the Cleveland Clinic. Two software applications have been developed that integrate real-time ultrasound images with preoperative MR and CT data sets. By tracking the position of the ultrasound probe during surgery, it is possible to display a real time ultrasound image and the corresponding (preoperative) oblique CT or MR slice. This provides immediate positional feedback to the neurosurgeon during the surgical procedure.

  11. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Quilis, Jordi; López-García, Belén; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-04-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. Insect adaptation to PI ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of PIs. In this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. The two PIs were linked using either the processing site of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B precursor protein or the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Expression of each fusion gene was driven by the wound- and pathogen-inducible mpi promoter. The mpi-pci fusion gene was stably inherited for at least three generations with no penalty on plant phenotype. An important reduction in larval weight of Chilo suppressalis fed on mpi-pci rice, compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants, was observed. Expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene confers resistance to C. suppressalis (striped stem borer), one of the most important insect pest of rice. The mpi-pci expression systems described may represent a suitable strategy for insect pest control, better than strategies based on the use of single PI genes, by preventing insect adaptive responses. The rice plants expressing the mpi-pci fusion gene also showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Our results illustrate the usefulness of the inducible expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene for dual resistance against insects and pathogens in rice plants.

  13. Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Berman, M; El-Amin, O; McLaughlin, R T; Bates, E R

    2007-10-01

    There is general consensus that emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), so long as it can be delivered in a timely fashion, by an experienced' operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) team. STEMI is both a functional and structural issue. Although it has been recognized since the work of pioneering cardiologists and surgeons in Spokane, Washington, that approximately 88% of patients presenting within 6 hours of onset of STEMI have an occluded coronary artery, it is the pathophysiology of myocardial necrosis, and the varied consequences of necrosis that characterize STEMI. Accordingly, experience' of both primary operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) crew, in performing an emergency PCI for STEMI, are as much a function of experience with the treatment of complex MI patients, as experience with coronary intervention. Rapidly achieving normal coronary artery flow, at both the macro and micro vascular levels, is the recognized key to aborting the otherwise progressive wavefront' of myocardial necrosis. The time urgency of decisions (Time is muscle') make emergency PCI for patients with on-going necrosis, more like emergency room (ER) care, than like most in-hospital or outpatient care. In general, most patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are currently thought to have plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent thrombosis and embolization. Consequences of thrombo-embolism, such as slow flow' or no-reflow' are in addition to, the structural (anatomic) considerations of PCI in stable patients (such as ostial location; bifurcation involvement; heavy calcification; tortuosity of lesion or access to it; length of disease; caliber of infarct-artery; etc.). Good quality studies have provided strong support for the specific added value of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (especially abciximab), dual antiplatelet therapy (the addition of

  14. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  15. Measurements of Mode Converted Ion Cyclotron Wave with Phase Contrast Imaging in Alcator C-Mod and Comparisons with Synthetic PCI Simulations in TORIC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E. M.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2009-11-26

    Mode converted ion cyclotron wave (ICW) has been observed with phase contrast imaging (PCI) in D-{sup 3}He plasmas in Alcator C-Mod. The measurements were carried out with the optical heterodyne technique using acousto-optic modulators which modulate the CO2 laser beam intensity near the ion cyclotron frequency. With recently improved calibration of the PCI system using a calibrated sound wave source, the measurements have been compared with the full-wave code TORIC, as interpreted by a synthetic diagnostic. Because of the line-integrated nature of the PCI signal, the predictions are sensitive to the exact wave field pattern. The simulations are found to be in qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  16. BR2BodPR2: highly fluorescent alternatives to PPh3 and PhPCy2.

    PubMed

    Davies, Laura H; Harrington, Ross W; Clegg, William; Higham, Lee J

    2014-09-28

    The syntheses of highly fluorescent analogues of PPh3 and PhPCy2 based on the Bodipy chromophore are described. The ligands have been incorporated into two- to four-coordinate group 11 metal complexes. The synthesis, characterisation and photophysical properties of the novel ligands and their metal complexes are reported; many of these compounds have also been characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Incorporation of the phosphino group and complexation to the group 11 metal centre has little effect on the absorption and emission profiles; high molar extinction coefficients and fluorescence quantum yields were still obtained. In particular, incorporation of the dicyclohexylphosphino substituent significantly increases the quantum yields relative to the parent dyes. PMID:24954582

  17. Effect of rosuvastatin dose-loading on serum sLox-1, hs-CRP, and postoperative prognosis in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yungen; Hu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengang; Gong, Kaizheng; Sun, Xiaoning; Li, Aihua; Liu, Naifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rosuvastatin dose-loading on serum levels of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (Lox-1) and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and postoperative prognosis in patients with diabetes and non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 72 patients with diabetes and NSTEACS were randomized to either the group treated with 20 mg rosuvastatin 12 hours prior to PCI with a second dose administered just before PCI (n = 33), or a control group treated with standard method according guideline (n = 39). Serum levels of sLox-1, hs-CRP, CK-MB, and cTnI were measured prior to PCI, and at 24 hours and 30 days after PCI. The 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was recorded in both groups. Results: Compared to pre-PCI, serum levels of sLox-1 and hs-CRP of the two groups were increased at 24 hours after PCI (P < 0.05); the levels of CK-MB and cTnI were also improved (P < 0.01); however, the ascended values of sLox-1, hs-CRP, CK-MB, and cTnI were significantly lower in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group than in the control-treated group. Serum levels of sLox-1 and hs-CRP were higher in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group than in the control-treated group at 30 days after PCI (P < 0.05); compared to pre-PCI, the levels of TC and LDL-C were not changed at 24 hours after PCI (P > 0.05) until 30 days after PCI (P < 0.05), but there were no difference between the two groups. The levels of ALT and Scr had no significant difference between the two groups before and after PCI; the 30-day incidence of MACE occurred in 6.06% of patients in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group and in 23.08% of patients in the control-treated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The therapy of dose-loading rosuvastatin for patients with diabetes and non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing

  18. ST-elevation myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Insights into persisting left ventricular dysfunction. A pPCI-registry analysis.

    PubMed

    Stolfo, Davide; Cinquetti, Martino; Merlo, Marco; Santangelo, Sara; Barbati, Giulia; Alonge, Marco; Vitrella, Giancarlo; Rakar, Serena; Salvi, Alessandro; Perkan, Andrea; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-07-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) largely reduced the rate of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Though LV recovery begins early following revascularization, the optimal timing for re-assessment of LV function is still unclear. We sought to assess the proportion and timing of LV recovery in STEMI patients presenting with LV dysfunction treated by pPCI and to identify possible early predictors of adverse LV remodeling. STEMI patients with LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) at presentation treated by pPCI from 2007 to 2013 were included whether they had an available 3-step LVEF assessment (<24h post-pPCI, discharge and follow-up). Primary endpoint was LVEF ≤35% at follow-up. At a median time of 3months, 43 out of 154 patients (28%) had LVEF ≤35%. In patients with persistent LV dysfunction, LVEF was lower at admission and increased less during hospitalization (from 31±6 to 35±4% Vs 35±5 to 43±8% for patients with 3-months LVEF >35%, p<0.001). Independent predictors of 3-months LVEF ≤35% were creatinine at admission, peak troponin I and LVEF. Of note, LVEF re-assessment at discharge (median time 6days, IQR 4-9) showed an increased accuracy to predict 3-months LV dysfunction compared to LVEF at admission (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.88 vs AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.79 respectively, p=0.03). In most of patients presenting with STEMI and LV dysfunction, a significant LV recovery can be observed early following pPCI. LVEF measurement at discharge indeed emerged as the best indicator of late persistence of severe LV dysfunction. PMID:27128558

  19. Software interface for high-speed readout of particle detectors based on the CoaXPress communication standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejtmánek, M.; Neue, G.; Voleš, P.

    2015-06-01

    This article is devoted to the software design and development of a high-speed readout application used for interfacing particle detectors via the CoaXPress communication standard. The CoaXPress provides an asymmetric high-speed serial connection over a single coaxial cable. It uses a widely available 75 Ω BNC standard and can operate in various modes with a data throughput ranging from 1.25 Gbps up to 25 Gbps. Moreover, it supports a low speed uplink with a fixed bit rate of 20.833 Mbps, which can be used to control and upload configuration data to the particle detector. The CoaXPress interface is an upcoming standard in medical imaging, therefore its usage promises long-term compatibility and versatility. This work presents an example of how to develop DAQ system for a pixel detector. For this purpose, a flexible DAQ card was developed using the XILINX Spartan 6 FPGA. The DAQ card is connected to the framegrabber FireBird CXP6 Quad, which is plugged in the PCI Express bus of the standard PC. The data transmission was performed between the FPGA and framegrabber card via the standard coaxial cable in communication mode with a bit rate of 3.125 Gbps. Using the Medipix2 Quad pixel detector, the framerate of 100 fps was achieved. The front-end application makes use of the FireBird framegrabber software development kit and is suitable for data acquisition as well as control of the detector through the registers implemented in the FPGA.

  20. Chiral expression at the solid-liquid interface: a joint experimental and theoretical study of the self-assembly of chiral porphyrins on graphite.

    PubMed

    Linares, Mathieu; Iavicoli, Patrizia; Psychogyiopoulou, Krystallia; Beljonne, David; De Feyter, Steven; Amabilino, David B; Lazzaroni, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The chiral organization of an enantiopure functional molecule on an achiral surface has been studied with the aim of understanding the influence of stereogenic centers on the self-assembly in two dimensions. A chiral tetra meso-amidophenyl-substituted porphyrin containing long hydrophobic tails at the periphery of the conjugated pi-electron system was prepared for this purpose. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images of the compound at the graphite-heptanol interface reveal a chiral arrangement of the molecules, with the porphyrin rows tilted by 13 degrees with respect to the normal to the graphite axes. In terms of molecular modeling, a combination of molecular dynamics simulations on systems constrained by periodic boundary conditions and on unconstrained large molecular aggregates has been applied to reach a quantitative interpretation on both the density of the layer and its orientation with respect to the graphite surface. The results show clearly that (i) the methyl groups of the stereogenic point toward the graphite surface and (ii) the porphyrin molecules self-assemble into an interdigitated structure where the alkyl chains align along one of the graphite axes and the porphyrin cores are slightly shifted with respect to one another. The direction of this shift, which defines the chirality of the monolayer, is set by the chirality of the stereogenic centers. Such an arrangement results in the formation of a dense chiral monolayer that is further stabilized by hydrogen bonding with protic solvents.

  1. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  2. Developing primary PCI as a national reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the UK experience.

    PubMed

    McLenachan, James M; Gray, Huon H; de Belder, Mark A; Ludman, Peter F; Cunningham, David; Birkhead, John

    2012-08-01

    In 2004 in the United Kingdom (UK), the infrastructural and organisational changes required for implementation of primary PCI for treatment of STEMI were unclear, and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of a changed reperfusion strategy had not been tested. In addition, any proposed change was to be made against the background of a previously successful in-hospital thrombolysis strategy, with plans for greater use of pre-hospital administration. A prospective study (the "National Infarct Angioplasty Project - NIAP") was set up to collect information on all patients presenting with STEMI in selected regions in the UK over a one year period (April 2005 - March 2006). The key findings from the NIAP project included that PPCI could be delivered within acceptable treatment times in a variety of geographical settings and that the shortest treatment times were achieved with direct admission to a PPCI-capable cardiac catheter laboratory. The transformation from a dominant lytic strategy to one of PPCI across the UK was achieved both swiftly and consistently with the help of 28 cardiac networks. By the second quarter of 2011, 94% of those STEMI patients in England who received reperfusion treatment were being treated by PPCI compared with 46% during the third quarter of 2008.

  3. Developing primary PCI as a national reperfusion strategy for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the UK experience.

    PubMed

    McLenachan, James M; Gray, Huon H; de Belder, Mark A; Ludman, Peter F; Cunningham, David; Birkhead, John

    2012-08-01

    In 2004 in the United Kingdom (UK), the infrastructural and organisational changes required for implementation of primary PCI for treatment of STEMI were unclear, and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of a changed reperfusion strategy had not been tested. In addition, any proposed change was to be made against the background of a previously successful in-hospital thrombolysis strategy, with plans for greater use of pre-hospital administration. A prospective study (the "National Infarct Angioplasty Project - NIAP") was set up to collect information on all patients presenting with STEMI in selected regions in the UK over a one year period (April 2005 - March 2006). The key findings from the NIAP project included that PPCI could be delivered within acceptable treatment times in a variety of geographical settings and that the shortest treatment times were achieved with direct admission to a PPCI-capable cardiac catheter laboratory. The transformation from a dominant lytic strategy to one of PPCI across the UK was achieved both swiftly and consistently with the help of 28 cardiac networks. By the second quarter of 2011, 94% of those STEMI patients in England who received reperfusion treatment were being treated by PPCI compared with 46% during the third quarter of 2008. PMID:22917802

  4. Influence of carbon structure and mineral association of coals on their combustion characteristics for pulverized coal injection (PCI) application

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Al-Omari, Y.; Sahajwalla, V.; French, D.

    2006-06-15

    The influence of carbon structure and mineral matter of three pulverized coals on their char characteristics including reactivity was studied under a range of combustion conditions in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric (TGA) furnace for PCI application. Physical and chemical properties of coals and their combustion derivatives were characterized by automated reflectogram. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and BET N{sub 2} adsorption. The QEMSCAN{asterisk} technique was used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of minerals of discrete coal particles. The TGA char reactivity was related to the proportion of coal particles displaying strong association of calcium/sulfur phases with carbon matrix to highlight the catalytic influence of minerals on char reactivity at low temperatures. The study suggested that during DTF combustion tests at 1200{sup o}C, char reaction rates might have been catalyzed by coal minerals, particularly due to illite and its association with carbon. Under the same combustion conditions, most of the coal minerals did not transform significantly to slag phases. Coal burnout was found to improve significantly in a combustion temperature range of 1200 to 1500{sup o}C. The improvement of coal burnout with temperature appeared to be influenced by coal properties, particularly as a function of the chemical nature of minerals, as well as the degree of associations with other minerals. The study implies that coals with similar mineral compositions might not necessarily reflect similar combustion behavior due to the differences in their associations with other phases.

  5. Fluctuations of Permeable Interfaces in Water-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagis, Leonard M. C.

    2007-02-01

    The fluctuations of highly permeable interfaces, encountered in phase-separated biopolymer solutions, liposomes, polymersomes, or colloidosomes, are investigated. An expression for the power spectrum of the height correlation function is derived for a multicomponent system, incorporating the effects of mass transfer across the interface, using nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We also derive an expression for the relaxation time of the height correlation function, and calculate the relaxation time for a phase-separated gelatin-dextran-water system. Comparing our expression with the expression for an impermeable interface shows that mass transfer has a significant impact on the relaxation time of the interface.

  6. His74 conservation in the bilin reductase PcyA family reflects an important role in protein-substrate structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, Burak V; Gae, David D; Li, Jie; Lagarias, J Clark; Koehl, Patrice; Fisher, Andrew J

    2013-09-15

    Phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) catalyzes the proton-coupled four-electron reduction of biliverdin IXα's two vinyl groups to produce phycocyanobilin, an essential chromophore for phytochromes, cyanobacteriochromes and phycobiliproteins. Previous site directed mutagenesis studies indicated that the fully conserved residue His74 plays a critical role in the H-bonding network that permits proton transfer. Here, we exploit X-ray crystallography, enzymology and molecular dynamics simulations to understand the functional role of this invariant histidine. The structures of the H74A, H74E and H74Q variants of PcyA reveal that a "conserved" buried water molecule that bridges His74 and catalytically essential His88 is not required for activity. Despite distinct conformations of Glu74 and Gln74 in the H74E and H74Q variants, both retain reasonable activity while the H74A variant is inactive, suggesting smaller residues may generate cavities that increase flexibility, thereby reducing enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamic simulations further reveal that the crucial active site residue Asp105 is more dynamic in H74A compared to wild-type PcyA and the two other His74 variants, supporting the conclusion that the Ala74 mutation has increased the flexibility of the active site. PMID:23911721

  7. Engineering graded tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2008-08-26

    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  8. Mortality pattern and cause of death in a long-term follow-up of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Moloi, Soniah; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Farshid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the pattern of mortality and cause of death in a cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 2006–2013 were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (1–8.4 years). We used hospital and general practice records and mortality data from The Australian National Death Index. Results Among 1313 patients (22.5% female) with mean age of 62.3±13.1 years, 181 patients (13.7%) died during long-term follow-up. In the first 7 days, 45 patients (3.4%) died, 76% of these due to cardiogenic shock. Between 7 days and 1 year, another 50 patients died (3.9%), 58% from cardiovascular causes and 22% from cancer. Beyond 1 year, there were 86 deaths with an estimated mean mortality rate of 2.05% per year, 36% of deaths were cardiovascular and 52% non-cardiovascular, including 29% cancer-related deaths. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, history of diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 and symptom-to-balloon time >360 min were independent predictors of long-term mortality. In 16 patients who died of sudden cardiac death postdischarge, only 4 (25%) had ejection fraction ≤35% and would have been eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions In the era of routine primary PCI, we found a mortality rate of 7.3% at 1 year, and 2.05% per year thereafter. Cause of death was predominantly cardiovascular in the first year and mainly non-cardiovascular after 1 year. Age, diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, eGFR <60 and delayed treatment were independent predictors of mortality. PMID:27099764

  9. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Hemodynamic Instability: Can Emergent PCI Be Life Saving? Report of Two Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Al Emam, Abdel Rahman A; Almomani, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed A

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It occurs predominantly among younger females and typically in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is associated with peripartum period, connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and extreme exertion. Presentations vary greatly, and this condition can be fatal. Given its rarity, there are no guidelines for management of SCAD. We present the cases of two female patients, with no coronary artery disease risk factors or recent pregnancy, who were presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively, secondary to SCAD. Both had excellent outcome after emergent percutaneous intervention. Our first patient was presented with NSTEMI with ongoing chest pain and dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG). Emergent left heart catheterization was significant for first obtuse marginal (OM1) dissection, confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with two bare metal stents was performed with resolution of symptoms and ECG changes. The second patient is known to have syndrome, presented with STEMI and emergent coronary angiography showed left anterior descending dissection with intramural hematoma confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and treated with a drug-eluting stent with resolution of symptoms and ST changes. Her hospital course was complicated by post-myocardial infarction pericarditis that was improved with colchicine. Both the patients were observed in the coronary care unit for 24 hours. Both remained asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. In patients with early presentation, limited disease, and ongoing symptoms, emergent cardiac catheterization with percutaneous intervention has excellent outcome. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based management guidelines.

  10. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Hemodynamic Instability: Can Emergent PCI Be Life Saving? Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Al Emam, Abdel Rahman A.; Almomani, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed A.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It occurs predominantly among younger females and typically in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is associated with peripartum period, connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and extreme exertion. Presentations vary greatly, and this condition can be fatal. Given its rarity, there are no guidelines for management of SCAD. We present the cases of two female patients, with no coronary artery disease risk factors or recent pregnancy, who were presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively, secondary to SCAD. Both had excellent outcome after emergent percutaneous intervention. Our first patient was presented with NSTEMI with ongoing chest pain and dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG). Emergent left heart catheterization was significant for first obtuse marginal (OM1) dissection, confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with two bare metal stents was performed with resolution of symptoms and ECG changes. The second patient is known to have syndrome, presented with STEMI and emergent coronary angiography showed left anterior descending dissection with intramural hematoma confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and treated with a drug-eluting stent with resolution of symptoms and ST changes. Her hospital course was complicated by post–myocardial infarction pericarditis that was improved with colchicine. Both the patients were observed in the coronary care unit for 24 hours. Both remained asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. In patients with early presentation, limited disease, and ongoing symptoms, emergent cardiac catheterization with percutaneous intervention has excellent outcome. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based management guidelines. PMID:25484560

  11. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  12. Immersed interface methods for moving interface problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhilin

    1997-05-01

    A second order difference method is developed for the nonlinear moving interface problem of the form u_t + λ uu_x = ( {β u_x } )_x - f( {x,t} ),x in [ {0,α } ) \\cup ( {α ,1} ]} }. {d}{α}/{dt} = w( {t,α ;u,u_x } ), , where α (t) is the moving interface. The coefficient β(x,t) and the source term f(x,t) can be discontinuous across α (t) and moreover, f(x,t) may have a delta or/and delta-prime function singularity there. As a result, although the equation is parabolic, the solution u and its derivatives may be discontinuous across α (t). Two typical interface conditions are considered. One condition occurs in Stefan-like problems in which the solution is known on the interface. A new stable interpolation strategy is proposed. The other type occurs in a one-dimensional model of Peskin's immersed boundary method in which only jump conditions are given across the interface. The Crank-Nicolson difference scheme with modifications near the interface is used to solve for the solution u(x,t) and the interface α (t) simultaneously. Several numerical examples, including models of ice-melting and glaciation, are presented. Second order accuracy on uniform grids is confirmed both for the solution and the position of the interface.

  13. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  14. Culprit lesion thrombus burden after manual thrombectomy or percutaneous coronary intervention-alone in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the optical coherence tomography sub-study of the TOTAL (ThrOmbecTomy versus PCI ALone) trial

    PubMed Central

    Bhindi, Ravinay; Kajander, Olli A.; Jolly, Sanjit S.; Kassam, Saleem; Lavi, Shahar; Niemelä, Kari; Fung, Anthony; Cheema, Asim N.; Meeks, Brandi; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Kočka, Viktor; Cantor, Warren J.; Kaivosoja, Timo P.; Shestakovska, Olga; Gao, Peggy; Stankovic, Goran; Džavík, Vladimír; Sheth, Tej

    2016-01-01

    Aims Manual thrombectomy has been proposed as a strategy to reduce thrombus burden during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the effectiveness of manual thrombectomy in reducing thrombus burden is uncertain. In this substudy of the TOTAL (ThrOmbecTomy versus PCI ALone) trial, we compared the thrombus burden at the culprit lesion using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients treated with thrombectomy vs. PCI-alone. Methods and results The TOTAL trial (N = 10 732) was an international, multicentre, randomized trial of thrombectomy (using the Export catheter, Medtronic Cardiovascular, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI. The OCT sub-study prospectively enrolled 214 patients from 13 sites in 5 countries. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after thrombectomy or PCI-alone and then repeated after stent deployment. Thrombus quantification was performed by an independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment. The primary outcome of pre-stent thrombus burden as a percentage of segment analysed was 2.36% (95% CI: 1.73–3.22) in the thrombectomy group and 2.88% (95% CI: 2.12–3.90) in the PCI-alone group (P = 0.373). Absolute pre-stent thrombus volume was not different (2.99 vs. 3.74 mm3, P = 0.329). Other secondary outcomes of pre-stent quadrants of thrombus, post–stent atherothrombotic burden, and post-stent atherothrombotic volume were not different between groups. Conclusion Manual thrombectomy did not reduce pre-stent thrombus burden at the culprit lesion compared with PCI-alone. Both strategies were associated with low thrombus burden at the lesion site after the initial intervention to restore flow. PMID:25994742

  15. Trends in Bare-Metal Stent Use in the United States in Patients Aged ≥65 Years (from the CathPCI Registry).

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jennifer A; Harrison, Robert W; Dai, David; Roe, Matthew T; Messenger, John C; Anderson, H Vernon; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration published advisory highlighting concerns for late drug-eluting stent thrombosis; its impact on US bare-metal stent (BMS) utilization is unknown. We examined rates of BMS use among Medicare patients at 946 US hospitals in the CathPCI Registry who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during 3 periods: (1) 2004 to 2006 preadvisory (n = 166,458); (2) 2007 to 2008 postadvisory (n = 216,318); and (3) 2012 to 2014 contemporary (n = 827,948). We examined predicted risks of target vessel revascularization and bleeding among BMS recipients by period. We compared 1-year repeat revascularization and death/myocardial infarction risks among BMS recipients immediately preadvisory and postadvisory. BMS were used in 15.8% of preadvisory, 40.9% of postadvisory, and 20.0% of contemporary PCI procedures. Although 19.5% of preadvisory BMS patients had a predicted target vessel revascularization risk ≥15%/year, this decreased to 16.7% postadvisory (p <0.001), and increased back to 18.7% among contemporary BMS recipients (p <0.001). In contrast, 12.3% of preadvisory BMS recipients had a predicted bleeding risk ≥5%/year, compared with 14.6% postadvisory (p <0.001), and 18.2% in contemporary BMS recipients (p <0.001). Postadvisory BMS recipients had a lower risk of repeat revascularization (12.8% vs 14.6%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.90) but no difference in the composite risk of death/myocardial infarction (15.9% vs 15.9%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.00). In conclusion, a surge in BMS use after the advisory was not associated with an increased risk of repeat revascularization or adverse outcomes in BMS-treated patients. One in 5 contemporary PCI procedures still involve BMS implantation. PMID:27614853

  16. Water at Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding. PMID:27232062

  17. Micro bubbles at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarzi, Gholamreza; Wang, Anna; Barber, Tracie; Manoharan, Vinothan

    2014-03-01

    The behaviour of a small micron sized bubbles close to an interface is vital to various interface interaction applications in several industries. Previous studies have focused on understanding the behaviour of large millimetric bubbles reaching an interface. Some of these millimetric bubbles are shown to bounce back, while others penetrate and burst on the interface resulting in possible small micron sized bubbles. However, small micron sized bubble may act different. It has been observed that small microbubbles can act as if they are stabilized at the interface without merging to the fluid over the interface. The dynamics of the microbubble adsorption close to an interface has yet to be well understood.In this study we used digital holography microscopy to explore detailed information on the behaviour of the air microbubble at the interface. This study investigates the position and shape of a microbubble with respect to the interface. The dynamic behavior close to the interface along with where the small microbubble is positioned near an interface will help us in understanding the probability of penetration and merging back to the fluid on top.

  18. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  19. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  20. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  1. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  2. Fluxionality and Isomerism of the Bis(dihydrogen) Complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2): INS, NMR, and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Venancio; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane; Chaudret, Bruno; Thoburn, John; Ulrich, Stefan; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Eckert, Juergen; Barthelat, Jean-Claude; Hussein, Khansaa; Marsden, Colin J.

    1998-07-13

    To study the fluxionality of the bis(dihydrogen) complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (1), NMR spectra were recorded in Freons (mixture of CDCl(3), CDFCl(2), and CDF(2)Cl). 1 was found to remain fluxional at all temperatures, but the presence of CDCl(3) necessary for its solubilization induces its transformation into, first, RuHCl(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (3) and the new ruthenium(IV) dihydride RuH(2)Cl(2)(PCy(3))(2) (4). 4 is produced selectively in pure CDCl(3) but reacts further to give a mixture of chloro complexes. 4 was isolated from the reaction of 1 with aqueous HCl in Et(2)O and shows a fluxional process attributed to the interconversion between two symmetrical isomers. The activation parameters of this process were obtained by (1)H NMR line shape analysis, as well as those corresponding to the exchange between 3 and free dihydrogen. The fluxionality of the dihydrogen-hydride system is also evident at a much faster time scale than that of NMR studies in the inelastic neutron scattering observations of the rotation of the dihydrogen ligands. The geometries and relative energies of several isomers of complexes 1, 3, and 4 were studied using density functional theory (DFT) and MP2 methods, together with a few coupled-cluster (CCSD(T)) calculations. In contrast to what might have been expected, the two hydrides and the two H(2) units of 1 lie in the same plane, due to the attractive "cis effect" created by the hydrides. The two H(2) ligands adopt cis positions in the lowest-energy isomer. Rotation of the two dihydrogen ligands has been analyzed using DFT calculations. A slight preference for a C(2) conrotatory pathway has been found with a calculated barrier in good agreement with the experimental INS value. Two low-energy isomers of 4 have been characterized computationally, both of which have C(2)(v)() symmetry, consistent with the solution NMR spectra. PMID:11670430

  3. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  4. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  5. The User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The first of three articles on the design of user interfaces for information retrieval systems discusses the need to examine types of display, prompting, and input as separate entities. The second examines the use of artificial intelligence in creating natural language interfaces, and the third outlines standards for case studies in human computer…

  6. Communication Interface for SAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffman, M.; Hartley, F.

    1995-01-01

    An interface is described that supplies communications between the flight instruments and the analog input of an existing conventional recording unit for the Shuttle Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), a data acquisition unit. The architecture and current implementation of an STD bus/LonTalk communication interface are described.

  7. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  8. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  9. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  10. NT-proBNP on admission for early risk stratification in STEMI patients submitted to PCI. Relation with extension of STEMI and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Valente, Serafina; Lazzeri, Chiara; Chiostri, Marco; Giglioli, Cristina; Sori, Andrea; Tigli, Sabrina; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2009-02-01

    The prognostic implications of NT-proBNP measured on admission in patients with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are not so far well elucidated. The present investigation, performed in 198 STEMI patients submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), was aimed at assessing the prognostic value of NT-proBNP measured on admission to Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU) and its relation with the extension of myocardial infarction (indicated by cardiac biomarkers and ejection fraction) and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein - CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate - ESR, leucocytes, fibrinogen). All patients who died during ICCU stay had increased values of NT-proBNP. Each quartile of NT-proBNP resulted directly correlated with age, heart rate, peak Tn I, admission creatinine serum levels, ESR, fibrinogen, and inversely correlated with ejection fraction. At backward logistic regression analysis, NT-proBNP values showed a significative correlation with peak Tn I (OR 1.013; 95% CI 1.001-1.025; p=0.036), and CRP positive (OR 6.450; 95% CI 1.714-24.272; p=0.006); age was close to reaching statistical significance (OR 1.043; 95% CI 0.999-1.089; p=0.055). At long term-follow-up NT-proBNP lacks any prognostic role in predicting adverse events such as hospitalization for rePCI, re-infarction and heart failure. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that all patients dead at follow-up were in the highest NT-proBNP quartiles.

