Science.gov

Sample records for pcp based simulacao

  1. PCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... PCP do so because the drug can cause hallucinations and an "out-of-body" sensation. Larger doses ... and invincibility. Higher doses of PCP can cause hallucinations and symptoms similar to the effects of mental ...

  2. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... PCP is a mind-altering drug. This means it acts on your brain (central nervous system) and changes your mood, behavior, and the way you relate to ...

  3. PCP (phencyclidine): an update.

    PubMed

    Garey, R E

    1979-01-01

    The steady rise in the promiscuous use of phencyclidine (PCP) as a "recreational" drug has recently gained nationwide attention because of the numerous violent and/or bizarre incidents caused by the use of this drug. Because the media often exaggerate reports of bizarre and violent behavior to make a "good" story, the potential PCP user may be tempted to ignore the media warnings. In the case of PCP, however exaggerated the story, a real danger does exist. So, despite numerous newspaper, radio and television warnings about the possible consequences of PCP use and abuse, the incidence of toxic reactions continues to climb. In many cases PCP is sold as other drugs, particularly THC, and in various colored capsules, tablets, liquids and crystals which may explain the increased usage despite the numerous warnings against its use. The advances in laboratory techniques and chemical processess have enabled the clandestine chemist to prepare relatively pure PCP and thus eliminate many of the toxic side effects due to impurities in the drug. In addition, 30 or more psychoactive PCP analogues have been developed and are starting to make an appearance on the street. PCP is perhaps the most potent psychotomimetic compound known at the present time and is capable of inducing a psychosis which is clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia. The psychosis-producing effects of PCP are the most common toxic effects seen in hospital emergency rooms; but as the amount of PCP taken and/or the simultaneous involvement of other drugs, particularly barbiturates, occurs, severe medical problems (e.g., coma, seizures, respiratory arrest) begin to appear. Death from high doses of PCP or PCP plus other drugs does occur, but the principal cause of death from PCP abuse is due to trauma, homicide or suicide (usually of the bizarre or violent form). Young adult males, persons predisposed to mental illness and naive drug users appear to be the most susceptible to the adverse effects of PCP

  4. PCP Use among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This article, aimed at professionals in the field of adolescent psychology, briefly reviews the use of phencyclidine (PCP), its pharmacology, clinical effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (Author/BN)

  5. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  6. PCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... their surroundings. It can also distort a user's perceptions of sight, sound, and reality — the drug is known for giving users a false sense of strength, power, and invincibility. Higher doses of ...

  7. PCP IMMUMOASSAY TECHNOLOGIES - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technologies for pentachlorophenol (PCP) testing in soil and water were evaluated. Penta RISc Test Systems (formerly ENSYS, Inc.), EnviroGard™ PCP Immunoassay Test Kit (Millipore Corp.), and Pentachlorophenol RaPID Assay (formerly Ohmicron ...

  8. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Havertown PCP Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Havertown PCP site is located in Havertown, Haverford Township, Delaware County, in southeastern Pennsylvania. The site contamination was first discovered in 1962 when the Pennsylvania State Department of Health became aware of contaminants in ...

  10. Concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in fish and shrimp in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jiachun; Pan, Jianling; Fei, Zhiliang; Wu, Guanghong; Giesy, John P

    2007-08-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations were determined in 55 samples of fish, shrimp, crabs, frogs and turtles collected in Jiangsu Province and 55 freshwater shrimp samples collected from the Huiming Fish Market, Nanjing, China between 2003 and 2004. PCP concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit (MDL: 0.5 microg/kg ww) to 61 microg/kg ww, with a mean of 5.2 microg/kg ww in 55 samples collected across Jiangsu Province and a mean of 0.5 microg/kg ww for freshwater shrimp collected from the Huiming Fish Market. Concentrations of PCP in common carp (Carassius auratus) were significantly greater than concentrations of PCP in other species from all of the areas studied. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) contained the second greatest concentrations and crustacean species contained the least concentrations. Concentrations of PCP were greater in samples collected from Southern Jiangsu than those collected from other areas of Jiangsu Province. Concentrations of PCP in the freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) from the Huiming Fish Market were greater in March and September than those collected in June and December. Based on the allowable daily intake (ADI) set by the US National Academy of Science, current concentrations of PCP measured in aquatic products from Jiangsu Province presented minimus health risks to humans.

  11. What's a Primary Care Physician (PCP)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... care. The best preventive care means forming a relationship with a PCP you like and trust, taking your child for scheduled checkups and vaccines , and following the ...

  12. Field analytical screening program: PCP method. Innovative technology evaluation report. Report for 1 July-31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, E.; Hamilton, D.

    1995-08-01

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination in soil and water. This method was demonstrated in Norrisville, North Carolina, in August 1993. The FASP PCP Method was developed by the EPA Superfund Branch for use at Superfund sites. The method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and either a flame ionization detector (FID) or an electron capture detector (ECD). Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determining PCP concentrations in soil, water, and waste samples. The FASP PCP Method is an abbrevaited, modified version of approved methods. Soil and water samples require extraction before GC analysis. To remove interferences caused by petroleum hydrocarbons, an acid-base partition cleanup step is used during the FASP PCP Method.

  13. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  14. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Data Behind Current Recommendations for Corticosteroids in Non–HIV-Related PCP: Knowing When You Are on Shaky Foundations

    PubMed Central

    Injean, Patil; Eells, Samantha J.; Wu, Hoover; McElroy, Imani; Gregson, Aric L.; McKinnell, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Randomized trials show a mortality benefit to adjunctive corticosteroids for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (HIV-PCP). Guidelines for non-HIV PCP (NH-PCP) recommend adjunctive corticosteroids based on expert opinion. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis characterizing adjunctive corticosteroids for NH-PCP. Methods We searched MEDLINE from 1966 through 2015. Data on clinical outcomes from NH-PCP were extracted with a standardized instrument. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 index. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using a fixed effects model. Results Our search yielded 5044 abstracts, 277 articles were chosen for full review, and 6 articles described outcomes in moderate to severe NH-PCP. Studies were limited by variable definitions, treatment selection bias, concomitant infections and small sample size. Individual studies reported shorter intensive care unit stay and duration of mechanical ventilation of patients given adjunctive corticosteroids. There was no association between corticosteroids and survival in NH-PCP (odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.15; P = 0.14). Conclusions The literature does not support an association between adjunctive corticosteroids and survival from NH-PCP but data are limited and findings should not be considered conclusive. Further research with improved methodology is needed to better understand the role of adjunctive corticosteroids for NH-PCP. PMID:28361121

  15. PCP prevention--more cases of resistance to sulfa drugs.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    Three studies that are highlighted suggest that PCP-causing microbes are developing resistance to Bactrim/Septra (B/S), the drug of choice for preventing the life-threatening complications caused by PCP, toxoplasmosis, and bacterial pneumonia. While resistance does not appear to be happening on a large scale, it is a concern because no other drug has the same beneficial effects of B/S. Research is needed for simple, low-toxicity treatments and prophylactic drugs for PCP, before resistance becomes a common problem.

  16. Benzo annulated cycloheptatriene PCP pincer iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Leis, Wolfgang; Wernitz, Sophie; Reichart, Benedikt; Ruckerbauer, David; Wielandt, Johannes Wolfram; Mayer, Hermann A

    2014-08-28

    The benzo annulated cycloheptatriene PCP pincer ligand was prepared in five steps. Treatment of with Ir(CO)3Cl gave the meridional cyclometalated chlorohydrido carbonyl iridium complexes which differ in their arrangement of the H, Cl, and CO ligands around iridium. Storing in THF led to isomerization processes. Hydrogen shifts from the sp(3)-CH carbon bound to iridium into the ligand backbone produced the three isomers . Reductive elimination of HCl from these complexes resulted in the square planar Ir(i) carbonyl complexes . Abstraction of the hydrogen from the sp(3)-CH-Ir fragment could be achieved either by treatment of with Ph3CBF4 or by the elimination of H2 which is initiated by CF3SO3H. The mass spectrometric characterisation of using fast atom bombardment reveals a complex fragmentation pattern. These different "fragment" ions were further investigated by electro-spray ionisation (tandem) mass spectrometry in high and low resolution. The identified compounds were attributed to structures by DFT calculations.

  17. HNU-HANBY PCP IMMUNOASSAY TEST KIT - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HNU-Hanby pentachlorophenol (PCP) test kit rapidly analyzes for PCP in soil samples. The test kit can only detect those PCP carriers that contain aromatic compounds. The test kit estimates PCP concentrations in soil samples indirectly by measuring petroleum hydrocarbon carrie...

  18. Tuning PCP-Ir complexes: the impact of an N-heterocyclic olefin.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Manuel; Iturmendi, Amaia; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Polo, Victor; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-08-11

    A new PCP-type ligand based on an N-heterocyclic olefin (NHO) scaffold has been prepared. The flexibility of this ligand, which is able to adopt facial coordination modes in Ir(I) or meridional in Ir(III) complexes, can be attributed to the dual nature (ylide-olefin) of the NHO scaffold. This results in a rare case of olefin "slippage" that is supported by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations.

  19. Central phencyclidine (PCP) receptor binding is glutamate dependent: evidence for a PCP/excitatory amino acid receptor (EAAR) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, P.; Braunwalder, A.; Lehmann, J.; Williams, M.

    1986-03-01

    PCP and other dissociative anesthetica block the increase in neuronal firing rate evoked by the EAAR agonist, N-methyl-Daspartate. NMDA and other EAAs such as glutamate (glu) have not been previously shown to affect PCP ligand binding. In the present study, using once washed rat forebrain membranes, 10 ..mu..M-glu was found to increase the binding of (/sup 3/H)TCP, a PCP analog, to defined PCP recognition sites by 20%. Removal of glu and aspartate (asp) by extensive washing decreased TCP binding by 75-90%. In these membranes, 10 ..mu..M L-glu increased TCP binding 3-fold. This effect was stereospecific and evoked by other EAAs with the order of activity, L-glu > D-asp > L- asp > NMDA > D-glu > quisqualate. Kainate, GABA, NE, DA, 5-HT, 2-chloroadenosine, oxotremorine and histamine had no effect on TCP binding at concentrations up to 100 ..mu..M. The effects of L-glu were attenuated by the NMDA-type receptor antagonist, 2-amino-7--phosphonoheptanoate (AP7; 10 ..mu..M-1 mM). These findings indicate that EAAS facilitate TCP binding, possibly through NMDA-type receptors. The observed interaction between the PCP receptor and EAARs may reflect the existence of a macromolecular receptor complex similar to that demonstrated for the benzodiazepines and GABA.

  20. Regulation of PCP by the Fat signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Matis, Maja; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelia, orthogonal to the apical–basal axis, is essential for numerous developmental events and physiological functions. Drosophila model systems have been at the forefront of studies revealing insights into mechanisms regulating PCP and have revealed distinct signaling modules. One of these, involving the atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous and the ectokinase Four-jointed, appears to link the direction of cell polarization to the tissue axes. We discuss models for the function of this signaling module as well as several unanswered questions that may guide future investigations. PMID:24142873

  1. Female PCP-using jail detainees: proneness to violence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, D H

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that PCP users have different characteristics from other drug users and that female PCP use is more common than use among males. Furthermore, there is evidence that those who respond to PCP with violence may differ from those who do not. This study attempted to examine comprehensively the psychological, behavioral, and background factors among female jail inmates that may contribute to a PCP preference and subjects' perception of various behavioral states while using PCP. Female PCP users were further examined relative to male PCP users to differentiate them on the basis of these perceptual factors. A distinction was further made between females and males prone to PCP-induced violence and those who do not become violent with respect to the above psychological and behavioral measures. Our results showed differences between male and female PCP users that are discrepant with the assumption that men and women perceive similar drug-related experiences. In particular, female PCP using subjects reported more dysphoria and aggressiveness when not using PCP, while male subjects were more likely to report aggressive behavior and dysphoria under the influence. Overall, these results suggest that males who prefer PCP may be self-stimulating and females who prefer PCP may be attempting to self-medicate.

  2. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  3. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Technical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, John T.; Felty, J. Michael

    This paper is the second in a three-part series on SYS IV, an instructional management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) that incorporates some of the features of the previous SYS systems. Focus is primarily on the new features that make the system unique. Following a brief background section explaining the purpose of SYS IV,…

  4. Adaptive response of trivial activated sludge towards toxic effect of oNP, PCP and combination oNP/PCP

    SciTech Connect

    Topalova, Y.; Dimkov, R. . Faculty of Biology); Kozuharov, D. )

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of the real aerobic activated sludge taken from the Sofia Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) and treated with the xenobiotics pentachlorphenol (PCP) (0.16 mMol), ortho-nitrophenol (oNP) (0.58 mMol) and with a combination of PCP (0.08 mMol), oNP (0.29 mMol) has been investigated in a model detoxification process. The adaptive changes are studied in the microbial structure level and at the level of changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the macro-organisms in the activated sludge (consuments of 1 and 2 level). The presence of several different taxonomic groups has been shown by other researchers to be essential in the detoxification process. The quantitative changes in these taxonomic and physiological groups of micro-organisms are studied. The number of micro-organisms from Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and the bacteria from the xenobiotic-catabolizing complex considerably increased with the individual and the combined effect of the xenobiotics oNP, PCP and oNP PCP. At the same time the toxic shock leads to a remarkable reduction of NH[sub 3] releasing, nitrifying bacteria and those from family Enterobacteriaceae. It is ascertained that the number of Ciliata, Flagellata apochromata, Oligochaeta and Rotatoria is strongly decreased in the series of samples treated with xenobiotics. The leading role of micro-organisms in the real detoxification of hazardous pollutants was experimentally confirmed by research.

  5. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, Debaprasad; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  6. Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui; Yu, Man; Zhao, Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.

  7. Washing studies for PCP and creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tobia, R.J.; Camacho, J.M.; Augustin, P.; Griffiths, R.A.; Frederick, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and low silt/fines content of the soil made soil washing a promising alternative to incineration. The bench-scale tests confirmed the feasibility of washing the PCP and the carcinogenic creosote compounds from the soil using a nonionic surfactant at the pH of nine to ten and a water temperature of approximately 120 F. The target concentrations for total creosote were not achieved, but the results were sufficiently close to warrant further testing. The pilot-scale tests using the EPA's mobile Volume Reduction Unit produced residual PCP, carcinogenic creosote, and total creosote levels below the target levels. The tests also produced comparison data on the effects of surfactant concentration, pH, temperature, and liquid:solid ratio. (Copyright (c) 1994 Elsevier Science B.V.)

  8. Pharmacological specificity of some psychotomimetic and antipsychotic agents for the sigma and PCP binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacological specificity of representative psychotomimetic agents such a phencyclidine (PCP) analogs, opiate benzomorphans and several antipsychotic agents was assessed for the sigma and PCP binding sites. In a series of binding experiments, in rat brain membranes, sigma and PCP binding sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexyl) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH), (+)(/sup 3/H)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047) and (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-N-(1-propyl) piperidine and ((+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP). PCP analogs inhibit potently high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding and (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 binding, moderately the low affinity binding component of (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and very weakly (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding. (+)SKF 10047 and cyclazocine are potent to moderate inhibitors of (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047, high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PCP-3-OH binding. The antipsychotic agents display high affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding sites, moderate affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 sites and have no effect on either the high or low affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  10. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-01-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework. PMID:28322256

  11. Ag/AgO Nanoparticles Grown via Time Dependent Double Mechanism in a 2D Layered Ni-PCP and Their Antibacterial Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.; Gupta, Neeraj K.; Singh, Rajan; Nigam, Shivansh; Ateeq, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    A simple synthesis route for growth of Ag/AgO nanoparticles (NPs) in large quantitative yields with narrow size distribution from a functional, non-activated, Ni (II) based highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) as a template has been demonstrated. This template is a stable storage media for the NPs larger than the pore diameters of the PCP. From EPR study it was concluded that NPs were synthesized via two mechanisms i.e. acid formation and the redox activity of the framework. Size range of Ag/AgO NPs is sensitive to choice of solvent and reaction time. Direct use of Ag/AgO@Ni-PCP shows influential growth inhibition towards Escherichia coli and the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium at extremely low concentrations. The pristine template shows no cytotoxic activity, even though it contains Ni nodes in the framework.

  12. A density functional theory for vapor-liquid interfaces using the PCP-SAFT equation of state.

    PubMed

    Gross, Joachim

    2009-11-28

    A Helmholtz energy functional for inhomogeneous fluid phases based on the perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory (PCP-SAFT) equation of state is proposed. The model is supplemented with a capillary wave contribution to the surface tension to account for long-wavelength fluctuations of a vapor-liquid interface. The functional for the dispersive attraction is based on a nonlocal perturbation theory for chain fluids and the difference of the perturbation theory to the dispersion term of the PCP-SAFT equation of state is treated with a local density approximation. This approach suggested by Gloor et al. [Fluid Phase Equilib. 194, 521 (2002)] leads to full compatibility with the PCP-SAFT equation of state. Several levels of approximation are compared for the nonlocal functional of the dispersive attractions. A first-order non-mean-field description is found to be superior to a mean-field treatment, whereas the inclusion of a second-order perturbation term does not contribute significantly to the results. The proposed functional gives excellent results for the surface tension of nonpolar or only moderately polar fluids, such as alkanes, aromatic substances, ethers, and ethanoates. A local density approximation for the polar interactions is sufficient for carbon dioxide as a strongly quadrupolar compound. The surface tension of acetone, as an archetype dipolar fluid, is overestimated, suggesting that a nonisotropic orientational distribution function across an interface should for strong dipolar substances be accounted for.

  13. Retinal ON Bipolar Cells Express a New PCP2 Splice Variant That Accelerates the Light Response

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Pyroja; Feddersen, Rod M.; Liu, Jian; Smith, Robert G.; Vardi, Noga

    2008-01-01

    PCP2, a member of the GoLoco domain-containing family, is present exclusively in cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal ON bipolar cells. Its function in these tissues is unknown. Biochemical and expression system studies suggest that PCP2 is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, although a guanine nucleotide exchange factor has also been suggested. Here, we studied the function of PCP2 in ON bipolar cells because their light response depends on Gαo1, which is known to interact with PCP2. We identified a new splice variant of PCP2 (Ret-PCP2) and localized it to rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells. Electroretinogram recordings from PCP2-null mice showed a normal a-wave but a slower falling phase of the b-wave (generated by the activity of ON bipolar cells) relative to the wild type. Whole-cell recordings from rod bipolar cells showed, both under Ames medium and after blocking GABAA/C and glycine receptors, that PCP2-null rod bipolar cells were more depolarized than wild-type cells with greater inward current when clamped to −60 mV. Also under both conditions, the rise time of the response to intense light was slower by 28% (Ames) and 44% (inhibitory blockers) in the null cells. Under Ames medium, we also observed >30% longer decay time in the PCP2-null rod bipolar cells. We conclude that PCP2 facilitates cation channels closure in the dark, shortens the rise time of the light response directly, and accelerates the decay time indirectly via the inhibitory network. These data can most easily be explained if PCP2 serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. PMID:18768681

  14. Sensorimotor enhancement in mouse mutants lacking the Purkinje cell-specific Gi/o modulator, Pcp2(L7).

    PubMed

    Iscru, Emilia; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Schilling, Karl; Tian, Jinbin; Bowers-Kidder, Stephanie L; Zhang, Rui; Morgan, James I; DeVries, A Courtney; Nelson, Randy J; Zhu, Michael X; Oberdick, John

    2009-01-01

    Pcp2(L7) is a GoLoco domain protein specifically and abundantly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. It has been hypothesized to "tune" G(i/o)-coupled receptor modulation of physiological effectors, including the P-type Ca(2+) channel. We have analyzed a mouse mutant in which the Pcp2(L7) gene was inactivated and find significant anatomical, behavioral and electrophysiological changes. Anatomically, we observed mild cerebellar hypoplasia. Behaviorally, the mutants were altered in modalities atypical for a traditional cerebellar mutant, and oddly, all of these changes could be considered functional enhancements. This includes increased asymptotic performance in gross motor learning, increased rate of acquisition in tone-conditioned fear, and enhanced pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. Electrophysiological analysis of Purkinje cells in the mutants reveals depression of the complex spike waveform that may underlie the behavioral changes. Based on these observations we suggest that the Pcp2(L7) protein acts as a sensorimotor damper that modulates time- and sense-dependent changes in motor responses.

  15. Increased impulsive choice for saccharin during PCP withdrawal in female monkeys: influence of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Kohl, Emily A.; Johnson, Krista M.; LaNasa, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous studies with male and female rhesus monkeys withdrawal of access to oral phencyclidine (PCP) self administration reduced responding for food under a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule more in males than females and with a delay discounting (DD) task with saccharin (SACC) as the reinforcer. Impulsive choice for SACC increased during PCP withdrawal more than females. Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of PCP (0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) withdrawal on impulsive choice for SACC in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods In Component 1 PCP and water were available from 2 drinking spouts for 1.5 h sessions under concurrent FR 16 schedules. In Component 2 a SACC solution was available for 45 min under a DD schedule. Monkeys had a choice of one immediate SACC delivery (0.6 ml) or 6 delayed SACC deliveries, and the delay was increased by 1 sec after a response on the delayed lever and decreased by 1 sec after a response on the immediate lever. There was then a 10-day water substitution phase, or PCP-withdrawal, that occurred during the mid-folllicular phase (Days 7–11) or the late-luteal (Days 24–28) phase of the menstrual cycle. Access to PCP and concurrent water was then restored, and the PCP withdrawal procedure was repeated over several follicular and luteal menstrual phases. Results PCP deliveries were higher during the luteal vs the follicular phase. Impulsive choice was greater during the luteal (vs follicular) phase during withdrawal of the higher PCP concentration. Conclusions PCP withdrawal was associated with elevated impulsive choice for SACC, especially in the luteal (vs follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle in female monkeys. PMID:23344553

  16. Modulating NMDA Receptor Function with D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors: Understanding Functional Activity in PCP-Treated Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sershen, Henry; Hashim, Audrey; Dunlop, David S.; Suckow, Raymond F.; Cooper, Tom B.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function are increasingly linked to persistent negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Accordingly, clinical studies have been targeting the modulatory site of the NMDA receptor, based on the decreased function of NMDA receptor, to see whether increasing NMDA function can potentially help treat the negative and cognitive deficits seen in the disease. Glycine and D-serine are endogenous ligands to the NMDA modulatory site, but since high doses are needed to affect brain levels, related compounds are being developed, for example glycine transport (GlyT) inhibitors to potentially elevate brain glycine or targeting enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) to slow the breakdown and increase the brain level of D-serine. In the present study we further evaluated the effect of DAAO inhibitors 5-chloro-benzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol (CBIO) and sodium benzoate (NaB) in a phencyclidine (PCP) rodent mouse model to see if the inhibitors affect PCP-induced locomotor activity, alter brain D-serine level, and thereby potentially enhance D-serine responses. D-Serine dose-dependently reduced the PCP-induced locomotor activity at doses above 1000 mg/kg. Acute CBIO (30 mg/kg) did not affect PCP-induced locomotor activity, but appeared to reduce locomotor activity when given with D-serine (600 mg/kg); a dose that by itself did not have an effect. However, the effect was also present when the vehicle (Trappsol®) was tested with D-serine, suggesting that the reduction in locomotor activity was not related to DAAO inhibition, but possibly reflected enhanced bioavailability of D-serine across the blood brain barrier related to the vehicle. With this acute dose of CBIO, D-serine level in brain and plasma were not increased. Another weaker DAAO inhibitor sodium benzoate (NaB) (400 mg/kg), and NaB plus D-serine also significantly reduced PCP-induced locomotor activity, but without affecting plasma or brain D-serine level

  17. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  18. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  19. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  20. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  1. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? (a) As the MRO, you must verify a confirmed positive test result for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, and/or PCP unless the employee presents...

  2. Interaction between phencyclidine (PCP) and GABA-ergic drugs: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Menon, M K; Clark, W G; Vivonia, C

    1980-01-01

    Pretreatment (IP) of mice with (-) baclofen, muscimol, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (S,4-c) pyridin-3-ol hydrate (THIP), aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or gamma-acetylenic GABA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of thelocomotor stimulant effect of phencyclidine (PCP, 8 mg/kg). Although (-) baclofen was found to be the most effective PCP antagonist, its (+) isomer was inactive. The maximum blocking effect of AOAA was seen in animals treated 3 and 6 hr earlier. Except for gamma-acetylenic GABA, none of these drugs significantly blocked the locomotor stimulant effect of d-amphetamine (3 mg/kg, IP). Diazepam reduced d-amphetamine response, but failed to influence PCP-induced stimulation. The locomotor stimulant effect of PCP, unlike that of d-amphetamine, may be the result of a specific GABA antagonistic effect at certain dopamine-rich areas of the brain. It seems that (-) baclofen may prove to be useful in the management of PCP intoxication. Administration of higher doses of PCP (20 and 50 mg/kg) in mice pretreated with (-) baclofen resulted in the development of surgical anesthesia manifested as the loss of a) righting reflex, b) pain sensation and c) corneal reflex. The duration of the general anesthetic response was found to be a function of the doses of both (-) baclofen and PCP. The possible use of (-) baclofen as an adjuvant to general anesthetic is discussed.

  3. Bioremediation of PCP and creosote contaminated soil using white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, D.M.; Barkley, N.

    1995-11-01

    The ability of white-rot fungus to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil, which was contaminated with commercial wood preservatives, was demonstrated in a field study. Inoculation of soil containing 968 {micro}g of PCP g{sup {minus}1} and 1,420 {micro}g of total PAHs g{sup {minus}1} with Phanerochaete sordida resulted in an overall decrease of 71% of PCP and 59% of total PAHs in the soil in 20 weeks. Over the same period, in soil containing 855 {micro}g of PCP g{sup {minus}1} and 1,050 {micro}g of total PAHs g{sup {minus}1} which was amended with sterile spawn (i.e., not containing P. sordida) material, an overall decrease of 69% of PCP and 66% of total PAHs was observed. And, in soil containing 746 {micro}g of PCP g{sup {minus}1} and 1,100 {micro}g of total PAHs g{sup {minus}1}, which was neither inoculated with P. sordida nor amended with the sterile spawn material, an overall decrease of 14% of PCP and 65% of total PAHs was observed. Results indicate that the degradation rates and percent reductions of PCP and PAHs in the inoculated and the amended soils were statistically the same. Percent reductions and degradation rates of PCP and the 4- and 5-ring PAHs in the inoculated and amended soils were significantly higher than in the nonamended soil. In contrast, reductions and degradation rates of 2- and 3-ring PAHs in the nonamended soil were significantly higher than in either the inoculated or amended soils. Overall reductions in total PAHs in the three soils were statistically identical.

  4. Dishevelled genes mediate a conserved mammalian PCP pathway to regulate convergent extension during neurulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianbo; Hamblet, Natasha S.; Mark, Sharayne; Dickinson, Mary E.; Brinkman, Brendan C.; Segil, Neil; Fraser, Scott E.; Chen, Ping; Wallingford, John B.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is conserved throughout evolution, but it mediates distinct developmental processes. In Drosophila, members of the PCP pathway localize in a polarized fashion to specify the cellular polarity within the plane of the epithelium, perpendicular to the apicobasal axis of the cell. In Xenopus and zebrafish, several homologs of the components of the fly PCP pathway control convergent extension. We have shown previously that mammalian PCP homologs regulate both cell polarity and polarized extension in the cochlea in the mouse. Here we show, using mice with null mutations in two mammalian Dishevelled homologs, Dvl1 and Dvl2, that during neurulation a homologous mammalian PCP pathway regulates concomitant lengthening and narrowing of the neural plate, a morphogenetic process defined as convergent extension. Dvl2 genetically interacts with Loop-tail, a point mutation in the mammalian PCP gene Vangl2, during neurulation. By generating Dvl2 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenes and introducing different domain deletions and a point mutation identical to the dsh1 allele in fly, we further demonstrated a high degree of conservation between Dvl function in mammalian convergent extension and the PCP pathway in fly. In the neuroepithelium of neurulating embryos, Dvl2 shows DEP domain-dependent membrane localization, a pre-requisite for its involvement in convergent extension. Intriguing, the Loop-tail mutation that disrupts both convergent extension in the neuroepithelium and PCP in the cochlea does not disrupt Dvl2 membrane distribution in the neuroepithelium, in contrast to its drastic effect on Dvl2 localization in the cochlea. These results are discussed in light of recent models on PCP and convergent extension. PMID:16571627

  5. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  6. PCP-induced deficits in murine nest building activity: employment of an ethological rodent behavior to mimic negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christian Spang; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Parachikova, Anna I; Plath, Niels

    2014-10-15

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by three symptom domains, positive (hallucinations, obsession), negative (social withdrawal, apathy, self-neglect) and cognitive (impairment in attention, memory and executive function). Whereas current medication ameliorates positive symptomatology, negative symptoms as well as cognitive dysfunctions remain untreated. The development of improved therapies for negative symptoms has proven particularly difficult, in part due to the inability of mimicking these in rodents. Here, we address the predictive validity of combining an ethologically well preserved behavior in rodents, namely nest building activity, with an established animal model of schizophrenia, the sub-chronic PCP model, for negative symptoms. Decline in rodent nesting activity has been suggested to mirror domains of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including social withdrawal, anhedonia and self-neglect, whereas repeated treatment with the NMDAR antagonist PCP induces and exacerbates schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents and human subjects. Using a back-translational approach of pharmacological validation, we tested the effects of two agents targeting the nicotinic α7 receptor (EVP-6124 and TC-5619) that were reported to exert some beneficial effect on negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Sub-chronic PCP treatment resulted in a significant nest building deficit in mice and treatment with EVP-6124 and TC-5619 reversed this PCP-induced deficit. In contrast, the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone remained ineffective in this assay. In addition, EVP-6124, TC-5619 and risperidone were tested in the Social Interaction Test (SIT), an assay suggested to address negative-like symptoms. Results obtained in SIT were comparable to results in the nest building test (NEST). Based on these findings, we propose nest building in combination with the sub-chronic PCP model as a novel approach to assess negative-like symptoms of schizophrenia

  7. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? You should first make a list of ...