  11. Heart Failure in post MI patients with persistent IRA occlusion: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and the Long-term Effect of PCI in the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT)

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Rahul R.; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Katz, Stuart D.; Jeger, Raban; Zinka, Elzbieta; Forman, Sandra A.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and predictors of heart failure (HF) post myocardial infarction (MI) with modern post-MI treatment have not been well characterized. Methods and Results 2201 stable patients with persistent infarct related artery occlusion > 24 hours after MI with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and/or proximal coronary artery occlusion were randomized to percutaneous intervention plus optimal medical therapy (PCI) or optimal medical therapy (MED) alone. Centrally adjudicated HF hospitalizations for NYHA III/IV HF and mortality were determined in patients with and without baseline HF, defined as a history of HF, Killip Class > I at index MI, rales, S3 gallop, NYHA II at randomization, or NYHA > I prior to index MI. Long-term follow-up data were used to determine 7-year life-table estimated event rates and hazard ratios. There were 150 adjudicated HF hospitalizations during a mean follow-up of 6 years with no difference between the randomized groups (7.4% PCI vs. 7.5% MED, p=0.97). Adjudicated HF hospitalization was associated with subsequent death (44.0% vs. 13.1%, HR 3.31, 99% CI 2.21–4.92, p<0.001). Baseline HF (present in 32% of patients) increased the risk of adjudicated HF hospitalization (13.6% vs. 4.7%, HR 3.43, 99% CI 2.23–5.26, p<0.001) and death (24.7% vs. 10.8%, HR 2.31, 99% CI 1.71–3.10, p<0.001). Conclusions In the overall OAT population, adjudicated HF hospitalizations occurred in 7.5% of subjects and were associated with increased risk of subsequent death. Baseline or prior HF was common in the OAT population and was associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death. PMID:23141853

  12. SPUR coprocessor interface description

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.M.; Kong, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the SPUR coprocessor interface. The interface provides enhanced performance potential by allowing parallel operations between the SPUR processor and SPUR coprocessors. A decoupled control and execution architecture allow data transfers to proceed while coprocessor functions are performed. Implicit and explicit synchronization mechanisms provide the programmer with complete control and flexibility. On-chip coprocessor register files and a wide data path between the memory and coprocessor minimize data transfer overhead. An intelligent interface control unit provides parallel decoding of instructions for maximum performance.

  13. Operator interface for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - REMOVAL OF PRECURSORS TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER, PCI MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FYNE PROCESS MODEL ROP 1434 WITH AFC-30 NANOFILTRATON AT BARROW, AK - NSF 00/19/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equipment testing and verification of PCI Membrane Systems Inc. Fyne Process nanofiltraton systems Model ROP 1434 equipped with a C10 module containing AFC-30 tubular membranes was conducted from 3/16-5/11/2000 in Barrow, AS. The source water was a moderate alkalinity, moderately...

  15. TSF Interface Package

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  16. Crewstation display interface standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Gregory J.

    1999-08-01

    Military sensors and crewstation displays are all moving to digital-based technologies, an epochal shift from the previous world of analog interfaces throughout the video chain. It is no longer possible to specify a sensor and display to the same interface specification such as the venerable RS-170 and RS- 343 standards without paying an unacceptable resolution penalty. Consequently a new standard is required to allow sensor and display manufacturers to easily design system interfaces without relying on cumbersome, costly and unique interface control documents. This paper presents one possible hardware and protocol standard based on FibreChannel technology, and solicits inputs into the standards setting process which is now in progress.

  17. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Software interface verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderstrom, Tomas J.; Krall, Laura A.; Hope, Sharon A.; Zupke, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    A Telos study of 40 recent subsystem deliveries into the DSN at JPL found software interface testing to be the single most expensive and error-prone activity, and the study team suggested creating an automated software interface test tool. The resulting Software Interface Verifier (SIV), which was funded by NASA/JPL and created by Telos, employed 92 percent software reuse to quickly create an initial version which incorporated early user feedback. SIV is now successfully used by developers for interface prototyping and unit testing, by test engineers for formal testing, and by end users for non-intrusive data flow tests in the operational environment. Metrics, including cost, are included. Lessons learned include the need for early user training. SIV is ported to many platforms and can be successfully used or tailored by other NASA groups.

  19. Performance Application Programming Interface

    2005-10-31

    PAPI is a programming interface designed to provide the tool designer and application engineer with a consistent interface and methodology for use of the performance counter hardware found in most major microprocessors. PAPI enables software engineers to see, in near real time, the relation between software performance and processor events. This release covers the hardware dependent implementation of PAPI version 3 for the IBM BlueGene/L (BG/L) system.

  20. Engineering Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    While a wide variety of approaches to engineering orthopedic tissues have been proposed, less attention has been paid to the interfaces, the specialized areas that connect two tissues of different biochemical and mechanical properties. The interface tissue plays an important role in transitioning mechanical load between disparate tissues. Thus, the relatively new field of interfacial tissue engineering presents new challenges—to not only consider the regeneration of individual orthopedic tissues, but also to design the biochemical and cellular composition of the linking tissue. Approaches to interfacial tissue engineering may be distinguished based on if the goal is to recreate the interface itself, or generate an entire integrated tissue unit (such as an osteochondral plug). As background for future efforts in engineering orthopedic interfaces, a brief review of the biology and mechanics of each interface (cartilage–bone, ligament–bone, meniscus–bone, and muscle–tendon) is presented, followed by an overview of the state-of-the-art in engineering each tissue, including advances and challenges specific to regenerating the interfaces. PMID:19231983

  1. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  2. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  3. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  4. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  5. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  6. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Bourasseau, E; Malfreyt, P; Ghoufi, A

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  7. Nanostructured Interfaces for Thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Marconnet, A. M.; Panzer, M. A.; Leblanc, S.; Dogbe, S.; Ezzahri, Y.; Shakouri, A.; Goodson, K. E.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature drops at the interfaces between thermoelectric materials and the heat source and sink reduce the overall efficiency of thermoelectric systems. Nanostructured interfaces based on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) promise the combination of mechanical compliance and high thermal conductance required for thermoelectric modules, which are subjected to severe thermomechanical stresses. This work discusses the property require- ments for thermoelectric interface materials, reviews relevant data available in the literature for CNT films, and characterizes the thermal properties of vertically aligned multiwalled CNTs grown on a candidate thermoelectric material. Nanosecond thermoreflectance thermometry provides thermal property data for 1.5- μm-thick CNT films on SiGe. The thermal interface resistances between the CNT film and surrounding materials are the dominant barriers to thermal transport, ranging from 1.4 m2 K MW-1 to 4.3 m2 K MW-1. The volumetric heat capacity of the CNT film is estimated to be 87 kJ m-3 K-1, which corresponds to a volumetric fill fraction of 9%. The effect of 100 thermal cycles from 30°C to 200°C is also studied. These data provide the groundwork for future studies of thermoelectric materials in contact with CNT films serving as both a thermal and electrical interface.

  8. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  9. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Blocks Hairy Cell Leukaemia Survival, Proliferation and BCR Signalling: A New Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sivina, Mariela; Kreitman, Robert J.; Arons, Evgeny; Ravandi, Farhad; Burger, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling plays a critical role in the progression of several B-cell malignancies, but its role in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is ambiguous. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key player in BCR signalling, migration and adhesion, can be targeted with ibrutinib, a selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor. We analysed BTK expression and function in HCL and analysed the effects of ibrutinib on HCL cells. We demonstrated uniform BTK protein expression in HCL cells. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited HCL proliferation and cell cycle progression. Accordingly, ibrutinib also reduced HCL cell survival after BCR triggering with anti-immunoglobulins (A, G, and M) and abrogated the activation of kinases downstream of the BCR (PI3K and MAPK). Ibrutinib also inhibited BCR-dependent secretion of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by HCL cells. Interestingly, ibrutinib inhibited CXCL12-induced signalling, a key pathway for bone marrow homing. Collectively, our data support the clinical development of ibrutinib in patients with HCL. PMID:24697238

  10. Shock wave refraction enhancing conditions on an extended interface

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.

    2013-04-15

    We determined the law of shock wave refraction for a class of extended interfaces with continuously variable gradients. When the interface is extended or when the gas parameters vary fast enough, the interface cannot be considered as sharp or smooth and the existing calculation methods cannot be applied. The expressions we derived are general enough to cover all three types of the interface and are valid for any law of continuously varying parameters. We apply the equations to the case of exponentially increasing temperature on the boundary and compare the results for all three types of interfaces. We have demonstrated that the type of interface can increase or inhibit the shock wave refraction. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the results obtained in energy deposition experiments as well as for controlling the shock-plasma interaction in other settings.

  11. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  12. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  13. An Abstract Data Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, D. J.

    The Abstract Data Interface (ADI) is a system within which both abstract data models and their mappings on to file formats can be defined. The data model system is object-oriented and closely follows the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) object model. Programming interfaces in both C and \\fortran are supplied, and are designed to be simple enough for use by users with limited software skills. The prototype system supports access to those FITS formats most commonly used in the X-ray community, as well as the Starlink NDF data format. New interfaces can be rapidly added to the system---these may communicate directly with the file system, other ADI objects or elsewhere (e.g., a network connection).

  14. Actuator-valve interface optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, O.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code, Actuator Valve Response (AVR), has been developed to optimize the explosive actuator-valve interface parameters so that the valve plunger velocity is at a maximum when the plunger reaches the valve tubes. The code considers three forces to act on the valve plunger before the plunger reaches the valve tubes. These are the pressure force produced by the actuator, the shear force necessary to shear the seal disks on the actuator and the valve plunger, and the friction force caused by friction between the plunger and the plunger bore. The three forces are modeled by expressions that are explicitly functions of the plunger displacement. A particular actuator-valve combination was analyzed with the computer code AVR with four different combinations of valve plunger seal disk shear strength and initial friction force. (LEW)

  15. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  16. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  17. Profile Interface Generator

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  18. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  19. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  20. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  1. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  2. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  3. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria M; Campagne, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  4. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria M; Campagne, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/).

  5. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  6. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  7. Interface It Yourself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westling, Bruce D.; Bahe, Margaret E.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several ways to build data collection devices for microcomputers. The interface devices connect with either the computer's game port or an analog-to-digital converter. Discusses how teachers have designed the equipment and appropriate software to use with the computer in biology teaching. (TW)

  8. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  9. the EXFOR interface

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  10. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  11. Probing interfaces involving liquids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A L

    1987-04-10

    Last month in Washington, D.C., the National Academy of Sciences held the first of what it hopes will be a series of seminars in forefront fields of science, technology, and medicine. The idea is to bring the academy closer to the frontlines of research and to help spread the word to federal science policy-makers. The subject of the 23 and 24 March seminar was interfaces and thin films, and the talks, though tutorial in nature, contained a pleasantly large number of still unpublished results. Interfaces, such as the surface of a solid exposed to a liquid or gas, and thin films, whose properties are heavily influenced by interfaces, have long been of considerable technological importance and have always been so in biological processes, but researchers are now getting access to the experimental and theoretical tools needed to explore these complex physical systems that are neither ideally two-dimensional nor fully three-dimensional. The briefings that follow give a peek at three ways to probe interfaces involving liquids.

  12. Characterization of alpha-defensins plasma levels in Macaca fascicularis and correlations with virological parameters during SHIV89.6Pcy11 experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Negri, Donatella R M; Rovetto, Claudia; Belli, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Catone, Stefania; Michelini, Zuleika; Borghi, Martina; Leone, Pasqualina; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heeney, Jonathan; Cara, Andrea

    2007-02-01

    Alpha-defensins have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and may contribute to the overall control of viral replication in vivo. In the present work, we quantitatively measured the levels of alpha-defensins in the plasma of healthy and experimentally SHIV-infected Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus monkeys), an animal model of AIDS pathogenesis and vaccine development. Characterization of physiological plasma alpha-defensins levels was performed in 12 healthy monkeys following longitudinal analysis using an alpha-defensins ELISA kit currently validated for macaque use. Subsequently, alpha-defensins levels were quantitatively measured in 23 cynomolgus monkeys during titration protocols following both the mucosal and systemic routes of infection with the pathogenic SHIV89.6P(cy11). A significant increase in plasma alpha-defensins levels was consistently observed at early time points in all infected animals, regardless of the infection route. Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between viral replication and levels of alpha-defensins during the acute phase of infection. Interestingly, in the animals infected through the mucosal route, alpha-defensins levels remained significantly higher at later time points, up to 19 weeks from the infection, while in cynomolgus infected intravenously, alpha-defensins levels returned to baseline levels by 4 weeks from infection, suggesting that the different route of infection may differently activate the innate immune response.

  13. The role of the second coordination sphere of [Ni(PCy2NBz2)2](BF4)2 in reversible carbon monoxide binding

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Aaron; Fraze, Kendra; Twamley, Brendan; Miller, Susie M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

    2008-01-23

    This paper reports our investigations on the reactivity of a series of [Ni(diphosphine)2]2+ derivatives, including [Ni(PCy2NBz2)2](BF4)2, 1, with an atmosphere of carbon monoxide at room temperature. Complex 1 showed a unique ability to form a CO adduct under these conditions, and further characterization of this product has been carried out. A systematic study of the factors that favor formation of the CO adduct suggest that two bases in the second coordination sphere interact with the coordinated CO ligand to provide a stabilizing influence, and the generality of such an effect in this system is discussed. The effect of carbon monoxide on the catalytic activity of 1 for hydrogen oxidation has also been studied. D. L. D. acknowledges the support of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy, by the Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  14. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  15. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  16. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum reoriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  17. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  18. Preparation and characterization of ruthenium(II) monophosphaferrocene complexes. Reactivity, dynamic solution behavior, and X-ray structure of [RuH(2)(eta(2)-H(2))(PCy(3))2(2-phenyl-3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene)].

    PubMed

    Toner, A J; Donnadieu, B; Sabo-Etienne, S; Chaudret, B; Sava, X; Mathey, F; Le Floch, P

    2001-06-18

    The bis(dihydrogen) complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (1) reacts with 2-phenyl-3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene (L(1)) to give RuH(2)(H(2))(PCy(3))(2)(L(1)) (2). This dihydride-dihydrogen complex has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and variable-temperature (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The exchange between the dihydrogen ligand and the two hydrides is characterized by a DeltaG() of 46.2 kJ/mol at 263 K. H/D exchange is readily observed when heating a C(7)D(8) solution of 2 (J(H-D) = 30 Hz). The H(2) ligand in 2 can be displaced by ethylene or carbon monoxide leading to the corresponding ethylene or carbonyl complexes. The reaction of 1 with 2 equiv of 3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene (L(2)) yields the dihydride complex RuH(2)(PCy(3))(2)(L(2))(2) (5). PMID:11399170

  19. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hickok, D.D.; Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  20. Interface localization near criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, Gesualdo

    2016-05-01

    The theory of interface localization in near-critical planar systems at phase coexistence is formulated from first principles. We show that mutual delocalization of two interfaces, amounting to interfacial wetting, occurs when the bulk correlation length critical exponent ν is larger than or equal to 1. Interaction with a boundary or defect line involves an additional scale and a dependence of the localization strength on the distance from criticality. The implications are particularly rich in the boundary case, where delocalization proceeds through different renormalization patterns sharing the feature that the boundary field becomes irrelevant in the delocalized regime. The boundary delocalization (wetting) transition is shown to be continuous, with surface specific heat and layer thickness exponents which can take values that we determine.

  1. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  2. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  3. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  4. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  5. Systems interface biology

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Francis J; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Hence, the interface between systems and biology is of mutual benefit to both disciplines. PMID:16971329

  6. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  7. Interface scattering in polycrystalline thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, Adrian; Haney, Paul M.

    2014-03-28

    We study the effect of electron and phonon interface scattering on the thermoelectric properties of disordered, polycrystalline materials (with grain sizes larger than electron and phonons' mean free path). Interface scattering of electrons is treated with a Landauer approach, while that of phonons is treated with the diffuse mismatch model. The interface scattering is embedded within a diffusive model of bulk transport, and we show that, for randomly arranged interfaces, the overall system is well described by effective medium theory. Using bulk parameters similar to those of PbTe and a square barrier potential for the interface electron scattering, we identify the interface scattering parameters for which the figure of merit ZT is increased. We find the electronic scattering is generally detrimental due to a reduction in electrical conductivity; however, for sufficiently weak electronic interface scattering, ZT is enhanced due to phonon interface scattering.

  8. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  9. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  10. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  11. Programable Interface Handles Many Peripherals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, M.

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based interface simplifies interconnection of peripheral device with common memory of network of minicomputers. Interface consists of microprocessor, bidirectional port that connects to common memory, bidirectional port that connects to user-selected peripheral, and asynchronous serial communications port. Programable interface is based around 6800 microprocessor. It is assembled from 90 integrated circuits.

  12. Thesaurus-Enhanced Search Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiri, Ali Asghar; Revie, Crawford; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of user interfaces to information retrieval systems focuses on interfaces that incorporate thesauri as part of their searching and browsing facilities. Discusses research literature related to information searching behavior, information retrieval interface evaluation, search term selection, and query expansion; and compares thesaurus…

  13. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  14. Schottky barriers and interface structure at silicide-silicon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthai, C. C.; Rees, N. V.; Shen, T. H.

    Schottky barriers at metal-semiconductor interfaces have attracted much interest in recent years. One of the principal interests has centred on the mechanism for Fermi level pinning. The sililcide-silicon interface has been proposed as a system which is described by the metal induced gap states model. We have performed calculations on the NiSi 2/Si(111) type A and type B interfaces as well as the NiSi 2/Si(100) interface. In addition we have also studied the CoSi 2/Si interface. For the NiSi 2/Si(111) interface, we have further investigated the influence of point defects and hydrostatic pressure on the Schottky barrier height. Based on the results of our calculations we conclude that these interfaces do indeed subscribe to the MIGS model. We also present the results of some total energy calculations and discuss these with experimental observations.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of prostaglandin metabolic enzyme expression during pregnancy and the characterization of AKR1B1 as a prostaglandin F synthase at the maternal-conceptus interface in pigs.

    PubMed

    Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Shim, Jangsoo; Yoo, Inkyu; Ka, Hakhyun

    2014-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators regulating various reproductive processes in many species. In pigs, the expression pattern of PGE2 and PGF2α metabolic enzymes and the regulatory mechanism controlling PGE2 and PGF2α levels in the uterus during pregnancy are not completely understood. This study determined endometrial expression of the genes (PLA2G4A, PTGS1, PTGS2, PTGES, PTGES2, PTGES3, AKR1B1, CBR1, and HPGD) involved in PGE2 and PGF2α metabolism during the estrous cycle and pregnancy and measured levels of PGE2 and PGF2α in uterine endometrial tissues and uterine flushings at the time of conceptus implantation in pigs. Except PTGES3, expression of the genes studied changed in a pregnancy-stage-specific manner, and localization of PTGES, AKR1B1, CBR1, and HPGD mRNAs were cell-type specific in the uterine endometrium. Levels of both PGE2 and PGF2α in uterine endometrial tissues and uterine lumen were higher on Day 12 of pregnancy than those of the estrous cycle and affected by different morphology of spherical and filamentous conceptuses. Furthermore, we determined that endometrial expression of AKR1B1, known to encode a PGF2α synthase in other species, was increased by estrogen and interleukin-1beta and that AKR1B1 exhibited PGF2α synthase activity in the porcine uterine endometrium. These results in pigs indicate that the PGE2 and PGF2α metabolic enzymes are expressed stage specifically in the endometrium during pregnancy and regulate the abundance of PGE2 and PGF2α in the uterus at the time of implantation and that AKR1B1 may act as a major PGF synthase in the endometrium during early pregnancy.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of prostaglandin metabolic enzyme expression during pregnancy and the characterization of AKR1B1 as a prostaglandin F synthase at the maternal-conceptus interface in pigs.

    PubMed

    Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Shim, Jangsoo; Yoo, Inkyu; Ka, Hakhyun

    2014-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important lipid mediators regulating various reproductive processes in many species. In pigs, the expression pattern of PGE2 and PGF2α metabolic enzymes and the regulatory mechanism controlling PGE2 and PGF2α levels in the uterus during pregnancy are not completely understood. This study determined endometrial expression of the genes (PLA2G4A, PTGS1, PTGS2, PTGES, PTGES2, PTGES3, AKR1B1, CBR1, and HPGD) involved in PGE2 and PGF2α metabolism during the estrous cycle and pregnancy and measured levels of PGE2 and PGF2α in uterine endometrial tissues and uterine flushings at the time of conceptus implantation in pigs. Except PTGES3, expression of the genes studied changed in a pregnancy-stage-specific manner, and localization of PTGES, AKR1B1, CBR1, and HPGD mRNAs were cell-type specific in the uterine endometrium. Levels of both PGE2 and PGF2α in uterine endometrial tissues and uterine lumen were higher on Day 12 of pregnancy than those of the estrous cycle and affected by different morphology of spherical and filamentous conceptuses. Furthermore, we determined that endometrial expression of AKR1B1, known to encode a PGF2α synthase in other species, was increased by estrogen and interleukin-1beta and that AKR1B1 exhibited PGF2α synthase activity in the porcine uterine endometrium. These results in pigs indicate that the PGE2 and PGF2α metabolic enzymes are expressed stage specifically in the endometrium during pregnancy and regulate the abundance of PGE2 and PGF2α in the uterus at the time of implantation and that AKR1B1 may act as a major PGF synthase in the endometrium during early pregnancy. PMID:24695626

  17. Prasugrel vs clopidogrel in cardiogenic shock patients undergoing primary PCI for acute myocardial infarction. Results of the ISAR-SHOCK registry.

    PubMed

    Orban, M; Mayer, K; Morath, T; Bernlochner, I; Hadamitzky, M; Braun, S; Schulz, S; Hoppmann, P; Hausleiter, J; Tiroch, K; Mehilli, J; Schunkert, H; Massberg, S; Laugwitz, K-L; Sibbing, D; Kastrati, A

    2014-12-01

    There is limited clinical data comparing different P2Y12-receptor inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. The aim of the ISAR-SHOCK registry was to compare the clinical outcome of patients treated with clopidogrel vs prasugrel in this setting. Patients (n=145) with AMI complicated by cardiogenic shock and undergoing primary PCI in two centres (Deutsches Herzzentrum München and Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich) between January 2009 and May 2012 were included in this registry. The use of prasugrel for patients within this registry reflected co-morbidities and platelet function testing results during the acute AMI phase. Early outcome at 30-days was reported with regard to all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST) and bleeding events. With regard to antiplatelet treatment in the 145 cardiogenic shock patients, 50 patients were initially treated or immediately switched to prasugrel while 95 patients were treated with clopidogrel. All-cause mortality was lower in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients (30 % vs 50.5%, HR: 0.51, 95% CI [0.29-0.92], p=0.025). No significant differences in prasugrel- vs clopidogrel-treated patients were observed for the occurrence of MI (p=0.233), ST (p=0.306) or TIMI major bleedings (p=0.571). Results of the ISAR-SHOCK registry suggest that the use of prasugrel in AMI patients complicated by cardiogenic shock might be associated with a lower mortality risk as compared to clopidogrel therapy without increasing the risk of bleeding. These findings, however, need confirmation from specifically designed randomised studies in this high-risk cohort of patients.

  18. Superficial stress and strain at coherent interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.C.

    2000-01-24

    The thermodynamics of a coherent interface separating two non-hydrostatically stressed crystals is examined using the Gibbsian paradigm of a dividing surface and associated superficial quantities. Cahn-Hilliard diffuse interface theory is used to derive equations governing the equilibrium composition, stress, and strain profiles through a planar surface of discontinuity. Expressions are then obtained for the superficial stress and strain (excess volume) assuming the isotropic elastic constants are independent of composition and the lattice parameter is a quadratic function of the composition. Materials parameters are identified for which the superficial stress becomes independent of the position of the dividing surface, and the dependence of the superficial stress on the application of a stress normal to the interface, as well as the strain components in the plane of the interface, is calculated for various compositional strains. The superficial stress is estimated to be of the order 1--10{sup 3} dynes/cm and can be either positive or negative in sign.

  19. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  20. Conceptual Framework for Aquatic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, J.; Krause, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic interfaces are generally characterized by steep gradients of physical, chemical and biological properties due to the contrast between the two adjacent environments. Innovative measurement techniques are required to study the spatially heterogeneous and temporally variable processes. Especially the different spatial and temporal scales are a large challenge. Due to the steep biogeochemical gradients and the intensive structural and compositional heterogeneity, enhanced biogeochemical processing rates are inherent to aquatic interfaces. Nevertheless, the effective turnover depends strongly on the residence time distribution along the flow paths and in sections with particular biogeochemical milieus and reaction kinetics. Thus, identification and characterization of the highly complex flow patterns in and across aquatic interfaces are crucial to understand biogeochemical processing along exchange flow paths and to quantify transport across aquatic interfaces. Hydrodynamic and biogeochemical processes are closely coupled at aquatic interfaces. However, interface processing rates are not only enhanced compared to the adjacent compartments that they connect; also completely different reactions might occur if certain thresholds are exceeded or the biogeochemical milieu differs significantly from the adjacent environments. Single events, temporal variability and spatial heterogeneity might increase overall processing rates of aquatic interfaces and thus, should not be neglected when studying aquatic interfaces. Aquatic interfaces are key zones relevant for the ecological state of the entire ecosystem and thus, understanding interface functioning and controls is paramount for ecosystem management. The overall aim of this contribution is a general conceptual framework for aquatic interfaces that is applicable to a wide range of systems, scales and processes.

  1. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  2. Neural interfaces at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Pancrazio, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    Bioelectrical neural interfaces provide a means of recording the activity from the nervous system and delivering therapeutic stimulation to restore neurological function lost during disease or injury. Although neural interfaces have reached clinical utility, reducing the size of the bioelectrical interface to minimize damage to neural tissue and maximize selectivity has proven problematic. Nanotechnology may offer a means of interfacing with the nervous system with unprecedented specificity. Emergent applications of nanotechnology to neuroscience include molecular imaging, drug delivery across the BBB, scaffolds for neural regeneration and bioelectrical interfaces. In particular, carbon nanotubes offer the promises of material stability and low electrical impedance at physical dimensions that could have a significant impact on the future on neural interfaces. The purpose of this review is to present recent advances in carbon nanotube-based bioelectrical interfaces for the nervous system and discuss research challenges and opportunities. PMID:19025456

  3. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  4. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  5. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  6. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  7. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, Maria E.; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the LixSi-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries.

  8. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution.

    PubMed

    Stournara, Maria E; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the Li_{x}Si-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries. PMID:27575197

  9. Chemical structure of interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interfacial structure of silicon/dielectric and silicon/metal systems is particularly amenable to analysis using a combination of surface spectroscopies together with a variety of chemical structures of Si/SiO2, Si/SiO2Si3N4, Si/Si2N2O, Si/SiO2/Al, and Si/Native Oxide interfaces using high resolution (0.350 eV FWHM) X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The general structure of these dielectric interfaces entails a monolayer chemical transition layer at the Si/dielectric boundary. Amorphous Si substrates show a wide variety of hydrogenated Si and Si(OH) sub x states that are not observed in thermal oxidation of single crystal material. Extended SiO2 layers greater than 8 A in thickness are shown to be stoichiometric SiO2, but to exhibit a wide variety of local network structures. In the nitrogen containing systems, an approach to stoichiometric oxynitride compounds with interesting impurity and electron trapping properties are seen. In native oxides, substantial topographical nonuniformity in oxide thickness and composition are found. Analysis of metal/oxide interfacial layers is accomplished by analytical removal of the Si substrate by UHV XeF2 dry etching methods.

  10. Surface inspection operator interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creek, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    Surface inspection systems are widely used in many industries including steel, tin, aluminum, and paper. These systems generally use machine vision technology to detect defective surface regions and can generate very high data output rates which can be difficult for line operators to absorb and use. A graphical, windowing interface is described which provides the operators with an overview of the surface quality of the inspected web while still allowing them to select individual defective regions for display. A touch screen is used as the only operator input. This required alterations to some screen widgets due to subtle ergonomic differences of touch screen input over mouse input. The interface, although developed for inspecting coated steel, has been designed to be adaptable to other surface inspection applications. Facility is provided to allow the detection, classification, and display functions of the inspection system to be readily changed. Modifications can be implemented on two main levels; changes that reflect the configuration of the hardware system and control the detection and classification components of the surface inspection system are accessible only to authorized staff while those affecting the display and alarm settings of defect types may be changed by operators and this can generally be done dynamically.

  11. Mercury Shopping Cart Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Mercury Shopping Cart Interface (MSCI) is a reusable component of the Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) program described in another article. MSCI is a means of encapsulating the logic and information needed to describe an orderable item consistent with Mercury Shopping Cart service protocol. Designed to be used with Web-browser software, MSCI generates Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) pages on which ordering information can be entered. MSCI comprises two types of Practical Extraction and Report Language (PERL) modules: template modules and shopping-cart logic modules. Template modules generate HTML pages for entering the required ordering details and enable submission of the order via a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) post. Shopping cart modules encapsulate the logic and data needed to describe an individual orderable item to the Mercury Shopping Cart service. These modules evaluate information entered by the user to determine whether it is sufficient for the Shopping Cart service to process the order. Once an order has been passed from MSCI to a deployed Mercury Shopping Cart server, there is no further interaction with the user.