  8. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? Here are some ways to find a ...

  9. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP, AND CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory condcuted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stablization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. For one o...

  10. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  11. Damped propagation of cell polarization explains distinct PCP phenotypes of epithelial patterning

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Owen, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    During epithelial patterning in metazoans cells are polarized in the plane of a tissue, a process referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP). Interactions between a few molecules produce distinct phenotypes in diverse tissues in animals from flies to humans and make PCP tightly associated with tissue and organ growth control. An interesting question is whether these phenotypes share common traits. Previous computational models revealed how PCP signalling determines cell polarization in some specific contexts. We have developed a computational model, examined PCP signalling in varied molecular contexts, and revealed how details of molecular interactions and differences in molecular contexts affect the direction, speed, and propagation of cell polarization. The main finding is that damped propagation of cell polarization can generate rich variances in phenotypes of domineering non-autonomy and error correction in different contexts. These results impressively demonstrate how simple molecular interactions cause distinct, yet inherently analogous, developmental patterning. PMID:23995897

  12. The involvement of PCP proteins in radial cell intercalations during Xenopus embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Chu, Chih-Wen; Fillatre, Jonathan; Brott, Barbara K.; Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2015-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway orients cells in diverse epithelial tissues in Drosophila and vertebrate embryos and has been implicated in many human congenital defects and diseases, such as ciliopathies, polycystic kidney disease and malignant cancers. During vertebrate gastrulation and neurulation, PCP signaling is required for convergent extension movements, which are primarily driven by mediolateral cell intercalations, whereas the role for PCP signaling in radial cell intercalations has been unclear. In this study, we examine the function of the core PCP proteins Vangl2, Prickle3 (Pk3) and Disheveled in the ectodermal cells, which undergo radial intercalations during Xenopus gastrulation and neurulation. In the epidermis, multiciliated cell (MCC) progenitors originate in the inner layer, but subsequently migrate to the embryo surface during neurulation. We find that the Vangl2/Pk protein complexes are enriched at the apical domain of intercalating MCCs and are essential for the MCC intercalatory behavior. Addressing the underlying mechanism, we identified KIF13B, as a motor protein that binds Disheveled. KIF13B is required for MCC intercalation and acts synergistically with Vangl2 and Disheveled, indicating that it may mediate microtubule-dependent trafficking of PCP proteins necessary for cell shape regulation. In the neural plate, the Vangl2/Pk complexes were also concentrated near the outermost surface of deep layer cells, suggesting a general role for PCP in radial intercalation. Consistent with this hypothesis, the ectodermal tissues deficient in Vangl2 or Disheveled functions contained more cell layers than normal tissues. We propose that PCP signaling is essential for both mediolateral and radial cell intercalations during vertebrate morphogenesis. These expanded roles underscore the significance of vertebrate PCP proteins as factors contributing to a number of diseases, including neural tube defects, tumor metastases, and various genetic

  13. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  14. The role of P2X7 receptors in a rodent PCP-induced schizophrenia model

    PubMed Central

    Koványi, Bence; Csölle, Cecilia; Calovi, Stefano; Hanuska, Adrienn; Kató, Erzsébet; Köles, László; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Haller, József; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2016-01-01

    P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are ligand-gated ion channels sensitive to extracellular ATP. Here we examined for the first time the role of P2X7R in an animal model of schizophrenia. Using the PCP induced schizophrenia model we show that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of P2X7Rs alleviate schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations. In P2rx7+/+ mice, PCP induced hyperlocomotion, stereotype behavior, ataxia and social withdrawal. In P2X7 receptor deficient mice (P2rx7−/−), the social interactions were increased, whereas the PCP induced hyperlocomotion and stereotype behavior were alleviated. The selective P2X7 receptor antagonist JNJ-47965567 partly replicated the effect of gene deficiency on PCP-induced behavioral changes and counteracted PCP-induced social withdrawal. We also show that PCP treatment upregulates and increases the functional responsiveness of P2X7Rs in the prefrontal cortex of young adult animals. The amplitude of NMDA evoked currents recorded from layer V pyramidal neurons of cortical slices were slightly decreased by both genetic deletion of P2rx7 and by JNJ-47965567. PCP induced alterations in mRNA expression encoding schizophrenia-related genes, such as NR2A, NR2B, neuregulin 1, NR1 and GABA α1 subunit were absent in the PFC of young adult P2rx7−/− animals. Our findings point to P2X7R as a potential therapeutic target in schizophrenia. PMID:27824163

  15. Use of EAF dust as heterogeneous catalyst in Fenton oxidation of PCP contaminated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, R; Di Palma, L; Pilone, D; Cerboni, L

    2006-09-21

    In this study, chemical oxidation tests using H2O2 were performed on a solution contaminated with 100 mg l(-1) of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The effectiveness of electric arc furnace dust and hematite as heterogeneous catalysts was evaluated. Reactions were conducted at pH 2 for 24 h. Either H2O2 stabilized with KH2PO4 or un-stabilized H2O2 was used. Total organic carbon (T.O.C.) removal and chloride release from PCP molecule were monitored. Results showed that the maximum removal yields for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust (49.2% T.O.C., 56.7% Cl) were achieved when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:5 for unstabilized H2O2 and when H2O2:PCP = 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:1 for stabilized H2O2 (48% T.O.C., 60.6% Cl). The maximum yield using hematite (45.2% T.O.C., 55.2% Cl) was obtained when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 was 1:2. When EAF dust was used and Fe:H2O2 > 1:5, Cl release was higher than the one expected from T.O.C. removal.

  16. Sorption-desorption behavior of PCP on soil organic matter and clay minerals.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xunchi; Cutright, Teresa J

    2006-08-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination is a severe environmental problem due to its widespread occurrence, toxicity and recalcitrance. In order to gain a better understanding of the fate of PCP in soils, the role of the soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals in the PCP sorption-desorption was studied on two bulk field soils, two subsoils (i.e., SOM or clay-removed soil) and two artificial soils. The two field soils used were a silty loam from New Mexico (NM) containing 10% clay and a sandy-clay-loam from Colombia (CO) South America comprised of 18% clay minerals. The bulk CO soil containing kaolinite sorbed significantly less PCP than the NM soil. All soils depicted an apparent hysteresis during sorption. The CO bulk and subsoils desorbed 14-20% and 15-26% of the sorbed PCP respectively whereas the NM bulk and subsoils desorbed only 4-12% and 5-16%, respectively. Experiments conducted with pure clay and artificial soils indicated that the expandable clay minerals were key sorbent material. Additional studies to investigate the interaction between SOM and clay minerals are needed to fully understand sorptive phenomena.

  17. Transcriptional changes induced by in vivo exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Chironomus riparius (Diptera) aquatic larvae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mónica; Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Martín, Raquel; Planelló, Rosario; Urien, Josune; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2014-12-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been extensively used worldwide as a pesticide and biocide and is frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In the present work, the toxicity of PCP was investigated in Chironomus riparius aquatic larvae. The effects following short- and long-term exposures were evaluated at the molecular level by analyzing changes in the transcriptional profile of different endocrine genes, as well as in genes involved in the stress response and detoxification. Interestingly, although no differences were found after 12- and 24-h treatments, at 96-h exposures PCP was able to induce significant increases in transcripts from the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), the early ecdysone-inducible E74 gene, the estrogen-related receptor gene (ERR), the Hsp70 gene and the CYP4G gene. In contrast, the Hsp27 gene appeared to be downregulated, while the ultraspiracle gene (usp) (insect ortholog of the retinoid X receptor) was not altered in any of the conditions assayed. Moreover, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) activity was not affected. The results obtained show the ability of PCP to modulate transcription of different biomarker genes from important cellular metabolic activities, which could be useful in genomic approaches to monitoring. In particular, the significant upregulation of hormonal genes represents the first evidence at the genomic level of the potential endocrine disruptive effects of PCP on aquatic invertebrates.

  18. The primary care provider (PCP)-cancer specialist relationship: A systematic review and mixed-methods meta-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Lesly A; Hudson, Janella N; Morris, Arden M; Lee, M Catherine; Roetzheim, Richard G; Fetters, Michael D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-03-01

    Although they are critical to models of coordinated care, the relationship and communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and cancer specialists throughout the cancer continuum are poorly understood. By using predefined search terms, the authors conducted a systematic review of the literature in 3 databases to examine the relationship and communication between PCPs and cancer specialists. Among 301 articles identified, 35 met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed in-depth. Findings from qualitative, quantitative, and disaggregated mixed-methods studies were integrated using meta-synthesis. Six themes were identified and incorporated into a preliminary conceptual model of the PCP-cancer specialist relationship: 1) poor and delayed communication between PCPs and cancer specialists, 2) cancer specialists' endorsement of a specialist-based model of care, 3) PCPs' belief that they play an important role in the cancer continuum, 4) PCPs' willingness to participate in the cancer continuum, 5) cancer specialists' and PCPs' uncertainty regarding the PCP's oncology knowledge/experience, and 6) discrepancies between PCPs and cancer specialists regarding roles. These data indicate a pervasive need for improved communication, delineation, and coordination of responsibilities between PCPs and cancer specialists. Future interventions aimed at these deficiencies may improve patient and physician satisfaction and cancer care coordination. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:156-169. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. Impact of electrokinetic remediation on microbial communities within PCP contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lear, G; Harbottle, M J; Sills, G; Knowles, C J; Semple, K T; Thompson, I P

    2007-03-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have been used to stimulate the removal of organic pollutants within soil, by directing contaminant migration to where remediation may be more easily achieved. The effect of this and other physical remediation techniques on the health of soil microbial communities has been poorly studied and indeed, largely ignored. This study reports the impact on soil microbial communities during the application of an electric field within ex situ laboratory soil microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP; 100mg kg(-1) oven dry soil). Electrokinetics reduced counts of culturable bacteria and fungi, soil microbial respiration and carbon substrate utilisation, especially close to the acidic anode where PCP accumulated (36d), perhaps exacerbated by the greater toxicity of PCP at lower soil pH. There is little doubt that a better awareness of the interactions between soil electrokinetic processes and microbial communities is key to improving the efficacy and sustainability of this remediation strategy.

  20. Distinct physiological and developmental properties of hippocampal CA2 subfield revealed by using anti-Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) immunostaining

    PubMed Central

    San Antonio, Andrew; Liban, Kristopher; Ikrar, Taruna; Tsyganovskiy, Eugene; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subfield was initially identified by Lorente de Nó as an anatomically distinct region based on its cytoarchitectural features. Although there is an enormous body of literature on other hippocampal subfields (CA1 and CA3), relatively little is known about the physiological and developmental properties of CA2. Here we report identification of the CA2 region in the mouse by immunostaining with a Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) antibody, which effectively delineates CA3/CA2 and CA2/CA1 borders and agrees well with previous cytoarchitectural definitions of CA2. The PCP4 immunostaining–delineated CA2 neurons have distinguishable differences in cell morphology, physiology, and synaptic circuit connections compared with distal CA3 and proximal CA1 regions. The average somatic sizes of excitatory cells differ across CA1–3, with the smallest to largest somatic size being CA1PCP4 and other marker expressions, these neurons have less distinct neurophysiological and morphological properties. Developmental examination revealed that PCP4 immunostaining first appears at postnatal day 4–5 and becomes successively more refined around CA2 until reaching adult form by postnatal day 21. J. Comp. Neurol. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:1333–1354, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24166578

  1. Brief exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during late development leads to long-term learning deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    White, Ilsun M; Minamoto, Takehiro; Odell, Joseph R; Mayhorn, Joseph; White, Wesley

    2009-04-17

    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during early development is thought to produce later behavioral deficits. We postulated that exposure to METH and PCP during later development would produce similar behavioral deficits, particularly learning deficits in adulthood. Wistar rats were treated with METH (9 mg/kg), PCP (9 mg/kg), or saline during later development, postnatal days (PD) 50-51, and subsequent behavioral changes were examined including: locomotor activity during the acute drug state (PD 50-51) and the post-drug phase (PD 50-80); social interaction on PD 54-80; and spatial discrimination and reversal in adulthood (after PD 90). METH and PCP differentially affected locomotion during the acute state, but not during the post-drug phase. METH decreased social interaction throughout tests two weeks after drug treatment, whereas PCP decreased social interaction only during the first 8 min of tests. Neither METH nor PCP impaired initial acquisition of spatial discrimination. However, reversal was significantly impaired by PCP, whereas METH produced a mild deficit, compared to controls. Our data provide evidence that exposure to PCP and METH during later development lead to enduring cognitive deficits in adulthood. Selective impairment of reversal may reflect neurological damage in the prefrontal cortex due to early exposure to drugs.

  2. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia.

  3. RESULTS OF A METHOD VERIFICATION STUDY FOR ANALYSES OF PCP IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a prelude to a field demonstration of the fungal treatment technology by the SITE Program, a field treatability study was performed to select optimal fungal species and loading rates.using the site-specific soil matrix contaminated with Wood preserving wastes: PCP and PAHS. ur...

  4. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL RELEASE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM PCP-TREATED UTILITY POLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that the use of technical grade pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1970 and 1995 to treat wood was approximately 400,000 metric tons in the US, and that between 4,800 and 36,000 grams of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiben...

  5. EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) FROM SOILS USING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN ACID SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of organic contaminants like PCP in soil is a major environmental concern. Various remediation methods have been used of which soil washing is a common procedure. Many different solvents like surfactants, ionic liquids and cyclodextrins have been studied. the pres...

  6. Model for PCP contracts offers right incentives for Medicare, Medicaid providers.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    Consider this model for PCP contracting. Provider organizations in Medicare and Medicaid often structure arrangements with their primary care providers that set up the organizations--and the doctors--to fail. An actuary from Milliman & Robertson in Seattle illustrates how to establish the right kinds of incentives for PCPs.

  7. Secreted frizzled-related protein disrupts PCP in eye lens fiber cells that have polarised primary cilia

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Stump, Richard J. W.; Nguyen, Anke; Wen, Li; Chen, Yongjuan; Wang, Yanshu; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Lovicu, Frank J.; McAvoy, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling polarises cells along tissue axes. Although pathways involved are becoming better understood, outstanding issues include; (i) existence/identity of cues that orchestrate global polarisation in tissues, and (ii) the generality of the link between polarisation of primary cilia and asymmetric localisation of PCP proteins. Mammalian lenses are mainly comprised of epithelial-derived fiber cells. Concentrically arranged fibers are precisely aligned as they elongate along the anterior-posterior axis and orientate towards lens poles where they meet fibers from other segments to form characteristic sutures. We show that lens exhibits PCP, with each fiber cell having a apically situated cilium and in most cases this is polarised towards the anterior pole. Frizzled and other PCP proteins are also asymmetrically localised along the equatorial-anterior axis. Mutations in core PCP genes Van Gogh-like 2 and Celsr1 perturb oriented fiber alignment and suture formation. Suppression of the PCP pathway by overexpressing Sfrp2, shows that whilst local groups of fibers are often similarly oriented, they lack global orientation; consequently when local groups of fibers with different orientations meet they form multiple, small, ectopic suture-like configurations. This indicates that this extracellular inhibitor disrupts a global polarising signal that utilises a PCP-mediated mechanism to coordinate the global alignment and orientation of fibers to lens poles. PMID:19968984

  8. The PCP effector Fuzzy controls cilial assembly and signaling by recruiting Rab8 and Dishevelled to the primary cilium

    PubMed Central

    Zilber, Yulia; Babayeva, Sima; Seo, Jung Hwa; Liu, Jia Jia; Mootin, Steven; Torban, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls multiple cellular processes during vertebrate development. Recently the PCP pathway was implicated in ciliogenesis and in ciliary function. The primary cilium is an apically projecting solitary organelle that is generated via polarized intracellular trafficking. Because it acts as a signaling nexus, defects in ciliogenesis or cilial function cause multiple congenital anomalies in vertebrates. Loss of the PCP effector Fuzzy affects PCP signaling and formation of primary cilia; however, the mechanisms underlying these processes are largely unknown. Here we report that Fuzzy localizes to the basal body and ciliary axoneme and is essential for ciliogenesis by delivering Rab8 to the basal body and primary cilium. Fuzzy appears to control subcellular localization of the core PCP protein Dishevelled, recruiting it to Rab8-positive vesicles and to the basal body and cilium. We show that loss of Fuzzy results in inhibition of PCP signaling and hyperactivation of the canonical WNT pathway. We propose a mechanism by which Fuzzy participates in ciliogenesis and affects both canonical WNT and PCP signaling. PMID:23303251

  9. PCP Signaling between Migrating Neurons and their Planar-Polarized Neuroepithelial Environment Controls Filopodial Dynamics and Directional Migration

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Cecilia B.

    2016-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a cell-contact mediated mechanism for transmitting polarity information between neighboring cells. PCP “core components” (Vangl, Fz, Pk, Dsh, and Celsr) are essential for a number of cell migratory events including the posterior migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the plane of the hindbrain neuroepithelium in zebrafish and mice. While the mechanism by which PCP signaling polarizes static epithelial cells is well understood, how PCP signaling controls highly dynamic processes like neuronal migration remains an important outstanding question given that PCP components have been implicated in a range of directed cell movements, particularly during vertebrate development. Here, by systematically disrupting PCP signaling in a rhombomere-restricted manner we show that PCP signaling is required both within FBMNs and the hindbrain rhombomere 4 environment at the time when they initiate their migration. Correspondingly, we demonstrate planar polarized localization of PCP core components Vangl2 and Fzd3a in the hindbrain neuroepithelium, and transient localization of Vangl2 at the tips of retracting FBMN filopodia. Using high-resolution timelapse imaging of FBMNs in genetic chimeras we uncover opposing cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions for Fzd3a and Vangl2 in regulating FBMN protrusive activity. Within FBMNs, Fzd3a is required to stabilize filopodia while Vangl2 has an antagonistic, destabilizing role. However, in the migratory environment Fzd3a acts to destabilize FBMN filopodia while Vangl2 has a stabilizing role. Together, our findings suggest a model in which PCP signaling between the planar polarized neuroepithelial environment and FBMNs directs migration by the selective stabilization of FBMN filopodia. PMID:26990447

  10. Measurement of an explosive behavior in the mouse, induced by MK-801, a PCP analogue.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, S I; Hitri, A

    1993-06-01

    MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex that binds with high-affinity to the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site, stimulated an outbred strain of NIH Swiss mice to display discrete episodes of explosive jumping behavior, designated as "popping." The episodes of this behavior were characterized with respect to their dose dependency, latency, and duration. The number of mice displaying this behavior increased with increasing doses of MK-801. The intensity of the popping behavior was sensitive to dose-dependent inhibition by haloperidol, a conventional antipsychotic medication, and clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication. In view of PCP's ability to precipitate a schizophreniform psychosis in humans, the behavior may serve as a useful preclinical paradigm for the screening of potentially novel antipsychotic medications.

  11. Reduction of pollutants in pulp paper mill effluent treated by PCP-degrading bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Raj, Abhay; Yadav, Sangeeta; Patel, Devendra Kumar

    2009-08-01

    Two PCP-degrading bacterial strains, Bacillus cereus (ITRC-S6) and Serratia marcescens (ITRC-S7) were used for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent at conditions; 1.0% glucose and 0.5% peptone at 30 +/- 1 degrees C at 120 rpm for 168 h of incubation. These two bacterial strains effectively reduced colour (45-52%), lignin (30-42%), BOD (40-70%), COD (50-60%), total phenol (32-40%) and PCP (85-90%) within 168 h of incubation. However, the highest reduction in colour (62%), lignin (54%), BOD (70%), COD (90%), total phenol (90%) and PCP (100%) was recorded by mixed culture treatment. The bacterial mechanism for the degradation of pulp and paper mill effluent may be explained by an increase in the cells biomass using added co-substrates resulting liberation of significant amount of chloride due to bacterial dechlorination of chlorolignins and chlorophenols this showed reduction in colour, lignin and toxicity in the effluent. Further, GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate-extractable compounds from treated pulp paper mill effluent reinforces the bacterium capability for the degradation of lignin and pentachlorophenol, as many aromatic compounds such as 2-chlorophenol, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone, 6-chlorohydroxyquinol and tetrachlorohydroquinone detected which were not present in the untreated effluent.

  12. Desorptive behavior of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and phenanthrene in soil-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, C.; Chaouki, J.; Chavarie, C.

    2000-04-01

    Recent investigations have prompted the need for a better understanding of the complete desorptive behavior of hydrophobic organic compounds in soils. The present study evaluated the irreversibilities associated with the desorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and phenanthrene from different types of soils. The study also examined the influence of solid-liquid ratio of the current batch desorption tests, specifically the completeness and accuracy of data gathered for establishing isotherms. Results demonstrated that the desorption of PCP and phenanthrene from contaminated soils can lead to three different types of behavior: complete reversibility, partial reversibility, or total irreversibility. The equilibrium adsorption constant (K{sub d}) is identified as a key parameter that indirectly sets the extent of hysteresis during the reverse process of desorption. According to the data, irreversibility occurs more in soils with a large adsorption capacity, that is, when K{sub d} is approximately 50 mL/g or more in the case of the phenanthrene- and PCP-soil systems evaluated. Furthermore, to facilitate the desorption experiments overall, the study proposes selection criteria for the solid-liquid ratio of batch tests to allow for variations in the adsorption capacity of each soil.

  13. Planar Cell Polarity Effector Fritz Interacts with Dishevelled and Has Multiple Functions in Regulating PCP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Naturale, Victor F; Adler, Paul N

    2017-03-03

    The Planar cell Polarity Effector (PPE) genes inturned, fuzzy and fritz are downstream components in the frizzled/starry night signaling pathway, and their function is instructed by upstream Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) core genes such as frizzled and disheveled PPE proteins accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells and function in a protein complex mediated by direct interactions between In and Frtz and In and Fy. How the PCP proteins instruct the accumulation of PPE protein is unknown. We found a likely direct interaction between Dishevelled and Fritz and Dishevelled and Fuzzy that could play a role in this. We previously found that mild over expression of frtz rescued a weak in allele. To determine if this was due to extra Frtz stabilizing mutant In or due to Frtz being able to bypass the need for In we generate a precise deletion of the inturned gene (in(PD) ). We found that mild overexpression of Fritz partially rescued in(PD) , indicating that fritz has In independent activity in PCP. Previous studies of PPE proteins used fixed tissues, and did not provide any insights into the dynamic properties of PPE proteins. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to edit the fritz gene to add a green fluorescent protein tag. fritz(m)(NeonGreen) provides complete rescue activity and works well for in vivo imaging. Our data showed that Fritz is very dynamic in epidermal cells and preferentially distributed to discrete membrane subdomains ("puncta"). Surprisingly, we found it in stripes in developing bristles.

  14. The planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Diversin translocates to the nucleus to interact with the transcription factor AF9

    SciTech Connect

    Haribaskar, Ramachandran; Puetz, Michael; Schupp, Birte; Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Walz, Gerd; Schaefer, Tobias

    2009-09-11

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a {beta}-catenin-independent branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, orients cells and their appendages with respect to the body axes. Diversin, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein Diego, acts as a molecular switch that blocks {beta}-catenin-dependent and promotes {beta}-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. We report now that Diversin, containing several nuclear localization signals, translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the transcription factor AF9. Both Diversin and AF9 block canonical Wnt signaling; however, this occurs independently of each other, and does not require nuclear Diversin. In contrast, AF9 strongly augments the Diversin-driven activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent gene expression in the nucleus, and this augmentation largely depends on the presence of nuclear Diversin. Thus, our findings reveal that components of the PCP cascade translocate to the nucleus to participate in transcriptional regulation and PCP signaling.

  15. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software).

  16. Bioremediation of a Chilean Andisol contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) by solid substrate cultures of white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, O; Tortella, G; Cea, M; Acevedo, F; Bustamante, M; Gianfreda, L; Diez, M C

    2011-02-01

    This study provides a first attempt investigation of a serie of studies on the ability of Anthracophyllum discolor, a recently isolated white-rot fungus from forest of southern Chile, for the treatment of soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) to future research on potential applications in bioremediation process. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with PCP (250 and 350 mg kg⁻¹ soil) was investigated with A. discolor and compared with the reference strain Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both strains were incorporated as free and immobilized in wheat grains, a lignocellulosic material previously selected among wheat straw, wheat grains and wood chips through the growth and colonization of A. discolor. Wheat grains showed a higher growth and colonization of A. discolor, increasing the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity. Moreover, the application of white-rot fungi immobilized in wheat grains to the contaminated soil favored the fungus spread. In turn, with both fungal strains and at the two PCP concentrations a high PCP removal (70-85%) occurred as respect to that measured with the fungus as free mycelium (30-45%). Additionally, the use of wheat grains in soil allowed the proliferation of microorganisms PCP decomposers, showing a synergistic effect with A. discolor and P. chrysosporium and increasing the PCP removal in the soil.

  17. Olanzapine Prevents the PCP-induced Reduction in the Neurite Outgrowth of Prefrontal Cortical Neurons via NRG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Yinghua; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-19

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reducing neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the pathology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) can induce symptoms of schizophrenia as well as reduce dendritic spine density and neurite growth. The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may improve these deficits. This study aimed to investigate: (1) if olanzapine prevents PCP-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression; (2) if olanzapine affects the Akt-GSK3 signaling pathway; and (3) the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in this process. Immunofluorescence revealed that PCP treatment for 24 hours reduces both neurite length (28.5%) and the number of neurite branches (35.6%) in primary prefrontal cortical neuron cultures. PCP reduced protein and mRNA expressions of synaptophysin (24.9% and 23.2%, respectively) and PSD95 (31.5% and 21.4%, respectively), and the protein expression of p-Akt (26.7%) and p-GSK3β (35.2%). Olanzapine co-treatment prevented these PCP-induced effects in normal neurons but not in neurons from NRG1-knockout mice. These results indicate that NRG1 mediates the preventive effects of olanzapine on the PCP-induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression. This study provides potential targets for interventions on improving the efficacy of olanzapine on preventing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  18. A one-dimensional model of PCP signaling: polarized cell behavior in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona

    PubMed Central

    Kourakis, Matthew J.; Reeves, Wendy; Newman-Smith, Erin; Maury, Benoit; Abdul-Wajid, Sarah; Smith, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in development and physiology the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway remains one of the most enigmatic signaling mechanisms. The notochord of the ascidian Ciona provides a unique model for investigating the PCP pathway. Interestingly, the notochord appears to be the only embryonic structure in Ciona activating the PCP pathway. Moreover, the Ciona notochord as a single-file array of forty polarized cells is a uniquely tractable system for the study of polarization dynamics and the transmission of the PCP pathway. Here, we test models for propagation of a polarizing signal, interrogating temporal, spatial and signaling requirements. A simple cell-cell relay cascading through the entire length of the notochord is not supported; instead a more complex mechanism is revealed, with interactions influencing polarity between neighboring cells, but not distant ones. Mechanisms coordinating notochord-wide polarity remain elusive, but appear to entrain general (i.e., global) polarity even while local interactions remain important. However, this global polarizer does not appear to act as a localized, spatially-restricted determinant. Coordination of polarity along the long axis of the notochord requires the PCP pathway, a role we demonstrate is temporally distinct from this pathway’s earlier role in convergent extension and intercalation. We also reveal polarity in the notochord to be dynamic: a cell’s polarity state can be changed and then restored, underscoring the Ciona notochord’s amenability for in vivo studies of PCP. PMID:25173874

  19. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    1986-03-05

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.

  20. Evidence for Natural Horizontal Transfer of the pcpB Gene in the Evolution of Polychlorophenol-Degrading Sphingomonads

    PubMed Central

    Tiirola, Marja A.; Wang, Hong; Paulin, Lars; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2002-01-01

    The chlorophenol degradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum is initiated by the pcpB gene product, pentachlorophenol-4-monooxygenase. The distribution of the gene was studied in a phylogenetically diverse group of polychlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater in Kärkölä, Finland. All the sphingomonads isolated were shown to share pcpB gene homologs with 98.9 to 100% sequence identity. The gene product was expressed when the strains were induced by 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. A comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA and pcpB gene trees suggested that a recent horizontal transfer of the pcpB gene was involved in the evolution of the catabolic pathway in the Kärkölä sphingomonads. The full-length Kärkölä pcpB gene allele had approximately 70% identity with the three pcpB genes previously sequenced from sphingomonads. It was very closely related to the environmental clones obtained from chlorophenol-enriched soil samples (M. Beaulieu, V. Becaert, L. Deschenes, and R. Villemur, Microbiol. Ecol. 40:345-355, 2000). The gene was not present in polychlorophenol-degrading nonsphingomonads isolated from the Kärkölä source. PMID:12200305

  1. Planar Cell Polarity Effector Fritz Interacts with Dishevelled and Has Multiple Functions in Regulating PCP

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Naturale, Victor F.; Adler, Paul N.

    2017-01-01

    The Planar cell Polarity Effector (PPE) genes inturned, fuzzy, and fritz are downstream components in the frizzled/starry night signaling pathway, and their function is instructed by upstream Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) core genes such as frizzled and dishevelled. PPE proteins accumulate asymmetrically in wing cells and function in a protein complex mediated by direct interactions between In and Frtz and In and Fy. How the PCP proteins instruct the accumulation of PPE protein is unknown. We found a likely direct interaction between Dishevelled and Fritz and Dishevelled and Fuzzy that could play a role in this. We previously found that mild overexpression of frtz rescued a weak in allele. To determine if this was due to extra Frtz stabilizing mutant In or due to Frtz being able to bypass the need for In we generate a precise deletion of the inturned gene (inPD). We found that mild overexpression of Fritz partially rescued inPD, indicating that fritz has In independent activity in PCP. Previous studies of PPE proteins used fixed tissues, and did not provide any insights into the dynamic properties of PPE proteins. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology to edit the fritz gene to add a green fluorescent protein tag. fritzmNeonGreen provides complete rescue activity and works well for in vivo imaging. Our data showed that Fritz is very dynamic in epidermal cells and preferentially distributed to discrete membrane subdomains (“puncta”). Surprisingly, we found it in stripes in developing bristles. PMID:28258110

  2. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  3. Wood treating sites: Analysis of PCP and creosote using on-site mobile high hazard laboratory. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Laboratory Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) methods are normally employed to determine pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote contaminant levels in soil samples from hazardous waste sites. Laboratory GC/MS methods can be modified for field (on-site) use to provide timely results while maintaining high data quality. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team (U.S. EPA/ERT), through its Response Engineering and Analytical Contract (REAC), has developed field GC/MS methods to provide timely, reliable, and cost-effective PCP and creosote analyses needed by site managers to guide remediation and removal activities.

  4. Structural characterization of 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase (PcpA) from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a new type of aromatic ring-cleavage enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Robert P.; Green, Abigail R.; Nissen, Mark S.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    Summary PcpA (2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase) from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum, a non-haem Fe(II) dioxygenase capable of cleaving the aromatic ring of p-hydroquinone and its substituted variants, is a member of the recently discovered p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases. Here we report the 2.6 Å structure of PcpA, which consists of four βαβββ motifs, a hallmark of the vicinal oxygen chelate superfamily. The secondary co-ordination sphere of the Fe(II) centre forms an extensive hydrogen-bonding network with three solvent exposed residues, linking the catalytic Fe(II) to solvent. A tight hydrophobic pocket provides p-hydroquinones access to the Fe(II) centre. The p-hydroxyl group is essential for the substrate-binding, thus phenols and catechols, lacking a p-hydroxyl group, do not bind to PcpA. Site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis confirm the critical catalytic role played by the highly conserved His10, Thr13, His226 and Arg259. Based on these results, we propose a general reaction mechanism for p-hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenases. PMID:23489289

  5. PcpA promotes higher levels of infection and modulates recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells during pneumococcal pneumonia.1

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Melissa M.; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y.; Ochs, Martina M.; Myers, Lisa E.; Briles, David E.; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-01-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, BAL and spleens of mice at 24-hrs post infection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12-hrs) in the focal-pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TNF-related apoptosis - inducing ligand (TRAIL) and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells (MDSCs). The latter have been shown to facilitate clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  6. Synthesis and Reactivity of Four- and Five-Coordinate Low-Spin Cobalt(II) PCP Pincer Complexes and Some Nickel(II) Analogues.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Sathiyamoorthy; Stöger, Berthold; Carvalho, Maria Deus; Ferreira, Liliana P; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl

    2014-11-10

    Anhydrous CoCl2 or [NiCl2(DME)] reacts with the ligand PCP(Me)-iPr (1) in the presence of nBuLi to afford the 15e and 16e square planar complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (2) and [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl] (3), respectively. Complex 2 is a paramagnetic d(7) low-spin complex, which is a useful precursor for a series of Co(I), Co(II), and Co(III) PCP complexes. Complex 2 reacts readily with CO and pyridine to afford the five-coordinate square-pyramidal 17e complexes [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(CO)Cl] (4) and [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(py)Cl] (5), respectively, while in the presence of Ag(+) and CO the cationic complex [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(CO)2](+) (6) is afforded. The effective magnetic moments μeff of all Co(II) complexes were derived from the temperature dependence of the inverse molar magnetic susceptibility by SQUID measurements and are in the range 1.9 to 2.4 μB. This is consistent with a d(7) low-spin configuration with some degree of spin-orbit coupling. Oxidation of 2 with CuCl2 affords the paramagnetic Co(III) PCP complex [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)Cl2] (7), while the synthesis of the diamagnetic Co(I) complex [Co(PCP(Me)-iPr)(CO)2] (8) was achieved by stirring 2 in toluene with KC8 in the presence of CO. Finally, the cationic 16e Ni(II) PCP complex [Ni(PCP(Me)-iPr)(CO)](+) (10) was obtained by reacting complex 3 with 1 equiv of AgSbF6 in the presence of CO. The reactivity of CO addition to Co(I), Co(II), and Ni(II) PCP square planar complexes of the type [M(PCP(Me)-iPr)(CO)] (n) (n = +1, 0) was investigated by DFT calculations, showing that formation of the Co species, 6 and 8, is thermodynamically favorable, while Ni(II) maintains the 16e configuration since CO addition is unfavorable in this case. X-ray structures of most complexes are provided and discussed. A structural feature of interest is that the apical CO ligand in 4 deviates significantly from linearity, with a Co-C-O angle of 170.0(1)°. The DFT-calculated value is 172°, clearly showing that this is not a packing but an electronic effect.

  7. Cationic PCP iridaepoxide and carbene complexes for facile water elimination and activation processes.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lauren E; Piers, Warren E; Bi, David W

    2017-03-13

    Iridaepoxide dihydride complexes of a PCP ligand bearing benzo[b]thiophene linkers are synthesized through ligand coopertive N2O and H2 activations. These neutral complexes also eliminate water at elevated temperatures to form the corresponding PCcarbeneP complexes which results in the formal hydrogenation of N2O to water. The synthesis of cationic iridaepoxide dihydride complexes are reported herein where the room temperature elimination of water is observed when a donating solvent is used. This supports a previously proposed mechanism for this water elimination where hydrides cis to the epoxide are required. Ir(i) and Ir(iii) cationic PCcarbeneP complexes are also synthesized through protonation and through O-H oxidation additions of water and phenol.

  8. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a…

  9. A method for reducing the amount of PCP in wood with less detriment to protection against fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabia, Y. Ait; Haloui, A.; Vergnaud, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Large pieces of wood were immersed in a solution of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in order to introduce this chemical into the wood, the chemical being able to protect the wood against fungi. A method was explored to reduce the cost of the operation by decreasing the amount of PCP and the time of absorption. It consists of creating high gradients of concentration of PCP in the wood with a high concentration on the surface. In order to evaluate the level of protection by the PCP, it is desirable to know the profiles of concentration of this chemical developed through the wood. Experiments were performed either by immersing wood samples in solutions of the chemical over given periods of time or by measuring the amount of chemical introduced in the wood. An analytical solution able to describe the process of absorption, with the diffusion through the anisotropic solid, was used. As a result, the profiles of concentration of the chemical developed throughout the wood sample were obtained. The use of dimensionless numbers makes the results more general, whatever the size of the wood sample.

  10. AMERICAN CREOSOTE SITE CASE STUDY: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF DIOXINS, PCP, AND CREOSOTE FOR $64 PER CUBIC YARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study describes the development of solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulas and their application to rededicate the American Creosote site in Jackson, Tennessee. During 1998 and 1999, 45,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with Creosote, PCP, and Dioxins were treat...

  11. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A.; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos. PMID:25540130

  12. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye.

    PubMed

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1(gt/gt) and Daam1(gt/+) embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1(gt/+) mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos.

  13. Disruption of social cognition in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia: Possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that social withdrawal in the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia results from deficient endocannabinoid-induced activation of CB1 receptors. To understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms of the social deficit in PCP-treated rats, we examined the impact of pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on sociability (i.e. social approach) and social novelty preference (which relies on social recognition). Control rats showed a clear preference for a "social" cage (i.e. unfamiliar stimulus rat placed under a wire mesh cage) versus an "empty" cage, and spent more time exploring a "novel" cage (i.e. new stimulus rat) versus a "familiar" cage. In contrast, rats receiving PCP (5 mg/kg, b.i.d. for 7 days, followed by a 7 day-washout period) showed intact sociability, but lacked social novelty preference. This PCP-induced deficit was due to increased activity at CB1 receptors as it was reversed by systemic administration of the CB1 antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg). In agreement with this hypothesis, the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 (0.003-0.03 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed social novelty preference in control animals without affecting sociability. Taken together, these data suggest that PCP-treated rats have a deficit in social cognition, possibly induced by increased stimulation of CB1 receptors. This deficit, however, is distinct from the social withdrawal previously observed in these animals, as the latter is due to deficient, rather than increased, CB1 stimulation.

  14. Disruption of social cognition in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia: possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system

    PubMed Central

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social withdrawal in the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia results from deficient endocannabinoid-induced activation of CB1 receptors. To understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms of the social deficit in PCP-treated rats, we examined the impact of pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on sociability (i.e. social approach) and social novelty preference (which relies on social recognition). Control rats showed a clear preference for a “social” cage (i.e. unfamiliar stimulus rat placed under a wire mesh cage) versus an “empty” cage, and spent more time exploring a “novel” cage (i.e. new stimulus rat) versus a “familiar” cage. In contrast, rats receiving PCP (5 mg/kg, b.i.d. for 7 days, followed by a 7 day-washout period) showed intact sociability, but lacked social novelty preference. This PCP-induced deficit was due to increased activity at CB1 receptors as it was reversed by systemic administration of the CB1 antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg). In agreement with this hypothesis, the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 (0.003 – 0.03 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed social novelty preference in control animals without affecting sociability. Taken together, these data suggest that PCP-treated rats have a deficit in social cognition, possibly induced by increased stimulation of CB1 receptors. This deficit, however, is distinct from the social withdrawal previously observed in these animals, as the latter is due to deficient, rather than increased, CB1 stimulation. PMID:26706691

  15. Chl- a triplet quenching by peridinin in H-PCP and organic solvent revealed by step-scan FTIR time-resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, C.; Alexandre, M. T. A.; Hiller, R. G.; Kennis, J. T. M.; Grondelle, R. van

    2009-02-01

    Triplet-state dynamics in Chl- a/Per mixtures in organic solvent and in native H-PCP were studied by means of step-scan FTIR spectroscopy. A single decay component of 10 μs was observed for the H-PCP triplet, the spectrum of which closely matches the 13 μs component of A-PCP [Alexandre et al., Biophysical Journal 93 (2007) 2118-2128], implying that in H-PCP, as in A-PCP, the peridinin triplet state is shared with Chl- a. In a mixture of Chl- a and Per in THF, TEET from 3Chl- a to 3Per proceeds in 3.5 μs followed by 3Per decay in 7 μs. Using a target analysis procedure, 3Chl- a and 3Per infrared difference spectra were obtained. The specific carbonyl frequencies of 3Per and 3Chl- a in THF confirm our assignment of their co-existence in the infrared spectra of H-PCP and A-PCP.

  16. AEG-1 activates Wnt/PCP signaling to promote metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yunping; Guo, Xu; Yang, Zheng; Chen, Shan; Lei, Yiyan; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Feng, Chongjin; Ke, Zunfu

    2016-01-12

    Despite advances in therapy, survival among patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (TSCC) and cervical lymph node metastasis remains dismal. Here, we estimated the functional effect of AEG-1 on TSCC metastasis and explored the molecular mechanism by which AEG-1 stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We initially found that AEG-1 mRNA levels were much higher in metastatic TSCC than in non-metastatic TSCC and that AEG-1 expression strongly correlates with EMT status. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the combined AEG-1 and EMT statuses are predictive of the survival rate among TSCC patients. In addition, AEG-1 knockdown inhibited EMT in cultured TSCC cell lines and in a xenograft-mouse model. Recombinant AEG-1 activated Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, and its stimulatory effects on TSCC cell invasiveness and EMT were reversed by an anti-Wnt5a neutralizing antibody or by inhibition of Rac1 or ROCK. These results highlight the critical stimulatory effect of AEG-1 on cancer cell invasiveness and EMT and indicate that AEG-1 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for TSCC patients.

  17. Sensitivity study of an OCDD environmental fate screening model in soils in the presence of PCP wood-preserving oil.

    PubMed

    Bulle, Cécile; Bertrand, François; Samson, Réjean; Deschênes, Louise

    2008-08-01

    In order to better understand the fate of polychloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in soils around pentachlorophenol (PCP) treated poles, a model was developed to assess the influence of wood-preserving oil and PCP on the vertical migration of octachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD). Simulations were performed for three soil types: sand, clay and organic. OCDD fate was modeled in the absence of co-contaminant and in the presence of oil with or without 5% (w/w) PCP. A variance propagation study was conducted to evaluate the model sensitivity to a small variation in input parameters, to determine the uncertainty on the migration depth modeled for each soil, and to understand the variability of this migration observed between different soil types. The model predicts a different OCDD fate depending on the soil type with a significant migration in the case of sand and an absence of migration in the case of organic soil. No migration is predicted in the absence of co-contaminants and a migration depth of 7-600 cm is predicted in the presence of oil (with and without PCP). Model sensitivity also depends on the soil type: the predicted OCDD migration depth is, respectively, 22 cm+/-10 cm for organic soils, 71 cm+/-20 cm for clay and 566 cm+/-200 cm for sand after 60 days of emissions from a class 3, 12.2m long pole. Even if the input parameters have a significant uncertainty due to the lack of available data, the model results seem reliable as a first approximation to screen an eventual PCDD/F migration.

  18. Disruption of PCP signaling causes limb morphogenesis and skeletal defects and may underlie Robinow syndrome and brachydactyly type B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Sinha, Tanvi; Jiao, Kai; Serra, Rosa; Wang, Jianbo

    2011-01-15

    Brachydactyly type B (BDB1) and Robinow syndrome (RRS) are two skeletal disorders caused by mutations in ROR2, a co-receptor of Wnt5a. Wnt5a/Ror2 can activate multiple branches of non-canonical Wnt signaling, but it is unclear which branch(es) mediates Wnt5a/Ror2 function in limb skeletal development. Here, we provide evidence implicating the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway as the downstream component of Wnt5a in the limb. We show that a mutation in the mouse PCP gene Vangl2 causes digit defects resembling the clinical phenotypes in BDB1, including loss of phalanges. Halving the dosage of Wnt5a in Vangl2 mutants enhances the severity and penetrance of the digit defects and causes long bone defects reminiscent of RRS, suggesting that Wnt5a and Vangl2 function in the same pathway and disruption of PCP signaling may underlie both BDB1 and RRS. Consistent with a role for PCP signaling in tissue morphogenesis, mutation of Vangl2 alters the shape and dimensions of early limb buds: the width and thickness are increased, whereas the length is decreased. The digit pre-chondrogenic condensates also become wider, thicker and shorter. Interestingly, altered limb bud dimensions in Vangl2 mutants also affect limb growth by perturbing the signaling network that regulates the balance between Fgf and Bmp signaling. Halving the dosage of Bmp4 partially suppresses the loss of phalanges in Vangl2 mutants, supporting the hypothesis that an aberrant increase in Bmp signaling is the cause of the brachydactyly defect. These findings provide novel insight into the signaling mechanisms of Wnt5a/Ror2 and the pathogenesis in BDB1 and RRS.

  19. Acute toxicity of chromate, DDT, PCP, TPBS, and zinc to Daphnia magna cultured in hard and soft water

    SciTech Connect

    Berglind, R.; Dave, G.

    1984-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of five chemicals to water fleas (Daphnia magna) cultured in either hard to soft water. The toxicity tests were made in reconstituted waters and the five chemicals to be tested were, p,p'-DDT, pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrapropylenbenzyl sulfonate (TPBS), potassium bichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) and zincsulfate (ZnSO/sub 4/ x 7H/sub 2/O).

  20. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements.

  1. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the subchronic PCP model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, David D; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid-enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown. Using the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia, we compared the effects on neuronal activity of systematic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597. Specifically, we found that the inhibitory response in the prefrontal cortex to THC administration was absent in PCP-treated rats. In contrast, an augmented response to endocannabinoid upregulation was observed in the prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, differential effects were also observed at the neuronal population level, as endocannabinoid upregulation induced opposite effects on coordinated activity when compared with THC. Such information is important for understanding why marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use may be contraindicated in schizophrenia patients while endocannabinoid enhancement may provide a novel therapeutic approach.

  2. Low prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) but high prevalence of pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) gene mutations in HIV-infected persons in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve M; Meshnick, Steven R; Worodria, William; Andama, Alfred; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J Lucian; Yoo, Samuel D; Byanyima, Patrick; Kaswabuli, Sylvia; Goodman, Carol D; Huang, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an important opportunistic infection in patients infected with HIV, but its burden is incompletely characterized in those areas of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is prevalent. We explored the prevalence of both PCP in HIV-infected adults admitted with pneumonia to a tertiary-care hospital in Uganda and of putative P. jirovecii drug resistance by mutations in fungal dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr). In 129 consecutive patients with sputum smears negative for mycobacteria, 5 (3.9%) were diagnosed with PCP by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Concordance was 100% between Giemsa stain and PCR (dhps and dhfr). PCP was more prevalent in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV (11.4%) than in patients with known HIV (1.1%; p = 0.007). Mortality at 2 months after discharge was 29% overall: 28% among PCP-negative patients, and 60% (3 of 5) among PCP-positive patients. In these 5 fungal isolates and an additional 8 from consecutive cases of PCP, all strains harbored mutant dhps haplotypes; all 13 isolates harbored the P57S mutation in dhps, and 3 (23%) also harbored the T55A mutation. No non-synonymous dhfr mutations were detected. PCP is an important cause of pneumonia in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV in Uganda, is associated with high mortality, and putative molecular evidence of drug resistance is prevalent. Given the reliability of field diagnosis in our cohort, future studies in sub-Saharan Africa can investigate the clinical impact of these genotypes.

  3. Human Antibodies to PhtD, PcpA, and Ply Reduce Adherence to Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Murine Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Surendran, Naveen; Ochs, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells (HECs) is the first step in pathogenesis leading to infections. We sought to determine the role of human antibodies against S. pneumoniae protein vaccine candidates PhtD, PcpA, and Ply in preventing adherence to lung HECs in vitro and mouse nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization in vivo. Human anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply antibodies were purified and Fab fragments generated. Fabs were used to test inhibition of adherence of TIGR4 and nonencapsulated strain RX1 to A549 lung HECs. The roles of individual proteins in adherence were tested using isogenic mutants of strain TIGR4. Anti-PhtD, -PcpA, and -Ply human antibodies were assessed for their ability to inhibit NP colonization in vivo by passive transfer of human antibody in a murine model. Human antibodies generated against PhtD and PcpA caused a decrease in adherence to A549 cells (P < 0.05). Anti-PhtD but not anti-PcpA antibodies showed a protective role against mouse NP colonization. To our surprise, anti-Ply antibodies also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in S. pneumoniae colonization. Our results support the potential of PhtD, PcpA, and Ply protein vaccine candidates as alternatives to conjugate vaccines to prevent non-serotype-specific S. pneumoniae colonization and invasive infection. PMID:25245804

  4. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η2-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η2-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d7 low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η2-mode. [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and the bonding of the borohydride ligand in [Co

  5. Differential Responses to Wnt and PCP Disruption Predict Expression and Developmental Function of Conserved and Novel Genes in a Cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at “oral” and “aboral” poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously

  6. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with sup 3 H-TCP in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum) sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-(1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel.

  7. Pentachlorophenol dechlorination and simultaneous Cr6+ reduction by Pseudomonas putida SKG-1 MTCC (10510): characterization of PCP dechlorination products, bacterial structure, and functional groups.

    PubMed

    Garg, Satyendra Kumar; Tripathi, Manikant; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anamika

    2013-04-01

    It is the first report in which a novel psychrotrophic Pseudomonas putida SKG-1 strain was evaluated for simultaneous bioremediation of pentachlorophenol and Cr(6+) under various cultural and nutritional conditions. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) dechlorination products, bacterial structure, and functional groups were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) techniques. The strain was extremely tolerant to excessively higher individual concentration of PCP (1,400 mg l(-1)) and Cr(6+) (4,300 mg l(-1)). Increasing concentration of PCP and Cr(6+) exerted inhibitory effect on bacterial growth and toxicants' removal. The strain exhibited growth, and concomitantly remediated both the pollutants simultaneously over a broad pH (7.0-9.0) and temperature (28-32 °C) range; maximum growth, PCP dechlorination (87.5%), and Cr(6+) removal (80.0%) occurred at optimum pH 8.0 and 30 °C (from initial PCP 100 mg l(-1) and Cr(6+) 500 mg l(-1)) under shaking (150 rpm) within 72 h incubation. Optimization of agitation (125 rpm) and aeration (0.4 vvm) in bioreactor further enhanced PCP dechlorination by ~10% and Cr(6+) removal by 2%. A direct correlation existed between growth and bioremediation of both the toxicants. Among other heavy metals, mercury exerted maximum and cobalt minimum inhibitory effect on PCP dechlorination and Cr(6+) removal. Chromate reductase activity was mainly associated with the supernatant and cytosolic fraction of bacterial cells. GC-MS analysis revealed the formation of tetrachloro-p-hydroquinone, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol as PCP dechlorination products. FTIR spectrometry indicated likely involvement of carbonyl and amide groups in Cr(3+) adsorption, and SEM-EDS showed the presence of chromium on P. putida surface. Thus, our promising isolate can be ecofriendly employed for biotreatment of various

  8. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R; Brown, Karen E; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2015-07-28

    Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2(-/-) ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2(-/-) with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development.

  9. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R.; Brown, Karen E.; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G.; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2−/− ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2−/− with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development. PMID:26190104

  10. Increasing Endocannabinoid Levels in the Ventral Pallidum Restore Aberrant Dopamine Neuron Activity in the Subchronic PCP Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate–anesthetized rats, we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats. Results: Interestingly, endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity. Conclusions: Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity. PMID:25539511

  11. A novel role of the organizer gene Goosecoid as an inhibitor of Wnt/PCP-mediated convergent extension in Xenopus and mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Bärbel; Tingler, Melanie; Kurz, Sabrina; Maerker, Markus; Andre, Philipp; Mönch, Dina; Campione, Marina; Deißler, Kirsten; Lewandoski, Mark; Thumberger, Thomas; Schweickert, Axel; Fainsod, Abraham; Steinbeißer, Herbert; Blum, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Goosecoid (Gsc) expression marks the primary embryonic organizer in vertebrates and beyond. While functions have been assigned during later embryogenesis, the role of Gsc in the organizer has remained enigmatic. Using conditional gain-of-function approaches in Xenopus and mouse to maintain Gsc expression in the organizer and along the axial midline, neural tube closure defects (NTDs) arose and dorsal extension was compromised. Both phenotypes represent convergent extension (CE) defects, arising from impaired Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling. Dvl2 recruitment to the cell membrane was inhibited by Gsc in Xenopus animal cap assays and key Wnt/PCP factors (RhoA, Vangl2, Prickle, Wnt11) rescued Gsc-mediated NTDs. Re-evaluation of endogenous Gsc functions in MO-mediated gene knockdown frog and knockout mouse embryos unearthed PCP/CE-related phenotypes as well, including cartilage defects in Xenopus and misalignment of inner ear hair cells in mouse. Our results assign a novel function to Gsc as an inhibitor of Wnt/PCP-mediated CE. We propose that in the organizer Gsc represses CE as well: Gsc-expressing prechordal cells, which leave the organizer first, migrate and do not undergo CE like the Gsc-negative notochordal cells, which subsequently emerge from the organizer. In this model, Gsc provides a switch between cell migration and CE, i.e. cell intercalation. PMID:28220837

  12. Effects of novel antipsychotics with mixed D(2) antagonist/5-HT(1A) agonist properties on PCP-induced social interaction deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, Liesbeth A; Kleven, Mark S; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-12-01

    Considerable interest has arisen in identifying antipsychotic agents with improved efficacy against negative symptoms, such as social withdrawal. In rats, a social interaction deficit can be induced by the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). Here, we examined the effects of antipsychotics, reported to exert dual 5-HT(1A)/D(2) actions, on PCP-induced social interaction deficits. Drugs were administered daily for 3 days in combination with either vehicle or PCP (2.5mg/kg, SC) and social interaction was measured on the last day of drug treatment. Pairs of unfamiliar rats receiving the same treatment were placed in a large open field for 10 min and the number of social behaviors were scored. The results indicate that: (1) PCP significantly reduced social interaction by over 50% compared with vehicle-treated controls; (2) haloperidol (0.0025-0.16 mg/kg, SC) and clozapine (0.04-10mg/kg, IP) did not reverse PCP-induced social interaction deficits; (3) the substituted benzamide remoxipride reversed PCP-induced deficits at 0.63 and 2.5mg/kg (4) the 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT was inactive (at 0.01-0.63 mg/kg, SC); (5) among compounds reported to exert dual 5-HT(1A)/D(2) actions, SSR181507 (at 0.16 mg/kg, SC) and aripiprazole (at 0.04 and 0.16 mg/kg, IP), but not ziprasidone (0.04-2.5mg/kg, IP), SLV313 (0.0025-0.16 mg/kg, SC) or bifeprunox (0.01-0.63 mg/kg, IP), significantly reversed PCP-induced social interaction deficits; and (6) the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 blocked the effects of SSR181507 and aripiprazole. These findings indicate that the balance of activity at 5-HT(1A) and D(2) receptors profoundly influences the activity of antipsychotics in this model of social withdrawal, and their potential benefit on at least some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  13. A phenotypic screen in zebrafish identifies a novel small-molecule inducer of ectopic tail formation suggestive of alterations in non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling.

    PubMed

    Gebruers, Evelien; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Gray, Alexander I; Clements, Carol; Harvey, Alan L; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive model for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active small molecules of natural origin. We carried out a zebrafish-based phenotypic screen of over 3000 plant-derived secondary metabolite extracts with the goal of identifying novel small-molecule modulators of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways. One of the bioactive plant extracts identified in this screen - Jasminum gilgianum, an Oleaceae species native to Papua New Guinea - induced ectopic tails during zebrafish embryonic development. As ectopic tail formation occurs when BMP or non-canonical Wnt signaling is inhibited during the tail protrusion process, we suspected a constituent of this extract to act as a modulator of these pathways. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out on the basis of this zebrafish phenotype, identifying para-coumaric acid methyl ester (pCAME) as the active compound. We then performed an in-depth phenotypic analysis of pCAME-treated zebrafish embryos, including a tissue-specific marker analysis of the secondary tails. We found pCAME to synergize with the BMP-inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in inducing ectopic tails, and causing convergence-extension defects in compound-treated embryos. These results indicate that pCAME may interfere with non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Jnk, a downstream target of Wnt/PCP signaling (via morpholino antisense knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with the kinase inhibitor SP600125) phenocopied pCAME-treated embryos. However, immunoblotting experiments revealed pCAME to not directly inhibit Jnk-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun, suggesting additional targets of SP600125, and/or other pathways, as possibly being involved in the ectopic tail formation activity of pCAME. Further investigation of pCAME's mechanism of action will help determine this compound's pharmacological utility.