  12. Mysteries at Ice Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fain, Samuel C., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Michael Faraday noted that ``two pieces of thawing ice, if put together, adhere and become one...the effect will take place in air, or in water, or in vacuo." Why? He proposed that ``a particle of water, which could retain the liquid state whilst touching ice only on one side, could not retain the liquid state if it were touched by ice on both sides."footnote M. Faraday, Proc. Roy. Soc. London 10, 440 (1860) The existence of special properties at interfaces of ice is generally agreed and has important environmental consequences.(J. G. Dash, H. Fu, and J. S. Wettlaufer, Rep. Prog. Phys. 58), 115 (1995) Why do different experiments infer different properties for this layer? Impurities and electric fields at the interfaces may be responsible for some of the variations in experimental results.footnote V. F. Petrenko, U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Report 94-22 (1994) Some background on the physical properties of ice will be discussed, including recent force microscopy measurements done at the University of Washington.footnote C.R. Slaughterbeck, E.W. Kukes, B. Pittenger, D.J. Cook, P.C. Williams, V.L. Eden, S.C. Fain, Jr., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (in press) Supported by NSF Grant DMR-91-19701.

  13. Laparoscopic simulation interface

    DOEpatents

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2006-04-04

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  14. Multiple network interface core apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Keith D.; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2011-04-26

    A network interface controller and network interface control method comprising providing a single integrated circuit as a network interface controller and employing a plurality of network interface cores on the single integrated circuit.

  15. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  16. Ion-Specific Induced Fluctuations and Free Energetics of Aqueous Protein Hydrophobic Interfaces: Toward Connecting to Specific-Ion Behaviors at Aqueous Liquid–Vapor Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We explore anion-induced interface fluctuations near protein–water interfaces using coarse-grained representations of interfaces as proposed by Willard and Chandler (J. Phys. Chem. B2010, 114, 1954−195820055377). We use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics to compute potentials of mean force along a reaction coordinate bridging the state where the anion is fully solvated and one where it is biased via harmonic restraints to remain at the protein–water interface. Specifically, we focus on fluctuations of an interface between water and a hydrophobic region of hydrophobin-II (HFBII), a 71 amino acid residue protein expressed by filamentous fungi and known for its ability to form hydrophobically mediated self-assemblies at interfaces such as a water/air interface. We consider the anions chloride and iodide that have been shown previously by simulations as displaying specific-ion behaviors at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces. We find that as in the case of a pure liquid–vapor interface, at the hydrophobic protein–water interface, the larger, less charge-dense iodide anion displays a marginal interfacial stability compared with that of the smaller, more charge-dense chloride anion. Furthermore, consistent with the results at aqueous liquid–vapor interfaces, we find that iodide induces larger fluctuations of the protein–water interface than chloride. PMID:24701961

  17. DETERMINING CORRECT LOCATION OF INTERFACES IN X-RAY IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B

    2004-09-28

    X-ray phase-contrast enhanced imaging enables characterization of objects otherwise transparent to x-rays. Such imaging is accomplished with a point-source or plane-wave x-rays and in the simplest implementation takes advantage of the refraction of x-rays at interfaces to provide contrast. The refraction of x-rays, while small, can lead to measurable displacements of interfaces in the image plane. A simple approximate analytical expression is obtained for the required correction. The resulting expression is verified with a full raytrace calculation.

  18. Thermal interface conductance across metal alloy-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Justin P.; Yu, Xiaoxiao; Davis, Robert F.; Gellman, Andrew J.; Malen, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of thermal interface conductance as a function of metal alloy composition. Composition spread alloy films of A uxC u1 -x and A uxP d1 -x solid solutions were deposited on single crystal sapphire substrates via dual electron-beam evaporation. High throughput measurements of thermal interface conductance across the (metal alloy)-sapphire interfaces were made by positional scanning of frequency domain thermoreflectance measurements to sample a continuum of Au atomic fractions (x ˜0 →1 ) . At a temperature of 300 K, the thermal interface conductance at the A uxC u1 -x -sapphire interfaces monotonically decreased from 197 ±39 MW m-2K-1 to 74 ±11 MW m-2K-1 for x =0 →0.95 ±0.02 and at the A uxP d1 -x -sapphire interfaces from 167 ±35 MW m-2K-1 to 60 ±10 MW m-2K-1 for x =0.03 →0.97 ±0.02 . To shed light on the phonon physics at the interface, a Diffuse Mismatch Model for thermal interface conductance with alloys is presented and agrees reasonably with the thermal interface conductance data.

  19. XPI: The Xanadu Parameter Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N.; Barrett, P.; Oneel, B.; Jacobs, P.

    1992-01-01

    XPI is a table driven parameter interface which greatly simplifies both command driven programs such as BROWSE and XIMAGE as well as stand alone single-task programs. It moves all of the syntax and semantic parsing of commands and parameters out of the users code into common code and externally defined tables. This allows the programmer to concentrate on writing the code unique to the application rather than reinventing the user interface and for external graphical interfaces to interface with no changes to the command driven program. XPI also includes a compatibility library which allows programs written using the IRAF host interface (Mandel and Roll) to use XPI in place of the IRAF host interface.

  20. Computer interface system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An interface logic circuit permitting the transfer of information between two computers having asynchronous clocks is disclosed. The information transfer involves utilization of control signals (including request, return-response, ready) to generate properly timed data strobe signals. Noise problems are avoided because each control signal, upon receipt, is verified by at least two clock pulses at the receiving computer. If control signals are verified, a data strobe pulse is generated to accomplish a data transfer. Once initiated, the data strobe signal is properly completed independently of signal disturbances in the control signal initiating the data strobe signal. Completion of the data strobe signal is announced by automatic turn-off of a return-response control signal.

  1. Nuclear data interface retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Mark G

    2008-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Interface (NDI) code library and data formats are the standards for multigroup nuclear data at Los Alamos National Laboratory. NDI's analysis, design, implementation, testing, integration, and maintenance required a ten person-year and ongoing effort by the Nuclear Data Team. Their efforts provide a unique, contemporary experience in producing a standard component library. In reflection upon that experience at NDI's decennial, we have identified several factors critical to NDI's success: it addressed real problems with appropriate simplicity, it fully supported all users, it added extra value through the code to the raw nuclear data, and its team went the distance from analysis through maintenance. In this report we review these critical success factors and discuss their implications for future standardization projects.

  2. Human-computer interface

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  3. Brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that give their users communication and control capabilities that do not depend on muscles. The user's intentions are determined from activity recorded by electrodes on the scalp, on the cortical surface, or within the brain. BCIs can enable people who are paralyzed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, or other disorders to convey their needs and wishes to others, to operate word-processing programs or other software, or possibly to control a wheelchair or a neuroprosthesis. BCI technology might also augment rehabilitation protocols aimed at restoring useful motor function. With continued development and clinical implementation, BCIs could substantially improve the lives of those with severe disabilities.

  4. Porphyrins at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auwärter, Willi; Écija, David; Klappenberger, Florian; Barth, Johannes V.

    2015-02-01

    Porphyrins and other tetrapyrrole macrocycles possess an impressive variety of functional properties that have been exploited in natural and artificial systems. Different metal centres incorporated within the tetradentate ligand are key for achieving and regulating vital processes, including reversible axial ligation of adducts, electron transfer, light-harvesting and catalytic transformations. Tailored substituents optimize their performance, dictating their arrangement in specific environments and mediating the assembly of molecular nanoarchitectures. Here we review the current understanding of these species at well-defined interfaces, disclosing exquisite insights into their structural and chemical properties, and also discussing methods by which to manipulate their intramolecular and organizational features. The distinct characteristics arising from the interfacial confinement offer intriguing prospects for molecular science and advanced materials. We assess the role of surface interactions with respect to electronic and physicochemical characteristics, and describe in situ metallation pathways, molecular magnetism, rotation and switching. The engineering of nanostructures, organized layers, interfacial hybrid and bio-inspired systems is also addressed.

  5. WWW to DICOM interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Feingold, Eric R.; Horii, Steven C.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the implementation and use of a WWW interface to a DICOM PACS that allows users to select, move, and display images that are currently available in the PACS and to view their corresponding radiology reports. This system allows our users to query the archive from any workstation (such as Unix, DOS, and Mac) that supports a WWW browser. To use this system, the user first runs a WWW browser such as Mosaic, Netscape, or Lynx and specifies a URL on one of our Unix workstations. This URL refers to an HTML file that contains a query form. This query form contains a number of fields such as patient name and medical record number. The user may specify any or all fields as well as wildcards in fields such as the name field. Once the form is completed, the user presses a button to submit the request. The HTML form submits the query to a C program that executes on the Unix server. This program accepts as input the form field values that the user specified. This program then communicates with the archive via DICOM requests to determine those patients that match the search criteria. The user may then choose a patient which in turn causes the studies for this patient to be displayed. Finally, the user may select a study which causes those images to be retrieved from the archive and displayed via the Web browser. The result of this system is an easy to use interface to a DICOM PACS with the option to query and move images from the PACS. In summary, a system that integrates the ease of use of WWW browsers with a DICOM PACS is discussed. We are currently incorporating information from our RIS as well. This allows us to obtain extensive patient demographics, exam information, and textual radiological reports and associate this information with information from the PACS.

  6. APST interfaces in LINCS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    APST is an acronym for the four highest of the seven layers of the LINCS hierarchy of communication protocols: (from high to low) Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport. Routines in each but the lowest of these APST layers can utilize the facilities of any lower APST layer (normally, but not necessarily, the immediately next lower layer) by invoking various primitives (macros that in most cases are subroutine calls) defining the upper interface of the lower layer. So there are three APST interfaces: Presentation layer, used by the Application layer; Session layer, normally used by the Presentation layer; and Transport layer, normally used by the Session layer. Logically, each end of a stream (unidirectional sequence of transmitted information) is handled by three modules, one module each for the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers, and each of these modules deals with only that one end of that one stream. The internal workings of the layers, particularly the Transport layer, do not necessarily exhibit this same modularization; for example, the two oppositely directed streams between the same two ends (constituting an association) may interact within a layer. However, such interaction is an implementational detail of no direct interest to those utilizing the layer. The present document does not describe implementation, nor does it discuss in any detail how the modules employ packet headings and data formats to communicate with their partner modules at the other end of a stream. There being one logical module per end of stream is a characteristic only of the Presentation, Session, and Transport layers. An Application layer module usually manages several streams, orchestrating them to achieve some desired purpose. The modules of the layers (Network, Link, and Physical) below the APST layers each handle many streams, multiplexing them through the nodes and channels of the network to transmit them from their origins to their destinations.

  7. Intelligent interface design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Intelligent interface concepts and systematic approaches to assessing their functionality are discussed. Four general features of intelligent interfaces are described: interaction efficiency, subtask automation, context sensitivity, and use of an appropriate design metaphor. Three evaluation methods are discussed: Functional Analysis, Part-Task Evaluation, and Operational Testing. Design and evaluation concepts are illustrated with examples from a prototype expert system interface for environmental control and life support systems for manned space platforms.

  8. Cyclic di-GMP modulates gene expression in Lyme disease spirochetes at the tick-mammal interface to promote spirochete survival during the blood meal and tick-to-mammal transmission.

    PubMed

    Caimano, Melissa J; Dunham-Ems, Star; Allard, Anna M; Cassera, Maria B; Kenedy, Melisha; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival and gene regulation throughout the enzootic cycle. Live imaging of B. burgdorferi caught in the act of being acquired revealed that the absence of RpoS and the consequent derepression of tick-phase genes impart a Stay signal required for midgut colonization. In addition to the behavioral changes brought on by the RpoS-off state, acquisition requires activation of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthesis by the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS; B. burgdorferi lacking either component is destroyed during the blood meal. Prior studies attributed this dramatic phenotype to a metabolic lesion stemming from reduced glycerol uptake and utilization. In a head-to-head comparison, however, the B. burgdorferi Δglp mutant had a markedly greater capacity to survive tick feeding than B. burgdorferi Δhk1 or Δrrp1 mutants, establishing unequivocally that glycerol metabolism is only one component of the protection afforded by c-di-GMP. Data presented herein suggest that the protective response mediated by c-di-GMP is multifactorial, involving chemotactic responses, utilization of alternate substrates for energy generation and intermediary metabolism, and remodeling of the cell envelope as a means of defending spirochetes against threats engendered during the blood meal. Expression profiling of c-di-GMP-regulated genes through the enzootic cycle supports our contention that the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS functions primarily, if not exclusively, in ticks. These data also raise the possibility that c-di-GMP enhances the expression of a subset of RpoS-dependent genes during nymphal transmission.

  9. Cyclic di-GMP Modulates Gene Expression in Lyme Disease Spirochetes at the Tick-Mammal Interface To Promote Spirochete Survival during the Blood Meal and Tick-to-Mammal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dunham-Ems, Star; Allard, Anna M.; Cassera, Maria B.; Kenedy, Melisha; Radolf, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, couples environmental sensing and gene regulation primarily via the Hk1/Rrp1 two-component system (TCS) and Rrp2/RpoN/RpoS pathways. Beginning with acquisition, we reevaluated the contribution of these pathways to spirochete survival and gene regulation throughout the enzootic cycle. Live imaging of B. burgdorferi caught in the act of being acquired revealed that the absence of RpoS and the consequent derepression of tick-phase genes impart a Stay signal required for midgut colonization. In addition to the behavioral changes brought on by the RpoS-off state, acquisition requires activation of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthesis by the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS; B. burgdorferi lacking either component is destroyed during the blood meal. Prior studies attributed this dramatic phenotype to a metabolic lesion stemming from reduced glycerol uptake and utilization. In a head-to-head comparison, however, the B. burgdorferi Δglp mutant had a markedly greater capacity to survive tick feeding than B. burgdorferi Δhk1 or Δrrp1 mutants, establishing unequivocally that glycerol metabolism is only one component of the protection afforded by c-di-GMP. Data presented herein suggest that the protective response mediated by c-di-GMP is multifactorial, involving chemotactic responses, utilization of alternate substrates for energy generation and intermediary metabolism, and remodeling of the cell envelope as a means of defending spirochetes against threats engendered during the blood meal. Expression profiling of c-di-GMP-regulated genes through the enzootic cycle supports our contention that the Hk1/Rrp1 TCS functions primarily, if not exclusively, in ticks. These data also raise the possibility that c-di-GMP enhances the expression of a subset of RpoS-dependent genes during nymphal transmission. PMID:25987708

  10. The Common Communication Interface (CCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M; Atchley, Scott; Dillow, David A; Geoffray, Patrick; Bosilca, George; Squyres, Jeffrey M; Minnich, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    There are many APIs for connecting and exchanging data between network peers. Each interface varies wildly based on metrics including performance, portability, and complexity. Specifically, many interfaces make design or implementation choices emphasizing some of the more desirable metrics (e.g., performance) while sacrificing others (e.g., portability). As a direct result, software developers building large, network-based applications are forced to choose a specific network API based on a complex, multi-dimensional set of criteria. Such trade-offs inevitably result in an interface that fails to deliver some desirable features. In this paper, we introduce a novel interface that both supports many features that have become standard (or otherwise generally expected) in other communication interfaces, and strives to export a small, yet powerful, interface. This new interface draws upon years of experience from network-oriented software development best practices to systems-level implementations. The goal is to create a relatively simple, high-level communication interface with low barriers to adoption while still providing important features such as scalability, resiliency, and performance. The result is the Common Communications Interface (CCI): an intuitive API that is portable, efficient, scalable, and robust to meet the needs of network-intensive applications common in HPC and cloud computing.

  11. The Evolution of Neuroprosthetic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Adewole, Dayo O; Serruya, Mijail D; Harris, James P; Burrell, Justin C; Petrov, Dmitriy; Chen, H Isaac; Wolf, John A; Cullen, D Kacy

    2016-01-01

    The ideal neuroprosthetic interface permits high-quality neural recording and stimulation of the nervous system while reliably providing clinical benefits over chronic periods. Although current technologies have made notable strides in this direction, significant improvements must be made to better achieve these design goals and satisfy clinical needs. This article provides an overview of the state of neuroprosthetic interfaces, starting with the design and placement of these interfaces before exploring the stimulation and recording platforms yielded from contemporary research. Finally, we outline emerging research trends in an effort to explore the potential next generation of neuroprosthetic interfaces. PMID:27652455

  12. mREST Interface Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCartney, Patrick; MacLean, John

    2012-01-01

    mREST is an implementation of the REST architecture specific to the management and sharing of data in a system of logical elements. The purpose of this document is to clearly define the mREST interface protocol. The interface protocol covers all of the interaction between mREST clients and mREST servers. System-level requirements are not specifically addressed. In an mREST system, there are typically some backend interfaces between a Logical System Element (LSE) and the associated hardware/software system. For example, a network camera LSE would have a backend interface to the camera itself. These interfaces are specific to each type of LSE and are not covered in this document. There are also frontend interfaces that may exist in certain mREST manager applications. For example, an electronic procedure execution application may have a specialized interface for configuring the procedures. This interface would be application specific and outside of this document scope. mREST is intended to be a generic protocol which can be used in a wide variety of applications. A few scenarios are discussed to provide additional clarity but, in general, application-specific implementations of mREST are not specifically addressed. In short, this document is intended to provide all of the information necessary for an application developer to create mREST interface agents. This includes both mREST clients (mREST manager applications) and mREST servers (logical system elements, or LSEs).

  13. Interface-assisted molecular spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Karthik V.

    2014-09-15

    Molecular spintronics, a field that utilizes the spin state of organic molecules to develop magneto-electronic devices, has shown an enormous scientific activity for more than a decade. But, in the last couple of years, new insights in understanding the fundamental phenomena of molecular interaction on magnetic surfaces, forming a hybrid interface, are presenting a new pathway for developing the subfield of interface-assisted molecular spintronics. The recent exploration of such hybrid interfaces involving carbon based aromatic molecules shows a significant excitement and promise over the previously studied single molecular magnets. In the above new scenario, hybridization of the molecular orbitals with the spin-polarized bands of the surface creates new interface states with unique electronic and magnetic character. This study opens up a molecular-genome initiative in designing new handles to functionalize the spin dependent electronic properties of the hybrid interface to construct spin-functional tailor-made devices. Through this article, we review this subject by presenting a fundamental understanding of the interface spin-chemistry and spin-physics by taking support of advanced computational and spectroscopy tools to investigate molecular spin responses with demonstration of new interface phenomena. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy is favorably considered to be an important tool to investigate these hybrid interfaces with intra-molecular spatial resolution. Finally, by addressing some of the recent findings, we propose novel device schemes towards building interface tailored molecular spintronic devices for applications in sensor, memory, and quantum computing.

  14. Ray tracing in discontinuous velocity model with implicit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxing; Yang, Qin; Meng, Xianhai; Li, Jigang

    2016-07-01

    Ray tracing in the velocity model containing complex discontinuities is still facing many challenges. The main difficulty arises from the detection of the spatial relationship between the rays and the interfaces that are usually described in non-linear parametric forms. We propose a novel model representation method that can facilitate the implementation of classical shooting-ray methods. In the representation scheme, each interface is expressed as the zero contour of a signed distance field. A multi-copy strategy is adopted to describe the volumetric properties within blocks. The implicit description of the interface makes it easier to detect the ray-interface intersection. The direct calculation of the intersection point is converted into the problem of judging the signs of a ray segment's endpoints. More importantly, the normal to the interface at the intersection point can be easily acquired according to the signed distance field of the interface. The multiple storage of the velocity property in the proximity of the interface can provide accurate and unambiguous velocity information of the intersection point. Thus, the departing ray path can be determined easily and robustly. In addition, the new representation method can describe velocity models containing very complex geological structures, such as faults, salt domes, intrusions, and pinches, without any simplification. The examples on synthetic and real models validate the robustness and accuracy of the ray tracing based on the proposed model representation scheme.

  15. Interface effects on nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Brad Richard

    2009-12-01

    Nanoelectronics consist of devices with active electronic components on the nanometer length scale. At such dimensions most, if not all, atoms or molecules composing the active device region must be on or near a surface. Also, materials effectively confined to two dimensions, or when subject to abrupt boundary conditions, generally do not behave the same as materials inside three dimensional, continuous structures. This dissertation is a quantitative determination of how surfaces and interfaces in organic nanoelectronic devices affect properties such as charge transport, electronic structure, and material fluctuations. Si/SiO2 is a model gate/gate dielectric for organic thin film transistors, therefore proper characterization and measurement of the effects of the SiO2/organic interface on device structures is extremely important. I fabricated pentacene thin film transistors on Si/SiO2 and varied the conduction channel thickness from effectively bulk (˜40nm) to 2 continuous conducting layers to examine the effect of substrate on noise generation. The electronic spectral noise was measured and the generator of the noise was determined to be due to the random spatial dependence of grain boundaries, independent of proximity to the gate oxide. This result led me to investigate the mechanisms of pentacene grain formation, including the role of small quantities of impurities, on silicon dioxide substrates. Through a series of nucleation, growth and morphology studies, I determined that impurities assist in nucleation on SiO2, decreasing the stable nucleus size by a third and increasing the overall number of grains. The pentacene growth and morphology studies prompted further exploration of pentacene crystal growth on SiO2. I developed a method of making atomically clean ultra-thin oxide films, with surface chemistry and growth properties similar to the standard thick oxides. These ultra-thin oxides were measured to be as smooth as cleaned silicon and then used as

  16. Intelligent Support for Interface Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teskey, F. N.

    This paper describes how a language for building information systems that is being developed by the Office for Research at OCLC can be linked to an artificial intelligence environment, Poplog. The demonstration system--ISIS (Intelligent Support for Interface systems)--shows how Poplog could provide some intelligent support for a D interface,…

  17. XTOD - XES Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J

    2005-09-07

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS XTOD System (WBS No.1.5) and the LCLS XES (WBS No.1.6). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Subsystems that connect at or cross the boundary are identified.

  18. Power User Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Robin; McMahon, Joe

    2006-01-01

    Power User Interface 5.0 (PUI) is a system of middleware, written for expert users in the Earth-science community, PUI enables expedited ordering of data granules on the basis of specific granule-identifying information that the users already know or can assemble. PUI also enables expert users to perform quick searches for orderablegranule information for use in preparing orders. PUI 5.0 is available in two versions (note: PUI 6.0 has command-line mode only): a Web-based application program and a UNIX command-line- mode client program. Both versions include modules that perform data-granule-ordering functions in conjunction with external systems. The Web-based version works with Earth Observing System Clearing House (ECHO) metadata catalog and order-entry services and with an open-source order-service broker server component, called the Mercury Shopping Cart, that is provided separately by Oak Ridge National Laboratory through the Department of Energy. The command-line version works with the ECHO metadata and order-entry process service. Both versions of PUI ultimately use ECHO to process an order to be sent to a data provider. Ordered data are provided through means outside the PUI software system.

  19. Next Generation Search Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.; Goldina, T.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomers are constantly looking for easier ways to access multiple data sets. While much effort is spent on VO, little thought is given to the types of User Interfaces we need to effectively search this sort of data. For instance, an astronomer might need to search Spitzer, WISE, and 2MASS catalogs and images then see the results presented together in one UI. Moving seamlessly between data sets is key to presenting integrated results. Results need to be viewed using first class, web based, integrated FITS viewers, XY Plots, and advanced table display tools. These components should be able to handle very large datasets. To make a powerful Web based UI that can manage and present multiple searches to the user requires taking advantage of many HTML5 features. AJAX is used to start searches and present results. Push notifications (Server Sent Events) monitor background jobs. Canvas is required for advanced result displays. Lesser known CSS3 technologies makes it all flow seamlessly together. At IPAC, we have been developing our Firefly toolkit for several years. We are now using it to solve this multiple data set, multiple queries, and integrated presentation problem to create a powerful research experience. Firefly was created in IRSA, the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (http://irsa.ipac.caltech.edu). Firefly is the core for applications serving many project archives, including Spitzer, Planck, WISE, PTF, LSST and others. It is also used in IRSA's new Finder Chart and catalog and image displays.

  20. User interface enhancement report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Gangel, J.; Shields, G.; Fala, G.

    1985-01-01

    The existing user interfaces to TEMPUS, Plaid, and other systems in the OSDS are fundamentally based on only two modes of communication: alphanumeric commands or data input and grapical interaction. The latter are especially suited to the types of interaction necessary for creating workstation objects with BUILD and with performing body positioning in TEMPUS. Looking toward the future application of TEMPUS, however, the long-term goals of OSDS will include the analysis of extensive tasks in space involving one or more individuals working in concert over a period of time. In this context, the TEMPUS body positioning capability, though extremely useful in creating and validating a small number of particular body positions, will become somewhat tedious to use. The macro facility helps somewhat, since frequently used positions may be easily applied by executing a stored macro. The difference between body positioning and task execution, though subtle, is important. In the case of task execution, the important information at the user's level is what actions are to be performed rather than how the actions are performed. Viewed slightly differently, the what is constant over a set of individuals though the how may vary.

  1. Online Remote Sensing Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawhead, Joel

    2007-01-01

    BasinTools Module 1 processes remotely sensed raster data, including multi- and hyper-spectral data products, via a Web site with no downloads and no plug-ins required. The interface provides standardized algorithms designed so that a user with little or no remote-sensing experience can use the site. This Web-based approach reduces the amount of software, hardware, and computing power necessary to perform the specified analyses. Access to imagery and derived products is enterprise-level and controlled. Because the user never takes possession of the imagery, the licensing of the data is greatly simplified. BasinTools takes the "just-in-time" inventory control model from commercial manufacturing and applies it to remotely-sensed data. Products are created and delivered on-the-fly with no human intervention, even for casual users. Well-defined procedures can be combined in different ways to extend verified and validated methods in order to derive new remote-sensing products, which improves efficiency in any well-defined geospatial domain. Remote-sensing products produced in BasinTools are self-documenting, allowing procedures to be independently verified or peer-reviewed. The software can be used enterprise-wide to conduct low-level remote sensing, viewing, sharing, and manipulating of image data without the need for desktop applications.

  2. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specifically designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.

  3. Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface

    2012-12-18

    Fishes and marine mammals may suffer a range of potential effects from exposure to intense underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording (USR) devices have been built to acquire samples of the underwater sound generated by anthropogenic activities. Software becomes indispensable for processing and analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. The new Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility Software (AAMI) is specificallymore » designed for analysis of underwater sound recordings to provide data in metrics that facilitate evaluation of the potential impacts of the sound on aquatic animals. In addition to the basic functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs and batch processing of sound files, the software utilizes recording system calibration data to compute important parameters in physical units. The software also facilitates comparison of the noise sound sample metrics with biological measures such as audiograms of the sensitivity of aquatic animals to the sound, integrating various components into a single analytical frame.« less

  4. X-Ray Crystallographic, Multifrequency EPR, and DFT Characterization of the Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2n+ Hydrogen Oxidation Catalyst in the Ni(I) Oxidation State

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Jens; Westwood, Mark; Mardis, Kristy L.; Brown, Tiara L.; Pitts-McCoy, Anthony M.; Hopkins, Michael D.; Poluektov, Oleg G.

    2016-01-01

    The Ni(I) hydrogen oxidation catalyst [Ni(PCy2NtBu2)2]+ (1+; PCy2NtBu2= 1,5bis(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclo-hexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacychlooctane) has been studied using a combination of EPR techniques (X-, Q-, and D-band; electron-nuclear double resonance, hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy), X-ray crystallography, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Crystallographic and DFT studies indicate that the molecular structure of 1+ is highly symmetrical. EPR spectroscopy has allowed determination of the electronic g-tensor and the spin density distribution on the ligands, and revealed that the Ni(I) center does not interact strongly with the potentially coordinating solvents acetonitrile and butyronitrile. The EPR spectra and magnetic parameters of 1+ are found to be distinctly different from those for the related compound [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2]+ (4+). One significant contributor to these differences is that the molecular structure of 4+ is unsymmetrical, unlike that of 1+. DFT calculations on derivatives in which the R and R′ groups are systematically varied have allowed elucidation of structure/substituent relationships and their corresponding influence on the magnetic resonance parameters. PMID:26098955

  5. Multimodal Neuroelectric Interface Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Totah, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project aims to improve performance of NASA missions by developing multimodal neuroelectric technologies for augmented human-system interaction. Neuroelectric technologies will add completely new modes of interaction that operate in parallel with keyboards, speech, or other manual controls, thereby increasing the bandwidth of human-system interaction. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of real-time electromyographic (EMG) pattern recognition for a direct neuroelectric human-computer interface. We recorded EMG signals from an elastic sleeve with dry electrodes, while a human subject performed a range of discrete gestures. A machine-teaming algorithm was trained to recognize the EMG patterns associated with the gestures and map them to control signals. Successful applications now include piloting two Class 4 aircraft simulations (F-15 and 757) and entering data with a "virtual" numeric keyboard. Current research focuses on on-line adaptation of EMG sensing and processing and recognition of continuous gestures. We are also extending this on-line pattern recognition methodology to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. This will allow us to bypass muscle activity and draw control signals directly from the human brain. Our system can reliably detect P-rhythm (a periodic EEG signal from motor cortex in the 10 Hz range) with a lightweight headset containing saline-soaked sponge electrodes. The data show that EEG p-rhythm can be modulated by real and imaginary motions. Current research focuses on using biofeedback to train of human subjects to modulate EEG rhythms on demand, and to examine interactions of EEG-based control with EMG-based and manual control. Viewgraphs on these neuroelectric technologies are also included.