  14. Effects of risperidone, clozapine and the 5-HT6 antagonist GSK-742457 on PCP-induced deficits in reversal learning in the two-lever operant task in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; van Drimmelen, M; Kops, M; van Elk, J; Wetering, M Middelveld-van de; Schwienbacher, I

    2013-05-01

    Reasoning and problem solving deficits have been reported in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we have tested rats in a two-lever reversal learning task in a Skinner box to model these deficits. In other studies using the Skinner box, atypical antipsychotics fully reversed phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairments in reversal learning which is in contrast to clinical observations where antipsychotics lack the ability to fully reverse cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it can be argued that the outcome of these tests may lack predictive value. In the present study, after training on a spatial discrimination between two levers, rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency during 5 days. We first investigated the effects of sub-chronic treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and PCP on reversal learning and extinction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Subsequently, we studied the effects of different PCP treatment regimes. Then, we investigated whether the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and clozapine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) antagonist GSK-742457 could reverse the PCP-induced deficits. All drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.). MK-801 did not impair reversal learning, while PCP (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) induced a clear deficit in reversal learning. Both compounds, however, disrupted extinction at all tested doses. Risperidone and clozapine were both ineffective in significantly ameliorating the PCP-induced deficit in reversal learning which fits well with the clinical observations. The lowest dose of clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect in ameliorating the deficit in reversal learning induced by PCP (not different from control or PCP-treated rats). The lowest dose of GSK-742457 (0.63 mg/kg) fully reversed the PCP-induced deficits while the higher dose (5.0 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect.

  15. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the sub-chronic PCP model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, David D; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the CSF levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown. Using the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia, we compared the effects on neuronal activity of systematic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597. Specifically, we found that the inhibitory response in the prefrontal cortex to THC administration was absent in PCP-treated rats. In contrast, an augmented response to endocannabinoid upregulation was observed in the prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, differential effects were also observed at the neuronal population level, as endocannabinoid upregulation induced opposite effects on coordinated activity when compared to THC. Such information is important for understanding why marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use may be contraindicated in schizophrenia patients while endocannabinoid enhancement may provide a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:26510449

  16. Effectiveness of an anaerobic granular activated carbon fluidized-bed bioreactor to treat soil wash fluids: a proposed strategy for remediating PCP/PAH contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Koran, K M; Suidan, M T; Khodadoust, A P; Sorial, G A; Brenner, R C

    2001-07-01

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil-solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specifically, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactor to treat a synthetic-waste stream of PCP and four PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene) under anaerobic conditions. This waste stream was intended to simulate the wash fluids from a soil washing process treating soils from a wood-preserving site. The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of greater than 99.8% for PCP with conversion to its dechlorination intermediates averaging 46.5%. Effluent, carbon extraction, and isotherm data also indicate that naphthalene and acenaphthene were removed from the liquid phase with efficiencies of 86 and 93%, respectively. Effluent levels of pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were extremely low due to the high-adsorptive capacity of GAC for these compounds. Experimental evidence does not suggest that the latter two compounds were biochemically transformed within the reactor.

  17. The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test are age dependent, sexually dimorphic, and task dependent.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Kim, Daniel; Pritchard, Melissa; Salgado, Sanjay; Thaler, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Previous research in our laboratory revealed sexually dimorphic effects of prior exposure to phencyclidine (PCP) on elevated plus maze behavior. In an attempt to examine the developmental time course of this effect and determine the extent to which it generalizes to other anxiety paradigms, young adult (61-64 days old) and adult (96-107 days old) male and female rats were treated with PCP (15 mg/kg) or saline. Following a two week withdrawal period, animals were tested in either the elevated plus maze (EPM) or a light-dark exploration (LD) test. In adults, both tests revealed a sexually dimorphic effect driven by PCP-induced decreases in anxiety in females as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the EPM and in the lit compartment of the LD test and increased anxiety in males as indicated by decreased time spent in the lit compartment of the LD. In young animals, PCP pretreatment decreased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, indicating increased anxiety. However, PCP increased time spent in the light compartment in the light-dark exploration test, indicating decreased anxiety. Corticosterone levels measured 15 min after the onset of the EPM failed to reveal an association between the behavioral effects of PCP and corticosterone levels. The results in adults substantiate the previously observed sexually dimorphic effect of PCP on elevated plus maze behavior in adults and indicate that the effect generalizes to another anxiety paradigm. The results in the younger animals suggest an age dependent effect of PCP on anxiety in general and indicate that behaviors in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test reflect dissociable psychobiological states.

  18. Positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors reverses sub-chronic PCP-induced deficits in the novel object recognition task in rats.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Trine; Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Hansen, Suzanne L; Grayson, Ben; Neill, Jo C; Plath, Niels

    2010-02-11

    Cognitive deficits are a major clinical unmet need in schizophrenia. The psychotomimetic drug phencyclidine (PCP) is widely applied in rodents to mimic symptoms of schizophrenia, including cognitive deficits. Previous studies have shown that sub-chronic PCP induces an enduring episodic memory deficit in female Lister Hooded rats in the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Here we show that positive modulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) mediated glutamate transmission alleviates cognitive deficits induced by sub-chronic PCP treatment. Female Lister hooded rats were treated sub-chronically with either vehicle (0.9% saline) or PCP (2mg/kg two doses per day for 7 days), followed by a 7 days washout period. 30 min prior to the acquisition trial of the NOR task animals were dosed with either vehicle, CX546 (10, 40 or 80 mg/kg) or CX516 (0.5, 2.5, 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg). Our results show that sub-chronic PCP treatment induced a significant decrease in the discrimination index (DI) and both ampakines CX546 and CX516 were able to reverse this disruption of object memory in rats in the novel object recognition task. These data suggest that positive AMPAR modulation may represent a mechanism for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  19. Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Bos, Kirsten; DeWitte, Sharon; Schmedes, Sarah; Jamieson, Joslyn; Mittnik, Alissa; Forrest, Stephen; Coombes, Brian K; Wood, James W; Earn, David J D; White, William; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2011-09-20

    Although investigations of medieval plague victims have identified Yersinia pestis as the putative etiologic agent of the pandemic, methodological limitations have prevented large-scale genomic investigations to evaluate changes in the pathogen's virulence over time. We screened over 100 skeletal remains from Black Death victims of the East Smithfield mass burial site (1348-1350, London, England). Recent methods of DNA enrichment coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing subsequently permitted reconstruction of ten full human mitochondrial genomes (16 kb each) and the full pPCP1 (9.6 kb) virulence-associated plasmid at high coverage. Comparisons of molecular damage profiles between endogenous human and Y. pestis DNA confirmed its authenticity as an ancient pathogen, thus representing the longest contiguous genomic sequence for an ancient pathogen to date. Comparison of our reconstructed plasmid against modern Y. pestis shows identity with several isolates matching the Medievalis biovar; however, our chromosomal sequences indicate the victims were infected with a Y. pestis variant that has not been previously reported. Our data reveal that the Black Death in medieval Europe was caused by a variant of Y. pestis that may no longer exist, and genetic data carried on its pPCP1 plasmid were not responsible for the purported epidemiological differences between ancient and modern forms of Y. pestis infections.

  20. Catalytic amine-borane dehydrogenation by a PCP-pincer palladium complex: a combined experimental and DFT analysis of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rossin, Andrea; Bottari, Giovanni; Lozano-Vila, Ana M; Paneque, Margarita; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Rossi, Andrea; Zanobini, Fabrizio

    2013-03-14

    Catalytic dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (NH(3)·BH(3), AB) and dimethylamine borane (NHMe(2)·BH(3), DMAB) by the Pd(II) complex [((tBu)PCP)Pd(H(2)O)]PF(6) [(tBu)PCP = 2,6-C(6)H(3)(CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2)] leads to oligomerization and formation of spent fuels of general formula cyclo-[BH(2)-NR(2)](n) (n = 2,3; R = H, Me) as reaction byproducts, while one equivalent of H(2) is released per amine-borane equivalent. The processes were followed through multinuclear ((31)P, (1)H, (11)B) variable temperature NMR spectroscopy; kinetic measurements on the hydrogen production rate and the relative rate constants were also carried out. One non-hydridic intermediate could be detected at low temperature, whose chemical nature was explored through a DFT modeling of the reaction mechanism, at the M06//6-31+G(d,p) computational level. The computational output was of help to propose a reliable mechanistic picture of the process.

  1. The comparative photodegradation activities of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using UV alone and TiO2-derived photocatalysts in methanol soil washing solution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Tan; Lu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs.

  2. Xenopus Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 Are Two New Tyrosine Kinases Involved in the Regulation of JNK Dependent Wnt/PCP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vitorino, Marta; Silva, Ana Cristina; Inácio, José Manuel; Ramalho, José Silva; Gur, Michal; Fainsod, Abraham; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Belo, José António

    2015-01-01

    Protein Kinase Domain Containing, Cytoplasmic (PKDCC) is a protein kinase which has been implicated in longitudinal bone growth through regulation of chondrocytes formation. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Here, we identified two new members of the PKDCC family, Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 from Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, our knockdown experiments revealed that these two proteins are both involved on blastopore and neural tube closure during gastrula and neurula stages, respectively. In vertebrates, tissue polarity and cell movement observed during gastrulation and neural tube closure are controlled by Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) molecular pathway. Our results showed that Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 promote the recruitment of Dvl to the plasma membrane. But surprisingly, they revealed different roles in the induction of a luciferase reporter under the control of Atf2 promoter. While Pkdcc1 induces Atf2 expression, Pkdcc2 does not, and furthermore inhibits its normal induction by Wnt11 and Wnt5a. Altogether our data show, for the first time, that members of the PKDCC family are involved in the regulation of JNK dependent Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. PMID:26270962

  3. The Comparative Photodegradation Activities of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Using UV Alone and TiO2-Derived Photocatalysts in Methanol Soil Washing Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Tan; Lu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs. PMID:25254664

  4. Localized double-array stacking analysis of PcP: D″ and ULVZ structure beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, central Pacific, and north Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutko, Alexander R.; Lay, Thorne; Revenaugh, Justin

    2009-01-01

    A large, high quality P-wave data set comprising short-period and broadband signals sampling four separate regions in the lowermost mantle beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, the central Pacific, and the north Pacific is analyzed using regional one-dimensional double-array stacking and modelling with reflectivity synthetics. A data-screening criterion retains only events with stable PcP energy in the final data stacks used for modelling and interpretation. This significantly improves the signal stacks relative to including unscreened observations, allows confident alignment on the PcP arrival and allows tight bounds to be placed on P-wave velocity structure above the core–mantle boundary (CMB). The PcP reflections under the Cocos plate are well modelled without any ultra-low velocity zone from 5 to 20°N. At latitudes from 15 to 20°N, we find evidence for two P-wave velocity discontinuities in the D″ region. The first is ∼182 km above the CMB with a δln Vp of +1.5%, near the same depth as a weaker discontinuity (<+0.5%) observed from 5 to 15°N in prior work. The other reflector is ∼454 km above the CMB, with a δln Vp of +0.4%; this appears to be a shallower continuation of the joint P- and S-wave discontinuity previously detected south of 15° N, which is presumed to be the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. The data stacks for paths bottoming below Mexico have PcP images that are well matched with the simple IASP91 structure, contradicting previous inferences of ULVZ presence in this region. These particular data are not very sensitive to any D″ discontinuities, and simply bound them to be <∼2%, if present. Data sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the central Pacific confirm the presence of a ∼15-km thick ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) just above the CMB, with δln Vp and δln Vs of around −3 to −4% and −4 to −8%, respectively. The ULVZ models predict previous S-wave data stacks well. The data for this region

  5. An oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer: Development and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Martien, Ronny; Hoyer, Herbert; Perera, Glen; Schnürch, Andreas Bernkop

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an oral oligonucleotide delivery system based on a thiolated polymer/reduced glutathione (GSH) system providing a protective effect toward nucleases and permeation enhancement. A polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate (PCP-Cys) was synthesized. Enzymatic degradation of a model oligonucleotide by DNase I and within freshly collected intestinal fluid was investigated in the absence and presence of PCP-Cys. Permeation studies with PCP-Cys/GSH versus control were performed in vitro on Caco-2 cell monolayers and ex vivo on rat intestinal mucosa. PCP-Cys displayed 223 ± 13.8 μmol thiol groups per gram polymer. After 4h, 61% of the free oligonucleotides were degraded by DNase I and 80% within intestinal fluid. In contrast, less than 41% (DNase I) and 60% (intestinal fluid) were degraded in the presence of 0.02% (m/v) PCP-Cys. Permeation studies revealed an 8-fold (Caco-2) and 10-fold (intestinal mucosa) increase in apparent permeability compared to buffer control. Hence, this PCP-Cys/GSH system might be a promising tool for the oral administration of oligonucleotides as it allows a significant protection toward degrading enzymes and facilitates their transport across intestinal membranes.

  6. Recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts for hydrogen production and solar energy conversion--from semiconducting TiO2 to MOF/PCP photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Yu; Toyao, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masato; Matsuoka, Masaya; Anpo, Masakazu

    2013-08-28

    The present perspective describes recent advances in visible-light-responsive photocatalysts intended to develop novel and efficient solar energy conversion technologies, including water splitting and photofuel cells. Water splitting is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to convert solar energy as a clean and abundant energy resource into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen. In recent years, increasing concern is directed to not only the development of new photocatalytic materials but also the importance of technologies to produce hydrogen and oxygen separately. Photofuel cells can convert solar energy into electrical energy by decomposing bio-related compounds and livestock waste as fuels. The advances of photocatalysts enabling these solar energy conversion technologies have been going on since the discovery of semiconducting titanium dioxide materials and have extended to organic-inorganic hybrid materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and porous coordination polymers (MOF/PCP).

  7. Mechanistic insights into the role of PC- and PCP-type palladium catalysts in asymmetric hydrophosphination of activated alkenes incorporating potential coordinating heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Yuan; Jia, Yu-Xiang; Tay, Wee Shan; Li, Yongxin; Pullarkat, Sumod A; Leung, Pak-Hing

    2016-09-14

    The impact of the structural attributes of chiral PC- and PCP-palladium catalysts was investigated in the asymmetric hydrophosphination of various heterocycle-functionalized enone substrates. Due to the architecture of the catalysts, they are confronted with potential catalyst deactivation arising from the coordination of the electron-rich heteroatoms (P, O, N and S) to the metal center. A systematic variation of the location and identity of the heteroatoms demonstrated the impact of structural modifications on the substrates, which have a significant influence on both yields (16-99%) and enantioselectivities (0-99%). A detailed discussion on the distinct catalytic mechanisms (intra- vs. inter-molecular addition) provides important information to explain the results obtained.

  8. Genomic Insights into a New Citrobacter koseri Strain Revealed Gene Exchanges with the Virulence-Associated Yersinia pestis pPCP1 Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Armougom, Fabrice; Bitam, Idir; Croce, Olivier; Merhej, Vicky; Barassi, Lina; Nguyen, Ti-Thien; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The history of infectious diseases raised the plague as one of the most devastating for human beings. Far too often considered an ancient disease, the frequent resurgence of the plague has led to consider it as a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Algeria, Libya, and Congo. The genetic factors associated with the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, involve the acquisition of the pPCP1 plasmid that promotes host invasion through the expression of the virulence factor Pla. The surveillance of plague foci after the 2003 outbreak in Algeria resulted in a positive detection of the specific pla gene of Y. pestis in rodents. However, the phenotypic characterization of the isolate identified a Citrobacter koseri. The comparative genomics of our sequenced C. koseri URMITE genome revealed a mosaic gene structure resulting from the lifestyle of our isolate and provided evidence for gene exchanges with different enteric bacteria. The most striking was the acquisition of a continuous 2 kb genomic fragment containing the virulence factor Pla of the Y. pestis pPCP1 plasmid; however, the subcutaneous injection of the CKU strain in mice did not produce any pathogenic effect. Our findings demonstrate that fast molecular detection of plague using solely the pla gene is unsuitable and should rather require Y. pestis gene marker combinations. We also suggest that the evolutionary force that might govern the expression of pathogenicity can occur through the acquisition of virulence genes but could also require the loss or the inactivation of resident genes such as antivirulence genes. PMID:27014253

  9. Genomic Insights into a New Citrobacter koseri Strain Revealed Gene Exchanges with the Virulence-Associated Yersinia pestis pPCP1 Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Armougom, Fabrice; Bitam, Idir; Croce, Olivier; Merhej, Vicky; Barassi, Lina; Nguyen, Ti-Thien; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The history of infectious diseases raised the plague as one of the most devastating for human beings. Far too often considered an ancient disease, the frequent resurgence of the plague has led to consider it as a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Algeria, Libya, and Congo. The genetic factors associated with the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, involve the acquisition of the pPCP1 plasmid that promotes host invasion through the expression of the virulence factor Pla. The surveillance of plague foci after the 2003 outbreak in Algeria resulted in a positive detection of the specific pla gene of Y. pestis in rodents. However, the phenotypic characterization of the isolate identified a Citrobacter koseri. The comparative genomics of our sequenced C. koseri URMITE genome revealed a mosaic gene structure resulting from the lifestyle of our isolate and provided evidence for gene exchanges with different enteric bacteria. The most striking was the acquisition of a continuous 2 kb genomic fragment containing the virulence factor Pla of the Y. pestis pPCP1 plasmid; however, the subcutaneous injection of the CKU strain in mice did not produce any pathogenic effect. Our findings demonstrate that fast molecular detection of plague using solely the pla gene is unsuitable and should rather require Y. pestis gene marker combinations. We also suggest that the evolutionary force that might govern the expression of pathogenicity can occur through the acquisition of virulence genes but could also require the loss or the inactivation of resident genes such as antivirulence genes.

  10. Comparison of ( sup 3 H)Phencyclidine (( sup 3 H)PCP) and ( sup 3 H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl)piperidine (( sup 3 H)TCP) binding properties to rat and human brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vignon, J.; Chaudieu, I.; Allaoua, H.; Journod, L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.; Chicheportiche, R.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP binding properties to rat cerebrum and cerebellum resulted in the demonstration of multiple binding sites for the two drugs. In the two tissue preparations PCP had a lower affinity than TCP. In membranes from the cerebrum an equal number of high affinity binding sites were present for ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP. However, low affinity binding sites were two times more numerous for ({sup 3}H)PCP than for ({sup 3}H)TCP. In the cerebellum, the number of high and low affinity sites labeled by the two radioligands was identical, but the number of high affinity sites was about 7 fold lower than in cerebrum. In human cerebral cortex samples ({sup 3}H)TCP also bound to two different sites. The number of high and low affinity sites were 12 and 3 times, respectively, less abundant than in the rat cerebrum. Low affinity sites were of higher affinity than corresponding sites in the rat brain. In the human cerebellum ({sup 3}H)TCP binding parameters were identical to those measured in the same region in the rat.

  11. Translational Aspects of the Novel Object Recognition Task in Rats Abstinent Following Sub-Chronic Treatment with Phencyclidine (PCP): Effects of Modafinil and Relevance to Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Redrobe, John P.; Bull, Sascha; Plath, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) induces a behavioral syndrome in rodents that bears remarkable similarities to some of the core symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients, among those cognitive deficits. The successful alleviation of cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) has become a major focus of research efforts as they remain largely untreated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selected antipsychotic and cognition enhancing drugs, namely haloperidol, risperidone, donepezil, and modafinil in an animal model widely used in preclinical schizophrenia research. To this end, the novel object recognition (NOR) task was applied to rats abstinent following sub-chronic treatment with PCP. Rats were administered either PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle twice a day for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period, before testing in NOR. Upon testing, vehicle-treated rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in rats that had previously been exposed to PCP treatment. Acute treatment with modafinil (64 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit in novel object exploration, whereas haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.), risperidone (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.), and donepezil (3 mg/kg, p.o.) were without significant effect. Given the negligible efficacy of haloperidol and risperidone, and the contradictory data with donepezil to treat CIAS in the clinic, together with the promising preliminary pro-cognitive effects of modafinil in certain subsets of schizophrenic patients, the sub-chronic PCP–NOR abstinence paradigm may represent an attractive option for the identification of potential novel treatments for CIAS. PMID:21423454

  12. Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - II: constraints on lateral variations of structure near the core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Resolving the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D″ region is key to improving our understanding of the interaction between the Earth's mantle and core. Observations of traveltimes and amplitudes of short-period teleseismic body waves sensitive to lowermost mantle provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratio of the target phases and interference with other mantle phases. In a previous paper (Part I), we introduced the slant-stacklet transform to enhance the signal of the core-reflected (PcP) phase and to isolate it from stronger signals in the coda of the P wave. Then we minimized a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime difference measurements as compared to standard cross-correlation methods. This method significantly increases the quantity and the quality of PcP-P traveltime observations available for the modelling of structure near the CMB. Here we illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D″ using PcP-P observations with unprecedented resolution from high-quality dense arrays located in North America and Japan for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this process, we carefully analyse various sources of errors and show that mantle heterogeneity is the most significant. We find and correct bias due to mantle heterogeneities that is as large as 1 s in traveltime, comparable to the largest lateral PcP-P traveltime variations observed. We illustrate the importance of accurate mantle corrections and the need for higher resolution mantle models for future studies. After optimal mantle corrections, the main signal left is relatively long wavelength in the regions sampled, except at the border of the Pacific large-low shear velocity province (LLSVP). We detect the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP in the western Pacific from array observations in

  13. E6/E7-P53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer metastasis and activates Wnt/PCP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Huan; Lyu, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Xiao-mei; Zhu, Lin-yan; Yang, Guang-dong; Jiang, Peng-cheng; Re, Yuan; Song, Wei-wei; Wang, Jin-hao; Zhang, Can-can; Gu, Fei; Luo, Tian-jiao; Wu, Zhi-yong; Xu, Cong-jian

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an infectious cancer and the most common gynecologic cancer worldwide. E6/E7, the early genes of the high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus type, play key roles in the carcinogenic process of cervical cancer. However, little was known about its roles in modulating tumor microenvironment, particular extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we found that E6/E7 could regulate multiple ECM proteins, especially collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1). CTHRC1 is highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue and serum and closely correlated with clinicopathological parameters. CTHRC1 promotes cervical cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. E6/E7 regulates the expression of CTHRC1 in cervical cancer by E6/E7-p53-POU2F1 (POU class 2 homeobox 1) axis. Futhermore, CTHRC1 activates Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Take together, E6/E7-p53-POU2F1-CTHRC1 axis promotes cervical cancer cell invasion and metastasis and may act as a potential therapeutic target for interventions against cervical cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:28303973

  14. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory.

  15. Development of a novel, bioluminescence-based, fungal bioassay for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Hedda J; Campbell, Colin D; Killham, Ken

    2002-07-01

    Naturally bioluminescent fungi, Armillaria mellea and Mycena citricolor, were used to develop a novel, bioluminescence-based bioassay for toxicity testing. Bioassays were carried out to assess the toxicity of 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), copper and zinc. The results suggested that 60 min was a suitable exposure time for the bioassay. Light reduction was observed in response to 3,5-DCP, PCP and Cu for both A. mellea and M. citricolor, but to Zn only for A. mellea. Armillaria mellea was significantly less sensitive to 3,5-DCP and PCP than M. citricolor. The EC50 values for A. mellea and M. citricolor were similar to EC50 values for 3,5-DCP, PCP and Cu (but not Zn) of bioluminescence-based bacterial biosensors. They were also similar to EC50 values for Cu and Zn of a bioluminescence-based yeast biosensor. The results highlighted the importance of using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic biosensors. The novel bioassay provides a rapid and sensitive method to assess bioavailability of pollutants as well as a method to determine their toxicity to filamentous fungi. It also expands the range of organisms that can be used for bioluminescence-based toxicity testing by complementing existing biosensors.

  16. Scalable Multivariate Volume Visualization and Analysis Based on Dimension Projection and Parallel Coordinates.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Xiao, He; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and scalable system for multivariate volume data visualization and analysis with a novel transfer function interface design that tightly couples parallel coordinates plots (PCP) and MDS-based dimension projection plots. In our system, the PCP visualizes the data distribution of each variate (dimension) and the MDS plots project features. They are integrated seamlessly to provide flexible feature classification without context switching between different data presentations during the user interaction. The proposed interface enables users to identify relevant correlation clusters and assign optical properties with lassos, magic wand, and other tools. Furthermore, direct sketching on the volume rendered images has been implemented to probe and edit features. With our system, users can interactively analyze multivariate volumetric data sets by navigating and exploring feature spaces in unified PCP and MDS plots. To further support large-scale multivariate volume data visualization and analysis, Scalable Pivot MDS (SPMDS), parallel adaptive continuous PCP rendering, as well as parallel rendering techniques are developed and integrated into our visualization system. Our experiments show that the system is effective in multivariate volume data visualization and its performance is highly scalable for data sets with different sizes and number of variates.

  17. Development and evaluation of buccoadhesive tablet for selegiline hydrochloride based on thiolated polycarbophil.

    PubMed

    Wasnik, Mangesh N; Godse, Rutika D; Nair, Hema A

    2014-05-01

    Selegiline hydrochloride (SHCl), a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, is used as an adjunct in the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This study is concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablet for controlled systemic delivery of SHCl. Buccal absorption of selegiline can bypass its first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability accompanied by greatly reduced metabolite formation, which is potentially of enhanced therapeutic value in patients with Parkinson's disease. Polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-cys) conjugate, which is a thiolated derivative of the mucoadhesive polymer polycarbophil, was synthesized by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride-mediated amide bond coupling. Tablets of SHCl based on native and thiolated polycarbophil were prepared. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug content, swelling behavior, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCP-cys tablets showed enhanced mucoadhesion and retarded drug release compared to polycarbophil tablets. Permeation data of SHCl from matrices prepared using the PCP-cys polymer revealed a significantly higher value of apparent permeability in comparison to polycarbophil, which supported the information in literature that thiolation imparts permeation enhancing properties to mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on PCP-cys using L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line indicated that conjugation with cysteine does not impart any apparent toxicity to polycarbophil. The results from the study indicate that the buccal delivery of SHCl using thiolated polycarbophil tablet could provide a way for improved therapy of Parkinson's disease.

  18. A Novel Frizzled-Based Screening Tool Identifies Genetic Modifiers of Planar Cell Polarity in Drosophila Wings

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Smith, Michael; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Most mutant alleles in the Fz-PCP pathway genes were discovered in classic Drosophila screens looking for recessive loss-of-function (LOF) mutations. Nonetheless, although Fz-PCP signaling is sensitive to increased doses of PCP gene products, not many screens have been performed in the wing under genetically engineered Fz overexpression conditions, mostly because the Fz phenotypes were strong and/or not easy to score and quantify. Here, we present a screen based on an unexpected mild Frizzled gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype. The leakiness of a chimeric Frizzled protein designed to be accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) generated a reproducible Frizzled GOF phenotype in Drosophila wings. Using this genotype, we first screened a genome-wide collection of large deficiencies and found 16 strongly interacting genomic regions. Next, we narrowed down seven of those regions to finally test 116 candidate genes. We were, thus, able to identify eight new loci with a potential function in the PCP context. We further analyzed and confirmed krasavietz and its interactor short-stop as new genes acting during planar cell polarity establishment with a function related to actin and microtubule dynamics. PMID:27729438

  19. Photoelectrochemical sensor for pentachlorophenol on microfluidic paper-based analytical device based on the molecular imprinting technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Panpan; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei

    2014-06-15

    Combining microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) and the molecular imprinting technique, a visible light photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensing platform for the detection of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was established on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated paper working electrode using polypyrrole-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles. Ascorbic acid (AA) was exploited as an efficient and nontoxic electron donor for scavenging photogenerated holes under mild solution medium and facilitating the generation of stable photocurrent. The microfluidic molecular imprinted polymer-based PEC analytical origami device is developed for the detection of PCP in the linear range from 0.01 ng mL(-1) to 100 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 4 pg mL(-1). This disposable microfluidic PEC origami device would provide a new platform for sensitive, specific, and multiplex assay in public health, environmental monitoring, and the developing world.

  20. Development of controlled drug release systems based on thiolated polymers.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Scholler, S; Biebel, R G

    2000-05-03

    The purpose of the present study was to generate mucoadhesive matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers. Mediated by a carbodiimide, L-cysteine was thereby covalently linked to polycarbophil (PCP) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The resulting thiolated polymers displayed 100+/-8 and 1280+/-84 micromol thiol groups per gram, respectively (means+/-S.D.; n=6-8). In aqueous solutions these modified polymers were capable of forming inter- and/or intramolecular disulfide bonds. The velocity of this process augmented with increase of the polymer- and decrease of the proton-concentration. The oxidation proceeded more rapidly within thiolated PCP than within thiolated CMC. Due to the formation of disulfide bonds within thiol-containing polymers, the stability of matrix-tablets based on such polymers could be strongly improved. Whereas tablets based on the corresponding unmodified polymer disintegrated within 2 h, the swollen carrier matrix of thiolated CMC and PCP remained stable for 6.2 h (mean, n=4) and more than 48 h, respectively. Release studies of the model drug rifampicin demonstrated that a controlled release can be provided by thiolated polymer tablets. The combination of high stability, controlled drug release and mucoadhesive properties renders matrix-tablets based on thiolated polymers useful as novel drug delivery systems.

  1. What's a Primary Care Physician (PCP)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... care for babies, kids, and teens. Internists , or internal medicine doctors, care for adults, but some see patients ... have additional training in caring for teens. Combined internal medicine and pediatric specialists have training in both pediatrics ...

  2. A context for the 1930's Dust Bowl Drought in the Northern Great Plains, U.S. based on a rainfall reconstruction using H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S. C.; Grimm, E. C.; Baker, P. A.; Nyren, P. E.; Huang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Existing records of drought from Northern Great Plains (NGP) are based on pollen or on lake-water ion concentration (salinity) reconstructions from fossil assemblages (diatom-inferred salinity) and trace-elements (ostracode Mg/Ca) that reflect lake response to hydrological variability (precipitation (PCP) minus evaporation). In this study, we show that H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes (n-acids) are a proxy for growing season PCP in the region. With this proxy we reconstruct growing season PCP at Lake George, ND at 35-yr resolution over the past 9.4 ka, at 8-yr resolution over the past 1.8 ka, and at nearly annual resolution for the past 150 years. Our PCP proxy is calibrated against the instrumental record for the past 100-yrs and validated at three regional lakes sites. We show low PCP during the early Holocene beginning at 9.1 ka, with peak drought at 8.4 ka, The H-isotopes (dD) suggest that PCP was highly variable from 8.2 ka to 3.5 ka, with alternating wet-dry periods. This variability is not evident in prior lake studies, which had lower temporal resolution in the mid-Holocene. The dD also indicates generally low rainfall but high-amplitude variation from 6.0 to 3.5 ka and low and less variable rainfall from 2.3 to 0.3 ka. The dD suggest that the 1930’s Dust Bowl Drought is one of only seven drought events throughout the past 9.4 ka to reach that severity, and only three events were more severe (8.1, 2.4, and 0.6 ka). Within the past 1.8 ka, the low rainfall events generally coincide with phases inferred to be dry in regional lakes by in-lake proxies (Rice Lake, ND, Coldwater Lake, ND, Moon Lake, ND, and Elk Lake, MN), although the decreased PCP events are abrupt and less prolonged than the inferred lake response to P-E. Spectral analysis of the H-isotope rainfall proxy does not support the 400-yr spacing of dry lake phases in the region observed in some paleosalinity records, which suggests that this spacing may be strongly affected by temperature

  3. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: further investigation.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2013-04-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV > PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae.

  4. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  5. Clinical Relevance of Multiple Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: Development of a Multiplex PCR-Single-Base-Extension Methodology▿

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, F.; Gaspar, J.; De Sousa, B.; Antunes, F.; Mansinho, K.; Matos, O.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is a major cause of respiratory illness in patients with AIDS. The identification of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at three distinct P. jirovecii loci encoding dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA (mtLSU rRNA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was achieved using multiplex-PCR (MPCR) followed by direct sequencing and two single-base extension (SBE) techniques. Four SNPs (DHFR312, mt85, SOD215, and SOD110), correlated previously with parameters of disease, were amplified and genotyped simultaneously. The concordance of results between the standard sequencing technique (direct sequencing) and SBE analysis was 96.9% for the acrylamide gel electrophoresis and 98.4% for the capillary electrophoresis. The cross-genetic analysis established several statistical associations among the SNPs studied: mt85C-SOD110T, SOD110T-SOD215C, and SOD110C-SOD215T. These results were confirmed by cluster analysis. Data showed that among the isolates with low to moderate parasite burden, the highest percentages of DHFR312C, mt85C, SOD110T, and SOD215C were detected, whereas for high parasite burden cases the highest frequencies were observed among isolates with DHFR312T, mt85T, SOD110C, and SOD215T. The polymorphisms studied were shown to be suitable genetic targets potentially correlated with PcP clinical data that can be used as predictors of outcome in further studies to help clinical decision-making in the management of PcP. The MPCR/SBE protocol described for the first time in the present study was shown to be a rapid, highly accurate method for genotyping P. jirovecii SNPs encoded by different loci that could be used for epidemiological studies and as an additional procedure for the prognostic classification and diagnosis of PcP. PMID:21389160

  6. Kernel-based variance component estimation and whole-genome prediction of pre-corrected phenotypes and progeny tests for dairy cow health traits

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Gota; Boddhireddy, Prashanth; Vukasinovic, Natascha; Gianola, Daniel; DeNise, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of complex trait phenotypes in the presence of unknown gene action is an ongoing challenge in animals, plants, and humans. Development of flexible predictive models that perform well irrespective of genetic and environmental architectures is desirable. Methods that can address non-additive variation in a non-explicit manner are gaining attention for this purpose and, in particular, semi-parametric kernel-based methods have been applied to diverse datasets, mostly providing encouraging results. On the other hand, the gains obtained from these methods have been smaller when smoothed values such as estimated breeding value (EBV) have been used as response variables. However, less emphasis has been placed on the choice of phenotypes to be used in kernel-based whole-genome prediction. This study aimed to evaluate differences between semi-parametric and parametric approaches using two types of response variables and molecular markers as inputs. Pre-corrected phenotypes (PCP) and EBV obtained for dairy cow health traits were used for this comparison. We observed that non-additive genetic variances were major contributors to total genetic variances in PCP, whereas additivity was the largest contributor to variability of EBV, as expected. Within the kernels evaluated, non-parametric methods yielded slightly better predictive performance across traits relative to their additive counterparts regardless of the type of response variable used. This reinforces the view that non-parametric kernels aiming to capture non-linear relationships between a panel of SNPs and phenotypes are appealing for complex trait prediction. However, like past studies, the gain in predictive correlation was not large for either PCP or EBV. We conclude that capturing non-additive genetic variation, especially epistatic variation, in a cross-validation framework remains a significant challenge even when it is important, as seems to be the case for health traits in dairy cows. PMID:24715901

  7. Classification epitopes in groups based on their protein family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The humoral immune system response is based on the interaction between antibodies and antigens for the clearance of pathogens and foreign molecules. The interaction between these proteins occurs at specific positions known as antigenic determinants or B-cell epitopes. The experimental identification of epitopes is costly and time consuming. Therefore the use of in silico methods, to help discover new epitopes, is an appealing alternative due the importance of biomedical applications such as vaccine design, disease diagnostic, anti-venoms and immune-therapeutics. However, the performance of predictions is not optimal been around 70% of accuracy. Further research could increase our understanding of the biochemical and structural properties that characterize a B-cell epitope. Results We investigated the possibility of linear epitopes from the same protein family to share common properties. This hypothesis led us to analyze physico-chemical (PCP) and predicted secondary structure (PSS) features of a curated dataset of epitope sequences available in the literature belonging to two different groups of antigens (metalloproteinases and neurotoxins). We discovered statistically significant parameters with data mining techniques which allow us to distinguish neurotoxin from metalloproteinase and these two from random sequences. After a five cross fold validation we found that PCP based models obtained area under the curve values (AUC) and accuracy above 0.9 for regression, decision tree and support vector machine. Conclusions We demonstrated that antigen's family can be inferred from properties within a single group of linear epitopes (metalloproteinases or neurotoxins). Also we discovered the characteristics that represent these two epitope groups including their similarities and differences with random peptides and their respective amino acid sequence. These findings open new perspectives to improve epitope prediction by considering the specific antigen

  8. Quantum mechanically based estimation of perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory parameters for analyzing their physical significance and predicting properties.

    PubMed

    Nhu, Nguyen Van; Singh, Mahendra; Leonhard, Kai

    2008-05-08

    We have computed molecular descriptors for sizes, shapes, charge distributions, and dispersion interactions for 67 compounds using quantum chemical ab initio and density functional theory methods. For the same compounds, we have fitted the three perturbed-chain polar statistical associating fluid theory (PCP-SAFT) equation of state (EOS) parameters to experimental data and have performed a statistical analysis for relations between the descriptors and the EOS parameters. On this basis, an analysis of the physical significance of the parameters, the limits of the present descriptors, and the PCP-SAFT EOS has been performed. The result is a method that can be used to estimate the vapor pressure curve including the normal boiling point, the liquid volume, the enthalpy of vaporization, the critical data, mixture properties, and so on. When only two of the three parameters are predicted and one is adjusted to experimental normal boiling point data, excellent predictions of all investigated pure compound and mixture properties are obtained. We are convinced that the methodology presented in this work will lead to new EOS applications as well as improved EOS models whose predictive performance is likely to surpass that of most present quantum chemically based, quantitative structure-property relationship, and group contribution methods for a broad range of chemical substances.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.

  10. Highly sensitive room temperature ammonia gas sensor based on Ir-doped Pt porous ceramic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Yen-Yu; Do, Jing-Shan; Li, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Room temperature NH3 gas sensors based on Pt and Pt-Ir (Ir doping Pt) porous ceramic electrodes have been fabricated by both electroplating and sputtering methods. The properties of the gaseous ammonia sensors have been examined by polarization and chronoamperometry techniques. The influence of humidity on the features of the resulting sensors in the system has also been discussed, and the working potential was optimized. Water vapors seem to hugely improve the electrochemical activity of the electrode. With increasing the relative humidity, the response of the Pt-Ir(E)/Pt(S)/PCP sensor to NH3 gas could be enhanced remarkably, and the sensitivity increases from 1.14 to 12.06 μA ppm-1 cm-2 .Then we have also discussed the sensing mechanism of the Pt-Ir sensor and the result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the electrode surface before and after reaction in the end.

  11. Chemical dehalogenation treatment: Base-catalyzed decomposition process (BCDP). Tech data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Base-Catalyzed Decomposition Process (BCDP) is an efficient, relatively inexpensive treatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is also effective on other halogenated contaminants such as insecticides, herbicides, pentachlorophenol (PCP), lindane, and chlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans. The heart of BCDP is the rotary reactor in which most of the decomposition takes place. The contaminated soil is first screened, processed with a crusher and pug mill, and stockpiled. Next, in the main treatment step, this stockpile is mixed with sodium bicarbonate (in the amount of 10% of the weight of the stockpile) and heated for about one hour at 630 F in the rotary reactor. Most (about 60% to 90%) of the PCBs in the soil are decomposed in this step. The remainder are volatilized, captured, and decomposed.

  12. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

  13. Genotypic variation of Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates in India based on sequence diversity at mitochondrial large subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Guleria, Randeep; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Samantaray, Jyotish Chandra; Kumar, Lalit; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2011-03-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a common and serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis). The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of genotypes of P. jirovecii based on sequence polymorphisms at mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mt LSU rRNA) region in both HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised individuals with a positive PCR result for PCP in a tertiary health care centre in northern India. From January 2005 to October 2008, 50 patients [22 HIV-seropositive individuals, 10 post-renal transplant (PRT) recipients, 3 cancer patients, and 15 patients with various other kinds of immunosuppression] were found to be positive for P. jirovecii using PCR at the mt LSU rRNA gene. Genotyping of the positive samples was performed at the mt LSU rRNA locus. Genotype 2 was the most common accounting for 42% of total types. This was followed by the genotypes 3 (24%), 1 (20%), and 4 (8%). Mixed infection was observed in 3 cases (6%). The rates of genotype distribution were similar in HIV-seropositive individuals, cancer patients, and in patients with other kinds of immunosuppression. In the PRT recipients, genotype 1 was the most prevalent type (80%). This is the first study describing the prevalence of genotypes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, immunocompromised patients based on the mt LSU rRNA gene from the Indian subcontinent. The most prevalent genotype observed was type 2 in contrast to many studies from other parts of the world where genotype 1 was the most prevalent type, suggesting geographical variation.

  14. Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients treated with long-term steroid therapy for symptom palliation: a neglected infection in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Kiuchi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Mina; Hisahara, Ko; Hisanaga, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    We report 3 cases of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with advanced cancer who received palliative care. All patients received long-term steroid therapy for symptom management. A diagnosis of PCP was based on clinical symptoms and a positive Pneumocystis jiroveci polymerase chain reaction test from induced sputum specimens. Despite appropriate treatment, only 1 patient recovered from PCP. Long-term steroid, often prescribed in palliative care settings, is the most common risk factor for PCP in non-HIV patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia may cause distressing symptoms such as severe dyspnea, and the mortality rate is high. Therefore, it is important to consider PCP prophylaxis for high-risk patients and to diagnose PCP early and provide appropriate treatment to alleviate PCP-related symptoms and avert unnecessary shortening of a patient's life expectancy.

  15. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  16. Cysteamine-modified silver nanoparticle aggregates for quantitative SERS sensing of pentachlorophenol with a portable Raman spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohong; Yang, Min; Meng, Yanjing; Jiang, Wei; Zhan, Jinhua

    2013-08-14

    Cysteamine-modified silver nanoparticle aggregates has been fabricated for pentachlorophenol (PCP) sensing by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using a portable Raman spectrometer. The cysteamine monolayers could preconcentrate PCP close to the substrate surface through the electrostatic interaction, which makes the SERS detection of PCP possible. Moreover, the Raman bands of cysteamine could be used as the internal spectral reference in the quantitative analysis. Qualitative detection of PCP was carried out by SERS without any sample pretreatment. Quantitative analysis of PCP was further realized based on the prepared substrate, as the log-log plot of normalized SERS intensity of PCP versus its concentrations exhibits a good linear relationship. The SERS signals collected on 20 randomly selected points show that the relative standard deviation of the normalized Raman intensity is 5.8%, which indicates the substrate had good uniformity. The PCP sensor also shows good long-term stability in the analyte solution. The substrate was cyclic immersed into PCP and methanol solution; after several cycles, the sensor still had good adsorption to PCP, which revealed the sensor has good reusability. Coupling with a portable Raman spectrometer, the cysteamine-modified silver nanoparticle aggregates have the potential to be used for in situ and routine SERS analysis of PCP in environmental samples.

  17. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Ping; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Hongchang; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  18. Photochemical Reduction of Low Concentrations of CO2 in a Porous Coordination Polymer with a Ruthenium(II)-CO Complex.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Takashi; Fujii, Machiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Katsuaki; Higuchi, Masakazu; Tanaka, Koji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-02-18

    Direct use of low pressures of CO2 as a C1 source without concentration from gas mixtures is of great interest from an energy-saving viewpoint. Porous heterogeneous catalysts containing both adsorption and catalytically active sites are promising candidates for such applications. Here, we report a porous coordination polymer (PCP)-based catalyst, PCP-Ru(II) composite, bearing a Ru(II) -CO complex active for CO2 reduction. The PCP-Ru(II) composite showed improved CO2 adsorption behavior at ambient temperature. In the photochemical reduction of CO2 the PCP-Ru(II) composite produced CO, HCOOH, and H2 . Catalytic activity was comparable with the corresponding homogeneous Ru(II) catalyst and ranks among the highest of known PCP-based catalysts. Furthermore, catalytic activity was maintained even under a 5 % CO2 /Ar gas mixture, revealing a synergistic effect between the adsorption and catalytically active sites within the PCP-Ru(II) composite.

  19. Association of Communication Between Hospital-based Physicians and Primary Care Providers with Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L.; Auerbach, Andrew D.; Kaboli, Peter J.; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Gonzales, David V.; Arora, Vineet M.; Zhang, James X.; Meltzer, David O.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Patients admitted to general medicine inpatient services are increasingly cared for by hospital-based physicians rather than their primary care providers (PCPs). This separation of hospital and ambulatory care may result in important care discontinuities after discharge. We sought to determine whether communication between hospital-based physicians and PCPs influences patient outcomes. METHODS We approached consecutive patients admitted to general medicine services at six US academic centers from July 2001 to June 2003. A random sample of the PCPs for consented patients was contacted 2 weeks after patient discharge and surveyed about communication with the hospital medical team. Responses were linked with the 30-day composite patient outcomes of mortality, hospital readmission, and emergency department (ED) visits obtained through follow-up telephone survey and National Death Index search. We used hierarchical multi-variable logistic regression to model whether communication with the patient’s PCP was associated with the 30-day composite outcome. RESULTS A total of 1,772 PCPs for 2,336 patients were surveyed with 908 PCPs responses and complete patient follow-up available for 1,078 patients. The PCPs for 834 patients (77%) were aware that their patient had been admitted to the hospital. Of these, direct communication between PCPs and inpatient physicians took place for 194 patients (23%), and a discharge summary was available within 2 weeks of discharge for 347 patients (42%). Within 30 days of discharge, 233 (22%) patients died, were readmitted to the hospital, or visited an ED. In adjusted analyses, no relationship was seen between the composite outcome and direct physician communication (adjusted odds ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.56 – 1.34), the presence of a discharge summary (0.84, 95% CI 0.57–1.22), or PCP awareness of the index hospitalization (1.08, 95% CI 0.73–1.59). CONCLUSION Analysis of communication between PCPs

  20. Disposition of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ): Effect of inhibition of metabolism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) in the absence and presence of 25 mg/l salicylamide, an inhibitor of PCP metabolism. After exposure to 5 mu g/l PCP over 1-96 h, the amount of PCP in the whole fish, its concentration in water and the total amount of metabolites (water, whole fish and bile) were measured. Equations for these variables, based on a two compartment pharmacokinetic model, were fitted simultaneously to the data using the computer program NONLIN, which uses an iterative nonlinear least squares technique. Salicylamide decreased the metabolic clearance of PCP, which resulted in an increase in the bioconcentration factor (BCF); this increase was partially offset by a salicylamide-induced decrease in the apparent volume of distribution of PCP. A clearance-volume compartment model permitted partitioning of the BCF in terms of the underlying physiologic and biochemical processes (uptake clearance, metabolic clearance and apparent volume of distribution).

  1. Possible Legal Barriers for PCP Access to Mental Health Treatment Records.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Leslie S; Ganz, David A; Wenger, Neil S

    2016-04-01

    Provider and payer groups have endorsed the goal of improving the integration of primary care and behavioral health across a variety of programs and settings. There is an interest in sharing patients' medical information, a goal that is permissible within HIPAA, but there are concerns about more restrictive state medical privacy laws. This article assesses whether a substantial number of state medical privacy laws are, or could be interpreted to be, more restrictive than HIPAA. Preliminary investigation found that in almost one third of the states (including large-population states such as Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas), primary care physicians (PCPs) may have difficulty accessing mental health treatment records without the patient's (or his/her guardian/conservator's) written consent. If a comprehensive legal analysis supports this conclusion, then those advocating integration of behavioral and primary care may need to consider seeking appropriate state legislative solutions.

  2. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION FOR REMEDIATON OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES: TREATMENT FOR DIOXINS, PCP, CREOSOTE, AND METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the use of solidification/stabilization (S/S) to treat soils contaminated with organic and inorganic chemicals at wood preserving sites. Solidification is defined for this article as making a material into a free standing solid. Stabilization is defined as ...

  3. An Ion-Selective Electrode for the Determination of Phencyclidine (PCP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-06

    procedure. b. Radioimmunoassay. c. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. d. Gas chromotography -NP detector. e. Gas chromotography - mass...methods have involved the use of gas chromatography (16-20) mass spectrometry (16, 22-24, 35) liquid chromatography (21) and very recently

  4. Dissemination of Prostate Cancer Screening to PCP’s in African American Communities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    undercurrent of " homophobia ." The PSA, as a blood test not involving rectal insertions, was not similarly "undignified." As one man expressed: "Yes, I think it’s...prostate cancer screening with the DRE] all about... maybe for some men it’s a homophobia . I think that’s the issue here. But I think with the PSA

  5. Temperature-based rapid toxicity test using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Jun, B H; Lee, S I; Ryu, H D; Kim, Y J

    2006-01-01

    Toxicants, which may cause the inhibition to the biological process in sewage/wastewater treatment plant, need to be monitored within short time to prevent from serious damage. A new method, Temperature-based rapid toxicity test (TempTox test) using Ceriodaphnia dubia, was developed and compared with the standard 48 hr acute bioassay (Std. 48-hr test). Inorganic toxicants of cadmium, zinc, copper, cyanide, chromium (III), chromium (VI) and organic toxicants of phenol, PCP and pesticides of BPMC, Diazinon, Fenitrothion were tested for TempTox test and Std. 48-hr test. Because the TempTox test is based on just temperature control, C. dubia neonates were exposed to toxicants under high temperature (35.5 degrees C) condition without any complicated pretreatment. After given exposure time of 1, 1.25, 1.5 hours, the number of the live (no toxic effect) or the dead (toxic effect) was counted with eye without the aid of any microscope and median effective concentrations (EC50 values) were determined. From the results for all toxicants, the TempTox test was proved to be as sensitive as the Std. 48-hr test with shorter-time of just 1.25-1.5 hours. Moreover, the TempTox test was further much more sensitive than alternative bioassays such as the 1-hour l.Q. test and 30-minute Microtox. The TempTox test showed a high applicability of toxicity bioassay for real sewage/wastewater treatment plant by its easiness, rapidity and sensitivity. Finally, the prototype for short-term TempTox test was introduced.

  6. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling.

    PubMed

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder.

  7. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTES: CROSSCURRENT AND COUNTERCURRENT SOLVENT WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    solvent washing was evaluated as a method to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aged field soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. Several soil:solvent contact ratios were considered. Solvent washing processes were evaluated based on the removal of PCP from the soil throug...

  8. Pentachlorophenol degradation by Janibacter sp., a new actinobacterium isolated from saline sediment of arid land.

    PubMed

    Khessairi, Amel; Fhoula, Imene; Jaouani, Atef; Turki, Yousra; Cherif, Ameur; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2014-01-01

    Many pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, and high salt concentrations. PCP-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and prosper in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. A PCP-degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from arid and saline soil in southern Tunisia and was enriched in mineral salts medium supplemented with PCP as source of carbon and energy. Based on 16S rRNA coding gene sequence analysis, the strain FAS23 was identified as Janibacter sp. As revealed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, FAS23 strain was found to be efficient for PCP removal in the presence of 1% of glucose. The conditions of growth and PCP removal by FAS23 strain were found to be optimal in neutral pH and at a temperature of 30 °C. Moreover, this strain was found to be halotolerant at a range of 1-10% of NaCl and able to degrade PCP at a concentration up to 300 mg/L, while the addition of nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) enhanced the PCP removal capacity.

  9. Pentachlorophenol Degradation by Janibacter sp., a New Actinobacterium Isolated from Saline Sediment of Arid Land

    PubMed Central

    Khessairi, Amel; Jaouani, Atef; Turki, Yousra; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2014-01-01

    Many pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, and high salt concentrations. PCP-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and prosper in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. A PCP-degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from arid and saline soil in southern Tunisia and was enriched in mineral salts medium supplemented with PCP as source of carbon and energy. Based on 16S rRNA coding gene sequence analysis, the strain FAS23 was identified as Janibacter sp. As revealed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, FAS23 strain was found to be efficient for PCP removal in the presence of 1% of glucose. The conditions of growth and PCP removal by FAS23 strain were found to be optimal in neutral pH and at a temperature of 30°C. Moreover, this strain was found to be halotolerant at a range of 1–10% of NaCl and able to degrade PCP at a concentration up to 300 mg/L, while the addition of nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) enhanced the PCP removal capacity. PMID:25313357

  10. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min

    2015-11-15

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of (13)CH4 and (13)CO2 indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil.

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in pentachlorophenol dissipation at the aerobic--anaerobic interfaces of flooded paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiajiang; Xu, Yan; Brookes, Philip C; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2013-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) dissipation occurs naturally in flooded soils and although dissipation half-lives vary between soil profiles at the millimeter-scale the reason is poorly understood. Vertical variations of PCP dissipation were investigated in three typical Chinese paddy soils; Soil 1 (Umbraqualf), Soil 2 (Plinthudult) and Soil 3 (Tropudult). The soil depth was divided into a surface and a deep layer based upon different PCP dissipations in the surface layer of 40-93, 42-88 and 16-100% for Soils 1-3 respectively. In the deep layer, PCP was greatly dissipated in Soil 2, but much less in Soil 1 and Soil 3. Correlation analysis indicated that SO4(2-) and Fe(III) were negatively related to PCP dissipation. SO4(2-) and Cl(-) were highly mobile in the flooded soil profiles. Fe(III) reduction increased with increasing soil depth, and was inhibited by high SO4(2-) concentrations.

  12. Analysis of phenolic pollutants in human samples by high performance capillary electrophoresis based on pretreatment of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and solidification of floating organic droplet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Yan, Hao; Wang, Chengjun; Chen, Fan; Ma, Meiping; Wang, Wenwei; Wang, Xuedong

    2012-08-31

    A novel, simple and rapid method, termed ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction and solidification of floating organic droplet (UAEM-SFO) coupled to high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE), was developed for preconcentration and analysis of five phenolic compounds (PCs) in human urine and blood samples. The proposed method is based on microextraction of target analytes in less-toxic organic solvent under assistance of ultrasound. A micro-droplet of less-toxic organic solvent floating on the surface of liquid samples in a sealed vial can be dispersed into sample solutions under the ultrasound frequency, solidified under ice bath, collected with a medicine spatula, molten at ambient temperature, and finally subjected to HPCE analysis. The parameters of UAEM-SFO procedure including type and volume of extraction solvent, extraction temperature, time of ultrasound-assisted extraction and centrifugation, sample pH, and ionic strength were optimized. The influence parameters on HPCE resolution such as pH, concentration of running buffer, applied voltage and injection time were also investigated. This method requires only 40 μL of 2-dodecanol extraction solvent and 8 min of pretreatment time. The enrichment factors of analytes were in the range of 114-172 and extraction recoveries (69-86%) were obtained. Good linearity was achieved for five analytes in the range of 0.05-100 μg L⁻¹ and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.9934 to 0.9999. The limits of detection were 0.01 μg L⁻¹ for triclosan (TCS) and biophenol A (BPA), and 0.02 μg L⁻¹ for pentachlorophenol (PCP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in urine samples, and 0.02 μg L⁻¹ for TCS and BPA, 0.04 μg L⁻¹ for PCP, 2,4-DCP and 4-NP in blood samples. The developed UAEM-SFO-HPCE method has a great potential in routine residual analysis of trace PCs in biological samples.

  13. A hybrid pressure-density-based Mach uniform algorithm for 2D Euler equations on unstructured grids by using multi-moment finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bin; Deng, Xi; Sun, Ziyao; Xiao, Feng

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel Mach-uniform numerical model for 2D Euler equations on unstructured grids by using multi-moment finite volume method. The model integrates two key components newly developed to solve compressible flows on unstructured grids with improved accuracy and robustness. A new variant of AUSM scheme, so-called AUSM+-pcp (AUSM+ with pressure-correction projection), has been devised including a pressure-correction projection to the AUSM+ flux splitting, which maintains the exact numerical conservativeness and works well for all Mach numbers. A novel 3th-order, non-oscillatory and less-dissipative reconstruction has been proposed by introducing a multi-dimensional limiting and a BVD (boundary variation diminishing) treatment to the VPM (volume integrated average (VIA) and point value (PV) based multi-moment) reconstruction. The resulting reconstruction scheme, the limited VPM-BVD formulation, is able to resolve both smooth and non-smooth solutions with high fidelity. Benchmark tests have been used to verify the present model. The numerical results substantiate the present model as an accurate and robust unstructured-grid formulation for flows of all Mach numbers.

  14. Long-term storage and impedance-based water toxicity testing capabilities of fluidic biochips seeded with RTgill-W1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Linda M; Widder, Mark W; Lee, Lucy E J; van der Schalie, William H

    2012-08-01

    Rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) are used in a cell-based biosensor that can respond within one hour to toxic chemicals that have the potential to contaminate drinking water supplies. RTgill-W1 cells seeded on enclosed fluidic biochips and monitored using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology responded to 18 out of the 18 toxic chemicals tested within one hour of exposure. Nine of these chemical responses were within established concentration ranges specified by the U.S. Army for comparison of toxicity sensors for field application. The RTgill-W1 cells remain viable on the biochips at ambient carbon dioxide levels at 6°C for 78weeks without media changes. RTgill-W1 biochips stored in this manner were challenged with 9.4μM sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), a benchmark toxicant, and impedance responses were significant (p<0.001) for all storage times tested. This poikilothermic cell line has toxicant sensitivity comparable to a mammalian cell line (bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells (BLMVECs)) that was tested on fluidic biochips with the same chemicals. In order to remain viable, the BLMVEC biochips required media replenishments 3 times per week while being maintained at 37°C. The ability of RTgill-W1 biochips to maintain monolayer integrity without media replenishments for 78weeks, combined with their chemical sensitivity and rapid response time, make them excellent candidates for use in low cost, maintenance-free field-portable biosensors.

  15. The effect of a resident-led quality improvement project on improving communication between hospital-based and outpatient physicians.

    PubMed

    Kalanithi, Lucy; Coffey, Charles E; Mourad, Michelle; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Hollander, Harry; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a resident-led quality improvement program to improve communication between inpatient internal medicine residents and their patients' primary care physicians (PCPs). The program included education on care transitions, standardization of documentation, audit and feedback of documented PCP communication rates with public reporting of performance, rapid-cycle data analysis and improvement projects, and a financial incentive. At baseline, PCP communication was documented in 55% of patients; after implementation of the intervention, communication was documented in 89.3% (2477 of 2772) of discharges during the program period. The program was associated with a significant increase in referring PCP satisfaction with communication at hospital admission (baseline, 27.7% "satisfied" or "very satisfied"; postintervention, 58.2%; P < .01) but not at discharge (baseline, 14.9%; postintervention, 21.8%; P = .41). Residents cited the importance of PCP communication for patient care and audit and feedback of their performance as the principal drivers of their engagement in the project.