  6. Interface cracks in piezoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorukha, V.; Kamlah, M.; Loboda, V.; Lapusta, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Due to their intrinsic electromechanical coupling behavior, piezoelectric materials are widely used in sensors, actuators and other modern technologies. It is well known that piezoelectric ceramics are very brittle and susceptible to fracture. In many cases, fracture occurs at interfaces as debonding and cracks. This leads to an undesired degradation of electrical and mechanical performance. Because of the practical and fundamental importance of the problem, interface cracks in piezoelectric materials have been actively studied in the last few decades. This review provides a comprehensive survey of recent works on cracks situated at the interface of two materials, at least one of which has piezoelectric or piezoelectromagnetic properties. Different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces are discussed. The oscillating and contact zone models for in-plane straight interface cracks between two dissimilar piezoelectric materials or between piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric ones are reviewed. Different peculiarities related to the investigation of interface cracks in piezoelectric materials for the anti-plane case, for functionally graded and thermopiezoelectric materials are presented. Papers related to magnetoelectroelastic bimaterials, to steady state motion of interface cracks in piezoelectric bimaterials and to circular arc-cracks at the interface of piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and various methods used to address these problems are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on future research directions.

  7. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  8. Polymers at Surfaces and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige, Mesfin

    2015-03-01

    Interfaces between solids, liquids, and gases play an important role in a wide range of practical applications and have been a subject of scientific interest since Poisson showed in 1831 that the order parameter of liquids near interfaces must deviate considerably from its bulk value. In particular, polymers at surfaces and interfaces have been a subject of extensive theoretical, experimental and computational studies for a long time due to their use in many diverse applications ranging from antifouling coatings to flexible electronic devices. Understanding the structure and thermodynamic properties of polymers at surfaces and interfaces is thus an area of fundamental and current technological interest. Although encouraging experimental progress has been made over the years in understanding the molecular structure of polymers in contact with various environments, selectively probing their structure and dynamics at surfaces and interfaces has been extremely difficult. Computer simulations, especially molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, have proven over the years to be an invaluable tool in providing molecular details at interfaces that are usually lacking in the experimental data. In this talk, I'll give an overview of some previous simulation efforts to understand the structure and dynamics of polymers at surfaces and buried interfaces. I will conclude by presenting our current and ongoing work on combining ab initio calculations and MD simulations with Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) Spectroscopy to study polymer surfaces. This approach demonstrates the future role of MD in surface science. Work supported by NSF (DMR0847580 and DMR1410290) and Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society.

  9. Intelligent virtual interfaces for telerobotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Maybury, Mark T.; Mitchell, Richard B.

    1992-11-01

    One promise of telerobotics is the ability to interact in environments that are distant (e.g., deep sea or deep space), dangerous (e.g., nuclear, chemical, or biological environments), or inaccessible by humans for political or legal reasons. A key component to such interactions are sophisticated human-computer interfaces that can replicate sufficient information about a local environment to permit remote navigation and manipulation. This environment replication can, in part, be provided by technologies such as virtual reality. In addition, however, telerobotic interfaces may need to enhance human-machine interaction to assist users in task performance, for example, governing motion or manipulation controls to avoid obstacles or to restrict interaction with certain objects (e.g., avoiding contact with a live mine or a deep sea treasure). Thus, effective interactions within remote environments require intelligent virtual interfaces to telerobotic devices. In part to address this problem, MITRE is investigating virtual reality architectures that will enable enhanced interaction within virtual environments. Key components to intelligent virtual interfaces include spoken language processing, gesture recognition algorithms, and more generally, task recognition. In addition, these interfaces will eventually have to take into account properties of the user, the task, and discourse context to be more adaptive to the current situation at hand. While our work has not yet investigated the connection of virtual interfaces to external robotic devices, we have begun developing the key components for intelligent virtual interfaces for information and training systems.

  10. Dynamics of interfaces in superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, A.T. )

    1994-08-01

    The dynamics of an interface between the normal and superconducting phases under nonstationary external conditions is studied within the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity, modified to include thermal fluctuations. An equation of motion for the interface is derived in two steps. First, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive a diffusion equation for the magnetic field in the normal phase, with nonlinear boundary conditions at the interface. These boundary conditions are a continuity equation which relates the gradient of the field at the interface to the normal velocity of the interface and a modified Gibbs-Thomson boundary condition for the field at the interface. Second, the boundary integral method is used to integrate out the magnetic field in favor of an equation of motion for the interface. This equation of motion, which is highly nonlinear and nonlocal, exhibits a diffusive instability (the Mullins-Sekerka instability) when the superconducting phase expands into the normal phase (i.e., when the external field is reduced below the critical field). In the limit of infinite diffusion constant the equation of motion becomes local in time and can be derived variationally from a static energy functional which includes the bulk-free energy difference between the two phases, the interfacial energy, and a long range self-interaction of the interface of the Biot-Savart form. In this limit the dynamics is identical to the interfacial dynamics of ferrofluid domains recently proposed by S.A. Langer et al. As shown by these authors, the Biot-Savart interaction leads to mechanical instabilities of the interface, resulting in highly branched labyrinthine patterns. The application of these ideas to the study of labyrinthine patterns in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors is briefly discussed. 29 refs.

  11. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.

  12. Nano-size Effect of Interface Energy and Its Effect on Interface Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, L. H.; You, X. M.; Ma, H. S.; Wei, Y. G.

    2010-05-21

    An analytical model about size-dependent interface energy of metal/ceramic interfaces in nanoscale is developed by introducing both the chemical energy and the structure stain energy contributions. The dependence of interface energy on the interface thickness is determined by the melting enthalpy, the molar volume, and the shear modulus of two materials composing the interfaces, etc. The analytic prediction of the interface energy and the atomic scale simulation of the interface fracture strength are compared with each other for Ag/MgO and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces, the fracture strength of the interface with the lower chemical interface energy is found to be larger. The potential of Ag/MgO interface related to the interface energy is calculated, and the interface stress and the interface fracture strength are estimated further. The effect of the interface energy on the interface strength and the behind mechanism are discussed.

  13. SKITTER/implement mechanical interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, John Wilson, III; Cone, Alan E.; Garolera, Frank J.; German, David; Lindabury, David Peter; Luckado, Marshall Cleveland; Murphey, Craig; Rowell, John Bryan; Wilkinson, Brad

    1988-01-01

    SKITTER (Spacial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) is a three-legged transport vehicle designed to perform under the unique environment of the moon. The objective of this project was to design a mechanical interface for SKITTER. This mechanical latching interface will allow SKITTER to use a series of implements such as drills, cranes, etc., and perform different tasks on the moon. The design emphasized versatility and detachability; that is, the interface design is the same for all implements, and connection and detachment is simple. After consideration of many alternatives, a system of three identical latches at each of the three interface points was chosen. The latching mechanism satisfies the design constraints because it facilitates connection and detachment. Also, the moving parts are protected from the dusty environment by housing plates.

  14. Colloids at NAPL-Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Metz, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids in subsurface are relevant in the scope of contaminated sites as well as for enhanced oil recovery. In both cases colloids and engineered nanoparticles are applied to increase the efficiency of NAPL removal. Particle tracking experiments using fluoresecent latex beads and opaque particles have been run in micromodels mimicking the pore structure of subsurface media. The results show that the interface between NAPL and water is highly dynamic, especially in its early stage. There is a distinct circular flow pattern at the interface, effectively increasing the interfacial area. Concentration gradients measured with Raman Microspectrometry at low Peclet numbers suggest that the mass transfer of dissolved contaminants from the NAPL into the water is highly affected by the interface dynamics. On the other hand the interfaces themselves are less accessible, which has implications for the remediation of contaminated sites.

  15. Brain-Computer Interface Workshop

    NASA Video Gallery

    At a g.tec-sponsored Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) workshop at the National Institute of Aerospace in Hampton, Va., volunteers were able to spell out words on a computer screen using using a g.tec...

  16. COSMIC/NASTRAN-PATRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A three dimensional solid modeling and finite element pre and postprocessing program, PATRAN, uses the latest interactive computer graphics technology, provides a visual means to define a finite element model and its environment, and reviews its resultant model behavior. The capabilities provided by the PATRAN-COSMIC/NASTRAN interface are discussed. While the translator capabilities give some indication of the interface quality between the two programs, there are other attributes to be considered. The ideal interface would be a user transparent union of the two programs so that the engineer could move from one program to the other fluently and naturally. Hence, a valid assessment of the interface completeness must consider how close the current capabilities are to the idealized case. An example problem is presented to demonstrate how COSMIC/NASTRAN and PATRAN can be used together to meet the requirements of an actual engineering application.

  17. Electrolytes near structured dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huanxin; Jing, Yufei; Solis, Francisco; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Luijten, Erik

    2015-03-01

    The ion distribution in an electrolyte near a dielectric interface has important consequences for numerous applications. To date, most studies have focused on planar interfaces, where, e.g., simulations can take advantage of the image-charge method. However, for surfaces that display structure on the nanoscale, dielectric effects may be significantly different. Here, we investigate such interfaces via a combination of computer simulations and Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We demonstrate how, even for systems with piecewise uniform dielectric constant, surface structure affects the induced polarization charge as well as the ion distribution near the interface, in particular for asymmetric salts. We explore the role of ion concentration, dielectric mismatch and characteristic length scale of the surface structure.

  18. Interfacing Microcomputers with Laboratory Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joseph W.

    1983-01-01

    Describes development of microcomputer-controlled gamma scintillation spectrometer and chromatographic data analyzer, including design and construction of interface electronics and production of software. Includes diagrams of electric circuits and project evaluation indicating that both instruments functioned as intended. (JN)

  19. Getting a Grip on Interfacing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assetto, Antonio R.; Dowden, Edward

    1988-01-01

    Introduces the unique interfacing equipment for measuring muscle strength over time. Explains the materials, setup method, operation, and typical display. Suggests other activities with which to utilize this device. (YP)

  20. Sandia ATM SONET Interface Logic

    1994-07-21

    SASIL is used to program the EPLD's (Erasable Programmable Logic Devices) and PAL's (Programmable Array Logic) that make up a large percentage of the Sandia ATM SONET Interface (OC3 version) for the INTEL Paragon.

  1. Interfacing with an EVA Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2011-01-01

    A NASA spacesuit under the EVA Technology Domain consists of a suit system; a PLSS; and a Power, Avionics, and Software (PAS) system. Ross described the basic functions, components, and interfaces of the PLSS, which consists of oxygen, ventilation, and thermal control subsystems; electronics; and interfaces. Design challenges were reviewed from a packaging perspective. Ross also discussed the development of the PLSS over the last two decades.

  2. The theory of interface slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a new tool which was developed to facilitate reuse-based software engineering, by addressing the following problems, needs, and issues: (1) size of systems incorporating reused modules; (2) knowledge requirements for program modification; (3) program understanding for reverse engineering; (4) module granularity and domain management; and (5) time and space complexity of conventional slicing. The definition of a form of static program analysis called interface slicing is addressed.

  3. Morphological Stability of Faceted Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbaschian, Reza; Golyshev, V. D.; Gonik, M.; Tsvetivsky, V.; deVahlDavis, G.; Leonardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    The major focus of this investigation is to study the fundamentals of layer spreading mechanisms during growth of doped Ge (a facet forming material), and to determine the conditions for morphological instability of vicinal solid-liquid interfaces. The investigation will also lead to the determination of the effect of dopants on the layer growth kinetics, step free energy, and dopant capture by the advancing ledges. The theoretical treatment of growth of faceted interfaces indicates that the kinetics of a step on a growing vicinal interface considerably depends on its angle of inclination, the melt concentration, and characteristics of flow currents in the melt. The morphological stability of the interface also depends on these parameters, as well as on the density and spreading velocity of the steps. However, the treatment of the instability of the interface by the layer growth mechanism is rather difficult because it requires exact knowledge of the thermal and solutal fields, hydrodynamics of the melt, and supercooling at the interface. The results of recent space experiments of the principal investigator involving directional solidification of faceted Bi-Sn alloys have shown that the morphological stability of various crystallographic orientations is significantly affected by the anistropy in interfacial properties of the faceted alloy in general, and the interface kinetics in particular. These findings have also raised many important and fundamental questions, particularly with respect to the behavior of interfacial steps, which need to be addressed via additional groundbased and microgravity experiments. For the present investigation we will use a novel crystal growth technique which provides axial heat flux close to the solid-liquid boundary. The Axial Heat Processing (AHP) technique allows for precise control and determination of the heat and mass transfer close to the crystallization front, and the establishment of a planar interface over the entire cross

  4. Laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemmons, J. I., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A laser velocimeter (autocovariance) buffer interface (LVABI) was developed to serve as the interface between three laser velocimeter high speed burst counters and a minicomputer. A functional description is presented of the instrument and its unique features which allow the studies of flow velocity vector analysis, turbulence power spectra, and conditional sampling of other phenomena. Typical applications of the laser velocimeter using the LVABI are presented to illustrate its various capabilities.

  5. Satellite services handbook. Interface guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Satellite interfaces for on orbit servicing, both manned and unmanned are identified, and is intended to be used by designers of space vehicles, both foreign and domestic. A primary concern is for design of interfaces with the astronaut in the loop, especially extravehicular activity, but also intravehicular activity and operations that are remote but have man-in-the-loop. The main emphasis is on servicing in low earth orbits from the Space Shuttle and also from the Space Station or other platforms.

  6. Isolation of Leukocytes from the Human Maternal-fetal Interface.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Plazyo, Olesya; Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes in the reproductive tissues and at the maternal-fetal interface (decidua basalis and decidua parietalis). This interface is the anatomical site of contact between maternal and fetal tissues; therefore, it is an immunological site of action during pregnancy. Infiltrating leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface play a central role in implantation, pregnancy maintenance, and timing of delivery. Therefore, phenotypic and functional characterizations of these leukocytes will provide insight into the mechanisms that lead to pregnancy disorders. Several protocols have been described in order to isolate infiltrating leukocytes from the decidua basalis and decidua parietalis; however, the lack of consistency in the reagents, enzymes, and times of incubation makes it difficult to compare these results. Described herein is a novel approach that combines the use of gentle mechanical and enzymatic dissociation techniques to preserve the viability and integrity of extracellular and intracellular markers in leukocytes isolated from the human tissues at the maternal-fetal interface. Aside from immunophenotyping, cell culture, and cell sorting, the future applications of this protocol are numerous and varied. Following this protocol, the isolated leukocytes can be used to determine DNA methylation, expression of target genes, in vitro leukocyte functionality (i.e., phagocytosis, cytotoxicity, T-cell proliferation, and plasticity, etc.), and the production of reactive oxygen species at the maternal-fetal interface. Additionally, using the described protocol, this laboratory has been able to describe new and rare leukocytes at the maternal-fetal interface.

  7. Pericytes: brain-immune interface modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Cabañas-Morales, Adrian M.; Gómez-Gónzalez, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The premise that the central nervous system is immune-privileged arose from the fact that direct contact between immune and nervous cells is hindered by the blood–brain barrier. However, the blood–brain barrier also comprises the interface between the immune and nervous systems by secreting chemo-attractant molecules and by modulating immune cell entry into the brain. The majority of published studies on the blood–brain barrier focus on endothelial cells (ECs), which are a critical component, but not the only one; other cellular components include astroglia, microglia, and pericytes. Pericytes are poorly studied in comparison with astrocytes or ECs; they are mesenchymal cells that can modify their ultrastructure and gene expression in response to changes in the central nervous system microenvironment. Pericytes have a unique synergistic relationship with brain ECs in the regulation of capillary permeability through secretion of cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinases, and by means of capillary contraction. Those pericyte manifestations are related to changes in blood–brain barrier permeability by an increase in endocytosis-mediated transport and by tight junction disruption. In addition, recent reports demonstrate that pericytes control the migration of leukocytes in response to inflammatory mediators by up-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules and releasing chemo-attractants; however, under physiological conditions they appear to be immune-suppressors. Better understanding of the immune properties of pericytes and their participation in the effects of brain infections, neurodegenerative diseases, and sleep loss will be achieved by analyzing pericyte ultrastructure, capillary coverage, and protein expression. That knowledge may provide a mechanism by which pericytes participate in the maintenance of the proper function of the brain-immune interface. PMID:24454281

  8. Hydrophobic effect at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual basis for hydrophobic effects in bulk water and at aqueous interfaces have similar conceptual basis but often manifests itself differently. Using a wide range of computer simulations as the basis, I will review different forms of hydrophobic effects at a variety of interfaces starting from simple liquid-vapor and water-oil interfaces and progressing to water-membrane interfaces. I will start with discussing how water is organized at different interfaces, stressing both similarities and differences. The main thread is that, as in the bulk liquid, hydrophobic effects have profound influence on conformational equilibria and organization of both small molecules and macromolecules, but the result of this influence is quite different. Specifically, it will be shown that many small, but not necessarily amphiphilic molecules tend to accumulate at the interface and, and this tendency will be explained. Furthermore, I will show that many short peptides that are disordered in water spontaneously fold into well-defined structures in the interfacial environment. Biological implications of this self-organizing effect will be discussed.

  9. Adaptive interface for spoken dialog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusan, Sorin; Flanagan, James

    2002-05-01

    Speech has become increasingly important in human-computer interaction. Spoken dialog interfaces rely on automatic speech recognition, speech synthesis, language understanding, and dialog management. A main issue in dialog systems is that they typically are limited to pre-programmed vocabularies and sets of sentences. The research reported here focuses on developing an adaptive spoken dialog interface capable of acquiring new linguistic units and their corresponding semantics during the human-computer interaction. The adaptive interface identifies unknown words and phrases in the users utterances and asks the user for the corresponding semantics. The user can provide the meaning or the semantic representation of the new linguistic units through multiple modalities, including speaking, typing, pointing, touching, or showing. The interface then stores the new linguistic units in a semantic grammar and creates new objects defining the corresponding semantic representation. This process takes place during natural interaction between user and computer and, thus, the interface does not have to be rewritten and compiled to incorporate the newly acquired language. Users can personalize the adaptive spoken interface for different domain applications, or according to their personal preferences. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped) clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped), where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  11. Optogenetic brain interfaces.

    PubMed

    Pashaie, Ramin; Anikeeva, Polina; Lee, Jin Hyung; Prakash, Rohit; Yizhar, Ofer; Prigge, Matthias; Chander, Divya; Richner, Thomas J; Williams, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a large network of interconnected neurons where each cell functions as a nonlinear processing element. Unraveling the mysteries of information processing in the complex networks of the brain requires versatile neurostimulation and imaging techniques. Optogenetics is a new stimulation method which allows the activity of neurons to be modulated by light. For this purpose, the cell-types of interest are genetically targeted to produce light-sensitive proteins. Once these proteins are expressed, neural activity can be controlled by exposing the cells to light of appropriate wavelengths. Optogenetics provides a unique combination of features, including multimodal control over neural function and genetic targeting of specific cell-types. Together, these versatile features combine to a powerful experimental approach, suitable for the study of the circuitry of psychiatric and neurological disorders. The advent of optogenetics was followed by extensive research aimed to produce new lines of light-sensitive proteins and to develop new technologies: for example, to control the distribution of light inside the brain tissue or to combine optogenetics with other modalities including electrophysiology, electrocorticography, nonlinear microscopy, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, the authors review some of the recent advances in the field of optogenetics and related technologies and provide their vision for the future of the field.

  12. Computing forces on interface elements exerted by dislocations in an elastically anisotropic crystalline material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Arsenlis, A.; Aubry, S.

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the growing interest in numerical simulations of dislocation–interface interactions in general crystalline materials with elastic anisotropy, we develop algorithms for the integration of interface tractions needed to couple dislocation dynamics with a finite element or boundary element solver. The dislocation stress fields in elastically anisotropic media are made analytically accessible through the spherical harmonics expansion of the derivative of Green’s function, and analytical expressions for the forces on interface elements are derived by analytically integrating the spherical harmonics series recursively. Compared with numerical integration by Gaussian quadrature, the newly developed analytical algorithm for interface traction integration is highly beneficial in terms of both computation precision and speed.

  13. From heterojunction interfaces to metal-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, D. W.; Tang, M.; McKinley, J.; Zanoni, R.; Margaritondo, G.

    1989-11-01

    Systematic studies of Schottky barrier heights and heterojunction band discontinuities have revealed a clear correlation between these two fundamental semiconductor interface parameters. The correlation is qualitatively predicted by all major semiconductor interface models, i.e., the defect model, theories based on metal-induced gap states (MIGS), and Schottky-like models. However, the experimentally observed correlation substantially deviates from the common prediction of all these theories. We investigated the causes of this discrepancy by measuring band line-ups at semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces with metal intralayers of thickness ranging from zero to back-to-back Schottky barrier configurations. The photoemission experiments discussed here identify the chemical and morphological properties of the CdS/Al/Ge system, and indicate that the cause of the discrepancy is a Schottky-like correction term.

  14. From heterojunction interfaces to metal-semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niles, D. W.; Tang, M.; McKinley, J.; Zanoni, R.; Margaritondo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Systematic studies of Schottky barrier heights and heterojunction band discontinuities have revealed a clear correlation between these two fundamental semiconductor interface parameters. The correlation is qualitatively predicted by all major semiconductor interface models, i.e., the defect model, theories based on metal-induced gap states (MIGS), and Schottky-like models. However, the experimentally observed correlation substantially deviates from the common prediction of all these theories. We investigated the causes of this discrepancy by measuring band line-ups at semiconductor-semiconductor interfaces with metal intralayers of thickness ranging from zero to back-to-back Schottky barrier configurations. The photoemission experiments discussed here identify the chemical and morphological properties of the CdS/Al/Ge system, and indicate that the cause of the discrepancy is a Schottky-like correction term.

  15. PREFACE: Functionalized Liquid Liquid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Hubert; Kornyshev, Alexei A.; Monroe, Charles W.; Urbakh, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Most natural processes take place at interfaces. For this reason, surface science has been a focal point of modern research. At solid-liquid interfaces one can induce various species to adsorb or react, and thus may study interactions between the substrate and adsorbates, kinetic processes, optical properties, etc. Liquid-liquid interfaces, formed by immiscible liquids such as water and oil, have a number of distinctive features. Both sides of the interface are amenable to detailed physical and chemical analysis. By chemical or electrochemical means, metal or semiconductor nanoparticles can be formed or localised at the interface. Surfactants can be used to tailor surface properties, and also to place organic molecular or supermolecular constructions at the boundary between the liquids. Electric fields can be used to drive ions from one fluid to another, or even change the shape of the interface itself. In many cases, both liquids are optically transparent, making functionalized liquid-liquid interfaces promising for various optical applications based on the transmission or reflection of light. An advantage common to most of these systems is self-assembly; because a liquid-liquid interface is not mechanically constrained like a solid-liquid interface, it can easily access its most stable state, even after it has been driven far from equilibrium. This special issue focuses on four modes of liquid-liquid interfacial functionalization: the controlled adsorption of molecules or nanoparticles, the formation of adlayers or films, electrowetting, and ion transfer or interface-localized reactions. Interfacial adsorption can be driven electrically, chemically, or mechanically. The liquid-liquid interface can be used to study how anisotropic particles orient at a surface under the influence of a field, how surfactants interact with other adsorbates, and how nanoparticles aggregate; the transparency of the interface also makes the chirality of organic adsorbates amenable to

  16. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  17. XML Translator for Interface Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroson, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program defines an XML schema for specifying the interface to a generic FPGA from the perspective of software that will interact with the device. This XML interface description is then translated into header files for C, Verilog, and VHDL. User interface definition input is checked via both the provided XML schema and the translator module to ensure consistency and accuracy. Currently, programming used on both sides of an interface is inconsistent. This makes it hard to find and fix errors. By using a common schema, both sides are forced to use the same structure by using the same framework and toolset. This makes for easy identification of problems, which leads to the ability to formulate a solution. The toolset contains constants that allow a programmer to use each register, and to access each field in the register. Once programming is complete, the translator is run as part of the make process, which ensures that whenever an interface is changed, all of the code that uses the header files describing it is recompiled.

  18. A UNIX interface to supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    McBryan, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    We describe a convenient interface between UNIX-based work-stations or minicomputers, and supercomputers such as the CRAY series machines. Using this interface, the user can issue commands entirely on the UNIX system, with remote compilation, loading and execution performed on the supercomputer. The interface is not a remote login interface. Rather the domain of various UNIX utilities such as compilers, archivers and loaders are extended to include the CRAY. The user need know essentially nothing about the CRAY operating system, commands or filename restrictions. Standard UNIX utilities will perform CRAY operations transparently. UNIX command names and arguments are mapped to corresponding CRAY equivalents, suitable options are selected as needed, UNIX directory tree filenames are coerced to allowable CRAY names and all source and output files are automatically transferred between the machines. The primary purpose of the software is to allow the programmer to benefit from the interactive features of UNIX systems including screen editors, software maintenance utilities such as make and SCCS and in general to avail of the large set of UNIX text manipulation features. The interface was designed particularly to support development of very large multi-file programs, possibly consisting of hundreds of files and hundreds of thousands of lines of code. All CRAY source is kept on the work-station. We have found that using the software, the complete program development phase for a large CRAY application may be performed entirely on a work-station.

  19. Interface dynamics of competing tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podewitz, Nils; Jülicher, Frank; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Tissues can be characterized by their homeostatic stress, i.e. the value of stress for which cell division and cell death balance. When two different tissues grow in competition, a difference of their homeostatic stresses determines which tissue grows at the expense of the second. This then leads to the propagation of the interface separating the tissues. Here, we study structural and dynamical properties of this interface by combining continuum theory with mesoscopic simulations of a cell-based model. Using a simulation box that moves with the interface, we find that a stationary state exists in which the interface has a finite width and propagates with a constant velocity. The propagation velocity in the simulations depends linearly on the homeostatic stress difference, in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions. This agreement is also seen for the stress and velocity profiles. Finally, we analyzed the interface growth and roughness as a function of time and system size. We estimated growth and roughness exponents, which differ from those previously obtained for simple tissue growth.

  20. Active matter clusters at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development and flocks of birds. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit whose movement depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed clusters which exert forces but no active torques, encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds and clusters with active torques, they show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times, becoming trapped at the interface and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection of the low velocity clusters. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  1. Human/Computer Interfacing in Educational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    This discussion of educational applications of user interfaces covers the benefits of adopting database techniques in organizing multimedia materials; the evolution of user interface technology, including teletype interfaces, analogic overlay graphics, window interfaces, and adaptive systems; application design problems, including the…

  2. Interface Provides Standard-Bus Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culliton, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled interface (IEEE-488/LVABI) incorporates service-request and direct-memory-access features. Is circuit card enabling digital communication between system called "laser auto-covariance buffer interface" (LVABI) and compatible personal computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB) conforming to Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 488. Interface serves as second interface enabling first interface to exploit advantages of GPIB, via utility software written specifically for GPIB. Advantages include compatibility with multitasking and support of communication among multiple computers. Basic concept also applied in designing interfaces for circuits other than LVABI for unidirectional or bidirectional handling of parallel data up to 16 bits wide.

  3. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    DOE PAGES

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxidemore » during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.« less

  4. Nanofluidic interfaces in microfluidic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, Larry J.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-09-24

    The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample the local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular and community or tissue scales. Here we describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semi-porous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows rapid release of the sacrificial silicon dioxide during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.

  5. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  6. Interfacing with the computational brain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2011-10-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface and brain-machine interface paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury. PMID:21659037

  7. Usable Interface Design for Everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud

    When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.

  8. Conjugated Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaneck, W. R.; Stafstrom, S.; Brédas, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    The authors illustrate the basic physics and materials science of conjugated polymers and their interfaces, particularly, but not exclusively, as they are applied to polymer-based light emitting diodes. The approach is to describe the basic physical and associated chemical principles that apply to these materials, which in many instances are different from those that apply to their inorganic counterparts. The main aim of the authors is to highlight specific issues and properties of polymer surfaces and interfaces that are relevant in the context of the emerging field of polymer-based electronics in general, and polymer-based light emitting diodes in particular. Both theoretical and experimental methods used in the study of these systems are discussed. This book will be of interest to graduate students and research workers in departments of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering and materials sciences studying polymer surfaces and interfaces and their application in polymer-based electronics.

  9. Intersurf: dynamic interface between proteins.

    PubMed

    Ray, Nicolas; Cavin, Xavier; Paul, Jean-Claude; Maigret, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Protein docking is a fundamental biological process that links two proteins. This link is typically defined by an interaction between two large zones of the protein boundaries. Visualizing such an interface is useful to understand the process thanks to 3D protein structures, to estimate the quality of docking simulation results, and to classify interactions in order to predict docking affinity between classes of interacting zones. Since the interface may be defined by a surface that separates the two proteins, it is possible to create a map of interaction that allows comparisons to be performed in 2D. This paper presents a very fast algorithm that extracts an interface surface and creates a valid and low-distorted interaction map. Another benefit of our approach is that a pre-computed part of the algorithm enables the surface to be updated in real-time while residues are moved. PMID:15670955

  10. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  11. Interfacing with the Computational Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience is just beginning to understand the neural computations that underlie our remarkable capacity to learn new motor tasks. Studies of natural movements have emphasized the importance of concepts such as dimensionality reduction within hierarchical levels of redundancy, optimization of behavior in the presence of sensorimotor noise and internal models for predictive control. These concepts also provide a framework for understanding the improvements in performance seen in myoelectric-controlled interface (MCI) and brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigms. Recent experiments reveal how volitional activity in the motor system combines with sensory feedback to shape neural representations and drives adaptation of behavior. By elucidating these mechanisms, a new generation of intelligent interfaces can be designed to exploit neural plasticity and restore function after neurological injury. PMID:21659037

  12. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  13. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  14. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  15. Magnetoelectric interfaces and spin transport.