  16. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

  17. Polymer-cysteamine conjugates: new mucoadhesive excipients for drug delivery?

    PubMed

    Kast, Constantia E; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2002-03-02

    In the present study, the features of two new thiolated polymers--the so-called thiomers--were investigated. Mediated by a carbodiimide cysteamine was covalently attached to sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) and neutralised polycarbophil (Na-PCP). Depending on the weight-ratio polymer to cysteamine during the coupling reaction, the resulting CMC-cysteamine conjugate and PCP-cysteamine conjugate showed in maximum 43 +/- 15 and 138 +/- 22 micromole thiol groups per g polymer (mean +/- S.D.; n=3), respectively, which were used for further characterisation. Tensile studies carried out with the CMC-cysteamine conjugate on freshly excised porcine intestinal mucosa displayed no significantly (P<0.01) improved mucoadhesion, whereas, the mucoadhesive properties of the PCP-cysteamine conjugate were increased 2.5-fold compared with the unmodified polymer. The swelling behaviour of the CMC-cysteamine conjugate was uninfluenced by the covalent attachment of the sulfhydryl compound. In contrast the swelling behaviour of the PCP-cysteamine conjugate was improved significantly (P<0.01) versus unmodified PCP. Furthermore, in aqueous solutions the disintegration time of tablets based on the CMC- and PCP-cysteamine conjugates was prolonged 1.5 and 3.2-fold, respectively, in comparison to tablets containing the corresponding unmodified polymers. According to these results, especially the PCP-cysteamine conjugate represents a promising new pharmaceutical excipient for various drug delivery systems.

  18. Coupling between Pentachlorophenol Dechlorination and Soil Redox As Revealed by Stable Carbon Isotope, Microbial Community Structure, and Biogeochemical Data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; He, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jianming; Crowley, David

    2015-05-05

    Carbon isotopic analysis and molecular-based methods were used in conjunction with geochemical data sets to assess the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) when coupled to biogeochemical processes in a mangrove soil having no prior history of anthropogenic contamination. The PCP underwent 96% dechlorination in soil amended with acetate, compared to 21% dehalogenation in control soil. Carbon isotope analysis of residual PCP demonstrated an obvious enrichment of 13C (εC, -3.01±0.1%). Molecular and statistical analyses demonstrated that PCP dechlorination and Fe(III) reduction were synergistically combined electron-accepting processes. Microbial community analysis further suggested that enhanced dechlorination of PCP during Fe(III) reduction was mediated by members of the multifunctional family of Geobacteraceae. In contrast, PCP significantly suppressed the growth of SO4(2-) reducers, which, in turn, facilitated the production of CH4 by diversion of electrons from SO4(2-) reduction to methanogenesis. The integrated data regarding stoichiometric alterations in this study gives direct evidence showing PCP, Fe(III), and SO4(2-) reduction, and CH4 production are coupled microbial processes during changes in soil redox.

  19. Crystal structure of a PCP/Sfp complex reveals the structural basis for carrier protein posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Tufar, Peter; Rahighi, Simin; Kraas, Femke I; Kirchner, Donata K; Löhr, Frank; Henrich, Erik; Köpke, Jürgen; Dikic, Ivan; Güntert, Peter; Marahiel, Mohamed A; Dötsch, Volker

    2014-04-24

    Phosphopantetheine transferases represent a class of enzymes found throughout all forms of life. From a structural point of view, they are subdivided into three groups, with transferases from group II being the most widespread. They are required for the posttranslational modification of carrier proteins involved in diverse metabolic pathways. We determined the crystal structure of the group II phosphopantetheine transferase Sfp from Bacillus in complex with a substrate carrier protein in the presence of coenzyme A and magnesium, and observed two protein-protein interaction sites. Mutational analysis showed that only the hydrophobic contacts between the carrier protein's second helix and the C-terminal domain of Sfp are essential for their productive interaction. Comparison with a similar structure of a complex of human proteins suggests that the mode of interaction is highly conserved in all domains of life.

  20. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  1. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  2. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liqun; Hu, Shu; Okray, Zeynep; Ren, Xi; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Bellefroid, Eric; Quan, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. PMID:27385016

  3. Visits to primary care physicians among persons who inject drugs at high risk of hepatitis C virus infection: room for improvement.

    PubMed

    Artenie, A A; Jutras-Aswad, D; Roy, É; Zang, G; Bamvita, J-M; Lévesque, A; Bruneau, J

    2015-10-01

    The role of primary care physicians (PCP) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevention is increasingly emphasized. Yet, little is known about the patterns of contacts with PCP among persons who inject drugs (PWID). We sought to assess the 6-month prevalence of PCP visiting among PWID at risk of HCV infection and to explore the associated factors. Baseline data were collected from HCV-seronegative PWID recruited in HEPCO, an observational Hepatitis Cohort study (2004-2011) in Montreal, Canada. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographic factors, drug use patterns and healthcare services utilization. Blood samples were tested for HCV antibodies. Using the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, need and enabling factors associated with PCP visiting. Of the 349 participants (mean age = 34; 80.8% male), 32.1% reported visiting a PCP. In the multivariate model, among predisposing factors, male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45 (0.25-0.83)], chronic homelessness [AOR = 0.08 (0.01-0.67)], cocaine injection [AOR = 0.46 (0.28-0.76)] and reporting greater illegal or semi-legal income [AOR = 0.48 (0.27-0.85)] were negatively associated with PCP visits. Markers of need were not associated with the outcome. Among enabling factors, contact with street nurses [AOR = 3.86 (1.49-9.90)] and food banks [AOR = 2.01 (1.20-3.37)] was positively associated with PCP visiting. Only one third of participating PWID reported a recent visit to a PCP. While a host of predisposing factors seems to hamper timely contacts with PCP among high-risk PWID, community-based support services may play an important role in initiating dialogue with primary healthcare services in this population.

  4. Qualitative and Quantitative Radio-Anatomical Variation of the Posterior Clinoid Process

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Asem; Baidya, Nishanta B.; Wendt, Benjamin; Aguila, Francisco; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the radiological anatomy of the posterior clinoid process (PCP) to highlight preoperative awareness of its variations and its relationships to other skull base landmarks. The PCPs of 36, three-dimensional computed tomographic cadaveric heads were evaluated by studying the gross anatomy of the PCP and by measuring the distances between the PCP and other skull base anatomical landmarks relevant to transnasal or transcranial skull base approaches. PCP variations were found in five specimens (14%): in two the dorsum sellae was absent, in one the PCP and the anterior clinoid process (ACP) were connected unilaterally and in two bilaterally. The mean distance between the right/left PCP and the crista galli was 45.14 ± 4.0 standard deviation (SD_/46.24 ± 4.5 SD, respectively, while the distance to the middle point of the basion at the level of the foramen magnum was 40.41 ± 5.1 SD/41.0 ± 5.2 SD, respectively. The mean distance between the PCP and the ACP was 12.03 ± 3.18 SD on the right side and 12.11 ± 2.77 SD on the left. The data provided highlights the importance of careful preoperative evaluation of the PCP and of its relationships to other commonly encountered skull base landmarks. This information may give an idea of the exposure achievable through different transcranial and transnasal approaches. This is especially relevant when neuronavigation is not available. PMID:22547963

  5. Qualitative and quantitative radio-anatomical variation of the posterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Salma, Asem; Baidya, Nishanta B; Wendt, Benjamin; Aguila, Francisco; Sammet, Steffen; Ammirati, Mario

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the radiological anatomy of the posterior clinoid process (PCP) to highlight preoperative awareness of its variations and its relationships to other skull base landmarks. The PCPs of 36, three-dimensional computed tomographic cadaveric heads were evaluated by studying the gross anatomy of the PCP and by measuring the distances between the PCP and other skull base anatomical landmarks relevant to transnasal or transcranial skull base approaches. PCP variations were found in five specimens (14%): in two the dorsum sellae was absent, in one the PCP and the anterior clinoid process (ACP) were connected unilaterally and in two bilaterally. The mean distance between the right/left PCP and the crista galli was 45.14 ± 4.0 standard deviation (SD_/46.24 ± 4.5 SD, respectively, while the distance to the middle point of the basion at the level of the foramen magnum was 40.41 ± 5.1 SD/41.0 ± 5.2 SD, respectively. The mean distance between the PCP and the ACP was 12.03 ± 3.18 SD on the right side and 12.11 ± 2.77 SD on the left. The data provided highlights the importance of careful preoperative evaluation of the PCP and of its relationships to other commonly encountered skull base landmarks. This information may give an idea of the exposure achievable through different transcranial and transnasal approaches. This is especially relevant when neuronavigation is not available.

  6. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water.

  7. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mei; Ji, Funian; Hu, Changwei; Cui, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na) using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2–4×104 cells/well (1–2×105 cells/mL) in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants. PMID:28125623

  8. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mei; Ji, Funian; Hu, Changwei; Cui, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na) using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL) in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  9. Bioconcentration of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl and pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius, as measured by a pharmacokinetic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Hayton, W.L.; Staubus, A.E.; Fisher, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published values as well as with BCF values obtained from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)).

  10. Sulfa use, dihydropteroate synthase mutations, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Poole, Charles; Kazanjian, Powel; Meshnick, Steven R

    2004-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the associations in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) patients between dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) mutations and sulfa or sulfone (sulfa) prophylaxis and between DHPS mutations and sulfa treatment outcome. Selection criteria included study populations composed entirely of PCP patients and mutation or treatment outcome results for all patients, regardless of exposure status. Based on 13 studies, the risk of developing DHPS mutations is higher for PCP patients receiving sulfa prophylaxis than for PCP patients not receiving sulfa prophylaxis (p < 0.001). Results are too heterogeneous (p < 0.001) to warrant a single summary effect estimate. Estimated effects are weaker after 1996 and stronger in studies that included multiple isolates per patient. Five studies examined treatment outcome. The effect of DHPS mutations on treatment outcome has not been well studied, and the few studies that have been conducted are inconsistent even as to the presence or absence of an association.

  11. New Structural Data Reveal the Motion of Carrier Proteins in Nonribosomal Peptide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kittilä, Tiia; Mollo, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are one of the most promising resources for the production of new bioactive molecules. The mechanism of NRPS catalysis is based around sequential catalytic domains: these are organized into modules, where each module selects, modifies, and incorporates an amino acid into the growing peptide. The intermediates formed during NRPS catalysis are delivered between enzyme centers by peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains, which makes PCP interactions and movements crucial to NRPS mechanism. PCP movement has been linked to the domain alternation cycle of adenylation (A) domains, and recent complete NRPS module structures provide support for this hypothesis. However, it appears as though the A domain alternation alone is insufficient to account for the complete NRPS catalytic cycle and that the loaded state of the PCP must also play a role in choreographing catalysis in these complex and fascinating molecular machines. PMID:27435901

  12. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10-10 M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 9.0 × 10-5 M with the detection limit of 5.0 × 10-10 M. Moreover, the proposed PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples.

  13. Effects of a Web-Based Patient Activation Intervention to Overcome Clinical Inertia on Blood Pressure Control: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thiboutot, Jeffrey; Falkner, Bonita; Kephart, Donna K; Stuckey, Heather L; Adelman, Alan M; Curry, William J; Lehman, Erik B

    2013-01-01

    Background Only approximately half of patients with hypertension have their blood pressure controlled, due in large part to the tendency of primary care providers (PCPs) not to intensify treatment when blood pressure values are elevated. Objective This study tested the effect of an intervention designed to help patients ask questions at the point of care to encourage PCPs to appropriately intensify blood pressure treatment. Methods PCPs and their patients with hypertension (N=500) were recruited by letter and randomized into 2 study groups: (1) intervention condition in which patients used a fully automated website each month to receive tailored messages suggesting questions to ask their PCP to improve blood pressure control, and (2) control condition in which a similar tool suggested questions to ask about preventive services (eg, cancer screening). The Web-based tool was designed to be used during each of the 12 study months and before scheduled visits with PCPs. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients in both conditions with controlled blood pressure. Results Of 500 enrolled patients (intervention condition: n=282; control condition: n=218), 418 (83.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up visit. At baseline, 289 (61.5%) of participants had controlled blood pressure. Most (411/500, 82.2%) participants used the intervention during at least 6 of 12 months and 222 (62.5%) reported asking questions directly from the Web-based tool. There were no group differences in asking about medication intensification and there were no differences in blood pressure control after 12 months between the intervention condition (201/282, 71.3%) and control condition (143/218, 65.6%; P=.27) groups. More intervention condition participants discussed having a creatinine test (92, 52.6% vs 49, 35.5%; P=.02) and urine protein test (81, 44.8% vs 21, 14.6%; P<.001), but no group differences were observed in the rate of testing. The control condition participants reported more

  14. Primary care physician use across the breast cancer care continuum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Lofters, Aisha; Moineddin, Rahim; Decker, Kathleen; Groome, Patti; Kendell, Cynthia; Krzyzanowska, Monika; Li, Dongdong; McBride, Mary L.; Mittmann, Nicole; Porter, Geoff; Turner, Donna; Urquhart, Robin; Winget, Marcy; Zhang, Yang; Grunfeld, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe primary care physician (PCP) use and continuity of PCP care across the breast cancer care continuum. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study using provincial cancer registries linked to health administrative databases. Setting British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario. Participants All women with incident invasive breast cancer from 2007 to 2012 in Manitoba and Ontario and from 2007 to 2011 in British Columbia. Main outcome measures The number and proportions of visits to PCPs were determined. Continuity of care was measured using the Usual Provider of Care index calculated as the proportion of visits to the most-often-visited PCP in the 6 to 30 months before a breast cancer diagnosis (baseline) and from 1 to 3 years following a breast cancer diagnosis (survivorship). Results More than three-quarters of patients visited their PCPs 2 or more times during the breast cancer diagnostic period, and more than 80% of patients had at least 1 PCP visit during breast cancer adjuvant treatment. Contact with the PCP decreased over time during breast cancer survivorship. Of the 3 phases, women appeared to be most likely to not have PCP contact during adjuvant treatment, with 10.7% (Ontario) to 18.7% (British Columbia) of women having no PCP visits during this phase. However, a sizable minority of women had at least monthly visits during the treatment phase, particularly in Manitoba and Ontario, where approximately a quarter of women saw a PCP at least monthly. We observed higher continuity of care with PCPs in survivorship (compared with baseline) in all provinces. Conclusion Primary care physicians were generally involved throughout the breast cancer care continuum, but the level of involvement varied across care phases and by province. Future interventions will aim to further integrate primary and oncology care. PMID:27737994

  15. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using electrochemical activation of peroxomonosulfate, peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Kadarkarai; Raja, Mohan; Noel, Michael; James, E J

    2014-05-15

    The present study is to investigate the reactivity of free radicals (SO4(-) and HO) generated from common oxidants (peroxomonosulfate (PMS), peroxodisulfate (PDS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP)) activated by electrochemically generated Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ions which furthermore are evaluated to destroy pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution. The effect of solution pH and amount of oxidants (PMS, PDS and HP) in electrocoagulation (EC) on PCP degradation is analyzed in detail. The experimental results reveal that, optimum initial solution pH is 4.5 and PMS is more efficient oxidant addition in EC. 75% PCP degradation is achieved at 60min electrolysis time from PMS assisted EC. According to the first order rate constant, faster PCP degradation rate is obtained by PMS assisted EC. The PCP degradation rate by oxidant assisted EC is observed in the following order: EC/PMS>EC/PDS>EC/HP>EC. Further to identify the influences of experimental factors involved in PCP degradation by oxidant assisted EC, an experimental design based on an orthogonal array (OA) L9 (3(3)) is proposed using Taguchi method. The factors that most significantly affect the process robustness are identified as A (oxidant) and B (pH) which together account for nearly 86% of the variance.

  16. Using web technology and Java mobile software agents to manage outside referrals.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S N; Ng, T; Sittig, D F; Barnett, G O

    1998-01-01

    A prototype, web-based referral application was created with the objective of providing outside primary care providers (PCP's) the means to refer patients to the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. The application was designed to achieve the two primary objectives of providing the consultant with enough data to make decisions even at the initial visit, and providing the PCP with a prompt response from the consultant. The system uses a web browser/server to initiate the referral and Java mobile software agents to support the workflow of the referral. This combination provides a light client implementation that can run on a wide variety of hardware and software platforms found in the office of the PCP. The implementation can guarantee a high degree of security for the computer of the PCP. Agents can be adapted to support the wide variety of data types that may be used in referral transactions, including reports with complex presentation needs and scanned (faxed) images Agents can be delivered to the PCP as running applications that can perform ongoing queries and alerts at the office of the PCP. Finally, the agent architecture is designed to scale in a natural and seamless manner for unforeseen future needs.

  17. Pentachlorophenol remediation by Enterobacter sp. SG1 isolated from industrial dump site.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Geetanjali

    2014-02-01

    Chlorophenols contamination is serious concern to the environment due toxicity to all forms of life. Among all the chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) is more detrimental to the environment. Pentachlorophenol used as pesticide, herbicide, antifungal agent and wood preservative which causes environmental pollution. In the present research a PCP degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from industrial dump site. This isolate used PCP as its sole source of carbon and energy and was capable of degrading this compound, as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride, ring cleavage activity and biomass formation. Based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis this strain was identified as Enterobacter sp. SG1. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis revealed that this strain was able to degrade PCP up to a concentration of 2 mM. This study showed that the removal efficiency of PCP by SG1 was found to be very effective and can be used in degradation of PCP contaminated site or waste in the environment.

  18. Comparison of 2 real-time PCR assays for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and non-HIV immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Isabel; Brancart, Françoise; Schepers, Kinda; Jacobs, Frederique; Denis, Olivier; Delforge, Marie-Luce

    2015-06-01

    A total of 120 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised patients, positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii by an "in house" real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were evaluated by the Bio-Evolution Pneumocystis real-time PCR, a commercial quantitative assay. Patients were classified in 2 categories based on clinical and radiological findings: definite and unlikely Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). For the "in house" PCR, cycle threshold 34 was established as cut-off value to discriminate definite PCP from unlikely PCP with 65% and 85% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. For the Bio-Evolution quantitative PCR, a cut-off value of 2.8×10(5)copies/mL was defined with 72% and 82% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Overlapped zones of results for definite and unlikely PCP were observed. Quantitative PCR is probably a useful tool for PCP diagnosis. However, for optimal management of PCP in non-HIV immunocompromised patients, operational thresholds should be assessed according to underlying diseases and other clinical and radiological parameters.

  19. ECIL guidelines for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Cordonnier, Catherine; Maertens, Johan; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) convened a meeting to establish evidence-based recommendations for using tests to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in adult patients with haematological malignancies. Immunofluorescence assays are recommended as the most sensitive microscopic method (recommendation A-II: ). Real-time PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of PCP ( A-II: ). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is recommended as the best specimen as it yields good negative predictive value ( A-II: ). Non-invasive specimens can be suitable alternatives ( B-II: ), acknowledging that PCP cannot be ruled out in case of a negative PCR result ( A-II: ). Detecting β-d-glucan in serum can contribute to the diagnosis but not the follow-up of PCP ( A-II: ). A negative serum β-d-glucan result can exclude PCP in a patient at risk ( A-II: ), whereas a positive test result may indicate other fungal infections. Genotyping using multilocus sequence markers can be used to investigate suspected outbreaks ( A-II: ). The routine detection of dihydropteroate synthase mutations in cases of treatment failure is not recommended ( B-II: ) since these mutations do not affect response to high-dose co-trimoxazole. The clinical utility of these diagnostic tests for the early management of PCP should be further assessed in prospective, randomized interventional studies.

  20. Fault detection with principal component pursuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijun; Yang, Chunjie; Sun, Youxian; An, Ruqiao; Wang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Data-driven approaches are widely applied for fault detection in industrial process. Recently, a new method for fault detection called principal component pursuit(PCP) is introduced. PCP is not only robust to outliers, but also can accomplish the objectives of model building, fault detection, fault isolation and process reconstruction simultaneously. PCP divides the data matrix into two parts: a fault-free low rank matrix and a sparse matrix with sensor noise and process fault. The statistics presented in this paper fully utilize the information in data matrix. Since the low rank matrix in PCP is similar to principal components matrix in PCA, a T2 statistic is proposed for fault detection in low rank matrix. And this statistic can illustrate that PCP is more sensitive to small variations in variables than PCA. In addition, in sparse matrix, a new monitored statistic performing the online fault detection with PCP-based method is introduced. This statistic uses the mean and the correlation coefficient of variables. Monte Carlo simulation and Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of monitored statistics.

  1. Thermosetting composite matrix materials based on allyl and/or propargyl substituted cyclopentadiene, indene and fluorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregre, Gregory Jude

    A series of all-hydrocarbon thermoset composite matrix resins was synthesized via electrophilic substitution of cyclopentadiene, indene, and fluorene ring systems with allyl and/or propargyl halides under phase transfer conditions. Reaction of cyclopentadiene with allyl chloride (ACP resin), propargyl bromide (PCP resin) or various feed ratios of allyl chloride and propargyl bromide (APCP resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-6 substituents per cyclopentadiene ring. Reaction of indene with allyl chloride (Al resins) or propargyl bromide (PI resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-4 substituents per indene. In both sets of resins the allyl functionality obtained a greater average degree of substitution than the analogous propargyl species. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the multifunctional resins showed broad, high-energy thermal cures in all cases. The enthalpies of cure for ACP and PCP were 750 J/g and 805 J/g, respectively, with peak cure energies occurring at 310 and 248sp°C. The enthalpy of cure for APCP resins ranged from 750 J/g to 800 J/g with higher propargyl-functional resins yielding higher enthalpies of cure. Physically mixed ACP/PCP resin systems gave peak cure temperatures and energy values comparable to APCP resins. The enthalpies of cure for Al and PI-resins were 480 J/g and 630 J/g, respectively. Peak cure temperature for Al resin was 320sp°C, while the peak cure for PI resin occurred at 282sp°C. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to evaluate mechanisms of cure in the experimental resins. The allyl functional resins cured through a combination of ene reactions and polyaddition reactions. The propargyl functional resins cured through ene reactions and polyadditions but also underwent some cyclotrimerization of the propargyl functionalities. A small amount of autoxidation was seen in all of the resins. Thermal stability and carbon yields of the cured resins were

  2. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  3. Training community-based primary care physicians in the screeningand management of mental health disorders among Latino primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapana R.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Olfson, Mark; Bell, Michelle A.; Jackson, Elizabeth; Sánchez-Lacay, J. Arturo; Alfonso, César; Leeman, Eve; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Toevaluate a quality improvementintervention to improve thescreening and management (e.g., referral to psychiatric care) of common mental disorders in small independent Latino primary care practices serving patient populations of predominantly low-income Latino immigrants. Methods In 7 practices, academic detailing and consultation/liaison psychiatry were first implemented (Stage 1) and then supplemented withappointment scheduling and reminders to primary care physicians (PCP’s) by clinic staff (Stage 2).Acceptability and feasibility were assessed with independent patient samples during each stage. Results Participating PCP found the interventions acceptable and noted that referrals to language-matched specialty care and case-by-case consultation on medication management were particularly beneficial. The academic detailing and consultation/liaison intervention (Stage 1) did not significantly affect PCP screening, management or patient satisfaction with care. When support for appointment scheduling and reminders (Stage 2) was added, however, PCP referral to psychiatric services increased (p=.04) and referred patients were significantly more likely to follow through and have more visits to mental health professionals (p=.04). Conclusion Improving the quality of mental health care in low-resourced primary care settings may require academic detailing and consultation/liaison psychiatric intervention supplemented with staff outreach to achieve meaningful improvement in the processes of care. PMID:26598287

  4. Solution phase and membrane immobilized iron-based free radical reactions: Fundamentals and applications for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Scott Romak

    Membrane-based separation processes have been used extensively for drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, and numerous other applications. Reactive membranes synthesized through functionalization of the membrane pores offer enhanced reactivity due to increased surface area at the polymer-solution interface and low diffusion limitations. Oxidative techniques utilizing free radicals have proven effective for both the destruction of toxic organics and non-environmental applications. Most previous work focuses on reactions in the homogeneous phase; however, the immobilization of reactants in membrane pores offers several advantages. The use of polyanions immobilized in a membrane or chelates in solution prevents ferric hydroxide precipitation at near-neutral pH, a common limitation of iron(Fe(II/III))-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) decomposition. The objectives of this research are to develop a membrane-based platform for the generation of free radicals, degrade toxic organic compounds using this and similar solution-based reactions, degrade toxic organic compounds in droplet form, quantify hydroxyl radical production in these reactions, and develop kinetic models for both processes. In this study, a functionalized membrane containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to immobilize iron ions and conduct free radical reactions by permeating H2O2 through the membrane. The membrane's responsive behavior to pH and divalent cations was investigated and modeled. The conversion of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in the membrane and its effect on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide were monitored and used to develop kinetic models for predicting H2O2 decomposition in these systems. The rate of hydroxyl radical production, and hence contaminant degradation can be varied by changing the residence time, H2O2 concentration, and/or iron loading. Using these membrane-immobilized systems, successful removal of toxic organic compounds, such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), from water

  5. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of a Pneumocystis pneumonia outbreak among renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Urabe, N; Ishii, Y; Hyodo, Y; Aoki, K; Yoshizawa, S; Saga, T; Murayama, S Y; Sakai, K; Homma, S; Tateda, K

    2016-04-01

    Between 18 November and 3 December 2011, five renal transplant patients at the Department of Nephrology, Toho University Omori Medical Centre, Tokyo, were diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used molecular epidemiologic methods to determine whether the patients were infected with the same strain of Pneumocystis jirovecii. DNA extracted from the residual bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the five outbreak cases and from another 20 cases of PCP between 2007 and 2014 were used for multilocus sequence typing to compare the genetic similarity of the P. jirovecii. DNA base sequencing by the Sanger method showed some regions where two bases overlapped and could not be defined. A next-generation sequencer was used to analyse the types and ratios of these overlapping bases. DNA base sequences of P. jirovecii in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four of the five PCP patients in the 2011 outbreak and from another two renal transplant patients who developed PCP in 2013 were highly homologous. The Sanger method revealed 14 genomic regions where two differing DNA bases overlapped and could not be identified. Analyses of the overlapping bases by a next-generation sequencer revealed that the differing types of base were present in almost identical ratios. There is a strong possibility that the PCP outbreak at the Toho University Omori Medical Centre was caused by the same strain of P. jirovecii. Two different types of base present in some regions may be due to P. jirovecii's being a diploid species.

  6. Effect of increasing the protein-to-fat ratio and reducing fat content on the chemical and physical properties of processed cheese product.

    PubMed

    Guinee, T P; O'Callaghan, D J

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies indicate that the intake of dietary fat and saturated fats in the modern Western diet is excessive and contributes adversely to health, lifestyle, and longevity. In response, manufacturers of cheese and processed cheese products (PCP) are pursuing the development of products with reduced fat contents. The present study investigated the effect of altering the fat level (13.8, 18.2, 22.7, 27.9, and 32.5 g/100g) in PCP on their chemical and physical properties. The PCP were formulated in triplicate to different fat levels using Cheddar cheese, skim milk cheese, anhydrous milk fat, emulsifying salt (ES), NaCl, and water. The formulations were designed to give fixed moisture (~53 g/100g) and ES:protein ratio (0.105). The resultant PCP, and their water-soluble extracts (WSE), prepared from a macerated blend of PCP and water at a weight ratio of 1:2, were analyzed at 4d. Reducing the fat content significantly increased the firmness of the unheated PCP and reduced the flowability and maximum loss tangent (fluidity) of the melted PCP. These changes coincided with increases in the levels of total protein, water-soluble protein, water-insoluble protein, and water-soluble Ca, and a decrease in the molar ratio of water-soluble Ca to soluble P. However, both water-soluble Ca and water-soluble protein decreased when expressed as percentages of total protein and total Ca, respectively, in the PCP. The high level of protein was a major factor contributing to the deterioration in physical properties as the fat content of PCP was reduced. Diluting the protein content or reducing the potential of the protein to aggregate, and thereby form structures that contribute to rigidity, may provide a means for improving quality of reduced-fat PCP by using natural cheese with lower intact casein content and lower calcium:casein ratio, for example, or by decreasing the ratio of sodium phosphate to sodium citrate-based ES.