    PubMed

    Burton, J D; Tsymbal, E Y

    2012-10-28

    Engineered heterostructures designed for electric control of magnetic properties, the so-called magnetoelectric interfaces, present a novel route towards using the spin degree of freedom in electronic devices. Here, we review how a subset of such interfaces, namely ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures, display electronically mediated control of magnetism and, in particular, emphasis is placed on how these effects manifest themselves as detectable spin-dependent transport phenomena. Examples of these effects are given for a variety of material systems on the basis of ferroelectric oxides, manganese and ruthenium magnetic complex oxides and elemental ferromagnetic metals. Results from both theory and experiment are discussed. PMID:22987031

  16. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecitis, Chad David

    2009-12-01

    Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1

  17. User interfaces to expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-10-01

    Expert Systems are becoming increasingly popular in environments where the user is not well versed in computers or the subject domain. They offer expert advice and can also explain their lines of reasoning. As these systems are applied to highly technical areas, they become complex and large. Therefore, User Systems Interfaces (USIs) become critical. This paper discusses recent technologies that can be applied to improved user communication. In particular, bar menus/graphics, mouse interfaces, touch screens, and voice links will be highlighted. Their applications in the context of SOFTMAN (The Software Manager Apprentice) a knowledge-based system are discussed. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Hierarchy of on-orbit servicing interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Rud V.

    1989-01-01

    A series of equipment interfaces is involved in on-orbit servicing operations. The end-to-end hierarchy of servicing interfaces is presented. The interface concepts presented include structure and handling, and formats for transfer of resources (power, data, fluids, etc.). Consequences on cost, performance, and service ability of the use of standard designs or unique designs with interface adapters are discussed. Implications of the interface designs compatibility with remote servicing using telerobotic servicers are discussed.

  19. Wetting and strength issues at Al/alpha-alumina interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2003-04-15

    The wetting behavior and strength at aluminum/alumina interfaces has been an active subject of research. Al/alumina applications include ceramic-metal composites and several applications for electronic industries. In this paper the interface strength and microstructure of Al/alpha-alumina was investigated. We discovered that in a solid-state joining, the strength of the joint increases with increasing joining temperature. In a liquid-state joining, the strength of the joint gradually decreases due to the formation of unbonded areas. The strength, sigma sub b, is expressed by the following equation as a function of unbonded area, A: sigma sub b = 2.22 A + 143 (70 percent {le} A {le} 100 percent). The highest strength reached 400 MPa when the interface was formed at around the melting temperature of aluminum. An aluminum layer close to the interface became a single crystal when it was bonded to a sapphire. The following crystallographic orientation relationship is established: (1{bar 1}1){sub Al}//(001){sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, (110){sub Al}//<100>{sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Amorphous alumina islands were formed at the interface. In the amorphous alumina, gamma-alumina nanocrystals grew from the sapphire, with the same orientation relationship to sapphire as above.

  20. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  1. Human-computer interface design

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    Modern military forces assume that computer-based information is reliable, timely, available, usable, and shared. The importance of computer-based information is based on the assumption that {open_quotes}shared situation awareness, coupled with the ability to conduct continuous operations, will allow information age armies to observe, decide, and act faster, more correctly and more precisely than their enemies.{close_quotes} (Sullivan and Dubik 1994). Human-Computer Interface (HCI) design standardization is critical to the realization of the previously stated assumptions. Given that a key factor of a high-performance, high-reliability system is an easy-to-use, effective design of the interface between the hardware, software, and the user, it follows logically that the interface between the computer and the military user is critical to the success of the information-age military. The proliferation of computer technology has resulted in the development of an extensive variety of computer-based systems and the implementation of varying HCI styles on these systems. To accommodate the continued growth in computer-based systems, minimize HCI diversity, and improve system performance and reliability, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is continuing to adopt interface standards for developing computer-based systems.

  2. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  3. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  4. Web OPAC Interfaces: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babu, B. Ramesh; O'Brien, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based online public access catalogs (OPACs) focuses on a review of six Web OPAC interfaces in use in academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Presents a checklist and guidelines of important features and functions that are currently available, including search strategies, access points, display, links, and layout. (Author/LRW)

  5. Gluing Soft Interfaces by Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhen; Dobrynin, Andrey

    Using a combination of the molecular dynamics simulations and scaling analysis we studied reinforcement of interface between two soft gel-like materials by spherical nanoparticles. Analysis of the simulations shows that the depth of penetration of a nanoparticle into a gel is determined by a balance of the elastic energy of the gel and nanoparticle deformations and the surface energy of nanoparticle/gel interface. In order to evaluate work of adhesion of the reinforced interface, the potential of mean force for separation of two gels was calculated. These simulations showed that the gel separation proceeds through formation of necks connecting nanoparticle with two gels. The shapes of the necks are controlled by a fine interplay between nanoparticle/gel surface energies and elastic energy of the neck deformation. Our simulations showed that by introducing nanoparticles at soft interfaces, the work required for separation of two gels could be 10-100 times larger than the work of adhesion between two gels without nanoparticle reinforcement. These results provide insight in understanding the mechanism of gluing soft gels and biological tissues by nano- and micro-sized particles. NSF DMR-1409710.

  6. Graphical fiber shaping control interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Eric T.; Ninomiya, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an improved graphical user interface for defining single-pass novel shaping techniques on glass processing machines that allows for streamlined process development. This approach offers unique modularity and debugging capability to researchers during the process development phase not usually afforded with similar scripting languages.

  7. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  8. A sharp interface method for SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingyu; Deng, Xiao-Long

    2015-12-01

    A sharp interface method (SIM) for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been developed to simulate two-phase flows with clear interfaces. The level set function is introduced to capture the interface implicitly. The interface velocity is used to evolve the level set function. The smoothness of the level set function helps to improve the accuracy of the interface curvature. Material discontinuity across the interface is dealt with by the ghost fluid method. The interface states are calculated by applying the jump conditions and are extended to the corresponding ghost fluid particles. The ghost fluid method helps to get smooth and stable calculation near the interface. The performance of the developed method is validated by benchmark tests. The developed SIM for SPH can be applied to simulate low speed two-phase flows of high density ratios with clear interface accurately and stably.

  9. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm the

  10. MIB Galerkin method for elliptic interface problems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Kelin; Zhan, Meng; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Material interfaces are omnipresent in the real-world structures and devices. Mathematical modeling of material interfaces often leads to elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) with discontinuous coefficients and singular sources, which are commonly called elliptic interface problems. The development of high-order numerical schemes for elliptic interface problems has become a well defined field in applied and computational mathematics and attracted much attention in the past decades. Despite of significant advances, challenges remain in the construction of high-order schemes for nonsmooth interfaces, i.e., interfaces with geometric singularities, such as tips, cusps and sharp edges. The challenge of geometric singularities is amplified when they are associated with low solution regularities, e.g., tip-geometry effects in many fields. The present work introduces a matched interface and boundary (MIB) Galerkin method for solving two-dimensional (2D) elliptic PDEs with complex interfaces, geometric singularities and low solution regularities. The Cartesian grid based triangular elements are employed to avoid the time consuming mesh generation procedure. Consequently, the interface cuts through elements. To ensure the continuity of classic basis functions across the interface, two sets of overlapping elements, called MIB elements, are defined near the interface. As a result, differentiation can be computed near the interface as if there is no interface. Interpolation functions are constructed on MIB element spaces to smoothly extend function values across the interface. A set of lowest order interface jump conditions is enforced on the interface, which in turn, determines the interpolation functions. The performance of the proposed MIB Galerkin finite element method is validated by numerical experiments with a wide range of interface geometries, geometric singularities, low regularity solutions and grid resolutions. Extensive numerical studies confirm

  11. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  12. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  13. Universal sensor interface module (USIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Don; Torres, A.; Wynn, John

    1999-01-01

    A universal sensor interface model (USIM) is being developed by the Raytheon-TI Systems Company for use with fields of unattended distributed sensors. In its production configuration, the USIM will be a multichip module consisting of a set of common modules. The common module USIM set consists of (1) a sensor adapter interface (SAI) module, (2) digital signal processor (DSP) and associated memory module, and (3) a RF transceiver model. The multispectral sensor interface is designed around a low-power A/D converted, whose input/output interface consists of: -8 buffered, sampled inputs from various devices including environmental, acoustic seismic and magnetic sensors. The eight sensor inputs are each high-impedance, low- capacitance, differential amplifiers. The inputs are ideally suited for interface with discrete or MEMS sensors, since the differential input will allow direct connection with high-impedance bridge sensors and capacitance voltage sources. Each amplifier is connected to a 22-bit (Delta) (Sigma) A/D converter to enable simultaneous samples. The low power (Delta) (Sigma) converter provides 22-bit resolution at sample frequencies up to 142 hertz (used for magnetic sensors) and 16-bit resolution at frequencies up to 1168 hertz (used for acoustic and seismic sensors). The video interface module is based around the TMS320C5410 DSP. It can provide sensor array addressing, video data input, data calibration and correction. The processor module is based upon a MPC555. It will be used for mode control, synchronization of complex sensors, sensor signal processing, array processing, target classification and tracking. Many functions of the A/D, DSP and transceiver can be powered down by using variable clock speeds under software command or chip power switches. They can be returned to intermediate or full operation by DSP command. Power management may be based on the USIM's internal timer, command from the USIM transceiver, or by sleep mode processing management

  14. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  16. Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, David; Murphy, Catherine; Martin, Lane

    2014-10-21

    Our research program on Ultrafast Thermal Transport at Interfaces advanced understanding of the mesoscale science of heat conduction. At the length and time scales of atoms and atomic motions, energy is transported by interactions between single-particle and collective excitations. At macroscopic scales, entropy, temperature, and heat are the governing concepts. Key gaps in fundamental knowledge appear at the transitions between these two regimes. The transport of thermal energy at interfaces plays a pivotal role in these scientific issues. Measurements of heat transport with ultrafast time resolution are needed because picoseconds are the fundamental scales where the lack of equilibrium between various thermal excitations becomes a important factor in the transport physics. A critical aspect of our work has been the development of experimental methods and model systems that enabled more precise and sensitive investigations of nanoscale thermal transport.

  17. Practical Interfacing in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.

    2003-05-01

    This text describes in practical terms how to use a desk-top computer to monitor and control laboratory experiments. The author clearly explains how to design electronic circuits and write computer programs to sense, analyse and display real-world quantities, including displacement, temperature, force, sound, light, and biomedical potentials. The book includes numerous laboratory exercises and appendices that provide practical information on microcomputer architecture and interfacing, including complete circuit diagrams and component lists. Topics include analog amplification and signal processing, digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, electronic sensors and actuators, digital and analog interfacing circuits, and programming. Only a very basic knowledge of electronics is assumed, making it ideal for college-level laboratory courses and for practising engineers and scientists. Everything you need to know about using a PC to monitor and control laboratory experiments Full of practical circuit designs and C-code examples Ideal for students and practising scientists

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  19. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics. PMID:27300960

  20. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  1. Tire/runway friction interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of NASA Langley's tire/runway pavement interface studies. The National Tire Modeling Program, evaluation of new tire and landing gear designs, tire wear and friction tests, and tire hydroplaning studies are examined. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility is described along with some ground friction measuring vehicles. The major goals and scope of several joint FAA/NASA programs are identified together with current status and plans.

  2. The Interface Theory of Perception.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Donald D; Singh, Manish; Prakash, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Perception is a product of evolution. Our perceptual systems, like our limbs and livers, have been shaped by natural selection. The effects of selection on perception can be studied using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms. To this end, we define and classify perceptual strategies and allow them to compete in evolutionary games in a variety of worlds with a variety of fitness functions. We find that veridical perceptions--strategies tuned to the true structure of the world--are routinely dominated by nonveridical strategies tuned to fitness. Veridical perceptions escape extinction only if fitness varies monotonically with truth. Thus, a perceptual strategy favored by selection is best thought of not as a window on truth but as akin to a windows interface of a PC. Just as the color and shape of an icon for a text file do not entail that the text file itself has a color or shape, so also our perceptions of space-time and objects do not entail (by the Invention of Space-Time Theorem) that objective reality has the structure of space-time and objects. An interface serves to guide useful actions, not to resemble truth. Indeed, an interface hides the truth; for someone editing a paper or photo, seeing transistors and firmware is an irrelevant hindrance. For the perceptions of H. sapiens, space-time is the desktop and physical objects are the icons. Our perceptions of space-time and objects have been shaped by natural selection to hide the truth and guide adaptive behaviors. Perception is an adaptive interface.

  3. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  4. Software handlers for process interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bercaw, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Process interfaces are developed in an effort to reduce the time, effort, and money required to install computer systems. Probably the chief obstacle to the achievement of these goals lies in the problem of developing software handlers having the same degree of generality and modularity as the hardware. The problem of combining the advantages of modular instrumentation with those of modern multitask operating systems has not been completely solved, but there are a number of promising developments. The essential principles involved are considered.

  5. Virtual Frame Buffer Interface Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas L.

    1990-01-01

    Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as generic frame buffer with specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write codes that run unmodified on all supported hardware. Converts generic commands to actual device commands. Consists of definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines called by application programs. Developed in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX 11/780 or DEC VAX 11/750 computer under VMS 4.X.

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Q.

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  7. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  8. Formal specification of human-computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent

    1990-01-01

    A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.

  9. Zintl Concepts for Interface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkov, Alex

    2006-03-01

    Crystalline epitaxial oxides on semiconductors (COS) could very well extend the Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology from Si to other semiconductors and thus give new lease on life to the paradigm responsible for the outstanding success of the semiconductor electronics. Another tantalizing possibility is the growth of functional oxide structures utilizing ferroelectricity, superconductivity, magnetism, and other such properties not normally accessible in conventional semiconductors in monolithic integration with Si. There also may be applications of COS at the end of the Si Roadmap. Two dimensional (2D) crystal growth of ionic oxides on covalent semiconductors and visa versa is essential for these approach to work. In this talk I will discuss how concepts developed by Edward Zintl more than seventy years ago can be used for interface engineering. I will use ab-initio density functional theory to demonstrate how the bonding character at the oxide/semiconductor interface is manipulated through charge transfer in the engineered intermetallic contact layer. This transition layer lowers the energy of the interface and results in 2D growth, and high quality epitaxial films.

  10. Chiral magnetism at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mohit

    2014-03-01

    There are tantalizing hints of magnetism at the n-type LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, but the experimental evidence remains controversial in view of some of the differences between different samples and probes. I will argue that if magnetism exists at interfaces, symmetry arguments imply chiral interactions that lead to a spiral ground state in zero external field and skyrmion crystals for H ≠ 0 . I will next present a microscopic model that provides a possible mechanism for the formation of local moments. I will show that the coupling of these moments to itinerant electrons leads to ferromagnetic double exchange together with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions and an easy-plane ``compass'' anisotropy, which arise from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) due to the lack of inversion symmetry at the interface. The compass term, often ignored in the literature on chiral magnetism, is shown to play a crucial role in determining the magnetic ground state. I will compare our results with existing torque magnetometry data on LAO/STO and try to reconcile it with scanning SQUID magnetometry. Finally, I will present the phase diagram in a field and show that easy-plane anisotropy stabilizes an unexpectedly large skyrmion crystal phase and describe its properties. (Work done in collaboration with Sumilan Banerjee, Onur Erten, Daniel Kestner and James Rowland). Supported by DOE-BES DE-SC0005035, NSF-DMR-1006532 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820414.

  11. Detonation interaction with an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, D. H.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    Detonation interaction with an interface was investigated, where the interface separated a combustible from an oxidizing or inert mixture. The ethylene-oxygen combustible mixture had a fuel-rich composition to promote secondary combustion with the oxidizer in the turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) that resulted from the interaction. Sharp interfaces were created by using a nitro-cellulose membrane to separate the two mixtures. The membrane was mounted on a wood frame and inserted in the experimental test section at a 45° angle to the bulk flow direction. The membrane was destroyed by the detonation wave. The interaction resulted in a transmitted and reflected wave at a node point similar to regular shock refraction. A detonation refraction analysis was carried out to compare with the measured shock angles. It was observed that the measured angle is consistently lower than the predicted value. An uncertainty analysis revealed possible explanations for this systematic variation pointing to factors such as the incident wave curvature and the role of the nitro-cellulose diaphragm. Analysis of the TMZ and Mach stem formed from the reflection of the transmitted shock wave off the solid boundary were carried out and found to justify the size and strength of these features as a function of the test gas composition. The role of secondary combustion in the TMZ was also investigated and found to have a small influence on the wave structure.

  12. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiesset, F.; Maurice, G.; Halter, F.; Mazellier, N.; Chauveau, C.; Gökalp, I.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  13. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces.

    PubMed

    Thiesset, F; Maurice, G; Halter, F; Mazellier, N; Chauveau, C; Gökalp, I

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  14. Austrian National CathLab Registry (ANCALAR): cardiac catheterization, coronary angiography (CA), and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Austria during the year 2011 (Registry Data with Audit including 2012).

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Volker; Kobel, Conrad; Kaltenbach, Lalit; Pachinger, Otmar

    2013-12-01

    Concerning international comparison for the year 2011, Austria is situated under the top nations with 6,383 diagnostic coronary angiographies (CA), 2,407 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), and 47 transarterial aortic valve implantations (TAVI) per 1 million inhabitants in Europe. Although the number of TAVI increases rapidly since its first introduction in 2007 (47 TAVI per 1 million inhabitants in 2011, not including surgical cases from the transapical route), the data for CA and PCI remained constant during the past years.The rates of stent (91%) and drug-eluting stent implantations (78% of stents) also remained constant on a high level. Little fluctuation is also reflected in the complication data (including mortality evaluation). An increased morality is well known, especially in patients with the so-called ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and consecutive shock (19-35% in the past years).The application of certain special devices increased (clot catcher) or decreased (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist) in 2011 or were finally unused (Laser).Interestingly, not only in Austria, it was observed several times that scientific knowledge, recommended as Class I Indications in the guidelines, takes several years to establish itself nationwide.Our independent, purely academic activity is located in the area of health services research, and has also the option to generate benchmarks for individual centers. Participation in our surveys is voluntary. Since 1992, every year, without interruption (no missing center!), 90-100 parameters are applicable. The questionnaire will be optimized and adapted to current conditions. This is done in cooperation with the participating centers. To provide comparability, we make only minimal and absolutely most necessary modifications.The data are collected and summarized at the end of the year by each center itself. During the year, the centers are visited to perform audits and to keep personal contact to them

  15. Atomistic modeling of dislocation-interface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Valone, Steven M; Beyerlein, Irene J; Misra, Amit; Germann, T. C.

    2011-01-31

    Using atomic scale models and interface defect theory, we first classify interface structures into a few types with respect to geometrical factors, then study the interfacial shear response and further simulate the dislocation-interface interactions using molecular dynamics. The results show that the atomic scale structural characteristics of both heterophases and homophases interfaces play a crucial role in (i) their mechanical responses and (ii) the ability of incoming lattice dislocations to transmit across them.

  16. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  17. A full-field perturbation approach to scattering and reverberation in range-dependent environments with rough interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ivakin, Anatoliy N

    2016-07-01

    A perturbation approach to roughness scattering and reverberation in range-dependent environments is developed treating each interface as a superposition of a smooth reference interface, which may include large-scale deterministic features (such as bathymetry changes), and small compared to the acoustic wavelength vertical deviations from this interface that are considered as random roughness perturbations. The reference interface is assumed to be smooth enough to allow analytic or numerical solution for the field in the vicinity of this interface that can then be used in perturbation theory. Expressions for both the reverberation field and average reverberation intensity in a general case of an arbitrary number of rough interfaces are obtained in a form convenient for numerical simulations. In the case of long-range ocean reverberation, several approximations for these expressions are developed, relevant to various environmental scenarios and different types of interfaces: sea-surface, water-sediment interface, buried sediment interfaces, and bottom basement. The results are presented in a simple form and provide a direct relationship of the reverberation intensity with three critical characteristics defined at each interface: (1) local spectrum of roughness, (2) local contrast of acoustic parameters, and (3) two-way full-field transmission intensity calculated taking into account only large-scale changes of the environment.

  18. Thermal Interface Comparisons Under Flight Like Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez-Ruiz, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Thermal interface materials are used in bolted interfaces to promote good thermal conduction between the two. The mounting surface can include panels, heat pipes, electronics boxes, etc.. . On Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) project the results are directly applicable: a) Several high power avionics boxes b) Several interfaces from RWA to radiator through heat pipe network

  19. Towards automation of user interface design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastner, Rainer; Kraetzschmar, Gerhard K.; Lutz, Ernst

    1992-01-01

    This paper suggests an approach to automatic software design in the domain of graphical user interfaces. There are still some drawbacks in existing user interface management systems (UIMS's) which basically offer only quantitative layout specifications via direct manipulation. Our approach suggests a convenient way to get a default graphical user interface which may be customized and redesigned easily in further prototyping cycles.

  20. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  1. Interface energy effect on the dispersion relation of nano-sized cylindrical piezoelectric/piezomagnetic composites.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Yue; Liu, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Jin-Xi

    2015-02-01

    Interface between the constituents plays an important role in the non-destructive detection of smart piezoelectric/piezomagnetic devices. The propagation of SH waves in nano-sized cylindrically multiferroic composites consisting of a piezoelectric layer and a piezomagnetic central cylinder is investigated, and the size-dependent dispersion relation with interface effect is derived. The general solutions of decoupled governing equation in different regions are expressed by using Bessel functions, and the unknown coefficients are determined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the inner interface with negligible thickness and the outer surface of the structure. Through the numerical examples of dispersion relation, it is found that the interface around the nano-cylinder may remarkably reduce the phase velocity, depending on the combination of the value of thickness ratio and the surface condition. The interface shows different effect on the first and second modes of dispersion relation.

  2. Multipath Transformational Development of User Interfaces with Graph Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbourg, Quentin; Vanderdonckt, Jean

    In software engineering, transformational development is aimed at developing computer systems by transforming a coarse-grained specification of a system to its final code through a series of transformation steps. Transformational development is known to bring benefits such as: correctness by construction, explicit mappings between development steps, and reversibility of transformations. No comparable piece exists in the literature that provides a formal system applying transformational development in the area of user interface engineering. This chapter defines such a system. For this purpose, a mathematical system for expressing specifications and transformation rules is introduced. This system is based on graph transformations. The problem of managing the transformation rules is detailed, e.g., how to enable a developer to access, define, extend, restrict or relax, test, verify, and apply appropriate transformations. A tool supporting this development paradigm is also described and exemplified. Transformational development, applied to the development of user interfaces of interactive systems, allows reusability of design knowledge used to develop user interfaces and fosters incremental development of user interfaces by applying alternative transformations.

  3. Transient aspects of stream interface signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, N.U.; Shodhan, S.; Forsyth, R.J.; Burton, M.E.; Gosling, J.T.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Lepping, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    Although stream interfaces are steady-state, corotating boundaries between slow and fast solar wind, their signatures are sometimes associated with transient features. Here the authors illustrate two modes of association: interfaces trailing interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) at 1 AU and interfaces within ICMEs in the range 4--5 AU. The former are readily understood as boundaries between transient slow wind and steady-state fast wind, where the ICMEs add variability to the interface signatures. The latter are puzzling and may be related to evolution of interfaces.

  4. Intelligent subsystem interface for modular hardware system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krening, Douglas N. (Inventor); Lannan, Gregory B. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Michael J. (Inventor); Schneiderwind, Robert A. (Inventor); Caffrey, Robert T. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A single chip application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which provides a flexible, modular interface between a subsystem and a standard system bus. The ASIC includes a microcontroller/microprocessor, a serial interface for connection to the bus, and a variety of communications interface devices available for coupling to the subsystem. A three-bus architecture, utilizing arbitration, provides connectivity within the ASIC and between the ASIC and the subsystem. The communication interface devices include UART (serial), parallel, analog, and external device interface utilizing bus connections paired with device select signals. A low power (sleep) mode is provided as is a processor disable option.

  5. Implement trigger for a NI data acquisition card PCI 5105 in the measurement studio development environment for a high speed demodulator based on fiber Fabry-Pérot tunable filter (FFP-TF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Yang, Shangming; Fan, Lingling; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Xilin; Wang, Zhenhua; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we report a scheme of low-cost, small-size differential electrical converter to change analog trigger signals into digital trigger signals. This converter successfully resolves the incompatibility between the digital trigger mode of NI (National Instruments) data acquisition card PCI 5105 in Measurement Studio development environment for a demodulator and the requirement from instability of spectra of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. The instability is caused by intrinsic drifts of FFP-TF inside this high speed demodulator. The obtained results of frequency response about the converter have clearly demonstrated that this method is effective when the frequency of trigger signal is less than 3,000 Hz. This converter can satisfy the current requirements of demodulator based on FFP-TF, since mostly actual working scanning frequency of FFP-TF is less than 1,000 Hz. This method may be recommended to resolve similar problems for other NI customers who have developed their data acquisition system based on Measurement Studio.

  6. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using < 5 volume % sub-10-nm cold welded gold nanowire fillers to obtain an unprecedented 30-fold increase in polydimethylsiloxane thermal conductivity that is 6-fold higher than previously reported nanocomposites at low nanofiller loadings and exceeds theoretical predictions. The nanowire diameter and aspect ratio are key to obtain cold-welded networks that enhance k at low filler fractions, while fostering low E. Along with high k, tailoring high thermal contact conductance G c is crucial for many applications. This thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical

  7. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along one-dimensional frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amundsen, David Skâlid; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-09-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasistatic velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a one-dimensional (1D) spring-block model of an extended frictional interface for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons-Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates steady-state rupture fronts and we give an approximate expression for this effect. We demonstrate that the 1D results are qualitatively valid in 2D. Our results provide insights into the qualitative role of various key parameters of a frictional interface on its rupture dynamics. They will be useful to better understand the many systems in which spring-block models have proved adequate, from friction to granular matter and earthquake dynamics.

  8. Sum-frequency generation echo and grating from interface

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, Victor

    2014-10-14

    The work addresses spectroscopy of fourth-order Sum Frequency Generation Echo and Grating responses as an experimental tool to study structure and dynamics at interfaces. First, it addresses experimental geometry to extract background-free fourth-order Echo and Grating responses. Further, the article provides the analytical expressions of the response functions for these nonlinearities. The derived expressions are used to model the χ{sup (4)} two-dimensional spectral responses of a hydrated methyl acetate, which resembles a hydrated carbonyl moiety at the polar outer side of a phospholipid membrane. Orientation, transition dipole moments, and Raman tensors are obtained from the results of classical and quantum calculations, respectively. The numerical studies for the nonlinear responses under different polarization schemes and timings suggest the possibility of securely factoring of spectral contributions of χ{sub YYYZX} and χ{sub YYYZY} macroscopic susceptibilities. As such, the nonlinearities provide an experimental perspective on orientation of a generic (low-symmetry) molecular system at interfaces. Besides, the spectral properties of the tensors may reflect correlations of the in-plane and out-of-plane field components specific to the interface. For the case of a phospholipid membrane, the experiment would address in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of hydrogen bonding and related dynamics.

  9. Physical significance of interfaces on fracture growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.J.; Guo, Q. )

    1993-08-01

    Details of the interfaces between two geologic materials are normally neglected in predicting the growth of hydraulic fractures. In addition, perfect bonding is assumed across the interface. However, due to a combination of reasons, the perfect bonding assumption is violated to various degrees. Assessment for potential slippage is important to fracture-growth modeling. As a fracture approaches an interface, both mode I (for a fracture crossing the interface) and mode II (for a fracture extending in the interface) stress-intensity factors need to be evaluated. Should the interface properties be such that the mode I stress-intensity factor reach the critical value, the fracture will cross the interface. Should the converse happen and the mode II stress-intensity factor become critical, slippage along the interface will occur. If both the critical stress intensity factors are reached simultaneously, both fractures across the interface and slippage will occur. Good description of the interface material is needed to model the fracturing process. Methodology to model the physical significance of interfaces for calculating two-dimensional fracture growth includes descriptions of applications to oil/gas recovery and the injection of contaminants in isolated formations.

  10. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk

  11. Interface analysis of diffusion barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarosa, Mark J.

    2000-10-01

    The utilization of thin films has enabled the success for much of modern technology. One goal of the research encompassed by this thesis was to monitor the interface of thin films and investigate ways to ensure their integrity, in spite of their propensity to react or diffuse. The materials selected for investigation were fluorinated dielectrics and copper. Fluorinated films have been integrated into an extensive range of applications, due to the relative inertness of many fluorinated polymers at low temperatures. Copper has long been the material of choice for electrical conduction due to its low resistivity and high thermal conductivity. Cobalt, cobalt-silicon, tantalum and tantalum-silicon were investigated as diffusion barrier materials to stabilize the interfaces. Co-Si and Ta-Si were found to be effective diffusion barriers on the fluorinated polymers PFCB and Pa-F up to the thermal degradation temperature of these materials. Incorporated in the current thesis research was the use of atomic layer deposition (ALD) to provide extremely thin, conformal, and pinhole-free diffusion barrier films. We were able to deposit cobalt films using ALD, including a dramatic breakthrough allowing the ALD of metals onto oxidized substrates at low temperatures (300°C). The ALD of Co on Ta and Cu on Co on SiO:F were performed to demonstrate this technique. To compliment the use of ALD for fabricating thin, dense diffusion barrier films, surface science analytical techniques were incorporated in this study, including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing angle x-ray diffraction. The ion beam techniques of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were also used to analyze the diffusion barrier interfaces.

  12. Experiments showing dynamics of materials interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1997-02-01

    The discipline of materials science and engineering often involves understanding and controlling properties of interfaces. The authors address the challenge of educating students about properties of interfaces, particularly dynamic properties and effects of unstable interfaces. A series of simple, inexpensive, hands-on activities about fluid interfaces provides students with a testbed to develop intuition about interface dynamics. The experiments highlight the essential role of initial interfacial perturbations in determining the dynamic response of the interface. The experiments produce dramatic, unexpected effects when initial perturbations are controlled and inhibited. These activities help students to develop insight about unstable interfaces that can be applied to analogous problems in materials science and engineering. The lessons examine ``Rayleigh-Taylor instability,`` an interfacial instability that occurs when a higher-density fluid is above a lower-density fluid.