  7. Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients in Spain: epidemiology and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Palomares-Sancho, Ines; Diaz, Asuncion; Resino, Rosa; De Miguel, Angel Gil; Resino, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific environmental factors may play a role in the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the PCP incidence and mortality in hospitalized HIV-positive patients in Spain during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (1997 to 2011), as well as to analyze the climatological factors and air pollution levels in relation to hospital admissions and deaths. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the State Meteorological Agency of Spain. A case-crossover analysis was applied to identify environmental risk factors related to hospitalizations and deaths. For each patient, climatic factors and pollution levels were assigned based on readings from the nearest meteorological station to his or her postal code. Results There were 13,139 new PCP diagnoses and 1754 deaths in hospitalized HIV-positive patients from 1997 to 2011. The PCP incidence (events per 1000 person-years) dropped from 11.6 in 1997 to 2000, to 5.4 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). The mortality (events per 10,000 person-years) also decreased from 14.3 in 1997 to 2000, to 7.5 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). Most hospital admissions and deaths occurred in the winter season and the fewest occurred in the summer, overlapping respectively with the lowest and highest temperatures of the year in Spain. Moreover, lower temperatures prior to PCP admission, as well as higher concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter up to 10 m in size (PM10) at the time of admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission due to PCP when two weeks, one month, 1.5 months or two months were used as controls (p<0.01). Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone at one month (p=0.007), 1.5 months (p<0.001) and two months (p=0.006) prior to admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission with PCP. For PCP-related deaths, lower

  8. Microbially driven Fenton reaction for transformation of pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    McKinzi, A.M.; Dichristina, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    A microbially driven transformation system was developed for the oxidative degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The system was based on a free radical-generating Fenton reaction between bacterially produced Fe(II) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The Fe(III)-reducing, facultative anaerobe Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 was used as a catalyst for both Fe(III) reduction and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production by alternating between anaerobic and aerobic conditions in liquid batch cultures supplemented with Fe(III). The highest observed PCP degradation rate was approximately 0.31 {micro}M h{sup {minus}1}. Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) and tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) were formed as the principal PCP transformation products, indicating that PCP oxidation proceeded via hydroxyl radical ({sup {sm_bullet}}OH) attack on the ortho and para positions of the aromatic ring. PCP was degraded, and TCHQ and TCC were produced in a chemically driven (biomimetic) system where H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Fe(II) were supplied at concentrations comparable to those detected in the microbially driven system. PCP was not degraded (and PCP transformation products were not produced) in a set of control experiments that included (1) the presence of Fe(II)-chelating agents or radical scavenging compounds, (2) strict aerobic or anaerobic conditions, (3) the substitution of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} for Fe(III) as anaerobic electron acceptor, and (4) the omission of S. putrefaciens. The microbially driven Fenton reaction system operated at neutral pH and required neither addition of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} nor UV irradiation to regenerate Fe(II). The newly developed system may provide the basis for novel Fenton-type bioremediation strategies.

  9. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: evaluation of four serologic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Esteves, F; Calé, S S; Badura, R; de Boer, M G; Maltez, F; Calderón, E J; van der Reijden, T J; Márquez-Martín, E; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of Pneumocystis jirovecii organisms or DNA detection in pulmonary specimens. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (KL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as serologic biomarkers in the diagnosis of PCP. Serum levels of BG, KL-6, LDH and SAM were investigated in 145 Portuguese patients, 50 patients from the Netherlands, 25 Spanish patients and 40 Portuguese blood donors. Data on clinical presentation, chest imaging and gasometry tests were available. PCP cases were confirmed by microscopy and PCR techniques. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. BG was found to be the most reliable serologic biomarker for PCP diagnosis, followed by KL-6, LDH and SAM. The BG/KL-6 combination test was the most accurate serologic approach for PCP diagnosis, with 94.3% sensitivity and 89.6% specificity. Although less sensitive/specific than the reference standard classic methods based on bronchoalveolar lavage followed by microscopic or molecular detection of P. jirovecii organisms, the BG/KL-6 test may provide a less onerous procedure for PCP diagnosis, as it uses a minimally invasive and inexpensive specimen (blood), which may be also a major benefit for the patient's care. The BG/KL-6 combination test should be interpreted within the clinical context, and it may be used as a preliminary screening test in patients with primary suspicion of PCP, or as an alternative diagnostic procedure in patients with respiratory failure or in children, avoiding the associated risk of complications by the use of bronchoscopy.

  10. The spatio-temporal domains of Frizzled6 action in planar polarity control of hair follicle orientation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Smallwood, Philip M; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, hair follicles cover most of the body surface and exhibit precise and stereotyped orientations relative to the body axes. Follicle orientation is controlled by the planar cell polarity (PCP; or, more generally, tissue polarity) system, as determined by the follicle mis-orientation phenotypes observed in mice with PCP gene mutations. The present study uses conditional knockout alleles of the PCP genes Frizzled6 (Fz6), Vangl1, and Vangl2, together with a series of Cre drivers to interrogate the spatio-temporal domains of PCP gene action in the developing mouse epidermis required for follicle orientation. Fz6 is required starting between embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5. Eliminating Fz6 in either the anterior or the posterior halves of the embryo or in either the feet or the torso leads to follicle mis-orientation phenotypes that are limited to the territories associated with Fz6 loss, implying either that PCP signaling is required for communicating polarity information on a local but not a global scale, or that there are multiple independent sources of global polarity information. Eliminating Fz6 in most hair follicle cells or in the inter-follicular epidermis at E15.5 suggests that PCP signaling in developing follicles is not required to maintain their orientation. The asymmetric arrangement of Merkel cells around the base of each guard hair follicle dependents on Fz6 expression in the epidermis but not in differentiating Merkel cells. These experiments constrain current models of PCP signaling and the flow of polarity information in mammalian skin.

  11. A consideration of the evidence that genetic defects in planar cell polarity contribute to the etiology of human neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, Diana M; Harris, Muriel J

    2012-10-01

    A variety of human birth defects originate in failure of closure of the embryonic neural tube. The genetic cause of the most common nonsyndromic defects, spina bifida (SB) or anencephaly, is considered to be combinations of variants at multiple genes. The genes contributing to the etiology of neural tube closure defects (NTDs) are unknown. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes in mice cause a variety of defects including the NTD, craniorachischisis, and sometimes SB or exencephaly (EX); they also demonstrate the role of digenic combinations of PCP mutants in NTDs. Recent studies have sought rare predicted-to-be-deleterious alterations (putative mutations) in coding sequence of PCP genes in human cases with various anomalies of the neural tube. This review summarizes the cumulative results of these studies according to a framework based on the embryopathogenesis of NTDs, and considers some of the insights from the approaches used and the limitations. Rare putative mutations in the PCP genes VANGL2, SCRIB, DACT1, and CELSR1 cumulatively contributed to over 20% of cases with craniorachischisis, a rare defect; no contributing variants were found for PRICKLE1 or PTK7. PCP rare putative mutations had a weaker role in myelomeningocele (SB), being found in approximately 6% of cases and cumulated across CELSR1, FUZ, FZD6, PRICKLE1, VANGL1, and VANGL2. These results demonstrate that PCP gene alterations contribute to the etiology of human NTDs. We recommend that future research should explore other types of PCP gene variant such as regulatory mutations and low frequency (1 to 5%) deleterious polymorphisms.

  12. Clinical Course, Radiological Manifestations, and Outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV Patients and Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Andri; Furrer, Hansjakob; Cusini, Alexia; Meyer, Andreas M. J.; Weiler, Stefan; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Heverhagen, Johannes; Arampatzis, Spyridon; Christe, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a frequent opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In literature, presentation and outcome of PCP differs between patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with PCP based on the HIV and renal transplant registries at our institution. Radiological and clinical data from all confirmed PCP cases between 2005 and 2012 were compared. Results Forty patients were included: 16 with HIV and 24 RTRs. Radiologically, HIV patients had significantly more areas of diffuse lung affection (81% HIV vs. 25% RTR; p = 0.02), more ground glass nodules 5–10 mm (69% vs. 4%; p = <0.001) and enlarged hilar lymph nodes were found only in HIV patients (44%). Cough and dyspnea were the most common clinical signs (>80%) in both groups. Duration from illness onset to hospital presentation was longer in the HIV patients (median of 18 vs. 10 days (p = 0.02)), implying a less fulminant clinical course. Sixty percent of PCP cases in RTRs occurred >12 months after transplantation. Lengths of hospitalization, admission rates to the intensive care unit, and requirements for mechanical ventilation were similar. Outcome in both groups was favourable. Conclusions While important differences in radiological presentation of PCP between HIV patients and RTRs were found, clinical presentation was similar. PCP only rarely presented with fulminant respiratory symptoms requiring ICU admission, with similar results and outcomes for HIV patients and RTRs. Early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory for clinical success. PMID:27824870

  13. Unveiling the excited state energy transfer pathways in peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein by ultrafast multi-pulse transient absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Redeckas, Kipras; Voiciuk, Vladislava; Zigmantas, Donatas; Hiller, Roger G; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-04-01

    Time-resolved multi-pulse methods were applied to investigate the excited state dynamics, the interstate couplings, and the excited state energy transfer pathways between the light-harvesting pigments in peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP). The utilized pump-dump-probe techniques are based on perturbation of the regular PCP energy transfer pathway. The PCP complexes were initially excited with an ultrashort pulse, resonant to the S0→S2 transition of the carotenoid peridinin. A portion of the peridinin-based emissive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state was then depopulated by applying an ultrashort NIR pulse that perturbed the interaction between S1 and ICT states and the energy flow from the carotenoids to the chlorophylls. The presented data indicate that the peridinin S1 and ICT states are spectrally distinct and coexist in an excited state equilibrium in the PCP complex. Moreover, numeric analysis of the experimental data asserts ICT→Chl-a as the main energy transfer pathway in the photoexcited PCP systems.

  14. The developmental effects of pentachlorophenol on zebrafish embryos during segmentation: A systematic view

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Zhifa; Pan, Ruijie; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a typical toxicant and prevailing pollutant whose toxicity has been broadly investigated. However, previous studies did not specifically investigate the underlying mechanisms of its developmental toxicity. Here, we chose zebrafish embryos as the model, exposed them to 2 different concentrations of PCP, and sequenced their entire transcriptomes at 10 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The sequencing analysis revealed that high concentrations of PCP elicited systematic responses at both time points. By combining the enrichment terms with single genes, the results were further analyzed using three categories: metabolism, transporters, and organogenesis. Hyperactive glycolysis was the most outstanding feature of the transcriptome at 10 hpf. The entire system seemed to be hypoxic, although hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) may have been suppressed by the upregulation of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). At 24 hpf, PCP primarily affected somitogenesis and lens formation probably resulting from the disruption of embryonic body plan at earlier stages. The proposed underlying toxicological mechanism of PCP was based on the crosstalk between each clue. Our study attempted to describe the developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants from a systematic view. Meanwhile, some features of gene expression profiling could serve as markers of human health or ecological risk. PMID:27181905

  15. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species.

  16. Prognosis of pneumocystis pneumonia complicated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-RA rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuji; Takahashi, Yuko; Minemura, Nobuyoshi; Ueda, Yo; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Mimori, Akio

    2012-08-01

    Clinical presentation of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) during immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatic diseases was compared between patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 7) and those without RA (non-RA; n = 12) based on a chart review. Both RA and non-RA patients with PCP were treated with methotrexate (n = 7) combined with steroids (n = 6) and/or biologics (n = 4). RA-PCP patients were found to have a higher mortality rate than non-RA-PCP patients (3/7 vs. 0/12, respectively; p = 0.036) due to a later exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia and a higher presentation rate of diffuse pulmonary lesions (4/7 vs. 1/12, respectively; p = 0.036) despite lower mean levels of serum beta-D: -glucan (314 ± 214 vs. 1139 ± 1114 pg/ml, respectively; p = 0.02) that suggested a lower burden of Pneumocystis jirovecii. In conclusion, PCP in RA patients with existing pulmonary lesions may trigger subsequent progression to lethal interstitial pneumonia.

  17. The developmental effects of pentachlorophenol on zebrafish embryos during segmentation: A systematic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Zhifa; Pan, Ruijie; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a typical toxicant and prevailing pollutant whose toxicity has been broadly investigated. However, previous studies did not specifically investigate the underlying mechanisms of its developmental toxicity. Here, we chose zebrafish embryos as the model, exposed them to 2 different concentrations of PCP, and sequenced their entire transcriptomes at 10 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The sequencing analysis revealed that high concentrations of PCP elicited systematic responses at both time points. By combining the enrichment terms with single genes, the results were further analyzed using three categories: metabolism, transporters, and organogenesis. Hyperactive glycolysis was the most outstanding feature of the transcriptome at 10 hpf. The entire system seemed to be hypoxic, although hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) may have been suppressed by the upregulation of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). At 24 hpf, PCP primarily affected somitogenesis and lens formation probably resulting from the disruption of embryonic body plan at earlier stages. The proposed underlying toxicological mechanism of PCP was based on the crosstalk between each clue. Our study attempted to describe the developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants from a systematic view. Meanwhile, some features of gene expression profiling could serve as markers of human health or ecological risk.

  18. Immunodiagnosis of Citrus leprosis virus C using a polyclonal antibody to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Guillermo, Leon M; Picton, D D; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2013-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent for citrus leprosis disease, is present in South and Central America and is a threat for introduction into the U.S. citrus industry. A specific, inexpensive and reliable antibody based detection system is needed for the rapid identification of CiLV-C. The CiLV-C is very labile and has not been purified in sufficient amount for antibody production. The p29 gene of CiLV-C genome that codes for the putative coat protein (PCP) was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and synthesized in vitro. The optimized gene was sub-cloned into the bacterial expression vector pDEST17 and transferred into E. coli BL21AI competent cells. The expression of PCP containing N-terminal His-tag was optimized by induction with l-arabinose. Induced cells were disrupted by sonication and expressed PCP was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose. The purified expressed PCP was then used as an immunogen for injections into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb specific to the expressed PCP was identified using Western blotting. The antibody was successfully used to detect CiLV-C in the symptomatic CiLV-C infected tissues using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent (DAS-ELISA), indirect ELISA and dot-blot immunoassay (DBIA) formats.

  19. Serological diagnosis of pneumocystosis: production of a synthetic recombinant antigen for immunodetection of Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    PubMed

    Tomás, A L; Cardoso, F; Esteves, F; Matos, O

    2016-11-08

    Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) relies on the detection of P. jirovecii in respiratory specimens obtained by invasive techniques. Thus, the development of a serological test is urgently needed as it will allow the diagnosis of PcP using blood, an inexpensive and non-invasive specimen. This study aims to combine the production of a multi-epitope synthetic recombinant antigen (RSA) and an ELISA test for detection of anti-P. jirovecii antibodies, in order to develop a new approach for PcP diagnosis. The RSA was selected and designed based on the study of the immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the major surface glycoprotein. This antigen was purified and used as an antigenic tool in an ELISA technique for detection of Ig, IgG and IgM antibodies anti-P. jirovecii (patent-pending no. PT109078). Serum specimens from 88 patients previously categorized in distinct clinical subgroups and 17 blood donors, were analysed. The IgM anti-P. jirovecii levels were statistically increased in patients with PcP (p = 0.001) and the ELISA IgM anti-P. jirovecii test presented a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80.8%, when associated with the clinical diagnosis criteria. This innovative approach, provides good insights about what can be done in the future serum testing for PcP diagnosis.

  20. Electroencephalographic, behavioral and receptor binding correlates of phencyclinoids in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mattia, A.; Marquis, K.L.; Leccese, A.P.; el-Fakahany, E.E.; Moreton, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The pharmacology and structure-activity relationship of phencyclidine (PCP)-like drugs (phencyclinoids) were studied using electroencephalographic (EEG), behavioral and receptor binding techniques. The effects of PCP, 1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-methyl-1-phenycyclohexylamine HCl, N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-(s-butyl)-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCL, 1-(1-phenylcyclo-hexyl)-pyrrolidine HCl, 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl) piperidine HCl, 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine HCl, ketamine and (+/-)-SKF 10047 were evaluated on the direct EEG and EEG spectra after acute i.v. injections (0.1-17.8 mg/kg). Similarities and differences were noted in the EEG dose-response curves. At lower doses of PCP and its analogs, low-amplitude theta waves predominated; however, at higher doses, high-amplitude, lower-frequency waves predominated. Qualitatively, the N-piperidine derivatives were similar to PCP and differed primarily in potency. The benzomorphan (+/-)-SKF 10047 produced only theta activity at doses up to 12.8 mg/kg. These EEG effects occurred in conjunction with overt behaviors including locomotion, stereotypy and ataxia, concurrently assessed via observer-based rating scales. A strong correlation (r = 0.98) was obtained between the EEG and behavioral effects and the IC50 values from (/sup 3/H)PCP displacement experiments using crude rat brain homogenates.

  1. Serological diagnosis of pneumocystosis: production of a synthetic recombinant antigen for immunodetection of Pneumocystis jirovecii

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, A. L.; Cardoso, F.; Esteves, F.; Matos, O.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) relies on the detection of P. jirovecii in respiratory specimens obtained by invasive techniques. Thus, the development of a serological test is urgently needed as it will allow the diagnosis of PcP using blood, an inexpensive and non-invasive specimen. This study aims to combine the production of a multi-epitope synthetic recombinant antigen (RSA) and an ELISA test for detection of anti-P. jirovecii antibodies, in order to develop a new approach for PcP diagnosis. The RSA was selected and designed based on the study of the immunogenicity of the carboxyl-terminal domain of the major surface glycoprotein. This antigen was purified and used as an antigenic tool in an ELISA technique for detection of Ig, IgG and IgM antibodies anti-P. jirovecii (patent-pending no. PT109078). Serum specimens from 88 patients previously categorized in distinct clinical subgroups and 17 blood donors, were analysed. The IgM anti-P. jirovecii levels were statistically increased in patients with PcP (p = 0.001) and the ELISA IgM anti-P. jirovecii test presented a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80.8%, when associated with the clinical diagnosis criteria. This innovative approach, provides good insights about what can be done in the future serum testing for PcP diagnosis. PMID:27824115

  2. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species. PMID:27214234

  3. Specific disulfide cross-linking to constrict the mobile carrier domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Tarry, Michael J.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, multi-domain enzymes that produce peptide molecules with important biological activity such as antibiotic, antiviral, anti-tumor, siderophore and immunosuppressant action. The adenylation (A) domain catalyzes two reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. In the first reaction, it activates the substrate amino acid by adenylation and in the second reaction it transfers the amino acid onto the phosphopantetheine arm of the adjacent peptide carrier protein (PCP) domain. The conformation of the A domain differs significantly depending on which of these two reactions it is catalyzing. Recently, several structures of A–PCP di-domains have been solved using mechanism-based inhibitors to trap the PCP domain in the A domain active site. Here, we present an alternative strategy to stall the A–PCP di-domain, by engineering a disulfide bond between the native amino acid substrate and the A domain. Size exclusion studies showed a significant shift in apparent size when the mutant A–PCP was provided with cross-linking reagents, and this shift was reversible in the presence of high concentrations of reducing agent. The cross-linked protein crystallized readily in several of the conditions screened and the best crystals diffracted to ≈8 Å. PMID:25713404

  4. The PCP Protein Vangl2 Regulates Migration of Hindbrain Motor Neurons by Acting in Floor Plate Cells, and Independently of Cilia Function

    PubMed Central

    Sittaramane, Vinoth; Pan, Xiufang; Glasco, Derrick M.; Huang, Peng; Gurung, Suman; Bock, Anagha; Li, Shike; Wang, Hui; Kawakami, Koichi; Matise, Michael P.; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Vangl2, a core component of the Planar Cell Polarity pathway, is necessary for the caudal migration of Facial Branchiomotor (FBM) neurons in the vertebrate hindbrain. Studies in zebrafish suggest that vangl2 functions largely non-cell autonomously to regulate FBM neuron migration out of rhombomere 4 (r4), but the cell-type within which it acts is not known. Here, we demonstrate that vangl2 functions largely in floor plate cells to regulate caudal neuronal migration. Furthermore, FBM neurons fail to migrate caudally in the mouse Gli2 mutant that lacks the floor plate, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for this cell type in neuronal migration. Although hindbrain floor plate cilia are disorganized in vangl2 mutant embryos, cilia appear to be dispensable for neuronal migration. Notably, Vangl2 is enriched in the basolateral, but not apical, membranes of floor plate cells. Taken together, our data suggest strongly that Vangl2 regulates FBM neuron migration by acting in floor plate cells, independently of cilia function. PMID:23988578

  5. New P-wave Velocity Images of the Lowermost Mantle from a Bayesian Inversion of PKP, PcP, and P4KP Differential Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M.; Tkalcic, H.; Bodin, T.; Sambridge, M.; Tanaka, S.; Rawlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Determining the scale-length, magnitude, and distribution of chemical and thermal heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle is crucial to understanding whole mantle dynamics, and yet it remains a much debated and ongoing challenge in geophysics. Common shortcomings of current seismically-derived lowermost mantle models are often the result of a lack of access to and scrutiny in performing travel time measurements from waveform data, consequently incomplete raypath coverage, arbitrary model parameterization, inaccurate uncertainty estimates, and an inadequate definition of the misfit function in the optimization framework. In response, we present a new approach to global tomography where apart from improving the existing ray path coverage using only high quality cross-correlated waveform, the problem is addressed within a Bayesian framework and explicit regularization of model parameters is not required. Our results show that velocity heterogeneities exist on a variety of scales, with anomalies between 600 and 2900 km in lateral extent dominating the lowermost mantle heterogeneity pattern. This provides an important link between the very short-scale imaging achieved through scattering experiments and the long wave-length maps resulting from more traditional tomographic approaches. We also show that the power of heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle has an rms P-wave velocity variation of 0.88%, which is significantly larger than previous global-scale estimates, is fully justified by the data. Comparison of our P-wave velocity model with high-resolution S-wave velocity models refutes a purely thermal origin of mantle heterogeneity. The pattern of correlation between our model and S-wave models, combined with the characteristic scale-length and amplitude of heterogeneity revealed by this study, will help to significantly refine allowable models of thermo-chemical convection in the lowermost mantle. We obtain high resolution images of the lowermost mantle P-wave velocity structure using a hand-picked data set of PKPab-df, PKPbc-df, PcP-P, and P4KP-PcP differential traveltimes. By using differential travel times, the biases associated with event mislocation and lateral heterogeneity in the lithosphere are minimized. The inclusion of new PcP-P and P4KP-PcP data greatly improves the D'' coverage and further reduces unwanted mapping effects in the inversion. In addition, we focus on covering gaps in spatial sampling of the lowermost mantle from PKPab-df and PcP-P of previous studies. We use a probabilistic, Bayesian inversion scheme to invert for lowermost mantle structure and obtain an accurate representation of the complexity and amplitude of the P-wave velocity heterogeneity that is complete with uncertainty estimates. The advantage of such an inversion method is that the data variance along with the number, size, and distribution of spatial model parameters are treated as unknowns in the problem.

  6. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Diagnosis of Cirrhosis and Evaluation of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Common Errors and Their Significance for the PCP.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Cirrhosis has become the focus of greater attention in recent years largely because of the increasing prevalence of 2 of its most common causes: chronic viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis (a subset of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD]). Cirrhosis is the result of progressive destruction and regeneration of the liver parenchyma due to chronic liver disease (CLD).

  7. Isolation, characterization, and genetics of pentachlorophenol-degrading Flavobacterium strains

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Bacteria able to mineralize 100-200 ppm of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were isolated by selective enrichment from PCP-contaminated soil from 3 geographic areas in Minnesota. Sampling areas were separated from each other by up to 185 miles; history and level of contamination with a variety of compounds varied between sites. Pure cultures of bacteria were selected for further characterization based on growth properties, site of isolation, and return of radiolabeled PCP as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in initial serum bottle experiments. Although differing somewhat in their response to various biochemical and biophysical tests, all strains were Gram-negative, oxidase-, catalase-, and phosphatase-positive, not motile, grow as yellow colonies on solid medium, limited in their use of single carbon sources,and ranged in mol% G + C of DNA between 58.8-63,8%. All strains were assigned to the genus Flavobacterium.

  8. -Based Clathrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anno, Hiroaki; Shirataki, Ritsuko

    2014-06-01

    A polycrystalline silicon-based clathrate of nominal composition Ba8Al15Si31 was prepared by a combination of arc melting and spark plasma sintering. Its thermal stability in air and the effect on the surface of heat treatment in air, which are of practical importance for use of the material at elevated temperatures, were examined for different temperatures (873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K) and heating times (0-480 h). Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis in air in the range 300-1523 K indicated that Ba8Al15Si31 in the bulk form had relatively good thermal stability in air at high temperatures. X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that a thin layer of oxide (probably a barium aluminate, BaAl2O4) was formed on the surface by heat treatment in air. The thickness of the oxide layer increased with increasing temperature and heating time. Growth of the oxide layer can be explained well in terms of a diffusion mechanism. The activation energy for oxidation was estimated to be approximately 201 kJ/mol, which is comparable with that for thermal oxidation of silicon. The chemical composition of the interior of the Ba8Al15Si31 was found to be stable to heat treatment in air.

  9. Providers debate pros and cons of pneumonia vaccination at discharge.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    When to vaccinate against pneumonia? Does it makes sense when patients are in the hospital? Or should patients wait for the first post-op visit with the PCP? Office-based and hospital-based physicians weigh the pros and cons of each.

  10. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  11. In vitro profiling of endocrine disrupting effects of phenols.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian

    2010-02-01

    Some phenols have been suspected to modulate the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, but less is known about their interactions with different types of nuclear receptors. In this study, the ability of 2-tert-butylphenol, 2-isopropylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), bisphenols A (BPA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and 4-phenylphenol to activate estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were determined using a set of recombined yeast strains. It was found that 4-t-OP, 3,4-DCP, PCP, BPA, TBBPA, TCBPA and 4-phenylphenol were ERalpha agonists, while 4-t-OP, PCP and 4-phenylphenol showed ERalpha antagonistic activities. 2-tert-Butylphenol, 4-t-OP, 2-isopropylphenol, 2,4-DCP, 3,4-DCP, BPA, TCBPA and 4-phenylphenol were antagonists for AR, whereas none of the compounds studied were found to be an AR agonist. TCBPA, TBBPA and PCP were PR antagonists, and 2-tert-butylphenol, 3,4-DCP, 4-t-OP, 4-phenylphenol and 2-isopropylphenol were weak inhibitors on expression under control of the PR. None of the phenols were PR agonists. 2-tert-Butylphenol, 4-t-OP and PCP were ERRgamma inverse agonists, while 2,4-DCP, 3,4-DCP, PCP, BPA, TBBPA and TCBPA exhibited the ability to reverse the ERR inhibition induced by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Based on the functional agonistic or antagonistic receptor-mediated effects, we further discussed the possible action mechanisms of these phenols as endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  12. Preventive Services by Medical and Dental Providers and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, A.M.; Rozier, R.G.; Preisser, J.S.; Stearns, S.C.; Weinberger, M.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Nearly all state Medicaid programs reimburse nondental primary care providers (PCPs) for providing preventive oral health services to young children; yet, little is known about how treatment outcomes compare with children visiting dentists. This study compared the association between the provider of preventive services (PCP, dentist, or both) with Medicaid-enrolled children before their third birthday and subsequent dental caries-related treatment (CRT) and CRT payment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of young children enrolled in North Carolina Medicaid during 2000 to 2006. The annual number of CRT and CRT payments per child between the ages of 3 and 5 yr were estimated with a zero-inflated negative binomial regression and a hurdle model, respectively. Models were adjusted for relevant child- and county-level characteristics and used propensity score weighting to address observed confounding. Results: We examined 41,453 children with > 1 preventive oral health visit from a PCP, dentist, or both before their third birthday. Unadjusted annual mean CRT and payments were lowest among children who had only PCP visits (CRT = 0.87, payment = $172) and higher among children with only dentist visits (CRT = 1.48, payment = $234) and both PCP and dentist visits (CRT = 1.52, payment = $273). Adjusted results indicated that children who had dentist visits (with or without PCP visits) had significantly more CRT and higher CRT payments per year during the ages of 3 and 4 yr than children who had only PCP visits. However, these differences attenuated each year after age 3 yr. Conclusions: Because of children’s increased opportunity to receive multiple visits in medical offices during well-child visits, preventive oral health services provided by PCPs may lead to a greater reduction in CRT than dentist visits alone. This study supports guidelines and reimbursement policies that allow preventive dental visits based on individual needs. PMID:24891593

  13. Neonatal administration of phencyclidine decreases the number of putative inhibitory interneurons and increases neural excitability to auditory paired clicks in the hippocampal CA3 region of freely moving adult mice.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Katayama, T; Suzuki, Y; Hoshino, K-Y; Yamada, H; Matsuoka, N; Jodo, E

    2012-11-08

    Animals exposed to phencyclidine (PCP) during the neonatal period have fewer GABAergic interneurons in the corticolimbic area, including the hippocampus, and exhibit abnormal behaviors after attaining maturation that correspond with schizophrenic symptoms. Since a lack of inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampus has also been reported in postmortem studies of patients with schizophrenia, the deficit may induce abnormal activity of hippocampal neurons that underlies pathological states in schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear how PCP treatment during the neonatal period affects the discharge activity of hippocampal neurons in adulthood. In the current study, single unit responses of hippocampal CA3 neurons to paired auditory clicks were recorded in freely moving mice repeatedly injected with PCP or saline during the neonatal period. The recorded neurons were classified into two subpopulations, narrow-spike neurons and broad-spike neurons, based on the spike width. The spontaneous discharge rate was higher in the narrow-spike neurons than in the broad-spike neurons, indicating that the narrow-spike neurons correspond with hippocampal inhibitory neurons. The proportion of narrow-spike neurons was significantly smaller in neonatally PCP-treated mice than in saline-treated mice. The broad-spike neurons that exhibited a response magnitude to the second click as large as that to the first click (E/E-type response) showed longer response duration to the paired clicks in PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Further, the number of neurons with E/E-type response was higher in the PCP-treated mice than in the saline-treated mice. Finally, the attenuation of an auditory-evoked potential component, N40, to the second click (sensory gating) was blunted in the PCP-treated mice when compared with that in the saline-treated mice. These results suggest that the neonatal administration of PCP induced a deficit of inhibitory interneurons and altered discharge

  14. Combined quantification of pulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and serum (1->3)-β-D-glucan for differential diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia and Pneumocystis colonization.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Céline; Le Gal, Solène; Da Costa, Cécilia; Virmaux, Michèle; Nevez, Gilles; Totet, Anne

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples combined with serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) level detection to distinguish Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii. Forty-six patients for whom P. jirovecii was initially detected in BAL fluid samples were retrospectively enrolled. Based on clinical data and results of P. jirovecii detection, 17 and 29 patients were diagnosed with PCP and colonization, respectively. BAL fluid samples were reassayed using a qPCR assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene. qPCR results and serum BG levels (from a Fungitell kit) were analyzed conjointly. P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the PCP group than in the colonization group (1.3 × 10(7) versus 3.4 × 10(3) copies/μl, P < 0.05). A lower cutoff value (1.6 × 10(3) copies/μl) achieving 100% sensitivity for PCP diagnosis and an upper cutoff value (2 × 10(4) copies/μl) achieving 100% specificity were determined. Applying these two values, 13/17 PCP patients and 19/29 colonized patients were correctly assigned to their patient groups. For the remaining 14 patients with P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers between the cutoff values, PCP and colonization could not be distinguished on the basis of qPCR results. Four of these patients who were initially assigned to the PCP group presented BG levels of ≥100 pg/ml. The other 10 patients, who were initially assigned to the colonization group, presented BG levels of <100 pg/ml. These results suggest that the combination of the qPCR assay, applying cutoff values of 1.6 × 10(3) and 2 × 10(4) copies/μl, and serum BG detection, applying a 100 pg/ml threshold, can differentiate PCP and colonization diagnoses.