  13. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  14. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  15. Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension d

  16. The patient-sensor interface

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, G. S.

    1970-01-01

    During the assessment of monitoring equipment on acute medical cases in a general ward, a quantitative investigation of technical faults revealed that 44% of these occurred at the patient-sensor interface. While the attachment of the equipment was accepted by the patient and was suitable for application by nursing staff, this degree of technical breakdown indicates that more progress is necessary in the design of this aspect of monitoring equipment before it is possible to have a reliable system. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5476136

  17. Metawidgets in the multimodal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M.M. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ); Glinert, E.P.; Jorge, J.A.; Ormsby, G.R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    We analyze two intertwined and fundamental issues concerning computer-to-human communication in the multimodal interfaces: the interplay between sound and graphics, and the role of object persistence. Our observations lead us to introduce metawidgets as abstract entities capable of manifesting themselves to users as image, as sound, or as various combinations and/or sequences of the two media. We show examples of metawidgets in action, and discuss mechanisms for choosing among alternative media for metawidget instantiation. Finally, we describe a couple of experimental microworlds we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  19. Supported Lipid Bilayer Technology for the Study of Cellular Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Travis J.; Maddox, Michael; Padhan, Kartika; Muller, James; Eigsti, Calvin; Varma, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Glass-supported lipid bilayers presenting freely diffusing proteins have served as a powerful tool for studying cell-cell interfaces, in particular, T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) interactions, using optical microscopy. Here we expand upon existing protocols and describe the preparation of liposomes by an extrusion method, and describe how this system can be used to study immune synapse formation by Jurkat cells. We also present a method for forming such lipid bilayers on silica beads for the study of signaling responses by population methods, such as western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene-expression analysis. Finally, we describe how to design and prepare transmembrane-anchored protein-laden liposomes, following expression in suspension CHO (CHOs) cells, a mammalian expression system alternative to insect and bacterial cell lines, which do not produce mammalian glycosylation patterns. Such transmembrane-anchored proteins may have many novel applications in cell biology and immunology. PMID:26331983

  20. Graphical User Interface in Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwilt, Ian

    This essay discusses the use of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) as a site of creative practice. By creatively repositioning the GUI as a work of art it is possible to challenge our understanding and expectations of the conventional computer interface wherein the icons and navigational architecture of the GUI no longer function as a technological tool. These artistic recontextualizations are often used to question our engagement with technology and to highlight the pivotal place that the domestic computer has taken in our everyday social, cultural and (increasingly), creative domains. Through these works the media specificity of the screen-based GUI can broken by dramatic changes in scale, form and configuration. This can be seen through the work of new media artists who have re-imagined the GUI in a number of creative forms both, within the digital, as image, animation, net and interactive art, and in the analogue, as print, painting, sculpture, installation and performative event. Furthermore as a creative work, the GUI can also be utilized as a visual way-finder to explore the relationship between the dynamic potentials of the digital and the concretized qualities of the material artifact.

  1. Brain computer interfaces, a review.

    PubMed

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or 'locked in' by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices.

  2. The interactive digital video interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    A frequent complaint in the computer oriented trade journals is that current hardware technology is progressing so quickly that software developers cannot keep up. A example of this phenomenon can be seen in the field of microcomputer graphics. To exploit the advantages of new mechanisms of information storage and retrieval, new approaches must be made towards incorporating existing programs as well as developing entirely new applications. A particular area of need is the correlation of discrete image elements to textural information. The interactive digital video (IDV) interface embodies a new concept in software design which addresses these needs. The IDV interface is a patented device and language independent process for identifying image features on a digital video display and which allows a number of different processes to be keyed to that identification. Its capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. Sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images, text, and program control mechanisms.

  3. Colloidal dynamics near an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Madhav; Manoharan, Vinothan; Brenner, Michael; Kaz, David; McGorty, Ryan

    2010-11-01

    Although the equilibrium state of a colloidal particle at an interface is well understood, the dynamics associated with the approach to equilibrium is not. Recent high-resolution experiments have shown that the dynamics are richer than expected. This part of the study focuses on the evolution of the system after the initiation of a contact-line. We model the dynamics associated with the three degrees of motion in this regime, the center of mass (c.o.m.) of the colloid, the location of the contact-line and the dynamic contact-angle. Following Nikolov et al. (Journal of Colloid and Interface Science - 112,1,1986), we derive the statements of force balance by taking variations of an energy functional. Appealing to a balance of power we are able to derive the dynamical laws. Associated with the degrees of motion are three modes of dissipation corresponding to a moving c.o.m., a moving contact-line and an evolving contact angle. We derive an asymptotically valid model for the system, which we integrate numerically and compare to experiments.

  4. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  5. Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbleston, John

    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) can rapidly produce 3D parts using a range of polymeric materials. A DLP-based form of additive manufacturing, CLIP proceeds via projecting a sequence of UV images through an oxygen-permeable, UV-transparent window below a liquid resin bath. A thin uncured liquid layer, or dead zone, is created above the window and maintains a liquid interface below the advancing part. Above the dead zone, the curing part is drawn out of the resin bath creating suction forces that renew reactive liquid resin. The dead zone is created due to oxygen inhibition of photopolymerization, a process that is traditionally a nuisance in other photopolymerization applications. However, for CLIP oxygen inhibition and creation of the dead zone allows for a continuous mode of printing where UV exposure, resin renewal, and part elevation are conducted simultaneously. This continual process is fundamentally different from traditional bottom-up stereolithography printers where these steps must be conducted in separate and discrete steps. Furthermore, the relatively gentle nature of CLIP due to the established dead zone enables the use of unique materials with a wide range of mechanical properties. This presentation will showcase the CLIP technology and provide a detailed picture of interactions between different resin and process parameters. New applications for 3D printing that span the micro- to macro-scale enabled by CLIP's combination of unique materials and part production speed will also be presented.

  6. Brain Computer Interfaces, a Review

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas-Alonso, Luis Fernando; Gomez-Gil, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a hardware and software communications system that permits cerebral activity alone to control computers or external devices. The immediate goal of BCI research is to provide communications capabilities to severely disabled people who are totally paralyzed or ‘locked in’ by neurological neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain stem stroke, or spinal cord injury. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of BCIs, looking at the different steps that form a standard BCI: signal acquisition, preprocessing or signal enhancement, feature extraction, classification and the control interface. We discuss their advantages, drawbacks, and latest advances, and we survey the numerous technologies reported in the scientific literature to design each step of a BCI. First, the review examines the neuroimaging modalities used in the signal acquisition step, each of which monitors a different functional brain activity such as electrical, magnetic or metabolic activity. Second, the review discusses different electrophysiological control signals that determine user intentions, which can be detected in brain activity. Third, the review includes some techniques used in the signal enhancement step to deal with the artifacts in the control signals and improve the performance. Fourth, the review studies some mathematic algorithms used in the feature extraction and classification steps which translate the information in the control signals into commands that operate a computer or other device. Finally, the review provides an overview of various BCI applications that control a range of devices. PMID:22438708

  7. Magnetoelectric effects in multiferroic fibrous composite with imperfect interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Pan, E.

    2007-12-01

    This paper investigates the magnetoelectroelastic responses of multiferroic fibrous composites with imperfectly bonded interface under longitudinal shear. The proposed imperfect interface model is a natural generalization of the shear lag (or the spring layer) model. By virtue of the complex variable method, we first consider the case where an isolated circular multiferroic fiber is imperfectly bonded to an infinite multiferroic matrix. Very concise expressions for the complex field potentials characterizing the magnetoelectroelastic fields inside and outside the circular fiber are obtained when the matrix is subjected to the remote uniform magnetoelectroelastic loading. The Mori-Tanaka mean-field method is then employed to derive the effective moduli of the multiferroic fibrous composite made of randomly distributed fibers reinforced to the matrix. Particularly we demonstrate that the interfacial imperfection in elasticity, electricity, and magnetism will always cause a significant reduction in the magnetoelectric coefficient of the BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibrous composite.

  8. Altobiobots: A Biorobotic Interface Platform for Interstellar Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altomare, A. C.

    Altobiobots (ABB) are a category of ideal nanorobots with specific capabilities which allow them to reside symbiotically within the nuclei of all nucleate cells in the human body. ABBs facilitate a biorobotic interface through genetic interaction with a host organism and wireless communication among external sources. ABBs create an intra-organism network of uniquely identifiable constituants by utilizing a recursive algorithm, AAnotation, to self-assign non-redundant alphanumerically compressed addresses. The primary context for the development of the ABB biorobotic interface platform is to facilitate interplanetary and interstellar space travel by liberating the capacity for human adaptability. Secondary goals include precise spatial and temporal control of gene expression, enhancement of cerebral brain functions, and disease intervention.

  9. Tailoring thermal interfaces with nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira

    Thermal interfaces are key to ensure the reliable performance of many semiconductor, energy and electronic systems. High thermal conductivity (k), low elastic modulus (E) interface materials are required to dissipate heat and relieve thermo-mechanical stresses. The aim of this thesis is to develop compliant, high k nanocomposite materials for thermal interface applications utilizing nanostructured networks. Realizing high k nanocomposites is a challenge because of difficulties in incorporating high fractions of uniformly dispersed nanofillers and countering low filler-matrix interfacial conductance, while retaining a low elastic modulus. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that these issues are obviated by using < 5 volume % sub-10-nm cold welded gold nanowire fillers to obtain an unprecedented 30-fold increase in polydimethylsiloxane thermal conductivity that is 6-fold higher than previously reported nanocomposites at low nanofiller loadings and exceeds theoretical predictions. The nanowire diameter and aspect ratio are key to obtain cold-welded networks that enhance k at low filler fractions, while fostering low E. Along with high k, tailoring high thermal contact conductance G c is crucial for many applications. This thesis reveals a critical correlation between the rheological behavior of a high k gold-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite and its thermal contact conductance with copper. At a critical filler fraction, an abrupt increase in the nanocomposite k is accompanied by a liquid-solid transition and a multifold decrease in Gc. These concurrent changes are attributed to nanowire percolation network formation and pre-cure polymer gelation that inhibits the formation of conformal void-free interfaces. These findings will be important for designing processing sequences to realize heterointerfaces with nanowire filled high k nanocomposite materials. Another important finding of this thesis is that nanowire networks can result in mechanical

  10. Development of a simulated smart pump interface.

    PubMed

    Elias, Beth L; Moss, Jacqueline A; Shih, Alan; Dillavou, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Medical device user interfaces are increasingly complex, resulting in a need for evaluation in clinicallyaccurate settings. Simulation of these interfaces can allow for evaluation, training, and use for research without the risk of harming patients and with a significant cost reduction over using the actual medical devices. This pilot project was phase 1 of a study to define and evaluate a methodology for development of simulated medical device interface technology to be used for education, device development, and research. Digital video and audio recordings of interface interactions were analyzed to develop a model of a smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface. This model was used to program a high-fidelity simulated smart intravenous medication infusion pump user interface on an inexpensive netbook platform. PMID:24189715

  11. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  12. Legal interfaces in telemedicine technology.

    PubMed

    Lott, C M

    1996-05-01

    Telemedicine, an emerging technology which seeks to use advanced telecommunications equipment to enhance medical care, is progressing rapidly in the Department of Defense health care delivery system. This paper recommends that a cautious, preventive law approach be simultaneously initiated to ensure that the technology does not abridge patients' rights to confidentiality or security of medical records, and that agreement on practice parameters be developed. Seven interfaces, in the areas of informed consent, physician liability, non-physician liability, costs, practice parameters, physician-patient relationships, and ergonomics, are discussed in the context of telemedicine. The author recommends that telemedicine pioneers include the legal community's early input in the application of telemedicine technology to help avoid needless litigation.

  13. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore » one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  14. Tactual interfaces: The human perceiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly complex human-machine interactions, such as in teleoperation or in virtual environments, have necessitated the optimal use of the human tactual channel for information transfer. This need leads to a demand for a basic understanding of how the human tactual system works, so that the tactual interface between the human and the machine can receive the command signals from the human, as well as display the information to the human, in a manner that appears natural to the human. The tactual information consists of two components: (1) contact information which specifies the nature of direct contact with the object; and (2) kinesthetic information which refers to the position and motion of the limbs. This paper is mostly concerned with contact information.

  15. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  16. Nonequilibrium interfaces in colloidal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bier, Markus; Arnold, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    The time-dependent structure, interfacial tension, and evaporation of an oversaturated colloid-rich (liquid) phase in contact with an undersaturated colloid-poor (vapor) phase of a colloidal dispersion is investigated theoretically during the early-stage relaxation, where the interface is relaxing towards a local equilibrium state while the bulk phases are still out of equilibrium. Since systems of this type exhibit a clear separation of colloidal and solvent relaxation time scales with typical times of interfacial tension measurements in between, they can be expected to be suitable for analogous experimental studies, too. The major finding is that, irrespective of how much the bulk phases differ from two-phase coexistence, the interfacial structure and the interfacial tension approach those at two-phase coexistence during the early-stage relaxation process. This is a surprising observation since it implies that the relaxation towards global equilibrium of the interface is not following but preceding that of the bulk phases. Scaling forms for the local chemical potential, the flux, and the dissipation rate exhibit qualitatively different leading order contributions depending on whether an equilibrium or a nonequilibrium system is considered. The degree of nonquilibrium between the bulk phases is found to not influence the qualitative relaxation behavior (i.e., the values of power-law exponents), but to determine the quantitative deviation of the observed quantities from their values at two-phase coexistence. Whereas the underlying dynamics differs between colloidal and molecular fluids, the behavior of quantities such as the interfacial tension approaching the equilibrium values during the early-stage relaxation process, during which nonequilibrium conditions of the bulk phases are not changed, can be expected to occur for both types of systems.

  17. Small computer interface to a stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Fred A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A Commodore VIC-20 computer has been interfaced with a stepper motor to provide an inexpensive stepper motor controller. Only eight transistors and two integrated circuits compose the interface. The software controls the parallel interface of the computer and provides the four phase drive signals for the motor. Optical sensors control the zeroing of the 12-inch turntable positioned by the controller. The computer calculates the position information and movement of the table and may be programmed in BASIC to execute automatic sequences.

  18. Moment of Fluid Interface Reconstruction with Filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Jemison, Matthew B.

    2012-08-15

    A moving system made up of multiple fluids (e.g. air and water) may be defined by an evolving interface with a changing topology. MOF uses a piecewise linear interface reconstruction to numerically model deforming boundaries. Given a volume fraction V and reference centroid x for a material in cell {Omega}, we seek to find an interface {Gamma} that exactly captures V and minimizes error in x. This differs from Volume of Fluid methods.

  19. Network interface unit design options performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis is presented of three design options for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) onboard Data Management System (DMS) Network Interface Unit (NIU). The NIU provides the interface from the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) local area network (LAN) to the DMS processing elements. The FDDI LAN provides the primary means for command and control and low and medium rate telemetry data transfers on board the SSF. The results of this analysis provide the basis for the implementation of the NIU.

  20. Electronic structure of Si/disilicide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Hideaki; Asano, Setsuro

    1990-01-01

    Using supercells, the electronic structures of Si(111)/CoSi2 and Si(111)/NiSi2 interfaces are studied by the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method (LMTO-ASA). Schottky barrier heights (SBH's) are strongly correlated with the interface atomic structures and are determined mainly by interface bonding states and the screening effect of the semiconductor. Metal-induced gap states (MIGS) are metal wave function tails caused by the Schottky barriers.

  1. Electronic structure of Si/disilicide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujitani, Hideaki; Asano, Setsuro

    1989-11-01

    Using supercells, the electronic structures of Si(111)/CoSi 2 and Si(111)/NiSi 2 interfaces are studied by the linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation method (LMTO-ASA). Schottky barrier heights (SBH's) are strongly correlated with the interface atomic structures and are determined mainly by interface bonding states and the screening effect of the semiconductor. Metal-induced gap states (MIGS) are metal wave function tails caused by the Schottky barriers.

  2. New User Interface Capabilities for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Latest technologies promise new control system User Interface (UI) features and greater interoperability of applications. New developments using Java and Eclipse aim to unify diverse control systems and make communication between applications seamless. Web based user interfaces can improve portability and remote access. Modern programming tools improve efficiency, support testing and facilitate shared code. This paper will discuss new developments aimed at improving control system interfaces and their development environment.

  3. Hydrogen evolution at liquid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hatay, Imren; Su, Bin; Li, Fei; Partovi-Nia, Raheleh; Vrubel, Heron; Hu, Xile; Ersoz, Mustafa; Girault, Hubert H

    2009-01-01

    Blowing bubbles: Hydrogen evolution by proton reduction with [(C(5)Me(5))(2)Fe] occurs at a soft interface between water and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The reaction proceeds by proton transfer assisted by [(C(5)Me(5))(2)Fe] across the water-DCE interface with subsequent proton reduction in DCE. The interface essentially acts as a proton pump, allowing hydrogen evolution by directly using the aqueous proton.

  4. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R.

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  5. Recent work on material interface reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Mosso, S.J.; Swartz, B.K.

    1997-12-31

    For the last 15 years, many Eulerian codes have relied on a series of piecewise linear interface reconstruction algorithms developed by David Youngs. In a typical Youngs` method, the material interfaces were reconstructed based upon nearly cell values of volume fractions of each material. The interfaces were locally represented by linear segments in two dimensions and by pieces of planes in three dimensions. The first step in such reconstruction was to locally approximate an interface normal. In Youngs` 3D method, a local gradient of a cell-volume-fraction function was estimated and taken to be the local interface normal. A linear interface was moved perpendicular to the now known normal until the mass behind it matched the material volume fraction for the cell in question. But for distorted or nonorthogonal meshes, the gradient normal estimate didn`t accurately match that of linear material interfaces. Moreover, curved material interfaces were also poorly represented. The authors will present some recent work in the computation of more accurate interface normals, without necessarily increasing stencil size. Their estimate of the normal is made using an iterative process that, given mass fractions for nearby cells of known but arbitrary variable density, converges in 3 or 4 passes in practice (and quadratically--like Newton`s method--in principle). The method reproduces a linear interface in both orthogonal and nonorthogonal meshes. The local linear approximation is generally 2nd-order accurate, with a 1st-order accurate normal for curved interfaces in both two and three dimensional polyhedral meshes. Recent work demonstrating the interface reconstruction for curved surfaces will /be discussed.

  6. Effect of planar dielectric interfaces on fluorescence emission and detection. Evanescent excitation with high-aperture collection.

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, T P; Thompson, N L

    1984-01-01

    We consider the effect of planar dielectric interfaces (e.g., solid/liquid) on the fluorescence emission of nearby probes. First, we derive an integral expression for the electric field radiated by an oscillating electric dipole when it is close to a dielectric interface. The electric field depends on the refractive indices of the interface, the orientation of the dipole, the distance from the dipole to the interface, and the position of observation. We numerically calculate the electric field intensity for a dipole on an interface, as a function of observation position. These results are applicable to fluorescent molecules excited by the evanescent field of a totally internally reflected laser beam and thus very close to a solid/liquid interface. Next, we derive an integral expression for the electric field radiated when a second dielectric interface is also close to the fluorescent molecule. We numerically calculate this intensity as observed through the second interface. These results are useful when the fluorescence is collected by a high-aperture microscope objective. Finally, we define and calculate a "dichroic factor," which describes the efficiency of collection, in the two-interface system, of polarized fluorescence. The limit when the first interface is removed is applicable for any high-aperture collection of polarized or unpolarized fluorescence. The limit when the second interface is removed has application in the collection of fluorescence with any aperture from molecules close to a dielectric interface. The results of this paper are required for the interpretation of order parameter measurements on fluorescent probes in supported phospholipid monolayers (Thompson, N.L., H. M. McConnell, and T. P. Burghardt, 1984, Biophys. J., 46:739-747). PMID:6518253

  7. On the launch vehicle payload interface response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Wada, B. K.; Garba, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which an estimate of the launch vehicle/payload interface response is derived from the interface responses obtained from missions with the identical launch vehicle but different payloads. This method requires knowledge of the launch vehicle eigenvalues, interface modal displacements, and the dynamic characteristics of the payloads. No other launch vehicle information is required. The organization responsible for the payload is able to perform loads and responses analysis resulting from a payload change without interfacing with the launch vehicle organization.

  8. A Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm for accurate tracking of two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwakar, S. V.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2009-12-01

    A new Quadratic Spline based Interface (QUASI) reconstruction algorithm is presented which provides an accurate and continuous representation of the interface in a multiphase domain and facilitates the direct estimation of local interfacial curvature. The fluid interface in each of the mixed cells is represented by piecewise parabolic curves and an initial discontinuous PLIC approximation of the interface is progressively converted into a smooth quadratic spline made of these parabolic curves. The conversion is achieved by a sequence of predictor-corrector operations enforcing function ( C0) and derivative ( C1) continuity at the cell boundaries using simple analytical expressions for the continuity requirements. The efficacy and accuracy of the current algorithm has been demonstrated using standard test cases involving reconstruction of known static interface shapes and dynamically evolving interfaces in prescribed flow situations. These benchmark studies illustrate that the present algorithm performs excellently as compared to the other interface reconstruction methods available in literature. Quadratic rate of error reduction with respect to grid size has been observed in all the cases with curved interface shapes; only in situations where the interface geometry is primarily flat, the rate of convergence becomes linear with the mesh size. The flow algorithm implemented in the current work is designed to accurately balance the pressure gradients with the surface tension force at any location. As a consequence, it is able to minimize spurious flow currents arising from imperfect normal stress balance at the interface. This has been demonstrated through the standard test problem of an inviscid droplet placed in a quiescent medium. Finally, the direct curvature estimation ability of the current algorithm is illustrated through the coupled multiphase flow problem of a deformable air bubble rising through a column of water.

  9. Charge injection and recombination at the metal organic interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. Campbell; Malliaras, George G.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the mechanism of charge injection from metals into amorphous organic semiconductors. By first treating charge recombination at the interface as a hopping process in the image potential, we obtain an expression for the surface recombination rate. The principle of detailed balance is then used to determine the injection current. This simple approach yields the effective Richardson constant for injection from metal to organic, and provides a means to derive the electric field dependence of thermionic injection. The result for the net current, injected minus recombination, is in agreement with a more exact treatment of the drift-diffusion equation.

  10. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. Corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces. PMID:26611639

  11. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energiesmore » of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.« less

  12. Structural modifications due to interface chemistry at metal-nitride interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, S. K.; Shao, S.; Wang, J.; Liu, X. -Y.

    2015-11-27

    Based on accurate first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, an unusual phenomenon of interfacial structural modifications, due to the interface chemistry influence is identified at two metal-nitride interfaces with strong metal-nitrogen affinity, Al/TiN {111} and Al/VN {111} interfaces. It is shown that at such interfaces, a faulted stacking structure is energetically preferred on the Al side of the interface. And both intrinsic and extrinsic stacking fault energies in the vicinity Al layers are negligibly small. However, such phenomenon does not occur in Pt/TiN and Pt/VN interfaces because of the weak Pt-N affinity. As a result, corresponding to structural energies of metal-nitride interfaces, the linear elasticity analysis predicts characteristics of interfacial misfit dislocations at metal-nitride interfaces.

  13. Accounting Data to Web Interface Using PERL

    SciTech Connect

    Hargeaves, C

    2001-08-13

    This document will explain the process to create a web interface for the accounting information generated by the High Performance Storage Systems (HPSS) accounting report feature. The accounting report contains useful data but it is not easily accessed in a meaningful way. The accounting report is the only way to see summarized storage usage information. The first step is to take the accounting data, make it meaningful and store the modified data in persistent databases. The second step is to generate the various user interfaces, HTML pages, that will be used to access the data. The third step is to transfer all required files to the web server. The web pages pass parameters to Common Gateway Interface (CGI) scripts that generate dynamic web pages and graphs. The end result is a web page with specific information presented in text with or without graphs. The accounting report has a specific format that allows the use of regular expressions to verify if a line is storage data. Each storage data line is stored in a detailed database file with a name that includes the run date. The detailed database is used to create a summarized database file that also uses run date in its name. The summarized database is used to create the group.html web page that includes a list of all storage users. Scripts that query the database folder to build a list of available databases generate two additional web pages. A master script that is run monthly as part of a cron job, after the accounting report has completed, manages all of these individual scripts. All scripts are written in the PERL programming language. Whenever possible data manipulation scripts are written as filters. All scripts are written to be single source, which means they will function properly on both the open and closed networks at LLNL. The master script handles the command line inputs for all scripts, file transfers to the web server and records run information in a log file. The rest of the scripts manipulate the

  14. Who's Expressing in "Expressive Writing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Janine

    In an attempt to understand what expressive writing means to themselves and to their students, teachers should explore and reflect on various questions regarding expressive writing theories and practices. For many, self-expression is the basis of all serious writing and an important stage in any act of learning, so it is essential to uncover the…

  15. Bell-Plesset effects for an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P

    2005-12-20

    A Plesset-type treatment [J. Appl. Phys. 25, 96 (1954)] is used to assess the effects of contiguous density gradients at an accelerating spherical classical interface on Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset perturbation growth. Analytic expressions are obtained that describe enhanced Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth from contiguous density gradients aligned with the acceleration and which increase the effective Atwood number of the perturbed interface. A new pathway for geometric amplification of surface perturbations on an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients is identified. A resonance condition between the density-gradient scalelength and the radius of the interface is also predicted based on a linearized analysis of Bernoulli's equation, potentially leading to enhanced perturbation growth. Comparison of the analytic treatment with detailed two-dimensional single-mode growth-factor simulations shows good agreement for low-mode numbers where the effects of spherical geometry are most manifested.

  16. Momentum transfer at the interface between a porous medium and a pure fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Howard; Zhang, Songpeng

    2015-11-01

    We examine the flow parallel to the interface between a porous medium and a liquid, focusing on the boundary conditions at the interface. When Darcy's law is used to describe the momentum transport in the porous layer, the classic Beavers-Joseph condition relates the shear rate and the slip velocity at the interface with a slip parameter that depends on the structure of the porous surface. When the Brinkman equation is used, the averaged velocity is continuous at the interface, however the fluid shear stress across the interface commonly experiences a jump. This shear stress jump can be expressed in terms of the slip velocity at the interface divided by a length characterized by the square root of the permeability, and a dimensionless stress jump coefficient. In this work, we study the momentum transfer from the clear fluid onto the solid structure at the interface, and proposed a stress partition parameter that characterizes the stress transfer from the clear fluid to the fluid (and solid) phase of the porous medium. Simple models are developed to formulate this stress partition parameter for porous media that are brush-like, long fibers, and random, respectively. Our model predictions are compared with numerical and experimental results in the literature.

  17. Interfacing the expert: Characteristics and requirements for the user interface in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Because expert systems deal with new sets of problems presenting unique interface requirements, special issues requiring special attention are presented to user interface designers. External knowledge representation (how knowdedge is represented across the user interface), modes of user-system interdependence (advisory, cooperative, and autonomous), and management of uncertainty (deciding what actions to take or recommend based on incomplete evidence) are discussed.

  18. A Media Rich Interface vs. a Simple Interface for Interactive Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, Anders; Lenman, Soren

    This paper compares and discusses the results from two user studies of interactive television (ITV) with a total of 50 subjects. The interfaces of two different ITV information services were studied: one with a place-like interface rich in graphics, animation and audio, and the other a simple interface with text and still images. In the first…

  19. Hydrodynamics of Particles at an Oil-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Dani, Archit; Keiser, Geoff; Yeganeh, Mohsen; Maldarelli, Charles

    2015-12-15

    This study is a theoretical and experimental investigation of the hydrodynamics of the mutual approach of two floating spherical particles moving along an oil-water interface. An analytical expression is obtained for the (inertialess) Stokes drag for an isolated particle translating on a flat interface as a function of the immersion depth into the water phase for the case in which the viscosity of the oil is much larger than that of the water. An approximation for the viscous drag due to the mutual approach of identical spheres is formulated as the product of the isolated drag multiplied by the resistance of approaching spheres in an infinite medium. Experiments are undertaken on the capillary attraction of large, millimeter-sized Teflon spheres floating at the interface between a very viscous oil and water. With the use of image visualization and particle tracking, the separation distance as a function of time [[Formula: see text](t)] is measured along with the immersion depth and predicted by setting the capillary attraction force equal to the viscous drag resistance. The excellent agreement validates the approximating formula. PMID:26488685

  20. Visually Designing the Computer-Learner Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Leslie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses elements involved in the visual design of the computer-learner interface. Topics discussed include the need for consistency in screen layout; information representation, including accuracy in images and visual cuing strategies; and menu selection interfaces, or command representations, including their placement on the screen. (11…

  1. Study of Behavior of Sterols at Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, P. D.; Knight, J. C.; Szczepanik, P. A.

    1968-01-01

    Behavior of sterols and sterol acetates on various types of interfaces indicates that the function of a sterol depends upon a surface orientation and surface energy of the interface. Column-chromatographic techniques determine the retention volume of various sterols under standard conditions.

  2. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  3. Towards an Educational SuperInterface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Diana, Italo P. F.; White, T. N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an educational computer network, SuperInterface, that could be used for telestudy for university education. Topics discussed include computer-supported collaborative work; computer-based learning; multimedia databases, or electronic books; human-machine interfaces; hardware, software, and groupware; learners; teachers; organizations and…

  4. Graphics-System Color-Code Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulppo, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit originally developed for a flight simulator interfaces a computer graphics system with color monitor. Subsystem is intended for particular display computer (AGT-130, ADAGE Graphics Terminal) and specific color monitor (beam penetration tube--Penetron). Store-and-transmit channel is one of five in graphics/color-monitor interface. Adding 5-bit color code to existing graphics programs requires minimal programing effort.

  5. Formalisms for user interface specification and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auernheimer, Brent J.

    1989-01-01

    The application of formal methods to the specification and design of human-computer interfaces is described. A broad outline of human-computer interface problems, a description of the field of cognitive engineering and two relevant research results, the appropriateness of formal specification techniques, and potential NASA application areas are described.

  6. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  7. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface.

    PubMed

    Allstadt, Andrew J; Newman, Jonathan A; Walter, Jonathan A; Korniss, G; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader's lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover's growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  8. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  9. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  10. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  12. 47 CFR 76.1903 - Interfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interfaces. 76.1903 Section 76.1903 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1903 Interfaces. A covered entity shall not attach or...

  13. Interfaces for Distributed Systems of Information Servers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Brewster; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes two systems--Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) and Rosebud--that provide protocol-based mechanisms for accessing remote full-text information servers. Design constraints, human interface design, and implementation are examined for five interfaces to these systems developed to run on the Macintosh or Unix terminals. Sample screen…

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of polymer interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.R. |

    1993-11-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical processes can be used as effective surface probes. They can provide some unique opportunities for studies of polymer interfaces. Here the author describes two examples to illustrate the potential of the techniques. One is on the formation of metal/polymer interfaces. The other is on the alignment of liquid crystal films by mechanically rubbed polymer surfaces.

  15. Intelligent user interface concept for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Edward; Donaldson, Cameron; Bailey, Elizabeth; Gilroy, Kathleen

    1986-01-01

    The space station computing system must interface with a wide variety of users, from highly skilled operations personnel to payload specialists from all over the world. The interface must accommodate a wide variety of operations from the space platform, ground control centers and from remote sites. As a result, there is a need for a robust, highly configurable and portable user interface that can accommodate the various space station missions. The concept of an intelligent user interface executive, written in Ada, that would support a number of advanced human interaction techniques, such as windowing, icons, color graphics, animation, and natural language processing is presented. The user interface would provide intelligent interaction by understanding the various user roles, the operations and mission, the current state of the environment and the current working context of the users. In addition, the intelligent user interface executive must be supported by a set of tools that would allow the executive to be easily configured and to allow rapid prototyping of proposed user dialogs. This capability would allow human engineering specialists acting in the role of dialog authors to define and validate various user scenarios. The set of tools required to support development of this intelligent human interface capability is discussed and the prototyping and validation efforts required for development of the Space Station's user interface are outlined.

  16. A Diffuse Interface Model with Immiscibility Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Arpit; Freund, Jonathan B.; Pantano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results. PMID:24058207

  17. Pursuing Scalability for hypre's Conceptual Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Falgout, R D; Jones, J E; Yang, U M

    2004-07-21

    The software library hypre provides high performance preconditioners and solvers for the solution of large, sparse linear systems on massively parallel computers as well as conceptual interfaces that allow users to access the library in the way they naturally think about their problems. These interfaces include a stencil-based structured interface (Struct); a semi-structured interface (semiStruct), which is appropriate for applications that are mostly structured, e.g. block structured grids, composite grids in structured adaptive mesh refinement applications, and overset grids; a finite element interface (FEI) for unstructured problems, as well as a conventional linear-algebraic interface (IJ). It is extremely important to provide an efficient, scalable implementation of these interfaces in order to support the scalable solvers of the library, especially when using tens of thousands of processors. This paper describes the data structures, parallel implementation and resulting performance of the IJ, Struct and semiStruct interfaces. It investigates their scalability, presents successes as well as pitfalls of some of the approaches and suggests ways of dealing with them.

  18. An Architectural Experience for Interface Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gong, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of human-computer interface design was brought to the foreground with the emergence of the personal computer, the increasing complexity of electronic systems, and the need to accommodate the human operator in these systems. With each new technological generation discovering the interface design problems of its own technologies, initial…

  19. IVOA Support Interfaces Version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Matthew; Rixon, Guy; Grid andWeb Services Working Group; Graham, Matthew; Rixon, Guy

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the minimum interface that a (SOAP- or REST-based) web service requires to participate in the IVOA. Note that this is not required of standard VO services developed prior to this specification, although uptake is strongly encouraged on any subsequent revision. All new standard VO services, however, must feature a VOSI-compliant interface.

  20. Hypertext Interface Design and Structural Knowledge Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koneman, Philip A.; Jonassen, David H.

    Hypertext is well-suited for educational applications where open learning and knowledge exploration is desired. In such applications, principles of good hypertext interface design should be employed to avoid navigational problems so as to maximize learning. Interface design, however, may also directly enhance acquisition of a particular knowledge…

  1. Interface Design Principles for Interactive Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feifer, Richard G.; Tazbaz, Denise

    1997-01-01

    Good human-computer interfaces are essential in multimedia. Discusses methods of organizing information: non-linear versus linear, interactive, meaningful choices, and chunking; principles of interface design: knowing the users and offering options that are distinct, non-ambiguous, from user point of view, and in user terms; and interface…

  2. Ocular attention-sensing interface system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaklad, Allen; Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Stokes, James M.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop an innovative human-computer interface based on eye movement and voice control. By eliminating a manual interface (keyboard, joystick, etc.), OASIS provides a control mechanism that is natural, efficient, accurate, and low in workload.

  3. Student Preferences toward Microcomputer User Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil I.; Reaves, Rita R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that was conducted to determine students' preferences toward Graphical User Interface versus Command Line Interface during computer-assisted instruction. Previous experience, comfort level, performance scores, and student attitudes are examined and compared, and the computer use survey is appended. (Contains 13…

  4. Spatial Competition: Roughening of an Experimental Interface

    PubMed Central

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Newman, Jonathan A.; Walter, Jonathan A.; Korniss, G.; Caraco, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Limited dispersal distance generates spatial aggregation. Intraspecific interactions are then concentrated within clusters, and between-species interactions occur near cluster boundaries. Spread of a locally dispersing invader can become motion of an interface between the invading and resident species, and spatial competition will produce variation in the extent of invasive advance along the interface. Kinetic roughening theory offers a framework for quantifying the development of these fluctuations, which may structure the interface as a self-affine fractal, and so induce a series of temporal and spatial scaling relationships. For most clonal plants, advance should become spatially correlated along the interface, and width of the interface (where invader and resident compete directly) should increase as a power function of time. Once roughening equilibrates, interface width and the relative location of the most advanced invader should each scale with interface length. We tested these predictions by letting white clover (Trifolium repens) invade ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The spatial correlation of clover growth developed as anticipated by kinetic roughening theory, and both interface width and the most advanced invader’s lead scaled with front length. However, the scaling exponents differed from those predicted by recent simulation studies, likely due to clover’s growth morphology. PMID:27465518

  5. Inkjet color-printer control interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.; Marshall, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Special purpose interface permits computer-driven control of inkjet printers. Inkjet printers are answer to problem of high-speed peripheral output devices for computer systems. Control interface was developed to provide high-resolution color-classification maps quickly and economically from multispectral data.

  6. KNOWBOT; An adaptive data base interface

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, A.S.; Koen, B.U. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on an adaptive interface KNOWBOT designed to solve some of the problems that face the users of large centralized data bases. The interface applies the neural network approach to information retrieval from a data base. The data base is a subset of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System. The interface KNOWBOT preempts an existing data base interface and works in conjunction with it. By design, KNOWBOT starts as a tabula rasa but acquires knowledge through its interactions with the user and the data base. The interface uses its gained knowledge to personalize the data base retrieval process and to induce new queries. The interface also forgets the information that is no longer needed by the user. These self-organizing features of the interface reduce the scope of the data base to the subsets that are highly relevant to the user needs. A proof-of-principal version of this interface has been implemented in Common LISP on a Texas Instruments Explorer I workstation. Experiments with KNOWBOT have been successful in demonstrating the robustness of the model especially with induction and self-organization. This paper describes the design of KNOWBOT and presents some of the experimental results.

  7. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  8. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively. PMID:26904105

  9. A Natural Language Interface Concordant with a Knowledge Base.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-Jin; Park, Seong-Bae; Park, Se-Young

    2016-01-01

    The discordance between expressions interpretable by a natural language interface (NLI) system and those answerable by a knowledge base is a critical problem in the field of NLIs. In order to solve this discordance problem, this paper proposes a method to translate natural language questions into formal queries that can be generated from a graph-based knowledge base. The proposed method considers a subgraph of a knowledge base as a formal query. Thus, all formal queries corresponding to a concept or a predicate in the knowledge base can be generated prior to query time and all possible natural language expressions corresponding to each formal query can also be collected in advance. A natural language expression has a one-to-one mapping with a formal query. Hence, a natural language question is translated into a formal query by matching the question with the most appropriate natural language expression. If the confidence of this matching is not sufficiently high the proposed method rejects the question and does not answer it. Multipredicate queries are processed by regarding them as a set of collected expressions. The experimental results show that the proposed method thoroughly handles answerable questions from the knowledge base and rejects unanswerable ones effectively.

  10. Effect of the interface resistance in non-local Hanle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Villamor, Estitxu; Hueso, Luis E.; Casanova, Fèlix

    2015-06-14

    We use lateral spin valves with varying interface resistance to measure non-local Hanle effect in order to extract the spin-diffusion length of the non-magnetic channel. A general expression that describes spin injection and transport, taking into account the influence of the interface resistance, is used to fit our results. Whereas the fitted spin-diffusion length value is in agreement with the one obtained from standard non-local measurements in the case of a finite interface resistance, in the case of transparent contacts a clear disagreement is observed. The use of a corrected expression, recently proposed to account for the anisotropy of the spin absorption at the ferromagnetic electrodes, still yields a deviation of the fitted spin-diffusion length which increases for shorter channel distances. This deviation shows how sensitive the non-local Hanle fittings are, evidencing the complexity of obtaining spin transport information from such type of measurements.

  11. Interfacing Topological Insulators with Ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardella, Anthony

    In topological insulators, the surface states arise from strong spin-orbit coupling while the degeneracy of the Dirac point is protected by time reversal symmetry. Introducing magnetism in proximity to the surface states breaks this symmetry, destroying the non-trivial Berry phase at the Dirac point and leads to a hedgehog spin texture near the newly opened magnetic gap. This symmetry broken phase leads to a host of unusual physics, such as the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. In this talk, we discuss the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of such magnetically interfaced and magnetically doped topological insulators. Such materials often suffer from structural defects and interfacial layers, as well as from degradation during device fabrication. In particular, it is shown that Cr doped (Bi1-x,Sbx)2Te3 can exhibit perfect Hall quantization at low temperatures despite these defects. However, the magnetic ordering of this material was found to be quite unusual, displaying a super-paramagnetic like character, perhaps reflecting this disorder. Such observations highlight the surprising behavior of such broken symmetry phases in topological materials. This work was performed in collaboration with A. Kandala, M. Liu, W. Wang, N.P. Ong, C.-X. Liu, and N. Samarth, in addition to the authors of the references cited. This work was supported by funding from ARO/MURI, DARPA and ONR.

  12. Vision as a user interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2011-03-01

    The egg-rolling behavior of the graylag goose is an often quoted example of a fixed-action pattern. The bird will even attempt to roll a brick back to its nest! Despite excellent visual acuity it apparently takes a brick for an egg." Evolution optimizes utility, not veridicality. Yet textbooks take it for a fact that human vision evolved so as to approach veridical perception. How do humans manage to dodge the laws of evolution? I will show that they don't, but that human vision is an idiosyncratic user interface. By way of an example I consider the case of pictorial perception. Gleaning information from still images is an important human ability and is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. I will discuss a number of instances of extreme non-veridicality and huge inter-observer variability. Despite their importance in applications (information dissemination, personnel selection,...) such huge effects have remained undocumented in the literature, although they can be traced to artistic conventions. The reason appears to be that conventional psychophysics-by design-fails to address the qualitative, that is the meaningful, aspects of visual awareness whereas this is the very target of the visual arts.

  13. Molecular dynamics of interface rupture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1993-01-01

    Several situations have been studied in which a fluid-vapor or fluid-fluid interface ruptures, using molecular dynamics simulations of 3000 to 20,000 Lennard-Jones molecules in three dimensions. The cases studied are the Rayleigh instability of a liquid thread, the burst of a liquid drop immersed in a second liquid undergoing shear, and the rupture of a liquid sheet in an extensional flow. The late stages of the rupture process involve the gradual withdrawal of molecules from a thinning neck, or the appearance and growth of holes in a sheet. In all cases, it is found that despite the small size of the systems studied, tens of angstroms, the dynamics is in at least qualitative accord with the behavior expected from continuum calculations, and in some cases the agreement is to within tens of percent. Remarkably, this agreement occurs even though the Eulerian velocity and stress fields are essentially unmeasurable - dominated by thermal noise. The limitations and prospects for such molecular simulation techniques are assessed.

  14. Handheld interface for miniature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sunny; Samson, Scott A.; Farmer, Andrew; Smith, Matthew C.; Fries, David; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2005-02-01

    Miniaturization of laboratory sensors has been enabled by continued evolution of technology. Field portable systems are often desired, because they reduce sample handling, provide rapid feedback capability, and enhance convenience. Fieldable sensor systems should include a method for initiating the analysis, storing and displaying the results, while consuming minimal power and being compact and portable. Low cost will allow widespread usage of these systems. In this paper, we discuss a reconfigurable Personal Data Assistant (PDA) based control and data collection system for use with miniature sensors. The system is based on the Handspring visor PDA and a custom designed motherboard, which connects directly to the PDA microprocessor. The PDA provides a convenient and low cost graphical user interface, moderate processing capability, and integrated battery power. The low power motherboard provides the voltage levels, data collection, and input/output (I/O) capabilities required by many MEMS and miniature sensors. These capabilities are relayed to connectors, where an application specific daughterboard is attached. In this paper, two applications are demonstrated. First, a handheld nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection sensor consisting of a heated and optical fluorescence detection system is discussed. Second, an electrostatically actuated MEMS micro mirror controller is realized.

  15. Elaborating transition interface sampling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erp, Titus S. van . E-mail: bolhuis@science.uva.nl

    2005-05-01

    We review two recently developed efficient methods for calculating rate constants of processes dominated by rare events in high-dimensional complex systems. The first is transition interface sampling (TIS), based on the measurement of effective fluxes through hypersurfaces in phase space. TIS improves efficiency with respect to standard transition path sampling (TPS) rate constant techniques, because it allows a variable path length and is less sensitive to recrossings. The second method is the partial path version of TIS. Developed for diffusive processes, it exploits the loss of long time correlation. We discuss the relation between the new techniques and the standard reactive flux methods in detail. Path sampling algorithms can suffer from ergodicity problems, and we introduce several new techniques to alleviate these problems, notably path swapping, stochastic configurational bias Monte Carlo shooting moves and order-parameter free path sampling. In addition, we give algorithms to calculate other interesting properties from path ensembles besides rate constants, such as activation energies and reaction mechanisms.

  16. High temperature ceramic interface study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic SiC and Si3N4 are susceptible to contact stress damage at static and sliding interfaces. Transformation-toughened zirconia (TTZ) was evaluated under sliding contact conditions to determine if the higher material fracture toughness would reduce the susceptibility to contact stress damage. Contact stress tests were conducted on four commercially available TTZ materials at normal loads ranging from 0.455 to 22.7 kg (1 to 50 pounds) at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1204C (2200 F). Static and dynamic friction were measured as a function of temperature. Flexural strength measurements after these tests determined that the contact stress exposure did not reduce the strength of TTZ at contact loads of 0.455, 4.55, and 11.3 kg (1, 10, and 25 pounds). Prior testing with the lower toughness SiC and Si3N4 materials resulted in a substantial strength reduction at loads of only 4.55 and 11.3 kg (10 and 25 pounds). An increase in material toughness appears to improve ceramic material resistance to contact stress damage. Baseline material flexure strength was established and the stress rupture capability of TTZ was evaluated. Stress rupture tests determined that TTZ materials are susceptible to deformation due to creep and that aging of TTZ materials at elevated temperatures results in a reduction of material strength.

  17. Visual Interface for Materials Simulations

    2004-08-01

    VIMES (Visual Inteface for Materials Simulations) is a graphical user interface (GUI) for pre- and post-processing alomistic materials science calculations. The code includes tools for building and visualizing simple crystals, supercells, and surfaces, as well as tools for managing and modifying the input to Sandia materials simulations codes such as Quest (Peter Schultz, SNL 9235) and Towhee (Marcus Martin, SNL 9235). It is often useful to have a graphical interlace to construct input for materialsmore » simulations codes and to analyze the output of these programs. VIMES has been designed not only to build and visualize different materials systems, but also to allow several Sandia codes to be easier to use and analyze. Furthermore. VIMES has been designed to be reasonably easy to extend to new materials programs. We anticipate that users of Sandia materials simulations codes will use VIMCS to simplify the submission and analysis of these simulations. VIMES uses standard OpenGL graphics (as implemented in the Python programming language) to display the molecules. The algorithms used to rotate, zoom, and pan molecules are all standard applications using the OpenGL libraries. VIMES uses the Marching Cubes algorithm for isosurfacing 3D data such as molecular orbitals or electron densities around the molecules.« less

  18. Chapter 21: Programmatic Interfaces - STILTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, M. J.

    STILTS is the Starlink Tables Infrastructure Library Tool Set developed by Mark Taylor of the former Starlink Project. STILTS is a command-line tool (see the NVOSS_HOME/bin/stilts command) providing access to the same functionality driving the TOPCAT application and can be run using either the STILTS-specific jar file, or the more general TOPCAT jar file (both are available in the NVOSS_HOME/java/lib directory and are included in the default software environment classpath). The heart of both STILTS and TOPCAT is the STIL Java library. STIL is designed to efficiently handle the input, output and processing of very large tabular datasets and the STILTS task interface makes it an ideal tool for the scripting environment. Multiple formats are supported (including FITS Binary Tables, VOTable, CSV, SQL databases and ASCII, amongst others) and while some tools will generically handle all supported formats, others are specific to the VOTable format. Converting a VOTable to a more script-friendly format is the first thing most users will encounter, but there are many other useful tools as well.

  19. Thermal conductance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhenbin; Cahill, David G; Braun, Paul V

    2006-05-12

    Using time-domain thermoreflectance, we have measured the transport of thermally excited vibrational energy across planar interfaces between water and solids that have been chemically functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The Kapitza length--i.e., the thermal conductivity of water divided by the thermal conductance per unit area of the interface--is analogous to the "slip length" for water flowing tangentially past a solid surface. We find that the Kapitza length at hydrophobic interfaces (10-12 nm) is a factor of 2-3 larger than the Kapitza length at hydrophilic interfaces (3-6 nm). If a vapor layer is present at the hydrophobic interface, and this vapor layer has a thermal conductivity that is comparable to bulk water vapor, then our experimental results constrain the thickness of the vapor layer to be less than 0.25 nm.

  20. Gestures in an Intelligent User Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikkert, Wim; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    In this chapter we investigated which hand gestures are intuitive to control a large display multimedia interface from a user's perspective. Over the course of two sequential user evaluations, we defined a simple gesture set that allows users to fully control a large display multimedia interface, intuitively. First, we evaluated numerous gesture possibilities for a set of commands that can be issued to the interface. These gestures were selected from literature, science fiction movies, and a previous exploratory study. Second, we implemented a working prototype with which the users could interact with both hands and the preferred hand gestures with 2D and 3D visualizations of biochemical structures. We found that the gestures are influenced to significant extent by the fast paced developments in multimedia interfaces such as the Apple iPhone and the Nintendo Wii and to no lesser degree by decades of experience with the more traditional WIMP-based interfaces.

  1. Integrating interface slicing into software engineering processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Jon

    1993-01-01

    Interface slicing is a tool which was developed to facilitate software engineering. As previously presented, it was described in terms of its techniques and mechanisms. The integration of interface slicing into specific software engineering activities is considered by discussing a number of potential applications of interface slicing. The applications discussed specifically address the problems, issues, or concerns raised in a previous project. Because a complete interface slicer is still under development, these applications must be phrased in future tenses. Nonetheless, the interface slicing techniques which were presented can be implemented using current compiler and static analysis technology. Whether implemented as a standalone tool or as a module in an integrated development or reverse engineering environment, they require analysis no more complex than that required for current system development environments. By contrast, conventional slicing is a methodology which, while showing much promise and intuitive appeal, has yet to be fully implemented in a production language environment despite 12 years of development.

  2. Dielectric constant of water in the interface.

    PubMed

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-01

    We define the dielectric constant (susceptibility) that should enter the Maxwell boundary value problem when applied to microscopic dielectric interfaces polarized by external fields. The dielectric constant (susceptibility) of the interface is defined by exact linear-response equations involving correlations of statistically fluctuating interface polarization and the Coulomb interaction energy of external charges with the dielectric. The theory is applied to the interface between water and spherical solutes of altering size studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The effective dielectric constant of interfacial water is found to be significantly lower than its bulk value, and it also depends on the solute size. For TIP3P water used in MD simulations, the interface dielectric constant changes from 9 to 4 when the solute radius is increased from ∼5 to 18 Å.

  3. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  4. Crack stability and branching at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Robb

    1995-11-01

    The various events that occur at a crack on an interface are explored, and described in terms of a simple graphical construction called the crack stability diagram. For simple Griffith cleavage in a homogeneous material, the stability diagram is a sector of a circle in the space of stress intensity factors, KI/KII. The Griffith circle is limited in both positive and negative KII directions by nonblunting dislocation emission on the cleavage plane. For a branching plane inclined at an angle to the original cleavage plane, both cleavage and emission (which blunts the crack) can be described as a balance between an elastic driving force and a lattice resistance for the event. We use an analytic expression obtained by Cotterell and Rice for cleavage, and show that it is an excellent approximation, but show that the lattice resistance includes a cornering resistance, in addition to the standard surface energy in the final cleavage criterion. Our discussion of the lattaice resistance is derived from simulations in two-dimensional hexagonal lattices with UBER force laws with a variety of shapes. Both branching cleavage and blunting emission can be described in terms of a stability diagram in the space of the remote stress intensity factors, and the competition between events on the initial cleavage plane and those on the branching plane can be described by overlays of the two appropriate stability diagrams. The popular criterion that kII=0 on the branching plane is explored for lattices and found to fail significantly, because the lattice stabilizes cleavage by the anisotropy of the surface energy. Also, in the lattice, dislocation emission must must always be considered as an alternative competing event to branching.

  5. Symbiotic Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecky, Robert; Herhut, Stephan; Scholz, Sven-Bodo

    We introduce symbiotic expressions, a method for algebraic simplification within a compiler, in lieu of an SMT solver, such as Yices or the Omega Calculator. Symbiotic expressions are compiler-generated expressions, temporarily injected into a program's abstract syntax tree (AST). The compiler's normal optimizations interpret and simplify those expressions, making their results available for the compiler to use as a basis for decisions about further optimization of the source program. The expressions are symbiotic, in the sense that both parties benefit: an optimization benefits, by using the compiler itself to simplify expressions that have been attached, lamprey-like, to the AST by the optimization; the program being compiled benefits, from improved run-time in both serial and parallel environments.

  6. Geometrical properties of turbulent premixed flames and other corrugated interfaces.

    PubMed

    Thiesset, F; Maurice, G; Halter, F; Mazellier, N; Chauveau, C; Gökalp, I

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the geometrical properties of turbulent flame fronts and other interfaces. Toward that end, we use an original tool based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), which is applied to the interface spatial coordinates. The focus is mainly on the degree of roughness of the flame front, which is quantified through the scale dependence of its coverage arclength. POD is first validated by comparing with the caliper technique. Fractal characteristics are extracted in an unambiguous fashion using a parametric expression which appears to be impressively well suited for representing Richardson plots. Then it is shown that, for the range of Reynolds numbers investigated here, the scale-by-scale contribution to the arclength does not comply with scale similarity, irrespectively of the type of similarity which is invoked. The finite ratios between large and small scales, referred to as finite Reynolds number effects, are likely to explain this observation. In this context, the Reynolds number that ought to be achieved for a proper inertial range to be discernible, and for scale similarity to be likely to apply, is calculated. Fractal characteristics of flame folding are compared to available predictions. It is confirmed that the inner cutoff satisfactorily correlates with the Kolmogorov scale while the outer cutoff appears to be proportional to the integral length scale. However, the scaling for the fractal dimension is much less obvious. It is argued that much higher Reynolds numbers have to be reached for drawing firm statements about the evolution (or constancy) of the fractal dimension with respect to flame and flow parameters. Finally, a heuristic phenomenology of corrugated interfaces is highlighted. The degree of generality of the latter phenomenology is confirmed by comparing the folding of different interfaces including a turbulent-nonturbulent interface, a liquid jet destabilized by a surrounding air jet, a cavitating flow, and an isoscalar

  7. Osteochondral interface generation by rabbit bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts coculture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelei; Teh, Thomas Kok Hiong; Ravi, Sujata; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2012-09-01

    Physiological osteochondral interface regeneration is a significant challenge. This study aims to investigate the effect of the coculture of chondrogenic rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) with rabbit osteoblasts in a specially designed two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) co-interface culture to develop the intermediate osteochondral region in vitro. The 2D-3D coculture system was set up by first independently culturing chondrogenic rBMSCs on a scaffold and osteoblasts in cell culture plates, and subsequently placed in contact and cocultured. As control, samples not cocultured with osteoblasts were used. The regulatory effects exerted by osteoblasts on chondrogenic rBMSCs were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To study the effect of coculture on cells located in different parts of the scaffold, samples were separated into two parts and significantly different gene expression patterns were found between them. In comparison with the control group, a significant moderate downregulation of chondrogenic marker genes, such as Collagen II and Aggrecan was observed. However, the Sox-9 and Collagen I expression increased. More importantly, chondrogenic rBMSCs in the coculture system were shown to form the osteochondral interface layer by expressing calcified cartilage zone specific extracellular matrix marker Collagen X and the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker MMP-13, which were not observed in the control group. Specifically, only the chondrogenic rBMSC layer in contact with the osteoblasts expressed Collagen X and MMP-13, indicating the positive influence of the coculture upon interface formation. Biochemical analyses, histology results, and immunohistochemical staining further supported this observation. In conclusion, this study revealed that specific regulatory stimulations from osteoblasts in the 2D-3D interface coculture system could induce the formation of ostochondral interface for the purpose of osteochondral tissue engineering. PMID

  8. PCI: A PATRAN-NASTRAN model translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerer, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of programming required to develop a PATRAN-NASTRAN translator was surprisingly small. The approach taken produced a highly flexible translator comparable with the PATNAS translator and superior to the PATCOS translator. The coding required varied from around ten lines for a shell element to around thirty for a bar element, and the time required to add a feature to the program is typically less than an hour. The use of a lookup table for element names makes the translator also applicable to other versions of NASTRAN. The saving in time as a result of using PDA's Gateway utilities was considerable. During the writing of the program it became apparent that, with a somewhat more complex structure, it would be possible to extend the element data file to contain all data required to define the translation from PATRAN to NASTRAN by mapping of data between formats. Similar data files on property, material and grid formats would produce a completely universal translator from PATRAN to any FEA program, or indeed any CAE system.

  9. Thermal coupling at aqueous and biomolecular interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenogina, Natalia B.

    Heat flow in the materials with nanoscopic features is dominated by thermal properties of the interfaces. While thermal properties of the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces are well studied, research of the thermal transport properties across soft (liquid-liquid) interfaces is very limited. Such interfaces are, however, plentiful in biological systems. In such systems the temperature control is of a great importance, because biochemical reactions, conformation of biomolecules as well as processes in biological cells and membranes have strong temperature sensitivity. The critical ingredient to temperature control in biological systems is the understanding of heat flow and thermal coupling across soft interfaces. To investigate heat transfer across biological and aqueous interfaces we chose to study a number of soft interfacial systems by means of molecular dynamic simulations. One of the interfaces under our investigation is the interface between protein (specifically green fluorescent protein) and water. Using this model we concentrated on the importance of vibrational frequency on coupling between water and proteins, and on significant differences between the roles of low and high frequency vibrations. Our thermal interfacial analysis allowed us to shed new light on to the issue of protein to water slaving, i.e., the concept of water controlling protein dynamics. Considering that the surface of the protein is composed of a complicated mixture of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, to systematically explore the role of interfacial interactions we studied less complicated models with homogenous interfaces whith interfacial chemistry that could be changed in a controlled manner. We demonstrated that thermal transport measurements can be used to probe interfacial environments and to quantify interfacial bonding strength. Such ability provides a unique opportunity to characterize a variety of interfaces, which can be difficult to achieve with more direct

  10. Heat and mass transfer through interfaces of nanosized bubbles/droplets: the influence of interface curvature.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2014-06-14

    Heat and mass transfer through interfaces is central in nucleation theory, nanotechnology and many other fields of research. Heat transfer in nanoparticle suspensions and nanoporous materials displays significant and opposite correlations with particle and pore size. We investigate these effects further for transfer of heat and mass across interfaces of bubbles and droplets with radii down to 2 nm. We use square gradient theory at and beyond equilibrium to calculate interfacial resistances in single-component and two-component systems. Interface resistances, as defined by non-equilibrium thermodynamics, vary continuously with the interface curvature, from negative (bubbles) to zero (planar interface) to positive (droplet) values. The interface resistances of 2 nm radii bubbles/droplets are in some cases one order of magnitude different from those of the planar interface. The square gradient model predicts that the thermal interface resistances of droplets decrease with particle size, in accordance with results from the literature, only if the peak in the local resistivity is shifted toward the vapor phase. The curvature will then have an opposite effect on the resistance of bubbles and droplets. The model predicts that the coupling between heat and mass fluxes, when quantified as the heat of transfer of the interface, is of the same order of magnitude as the enthalpy change across the interface, and depends much less on curvature than the interface resistances.

  11. Heat and mass transfer through interfaces of nanosized bubbles/droplets: the influence of interface curvature.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe

    2014-06-14

    Heat and mass transfer through interfaces is central in nucleation theory, nanotechnology and many other fields of research. Heat transfer in nanoparticle suspensions and nanoporous materials displays significant and opposite correlations with particle and pore size. We investigate these effects further for transfer of heat and mass across interfaces of bubbles and droplets with radii down to 2 nm. We use square gradient theory at and beyond equilibrium to calculate interfacial resistances in single-component and two-component systems. Interface resistances, as defined by non-equilibrium thermodynamics, vary continuously with the interface curvature, from negative (bubbles) to zero (planar interface) to positive (droplet) values. The interface resistances of 2 nm radii bubbles/droplets are in some cases one order of magnitude different from those of the planar interface. The square gradient model predicts that the thermal interface resistances of droplets decrease with particle size, in accordance with results from the literature, only if the peak in the local resistivity is shifted toward the vapor phase. The curvature will then have an opposite effect on the resistance of bubbles and droplets. The model predicts that the coupling between heat and mass fluxes, when quantified as the heat of transfer of the interface, is of the same order of magnitude as the enthalpy change across the interface, and depends much less on curvature than the interface resistances. PMID:24740009

  12. Novel method for the prediction of an interface bonding species at alumina/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, Michiko Yagyu, Shinjiro; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2014-03-15

    Interface bonding between alumina and various metals is discussed from the viewpoint of chemical thermodynamics. A method to predict the interface bonding species at an alumina/metal interface under equilibrium conditions is proposed by using the concept of chemical equilibrium for interface termination. The originality of this method is in the way a simple estimation of the interface binding energy, which is generally applicable to most metals, is developed. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by careful examination of the experimental results. Comparison of the predicted and experimentally observed interface terminations reveals that the proposed method agrees well with the reported results. The method uses only basic quantities of pure elements and the formation enthalpy of oxides. Therefore, it can be applied to most metals in the periodic table and is useful for screening materials in the quest to develop interfaces with particular functions.

  13. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    operator changes sign with T-operation. (iii) Gauge symmetry (G), which is associated with a change in the phase of the wave-function as {Psi} {yields} e{sup i{theta}}{Psi}. Gauge symmetry is connected to the law of charge conservation, and broken G-symmetry corresponds to superconductivity/superfluidity. To summarize, the interplay among these electronic degrees of freedom produces various forms of symmetry breaking patterns of I, T, and G, leading to novel emergent phenomena, which can appear only by the collective behavior of electrons and cannot be expected from individual electrons. Figure 1 shows this schematically by means of several representative phenomena. From this viewpoint, the interfaces of TMOs offer a unique and important laboratory because I is already broken by the structure itself, and the detailed form of broken I-symmetry can often be designed. Also, two-dimensionality usually enhances the effects of electron correlations by reducing their kinetic energy. These two features of oxide interfaces produce many novel effects and functions that cannot be attained in bulk form. Given that the electromagnetic responses are a major source of the physical properties of solids, and new gauge structures often appear in correlated electronic systems, we put 'emergent electromagnetism' at the center of Fig. 1.

  14. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  15. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-08-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  16. Materials Research Society Proceedings: Interfaces in Composites, volume 170

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, Carlo G.; Chen, Eric J. H.

    1990-11-01

    Reports on the following topics are presented: (1) micromechanics of interfaces; (2) characterization of interfaces; (3) interface reactions in ceramic and metal systems; (4) interface effects in ceramic and metal matrix composites; and (5) interface effects in polymer matrix composites. A list of the materials research society symposium proceedings is also presented.

  17. Mechanics of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Methods for measuring and predicting interface bond stresses and interface bond strength are described. Geometric and material variables which influence interface stress and interface bond strength are identified. The dependence of composite fracture surface characteristics on bond strength is illustrated. Parameters for selecting constituents to yield specified interface bond strength are recommended.

  18. Polymer-solid interfaces: Structure and strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Liezhong

    1999-12-01

    This thesis explored the influence of sticker group concentration (φ), interaction parameter between sticker groups and the solid substrate (chi), and bonding time on the structure and strength of polymer-solid interfaces. Carboxylated polybutadienes (cPBD's) with different COOH concentrations (φ) were synthesized through hydrocarboxylation of high molecular weight polybutadienes. The COOH groups were randomly distributed along the polymer chains and selectively introduced to the pendant double bonds. The influence of φ and chi on the peel strength (GIC) of two interfaces, cPBD-Al and cPBD-AlS (amine terminated silane modified Al), was investigated using the T-peel test. Counter-intuitively, with increasing φ, GIC of both interfaces increased first and then decreased after passing through a maximum strength. At a constant φ, GIC increased with chi. Additionally, the bonding dynamics was strongly dependent on φ and chi and the time scale was several orders of Magnitude longer than the characteristic relaxation time of polybutadiene. The adhesion dynamics was controlled by the slow frustrated surface reorganization process. Most of the experimental observations could be attributed to the variation in chain physical connectivity within the interfaces, which was explored by a self-consistent field lattice model (SCFLM). Sticker groups were found to segregate to the solid surface and chain physical connectivity was modified at the polymer-solid interface. We demonstrated that the segregation of sticker groups and the variation in chain physical connectivity led to the formation of a weak boundary interphase. It is this weak interphase that controls the strength and bonding dynamics of the interface. The presence of this weak interphase was experimentally verified through angle resolved XPS analysis. Finally, an entanglement percolation model was developed to correlate the interface strength with the chain connectivity. The results obtained in this study contribute

  19. Interfacing Computer Aided Parallelization and Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    When porting sequential applications to parallel computer architectures, the program developer will typically go through several cycles of source code optimization and performance analysis. We have started a project to develop an environment where the user can jointly navigate through program structure and performance data information in order to make efficient optimization decisions. In a prototype implementation we have interfaced the CAPO computer aided parallelization tool with the Paraver performance analysis tool. We describe both tools and their interface and give an example for how the interface helps within the program development cycle of a benchmark code.

  20. PFP Interface identification and management planning guide

    SciTech Connect

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-05-20

    The purpose of-this planning guide is to present the process used to identify, document, and control PFP Stabilization and Deactivation Project interfaces. Revisions to this document will include, as attachments, the most recent version of the Project Interface Management List. A preliminary Interface Management List is included in Appendix A. This document is intended be a Project owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. For most revisions that suggest improved processes, PFP management approval is all that will be required.

  1. 200 Area TEDF interface control document

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Hildebrand, R.A.

    1994-11-15

    Because the TEDF does not have any treatment or retention capacity, strict control at the generator interface is essential to operate the TEDF in compliance with good engineering practices, Hanford site requirements, and the 216 Discharge Permit. The information in the Interface Control Document (ICD) forms the basis of understanding between all parties involved in the TEDF; DOE, WHC, and the generating facilities. The ICD defines the controlling document hierarchy; LEF, and generator responsibilities; monitoring and sampling requirements; and specifies the TEDF/Generator Interface points.

  2. Diffuse-Interface Methods in Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. M.; McFadden, G. B.; Wheeler, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review the development of diffuse-interface models of hydrodynamics and their application to a wide variety of interfacial phenomena. The authors discuss the issues involved in formulating diffuse-interface models for single-component and binary fluids. Recent applications and computations using these models are discussed in each case. Further, the authors address issues including sharp-interface analyses that relate these models to the classical free-boundary problem, related computational approaches to describe interfacial phenomena, and related approaches describing fully-miscible fluids.

  3. Concept of software interface for BCI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejda, Jaromir; Zak, Roman; Jasek, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology is intended to control external system by brain activity. One of main part of such system is software interface, which carries about clear communication between brain and either computer or additional devices connected to computer. This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, current knowledge about human brain is briefly summarized to points out its complexity. Secondly, there is described a concept of BCI system, which is then used to build an architecture of proposed software interface. Finally, there are mentioned disadvantages of sensing technology discovered during sensing part of our research.

  4. Fatigue crack propagation at polymer adhesive interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Delamination of polymer adhesive interfaces often occurs due to slow crack growth under either monotonic or cyclic loading. The author`s previous research showed that moisture-assisted crack growth at epoxy/glass and epoxy acrylate/glass interfaces under monotonic loading was directly related to the applied energy release rate and relative humidity and that cyclic loading could enhance crack growth. The purpose of the present research is to compare crack growth along epoxy acrylate/glass and epoxy/PMMA interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loading.

  5. Dynamical transitions of a driven Ising interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Manish K.; Sengupta, Surajit

    2008-03-01

    We study the structure of an interface in a three-dimensional Ising system created by an external nonuniform field H(r,t) . H changes sign over a two-dimensional plane of arbitrary orientation. When the field is pulled with velocity ve , [i.e., H(r,t)=H(r-vet) ], the interface undergoes several dynamical transitions. For low velocities it is pinned by the field profile and moves along with it, the distribution of local slopes undergoing a series of commensurate-incommensurate transitions. For large ve the interface depins and grows with Kardar-Parisi-Zhang exponents.

  6. Micro- and Nanotechnologies for Optical Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; Sileo, Leonardo; De Vittorio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In last decade, the possibility to optically interface with the mammalian brain in vivo has allowed unprecedented investigation of functional connectivity of neural circuitry. Together with new genetic and molecular techniques to optically trigger and monitor neural activity, a new generation of optical neural interfaces is being developed, mainly thanks to the exploitation of both bottom-up and top-down nanofabrication approaches. This review highlights the role of nanotechnologies for optical neural interfaces, with particular emphasis on new devices and methodologies for optogenetic control of neural activity and unconventional methods for detection and triggering of action potentials using optically-active colloidal nanoparticles. PMID:27013939

  7. A Cooperative Hypertext Interface to Relational Databases

    PubMed Central

    Barsalou, Thierry; Wiederhold, Gio

    1989-01-01

    Biomedical information systems demand cooperative interfaces that maximize the flow of information between machine and user. Within the framework of the PENGUIN project—an object-oriented architecture for expert database systems—, we describe the use of hypertext tools for designing sophisticated interfaces to the relational-database component of PENGUIN. The interface designer employs HyperCard to construct a visual representation of the underlying database that requires the user to recognize rather than to recall the appropriate command name. We show that the resulting direct-manipulation style of interaction facilitates greatly information retrieval and presentation.

  8. Influence of interfacial interactions on deformation mechanism and interface viscosity in α-chitin-calcite interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tao; Verma, Devendra; Alucozai, Milad; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have a significant effect on their mechanical properties. This work presents a quantification of the interface stress as a function of interface chemical changes (water, organic molecules) in chitin-calcite (CHI-CAL) interfaces using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. NEMD is used to investigate interface stress as a function of applied strain based on the virial stress formulation. SMD is used to understand interface separation mechanism and to calculate interfacial shear stress based on a viscoplastic interfacial sliding model. Analyses indicate that interfacial shear stress combined with shear viscosity can result in variations to the mechanical properties of the examined interfacial material systems. It is further verified with Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic analytical models representing viscous interfaces and outer matrix. Further analyses show that overall mechanical deformation depends on maximization of interface shear strength in such materials. This work establishes lower and upper bounds of interface strength in the interfaces examined. PMID:26143601

  9. Influence of interfacial interactions on deformation mechanism and interface viscosity in α-chitin-calcite interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qu, Tao; Verma, Devendra; Alucozai, Milad; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    The interfaces between organic and inorganic phases in natural materials have a significant effect on their mechanical properties. This work presents a quantification of the interface stress as a function of interface chemical changes (water, organic molecules) in chitin-calcite (CHI-CAL) interfaces using classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. NEMD is used to investigate interface stress as a function of applied strain based on the virial stress formulation. SMD is used to understand interface separation mechanism and to calculate interfacial shear stress based on a viscoplastic interfacial sliding model. Analyses indicate that interfacial shear stress combined with shear viscosity can result in variations to the mechanical properties of the examined interfacial material systems. It is further verified with Kelvin-Voigt and Maxwell viscoelastic analytical models representing viscous interfaces and outer matrix. Further analyses show that overall mechanical deformation depends on maximization of interface shear strength in such materials. This work establishes lower and upper bounds of interface strength in the interfaces examined.

  10. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  11. A generalized strategy for building resident database interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroh, Marsha; Wanderman, Ken

    1990-01-01

    A strategy for building resident interfaces to host heterogeneous distributed data base management systems is developed. The strategy is used to construct several interfaces. A set of guidelines is developed for users to construct their own interfaces.

  12. Theory of reactions at electrified interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lück, Jessica; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-07-21

    Interfacial reaction and transport processes are a decisive factor for the overall performance of electrochemical systems. However, existing models rely on phenomenological descriptions of charged interfaces, which yields no deeper insights. We present a generic theory to describe charge and electron transfer reactions at charged interfaces, which is applicable to different electrochemical systems, like fuel cells or batteries with liquid or solid electrolytes. In the present work, our general theory is adopted to the electrochemical double layer at the interface between a solid electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The model allows to describe the intercalation reaction in Li-ion insertion batteries as a two-step process, consisting of a first desolvation and adsorption and a second actual insertion step. It becomes apparent that a charging of the double layer acts as the necessary driving force for the charge transfer across the interface.

  13. HDPE geomembrane/geotextile interface shear strength

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.D.; Eid, H.T.; Williamson, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes torsional ring shear tests on interfaces comprised of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes/nonwoven geotextiles and a drainage geocomposite. Four textured geomembranes with three different manufacturing techniques are utilized to investigate the effect of geomembrane texturing on interface shear resistance. In addition, the effects of geotextile fiber type, fabric style, polymer composition, calendering, and mass per unit area on textured HDPE geomembrane interface strengths are investigated. The textured HDPE geomembrane/nonwoven geotextile and drainage geocomposite interfaces exhibited a large post-peak strength loss. This strength loss is attributed to pulling out or tearing of filaments from the nonwoven geotextile and orienting them parallel to shear and polishing of the texturing on the geomembrane. At high normal stresses, the strength loss can be caused by damage to or removal of the texturing on the geomembrane surface.

  14. Ultrasonic characterization of interfaces in composite bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2011-06-23

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  15. Thermal insulator transition induced by interface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slovick, Brian A.; Krishnamurthy, Srini

    2016-10-01

    We develop an effective medium model of thermal conductivity that accounts for both percolation and interface scattering. This model accurately explains the measured increase and decrease of thermal conductivity with loading in composites dominated by percolation and interface scattering, respectively. Our model further predicts that strong interface scattering leads to a sharp decrease in thermal conductivity, or an insulator transition, at high loadings when conduction through the matrix is restricted and heat is forced to diffuse through particles with large interface resistance. The accuracy of our model and its ability to predict transitions between insulating and conducting states suggest it can be a useful tool for designing materials with low or high thermal conductivity for a variety of applications.

  16. CLIPS application user interface for the PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Jim; Holbrook, Rebecca; Shewhart, Mark; Crouse, Joey; Yarost, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    The majority of applications that utilize expert system development programs for their knowledge representation and inferencing capability require some form of interface with the end user. This interface is more than likely an interaction through the computer screen. When building an application the user interface can prove to be the most difficult and time consuming aspect to program. Commercial products currently exist which address this issue. To keep pace C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) will need to find a solution for their lack of an easy to use Application User Interface (AUI). This paper represents a survey of the DoD CLIPS' user community and provides the backbone of a possible solution.

  17. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  18. Fiber-matrix interfaces in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Kupp, E.R.; Shanmugham, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-12-31

    The mechanical properties of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are governed by the relationships between the matrix, the interface material, and the fibers. In non-oxide matrix systems compliant pyrolytic carbon and BN have been demonstrated to be effective interface materials, allowing for absorption of mismatch stresses between fiber and matrix and offering a poorly bonded interface for crack deflection. The resulting materials have demonstrated remarkable strain/damage tolerance together with high strength. Carbon or BN, however, suffer from oxidative loss in many service environments, and thus there is a major search for oxidation resistant alternatives. This paper reviews the issues related to developing a stable and effective interface material for non-oxide matrix CMCs.

  19. Ultrasound Research Interface - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The ultrasound research interface permits extensive instrument parameter control of a commercially available scanner that allows access to, and export of, the beam-formed signal data while simultaneously displaying the ultrasound system-processed data as a clinical image.

  20. Soft particles at a fluid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabian, Hadi; Harting, Jens; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2015-11-01

    Particles added to a fluid interface can be used as a surface stabilizer in the food, oil and cosmetic industries. As an alternative to rigid particles, it is promising to consider highly deformable particles that can adapt their conformation at the interface. In this study, we compute the shapes of soft elastic particles using molecular dynamics simulations of a cross-linked polymer gel, complemented by continuum calculations based on the linear elasticity. It is shown that the particle shape is not only affected by the Young's modulus of the particle, but also strongly depends on whether the gel is partially or completely wetting the fluid interface. We find that the molecular simulations for the partially wetting case are very accurately described by the continuum theory. By contrast, when the gel is completely wetting the fluid interface the linear theory breaks down and we reveal that molecular details have a strong influence on the equilibrium shape.

  1. Making Your Hypertext Interface Usable (Practicalities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Donald S.

    1993-01-01

    Offers guidelines to help novice hypertext designers construct interfaces that are usable. Discusses windows versus frames, which interaction style to use, how to display text and buttons effectively, and how to use color and tables, diagrams, and animation effectively. (SR)

  2. Structural Transitions at Ionic Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Salanne, Mathieu

    2015-12-17

    Recent advances in experimental and computational techniques have allowed for an accurate description of the adsorption of ionic liquids on metallic electrodes. It is now well-established that they adopt a multilayered structure and that the composition of the layers changes with the potential of the electrode. In some cases, potential-driven ordering transitions in the first adsorbed layer have been observed in experiments probing the interface on the molecular scale or by molecular simulations. This perspective gives an overview of the current understanding of such transitions and of their potential impact on the physical and (electro)chemical processes at the interface. In particular, peaks in the differential capacitance, slow dynamics at the interface, and changes in the reactivity have been reported in electrochemical studies. Interfaces between ionic liquids and metallic electrodes are also highly relevant for their friction properties, the voltage-dependence of which opens the way to exciting applications. PMID:26722704

  3. Applying Cognitive Psychology to User Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sabeen; Durrani, Qaiser S.

    This paper explores some key aspects of cognitive psychology that may be mapped onto user interfaces. Major focus in existing user interface guidelines is on consistency, simplicity, feedback, system messages, display issues, navigation, colors, graphics, visibility and error prevention [8-10]. These guidelines are effective indesigning user interfaces. However, these guidelines do not handle the issues that may arise due to the innate structure of human brain and human limitations. For example, where to place graphics on the screen so that user can easily process them and what kind of background should be given on the screen according to the limitation of human motor system. In this paper we have collected some available guidelines from the area of cognitive psychology [1, 5, 7]. In addition, we have extracted few guidelines from theories and studies of cognitive psychology [3, 11] which may be mapped to user interfaces.

  4. Ultrasonic Characterization of Interfaces in Composite Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I.; Cantrell, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

  5. Theory of reactions at electrified interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lück, Jessica; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-07-21

    Interfacial reaction and transport processes are a decisive factor for the overall performance of electrochemical systems. However, existing models rely on phenomenological descriptions of charged interfaces, which yields no deeper insights. We present a generic theory to describe charge and electron transfer reactions at charged interfaces, which is applicable to different electrochemical systems, like fuel cells or batteries with liquid or solid electrolytes. In the present work, our general theory is adopted to the electrochemical double layer at the interface between a solid electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The model allows to describe the intercalation reaction in Li-ion insertion batteries as a two-step process, consisting of a first desolvation and adsorption and a second actual insertion step. It becomes apparent that a charging of the double layer acts as the necessary driving force for the charge transfer across the interface. PMID:27215943

  6. Polymer enrichment decelerates surfactant membranes near interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, F.; Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Mattauch, S.; Monkenbusch, M.; Arend, N.; Richter, D.

    2014-04-01

    Close to a planar surface, lamellar structures are imposed upon otherwise bulk bicontinuous microemulsions. Thermally induced membrane undulations are modified by the presence of the rigid interface. While it has been shown that a pure membrane's dynamics are accelerated close to the interface, we observed nearly unchanged relaxation rates for membranes spiked with large amphiphilic diblock copolymers. An increase of the polymer concentration by a factor of 2-3 for the first and second surfactant membrane layers was observed. We interpret the reduced relaxation times as the result of an interplay between the bending rigidity and the characteristic distance of the first surfactant membrane to the rigid interface, which causes the hydrodynamic and steric interface effects described in Seifert's theory. The influence of these effects on decorated membranes yields a reduction of the frequencies and an amplification of the amplitudes of long-wavelength undulations, which are in accordance to our experimental findings.

  7. Superconductivity observed in platinum-silicon interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Pai-Chia; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Ku-Pin; Shiue, Jessie

    2014-05-26

    We report the discovery of superconductivity with an onset temperature of ∼0.6 K in a platinum-silicon interface. The interface was formed by using a unique focused ion beam sputtering micro-deposition method in which the energies of most sputtered Pt atoms are ∼2.5 eV. Structural and elemental analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveal a ∼ 7 nm interface layer with abundant Pt, which is the layer likely responsible for the superconducting transport behavior. Similar transport behavior was also observed in a gold-silicon interface prepared by the same technique, indicating the possible generality of this phenomenon.

  8. CLIPS interface development tools and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Bernard A.; Rewerts, Chris C.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Rogers, Joseph B.; Jones, Don D.

    1990-01-01

    A package of C-based PC user interface development functions has been developed and integrated into CLIPS. The primary function is ASK which provides a means to ask the user questions via multiple choice menus or the keyboard and then returns the user response to CLIPS. A parameter-like structure supplies information for the interface. Another function, SHOW, provides a means to paginate and display text. A third function, TITLE, formats and displays title screens. A similar set of C-based functions that are more general and thus will run on UNIX and machines have also been developed. Seven expert system applications were transformed from commercial development environments into CLIPS and utilize ASK, SHOW, and TITLE. Development of numerous new expert system applications using CLIPS and these interface functions has started. These functions greatly reduce the time required to build interfaces for CLIPS applications.

  9. Implanted neural interfaces: biochallenges and engineered solutions.

    PubMed

    Grill, Warren M; Norman, Sharon E; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2009-01-01

    Neural interfaces are connections that enable two-way exchange of information with the nervous system. These connections can occur at multiple levels, including with peripheral nerves, with the spinal cord, or with the brain; in many instances, fundamental biophysical and biological challenges are shared across these levels. We review these challenges, including selectivity, stability, resolution versus invasiveness, implant-induced injury, and the host-interface response. Subsequently, we review the engineered solutions to these challenges, including electrode designs and geometry, stimulation waveforms, materials, and surface modifications. Finally, we consider emerging opportunities to improve neural interfaces, including cellular-level silicon to neuron connections, optical stimulation, and approaches to control inflammation. Overcoming the biophysical and biological challenges will enable effective high-density neural interfaces for stimulation and recording.

  10. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  11. The single-chip FASTBUS Slave Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.O.; Machen, D.R.; Downing, R.W.

    1990-12-31

    A single-chip implementation of the general-purpose FASTBUS Slave Interface (FSI) has been developed in ECL gate-array technology. The FSI will occupy only 1.6% of the available circuit board space while providing a complete 32-bit interface to the FASTBUS. All mandatory slave-interface requirements of IEEE 960 are supported, in addition to several non-mandatory requirements and the optional, extended MS code features. Geographic, logical, and broadcast addressing are implemented using on-chip registers. An optional multiple-module addressing technique is included that allows participating modules residing on a common crate or cable segment to respond as if individually addressed in sequence. The user interface provided by the FSI allows control of slave status-response and connection timing for both address and data cycles. The BIT1 ECL array technology used for the FSI allows direct connections to the FASTBUS, eliminating the need for external driver/receiver buffers.

  12. Surface conservation laws at microscopically diffuse interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kevin T; Bazant, Martin Z

    2007-11-01

    In studies of interfaces with dynamic chemical composition, bulk and interfacial quantities are often coupled via surface conservation laws of excess surface quantities. While this approach is easily justified for microscopically sharp interfaces, its applicability in the context of microscopically diffuse interfaces is less theoretically well-established. Furthermore, surface conservation laws (and interfacial models in general) are often derived phenomenologically rather than systematically. In this article, we first provide a mathematically rigorous justification for surface conservation laws at diffuse interfaces based on an asymptotic analysis of transport processes in the boundary layer and derive general formulae for the surface and normal fluxes that appear in surface conservation laws. Next, we use nonequilibrium thermodynamics to formulate surface conservation laws in terms of chemical potentials and provide a method for systematically deriving the structure of the interfacial layer. Finally, we derive surface conservation laws for a few examples from diffusive and electrochemical transport.

  13. When do interfaces become important for failure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensin, S. J.; Walker, E. K.; Cerreta, E. K.; Gray, G. T., III

    2015-09-01

    Previous experimental research has shown that microstructural features such as interfaces, inclusions, vacancies and heterogeneities can all act as void nucleation sites. However, it is not well understood how important these interfaces are to the damage evolution as a function of the surrounding parent materials. In this work, we present results on three different materials: 1) Cu, 2) Cu-10 wt%Ag, and 3) Cu-15 wt%Nb examined to probe the influence of bi-metal interfaces on void nucleation and evolution. These materials were chosen due to the differences in the stacking fault energy between the two phases. The initial results suggest that when there are significant differences between the bulk properties (for example: stacking fault energy and melting temperature etc) the type of interface between the two parent materials does not influence the damage process. Rather, it is the "weaker" material that dictates the dynamic spall strength of the material.

  14. A Natural Language Interface to Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a Natural Language Interface (NLI) is presented which is semantic-based and uses Conceptual Dependency representation. The system was developed using Lisp and currently runs on a Symbolics Lisp machine.

  15. Interface control of bulk ferroelectric polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P; Luo, Weidong; Yi, D.; Zhang, J.-X.; Rossell, M.D.; Yang, C.-H.; You, L.; Singh-Bhalla, G. B.; Yang, S.Y; He, Q; Ramasse, Q. M.; Erni, R.; Martin, L. W.; Chu, Y. H.; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J; Ramesh, R.

    2012-01-01

    The control of material interfaces at the atomic level has led to no- vel interfacial properties and functionalities. In particular, the study of polar discontinuities at interfaces between complex oxides lies at the frontier of modern condensed matter research. Here we em- ploy a combination of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations to demonstrate the control of a bulk property, namely ferroelectric polarization, of a heteroepitaxial bilayer by precise atomic-scale interface engineering. More specifically, the control is achieved by exploiting the interfacial valence mismatch to influence the electrostatic potential step across the interface, which manifests itself as the biased-voltage in ferroelectric hysteresis loops and determines the ferroelectric state. A broad study of diverse systems comprising different ferroelectrics and conducting perovskite un- derlayers extends the generality of this phenomenon.

  16. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved elements for use in fuel cell stacks, and more particularly, to a stack having a corrosion-resistant, electrally conductive, fluid-impervious interface member therein.

  17. Local electronic properties of organic semiconductor interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, Michael L.

    Understanding organic semiconductor interfaces is critical to developing organic photovoltaics (OPV). OPV interfaces are disordered due to weak intermolecular interactions, resulting in diverse charge transfer micro-environments. I present experimental data isolating high-order intermolecular interactions controlling interfacial energy level alignment and describe new instrumental capabilities providing access to the local electronic and kinetic landscape at organic semiconductor interfaces. Interface formation between vanadyl naphthalocyanine (VONc) and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is investigated. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) shows that the VONc binding energy (BE) decouples from the work function, shifting in an opposite direction and contradicting the standard interface dipole model. This effect is quantitatively described using an electrostatic depolarization model and confirmed by simulations which show an inhomogeneous potential at the interface. New data and literature values suggest orthogonality between polarizability and molecular dipole in polar porphyrazines. Their potential for interface engineering is discussed. The electron-rich Au(111)/VONc interface is investigated. The organic layer induces a large interface dipole in Au(111) which can be fit to a depolarization model. Ionization potential and depolarization data suggest that the second VONc layer on Au(111) adopts a tilted geometry. Electrostatic differences between Au(111)/VONc and HOPG/VONc are discussed, demonstrating that interface dipole contributions are not interchangeable. The surface states of the Au(111)/VONc interface are characterized by angle resolved 2-photon photoemission to determine the magnitude of the perturbation. The measured free-electron-like effective mass and BE destabilization of the Shockley state is attributed to step edges caused by lifting the Au(111) (22x 3 ) reconstruction. The Shockley state is accessible primarily through resonance

  18. Systems Engineering Interfaces: A Model Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fosse, Elyse; Delp, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Currently: Ops Rev developed and maintains a framework that includes interface-specific language, patterns, and Viewpoints. Ops Rev implements the framework to design MOS 2.0 and its 5 Mission Services. Implementation de-couples interfaces and instances of interaction Future: A Mission MOSE implements the approach and uses the model based artifacts for reviews. The framework extends further into the ground data layers and provides a unified methodology.

  19. TMS communications hardware. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Weinrich, S. S.

    1979-01-01

    A prototpye coaxial cable bus communications system was designed to be used in the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) to connect intelligent graphics terminals (based around a Data General NOVA/3 computer) to a MODCOMP IV host minicomputer. The direct memory access (DMA) interfaces which were utilized for each of these computers are identified. It is shown that for the MODCOMP, an off-the-shell board was suitable, while for the NOVAs, custon interface circuitry was designed and implemented.

  20. TMS communications software. Volume 1: Computer interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Lenker, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype bus communications system, which is being used to support the Trend Monitoring System (TMS) as well as for evaluation of the bus concept is considered. Hardware and software interfaces to the MODCOMP and NOVA minicomputers are included. The system software required to drive the interfaces in each TMS computer is described. Documentation of other software for bus statistics monitoring and for transferring files across the bus is also included.