  15. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  16. 28 CFR 50.21 - Procedures governing the destruction of contraband drug evidence in the custody of Federal law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecognine or their salts have been removed; (B) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; (C) Ecgonine, its... section which contains cocaine base; (iv) Two hundred grams of powdered phencyclidine (PCP) or...

  17. 28 CFR 50.21 - Procedures governing the destruction of contraband drug evidence in the custody of Federal law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecognine or their salts have been removed; (B) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; (C) Ecgonine, its... section which contains cocaine base; (iv) Two hundred grams of powdered phencyclidine (PCP) or...

  18. 28 CFR 50.21 - Procedures governing the destruction of contraband drug evidence in the custody of Federal law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecognine or their salts have been removed; (B) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; (C) Ecgonine, its... section which contains cocaine base; (iv) Two hundred grams of powdered phencyclidine (PCP) or...

  19. 28 CFR 50.21 - Procedures governing the destruction of contraband drug evidence in the custody of Federal law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecognine or their salts have been removed; (B) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; (C) Ecgonine, its... section which contains cocaine base; (iv) Two hundred grams of powdered phencyclidine (PCP) or...

  20. 28 CFR 50.21 - Procedures governing the destruction of contraband drug evidence in the custody of Federal law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coca leaves from which cocaine, ecgonine, and derivatives of ecognine or their salts have been removed; (B) Cocaine, its salts, optical and geometric isomers, and salts of isomers; (C) Ecgonine, its... section which contains cocaine base; (iv) Two hundred grams of powdered phencyclidine (PCP) or...

  1. PLATO at Graham Correctional Center: Starting an Innovative Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Mariellen O.

    The question of what happens when a prison adds PLATO computer-based education to its school program is addressed in this paper describing the PLATO Corrections Project (PCP), which grew out of a need to accommodate students too advanced for adult basic education classes and not well trained enough to survive in high school equivalency, or GED,…

  2. Spherical tokamaks with plasma centre-post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The metal centre-post (MCP) in tokamaks is a structure which carries the total toroidal field current and also houses the Ohmic heating solenoid in conventional or low aspect ratio (Spherical)(ST) tokamaks. The MCP and solenoid are critical components for producing the toroidal field and for the limited Ohmic flux in STs. Constraints for a ST reactor related to these limitations lead to a minimum plasma aspect ratio of 1.4 which reduces the benefit of operation at higher betas in a more compact ST reactor. Replacing the MCP is of great interest for reactor-based ST studies since the device is simplified, compactness increased, and maintenance reduced. An experiment to show the feasibility of using a plasma centre-post (PCP) is being currently under construction and involves a high level of complexity. A preliminary study of a very simple PCP, which is ECR(Electron Cyclotron Resonance)-assisted and which includes an innovative fuelling system based on pellet injection, has recently been reported. This is highly suitable for an ultra-low aspect ratio tokamak (ULART) device. Advances on this PCP ECR-assisted concept within a ULART and the associated fuelling system are presented here, and will include the field topology for the PCP ECR-assisted scheme, pellet ablation modeling, and a possible global equilibrium simulation. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contr.17592, National Instruments-Costa Rica.

  3. Integrated system for treating soil contaminated with wood treating wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Acheson, C.M.; Brenner, R.C.; Khodadoust, A.P.

    1995-10-01

    Approximately 20% of the hazardous waste sites undergoing bioremediation are contaminated with wood treating wastes, primarily compounds such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), creosote, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other hydrocarbons. A process that combines soil washing with sequential anaerobic and aerobic biotreatment is being integrated to remediate soil contaminated with these wood treating wastes. By extracting the target compound from the soil, soil washing facilitates degradation by mobilizing the target compound and expanding the range of feasible remediation technologies. Additional flexibility is possible since soil washing can be conducted in an in-situ or ex-situ format. In this process, the wash solution is initially bioremediated in an anaerobic environment. Mineralization of the target compound is completed aerobically. Based on preliminary results, the integrated process could meet the target cleanup level for PCP in approximately 45% of the bioremediation sites. Process development began by independently evaluating soil washing and target compound degradation. PCP contaminated soils were the initial focus, but this work is currently being extended to include soils contaminated with both PCP and PAHs. In addition, based on promising results from the soil washing and degradation evaluations, these individual unit operations are being integrated to form a complete process to remediate soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. This complete process incorporates soil washing, soil wash solution recycling, and biodegradation of the target compounds and is outlined.

  4. Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelsen, Larry K.; Sweet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL), when properly implemented, includes many, if not all, of the common elements of evidence-based best practices. To explain this, a brief overview of TBL is presented. The authors examine the relationship between the best practices of evidence-based teaching and the principles that constitute team-based learning. (Contains…

  5. A bivalent pneumococcal histidine triad protein D-choline-binding protein A vaccine elicits functional antibodies that passively protect mice from Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Martina M.; Williams, Kimberley; Sheung, Anthony; Lheritier, Philippe; Visan, Lucian; Rouleau, Nicolas; Proust, Emilie; de Montfort, Aymeric; Tang, Mei; Mari, Karine; Hopfer, Robert; Gallichan, Scott; Brookes, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccines based on conserved pneumococcal proteins are being investigated because serotype coverage by pneumococcal polysaccharide and polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is incomplete and may eventually decrease due to serotype replacement. Here, we examined the functionality of human antibodies induced by a candidate bivalent choline-binding protein A- pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PcpA-PhtD) vaccine. Pre- and post-immune sera from subjects who had been vaccinated with the PcpA-PhtD candidate vaccine were tested in an established passive protection model in which mice were challenged by intravenous injection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strain A66.1. Serum antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bacterial surface binding by serum antibodies was determined by a flow cytometry-based assay. Sera from 20 subjects were selected based on low activity of pre-immune samples in the passive protection model. Bacterial surface binding correlated more strongly with anti-PcpA (0.87; p < 0.0001) than with anti-PhtD (0.71; p < 0.0001). The odds ratio for predicting survival in the passive protection assay was higher for the anti-PcpA concentration (470 [95% confidence interval (CI), 46.8 to >999.9]) than for the anti-PhtD concentration (3.4 [95% CI, 1.9 to 5.6]) or bacterial surface binding (9.4 [95% CI, 3.6 to 24.3]). Pooled post-immune serum also protected mice against a challenge with S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain WU2. Both anti-PcpA and anti-PhtD antibodies induced by the bivalent candidate vaccine mediate protection against S. pneumoniae. The results also showed that the ELISA titer might be useful as a surrogate for estimating the functional activity of antibodies induced by pneumococcal protein vaccines. PMID:27392182

  6. A bivalent pneumococcal histidine triad protein D-choline-binding protein A vaccine elicits functional antibodies that passively protect mice from Streptococcus pneumoniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Martina M; Williams, Kimberley; Sheung, Anthony; Lheritier, Philippe; Visan, Lucian; Rouleau, Nicolas; Proust, Emilie; de Montfort, Aymeric; Tang, Mei; Mari, Karine; Hopfer, Robert; Gallichan, Scott; Brookes, Roger H

    2016-11-01

    Vaccines based on conserved pneumococcal proteins are being investigated because serotype coverage by pneumococcal polysaccharide and polysaccharide conjugate vaccines is incomplete and may eventually decrease due to serotype replacement. Here, we examined the functionality of human antibodies induced by a candidate bivalent choline-binding protein A- pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PcpA-PhtD) vaccine. Pre- and post-immune sera from subjects who had been vaccinated with the PcpA-PhtD candidate vaccine were tested in an established passive protection model in which mice were challenged by intravenous injection with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 strain A66.1. Serum antibody concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bacterial surface binding by serum antibodies was determined by a flow cytometry-based assay. Sera from 20 subjects were selected based on low activity of pre-immune samples in the passive protection model. Bacterial surface binding correlated more strongly with anti-PcpA (0.87; p < 0.0001) than with anti-PhtD (0.71; p < 0.0001). The odds ratio for predicting survival in the passive protection assay was higher for the anti-PcpA concentration (470 [95% confidence interval (CI), 46.8 to >999.9]) than for the anti-PhtD concentration (3.4 [95% CI, 1.9 to 5.6]) or bacterial surface binding (9.4 [95% CI, 3.6 to 24.3]). Pooled post-immune serum also protected mice against a challenge with S. pneumoniae serotype 3 strain WU2. Both anti-PcpA and anti-PhtD antibodies induced by the bivalent candidate vaccine mediate protection against S. pneumoniae. The results also showed that the ELISA titer might be useful as a surrogate for estimating the functional activity of antibodies induced by pneumococcal protein vaccines.

  7. Temporal trends and sources of PCDD/Fs, pentachlorophenol and chlornitrofen in paddy field soils along the Yoneshiro River basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Sakai, Mizuki; Kajihara, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    In order to understand the long-term behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl-4'-nitrophenyl ether (chlornitrofen, CNP) in paddy soil, we measured their concentrations in paddy soil samples collected in 1982 and 1984 (1980s) and in 2000 and 2002 (2000s) from the Yoneshiro River basin, Japan. The concentrations of PCP and CNP decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s, whereas the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and their toxic equivalency (WHO2006-TEQ) remained. The major sources of PCDD/Fs in the paddy soil samples were attributed to impurities in PCP and CNP as a result of comparisons of homologue and congener profiles and principal component analysis. Based on the results of comparison of total input and remaining amount, it is estimated that more than 99% of PCP and CNP applied to the paddy fields had disappeared, whereas most of the applied PCDD/Fs and TEQ remained.

  8. The planar cell polarity pathway directs parietal endoderm migration.

    PubMed

    LaMonica, Kristi; Bass, Maya; Grabel, Laura

    2009-06-01

    Parietal endoderm (PE) contributes to the yolk sac and is the first migratory cell type in the mammalian embryo. We can visualize PE migration in vitro using the F9 teratocarcinoma derived embryoid body outgrowth system and, show here that PE migration is directed by the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway via Rho/ROCK. Based on golgi apparatus localization and microtubule orientation, 68.6% of cells in control outgrowths are oriented in the direction of migration. Perturbation of Wnt signaling via sFRP treatment results in a loss of orientation coupled with an increase in cell migration. Inhibition of the PCP pathway at the level of Daam1 also results in a loss of cell orientation along with an increase in cell migration, as seen with sFRP treatment. Constitutively active Daam can inhibit the loss of orientation that occurs with sFRP treatment. We previously demonstrated that ROCK inhibition leads to an increase in cell migration, and we now show that these cells also lack oriented migration. Canonical Wnt signaling or the Rac arm of the PCP pathway does not appear to play a role in PE oriented migration. These data suggest the PCP pathway via Rho/ROCK modulates migration of PE.

  9. Inhibition of bactericidal activity by pentachlorophenol in two phagocyte populations from Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Roszell, L.E.; Anderson, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    The effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on the bactericidal activity of pronephritic phagocytes were studied in an estuarine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. Following in vitro exposure to sublethal doses of PCP, macrophages and eosinophils were challenged with Listonella anguillarum, the bacterium responsible for vibriosis in marine and freshwater fish. Quantification of surviving bacteria was based on the reduction of MTT (3-[4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide). Bacteridical activity was inhibited at PCP concentrations greater than 5 ppm in both leukocyte populations; at 20 ppm bactericidal activity was essentially eliminated. The primary cellular mechanisms of bactericidal activity in these cells are phagocytosis and the phagocytically induced production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) including superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Previous experiments have shown that these activities are inhibited at similar concentrations of PCP. These results indicate that the suppression of phagocytosis and the subsequent oxidative burst is responsible for the reduced killing seen in the current experiments. Nonspecific immune activities of phagocytic cells such as macrophages and eosinophils act as a first line of defense against invading pathogens; the suppression of these functions could ultimately lead to decreased resistance to infectious disease.

  10. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: still a concern in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Maertens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause life-threatening pneumonia following treatment for haematological malignancies or after HSCT. The mortality rate of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in these patients is 30%-60%, especially after HSCT. The clinical presentation of PCP in haematology differs from that associated with HIV infection, with the disease being acute and more often severe, having a lower fungal burden and being more frequently linked to treatment with corticosteroids. Most cases occur in patients not receiving adequate prophylaxis. The development of new therapies, including targeted treatments and monoclonal antibodies in various haematological diseases, justifies constant vigilance in order to identify new at-risk populations and give prophylaxis accordingly. The fifth and sixth European Conferences on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5 and ECIL-6) aimed to review risk factors for PCP in haematology patients and to establish evidence-based recommendations for PCP diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. This article focuses on the magnitude of the problem, the main differences in clinical presentation between haematology patients and other immunocompromised populations, especially HIV-infected patients, and the main risk factors.

  11. TARDEC Industrial Base Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-30

    TARDEC Industrial Base Overview Randal Gaereminck, Associate Director, Industrial Base, Manufacturing, Logistics, & Value Engineering TARDEC...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 PURPOSE 2 To inform the conference attendees about TARDEC’s Industrial Base Mission and Capabilities AGENDA 3...Partnership • IBIT Policy Benefits • IBIT Mission • Industrial Base Engineering Support • Sustainment Engineering – Obsolescence • Industrial Base Engineering

  12. Wnt-Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity Signaling: Cellular Orientation by Facing the Wind (Wnt)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingzi; Mlodzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial and mesenchymal cells is a critical, evolutionarily conserved process during development and organogenesis. Analyses in Drosophila and several vertebrate model organisms have contributed a wealth of information on the regulation of PCP. A key conserved pathway regulating PCP, the so-called core Wnt-Frizzled PCP (Fz/PCP) signaling pathway, was initially identified through genetic studies of Drosophila. PCP studies in vertebrates, most notably mouse and zebrafish, have identified novel factors in PCP signaling and have also defined cellular features requiring PCP signaling input. These studies have shifted focus to the role of Van Gogh (Vang)/Vangl genes in this molecular system. This review focuses on new insights into the core Fz/Vangl/PCP pathway and recent advances in Drosophila and vertebrate PCP studies. We attempt to integrate these within the existing core Fz/Vangl/PCP signaling framework. PMID:26566118

  13. [Cloning of full-length cDNA of HMGR from Gobiocypris rarus and analysis of its expression profiles in male exposed to pentachlorophenol].

    PubMed

    Deng, Chuan; Mao, Si-Yu; Xiong, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qiu-Ping; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) is the first rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The full-length cDNA of HMGR was cloned from Gobiocypris rarus, and HMGR expression profiles in different tissues and in response to different treatments of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were analyzed by real-time PCR, to investigate the endocrine disruption mechanism of PCP, which altered steroid hormone precursors (cholesterol) levels by modulating gene transcription profiles of HMGR. Based on the homologous clone strategy and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology, the full-length 3 101-base-pair (bp) cDNA of HMGR was isolated from the livers of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) for the first time, and was designated as GrHMGR (GenBank accession number KF885724). GrHMGR encoded a protein of 884 amino acids and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the deduced protein GrHMGR had extensive sequence similarities to other fish HMGRs. Real-time PCR analyses indicated that GrHMGR mRNA expression was tightly controlled in a tissue-specific fashion, with the sites of expression being brain, gonads and liver, and the highest site of expression being gonads. After male rare minnows were exposed to different concentrations of PCP, significant decrease in GrHMGR gene expression with increased PCP concentration in the brain and gonads were observed, together with the differential gene expression trend in the liver. Furthermore, it was found that the decrease of HMGR could reduce the synthesis of cholesterol. This proved that PCP might disrupt the pathway of cholesterol synthesis and then influenced the endocrine system of rare minnow.

  14. Lunar base and Mars base design projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, J.; Campbell, J.; Hudson, C.; Kenny, E.; Markward, D.; Pham, C.; Wolf, C.

    1989-01-01

    The space design classes at the University of Texas at Austin undertook seven projects in support of the NASA/USRA advanced space design program during the 1988-89 year. A total of 51 students, including 5 graduate students, participated in the design efforts. Four projects were done within the Aerospace Engineering (ASE) design program and three within the Mechanical Engineering (ME) program. Both lunar base and Mars base design efforts were studied, and the specific projects were as follows: Lunar Crew Emergency Rescue Vehicle (ASE); Mars Logistics Lander Convertible to a Rocket Hopper (ME); A Robotically Constructed Production and Supply Base on Phobos (ASE); A Mars/Phobos Transportation System (ASE); Manned Base Design and Related Construction Issues for Mars/Phobos Mission (ME); and Health Care Needs for a Lunar Colony and Design of Permanent Medical Facility (ME).

  15. Logistics: Supply Based or Distribution Based?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    supply chain management, the need to adapt systems as conditions and capabilities change may not be clear or the root causes of problems may not be...logistics-system and supply - chain design and management positions. They need to become adept at integrating the full range of options available to...distribution-based and supply-based designs, the Army, in conjunction with its joint supply - chain partners, should seek optimal, balanced logistics system designs that it can adapt quickly to changing conditions.

  16. Regional Core-Mantle-Boundary modeling with PcP-P using high-density seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    The spectrum of lateral variations in structure in the D" region at the base of the earth's mantle is not yet precisely known. There is also much controversy on the wavelengths of topography on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Dense high-quality seismic networks in combination with powerful seismic data-processing techniques can potentially provide accurate measurements over large portions of the globe that are currently poorly sampled, and contribute constraints on these questions. Here, we attempt to build high-resolution regional models of the CMB region from PcP-P travel-time differences and amplitude ratios observed at USArray and other nearby networks as well as a data-processing methodology that enhances our ability to accurately measure PcP in a wider distance range than is commonly done. Indeed, accurate measurements of PcP are still a challenge. PcP arrives in the coda of the P phase, there are interferences with pP and sP depth phases for shallow earthquakes, and its relatively low amplitude due to a relatively low reflection coefficient at CMB hinders its detection. We separate P and PcP locally in slowness, without compromising resolution, using dense high-quality seismic networks. Specifically, we employ the local slant-stack transform in the time-scale domain (Ventosa et al. 2011) to decompose each seismogram in slowness in many frequency bands. We then design adaptive filters, driven by coherence measures, to obtain clean measurements of P and PcP travel times and amplitudes. This allows a significant increase in the quantity and the quality of the PcP measurements available for modeling. The main sources of PcP-P travel-time differences, with respect to theoretical values from global 1D models, are due to heterogeneities in the mantle and in D'', or due to topography in CMB. We apply the above approach to study two different regions of CMB, Alaska and the north of Canada, which are far from the LLSVPs and documented ULVZ, and Central America, which

  17. Alterations of p75 neurotrophin receptor and Myelin transcription factor 1 in the hippocampus of perinatal phencyclidine treated rats.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jessica L; Newell, Kelly A; Matosin, Natalie; Huang, Xu-Feng; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2015-12-03

    Postnatal administration of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents causes major disturbances to neurological processes resulting in severe modifications to normal behavioral traits into adulthood. It is routinely used to model psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, producing many of the dysfunctional processes in the brain that are present in this devastating disorder, including elevated levels of apoptosis during neurodevelopment and disruptions to myelin and plasticity processes. Lingo-1 (or Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein) is responsible for negatively regulating neurite outgrowth and the myelination of axons. Recent findings using a postmortem human brain cohort showed that Lingo-1 signaling partners in the Nogo receptor (NgR)/p75/TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY) signaling complex, and downstream signaling partners With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1), play a significant part in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here we have examined the implication of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia using PCP to determine if these pathways are altered in the hippocampus throughout different stages of neurodevelopment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with PCP (10mg/kg) or saline solution on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9, and 11. Rats (n=6/group) were sacrificed at PN12, 5weeks, or 14weeks. Relative expression levels of Lingo-1 signaling proteins were examined in the hippocampus of the treated rats. p75 and Myt1 were decreased (0.001≤p≤0.011) in the PCP treated rats at PN12. There were no significant changes in any of the tested proteins at 5weeks (p>0.05). At 14weeks, p75, TROY, and Myt1 were increased in the PCP treated rats (0.014≤p≤0.022). This is the first report of an alteration in Lingo-1 signaling proteins in the rat hippocampus, both directly after PCP treatment in early development and in adulthood. Based on our results, we propose that

  18. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  19. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  20. Stolen Base Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2013-05-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting,2-4 the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The predictions of the model show consistency with the skills needed for effective base stealing.

  1. Cooperative Knowledge Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    intellegent knowledge bases. The present state of our system for concurrent evaluation of a knowledge base of logic clauses using static allocation...de Kleer, J., An assumption-based TMS, Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1986. [Doyle 79) Doyle, J. A truth maintenance system, Artificial

  2. Stolen Base Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  3. Community-based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villani, Christine J.; Atkins, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Based on work by Howard Gardner and James Comer, this article discusses the importance of creating and maintaining community-based relationships as part of community-based education. Students go beyond basic core academics and develop values and the freedom to uncover and resolve community problems or concerns. (MLH)

  4. Thiolated polymers: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of polymer-cysteamine conjugates.

    PubMed

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Clausen, A E; Hnatyszyn, M

    2001-09-11

    The purpose of the present study was to synthesize and characterize novel thiolated polymers. Mediated by a carbodiimide cysteamine was covalently linked to sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polycarbophil (PCP). The resulting CMC-cysteamine conjugates displayed 77.9+/-6.7 and 365.1+/-8.7 micromol thiol groups per gram of polymer, whereas the PCP-cysteamine conjugates showed 26.3+/-1.9 and 122.7+/-3.8 micromol thiol groups per gram of polymer (mean+/-S.D.; n=3). In aqueous solutions above pH 5.0 both modified polymers were capable of forming inter- and/or intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The reaction velocity of this oxidation process was accelerated with a decrease in the proton concentration. The oxidation proceeded more rapidly within thiolated CMC than within thiolated PCP. Permeation studies carried out in Ussing-type chambers with freshly excised intestinal mucosa from guinea pigs utilizing sodium fluorescein as model drug for the paracellular uptake revealed an enhancement ratio (R=P(app) (conjugate)/P(app) (control)) of 1.15 and 1.41 (mean+/-S.D.; n=3) for the higher thiolated CMC-cysteamine (0.5%; m/v) and PCP-cysteamine conjugate (1.0%; m/v), respectively. The decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance values was in good correlation with the enhancement ratios. Due to a high crosslinking tendency by the formation of disulfide bonds stabilizing drug carrier systems based on thiolated polymers and a permeation enhancing effect, CMC- and PCP-cysteamine conjugates represent promising excipients for the development of novel drug delivery systems.

  5. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Fetting, Jennifer L; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-10-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial precursor movement. We propose that differential levels of Ed and Fred between stationary and rotating cells at the initiation of rotation create a permissive environment for cell movement, and that uniform levels in these two populations later contribute to stopping the movement. Based on genetic data, we propose that ed and fred impart a second, independent, ;brake-like' contribution to this process via Egfr signaling. Ed and Fred are localized in largely distinct and dynamic patterns throughout rotation. However, ed and fred are required in only a subset of cells - photoreceptors R1, R7 and R6 - for normal rotation, cells that have only recently been linked to a role in planar cell polarity (PCP). This work also provides the first demonstration of a requirement for cone cells in the ommatidial rotation aspect of PCP. ed and fred also genetically interact with the PCP genes, but affect only the degree-of-rotation aspect of the PCP phenotype. Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation.

  6. Saturn base heating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Bender, R. L.; Bevill, R. L.; Reardon, J.; Hartley, L.

    1972-01-01

    A handbook containing a summary of model and flight test base heating data from the S-1, S-1B, S-4, S-1C, and S-2 stages is presented. A review of the available prediction methods is included. Experimental data are provided to make the handbook a single source of Saturn base heating data which can be used for preliminary base heating design predictions of launch vehicles.

  7. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  8. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  9. Soy-based polyols

    DOEpatents

    Suppes, Galen; Lozada, Zueica; Lubguban, Arnold

    2013-06-25

    The invention provides processes for preparing soy-based oligomeric polyols or substituted oligomeric polyols, as well as urethane bioelasteromers comprising the oligomeric polyols or substituted oligomeric polyols.

  10. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  11. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  12. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and…

  13. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  14. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  15. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  16. Yeast Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura-Shimizu, Mifumi; Karube, Isao

    Since the first microbial cell sensor was studied by Karube et al. in 1977, many types of yeast based sensors have been developed as analytical tools. Yeasts are known as facultative anaerobes. Facultative anaerobes can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yeast based sensor consisted of a DO electrode and an immobilized omnivorous yeast. In yeast based sensor development, many kinds of yeast have been employed by applying their characteristics to adapt to the analyte. For example, Trichosporon cutaneum was used to estimate organic pollution in industrial wastewater. Yeast based sensors are suitable for online control of biochemical processes and for environmental monitoring. In this review, principles and applications of yeast based sensors are summarized.

  17. Data base management study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  18. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  19. Community-Based Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... providing important healthcare or personal care support. Adult Day Care Adult day care is a community-based option that has become ... support services in a group setting. Most adult day care centers are either in churches or community centers. ...

  20. Graphene-based composites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qi, Xiaoying; Boey, Freddy; Zhang, Hua

    2012-01-21

    Graphene has attracted tremendous research interest in recent years, owing to its exceptional properties. The scaled-up and reliable production of graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), offers a wide range of possibilities to synthesize graphene-based functional materials for various applications. This critical review presents and discusses the current development of graphene-based composites. After introduction of the synthesis methods for graphene and its derivatives as well as their properties, we focus on the description of various methods to synthesize graphene-based composites, especially those with functional polymers and inorganic nanostructures. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies for the optimization of composite properties. Lastly, the advantages of graphene-based composites in applications such as the Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, photovoltaic devices, photocatalysis, as well as Raman enhancement are described (279 references).

  1. Evidence-based neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Esene, Ignatius N.; Baeesa, Saleh S.; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  2. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  3. Benzimidazole Based Aerogel Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhine, Wendell E. (Inventor); Mihalcik, David (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides aerogel materials based on imidazoles and polyimidazoles. The polyimidazole based aerogel materials can be thermally stable up to 500 C or more, and can be carbonized to produce a carbon aerogel having a char yield of 60% or more, specifically 70% or more. The present invention also provides methods of producing polyimidazole based aerogel materials by reacting at least one monomer in a suitable solvent to form a polybenzimidazole gel precursor solution, casting the polybenzimidazole gel precursor solution into a fiber reinforcement phase, allowing the at least one gel precursor in the precursor solution to transition into a gel material, and drying the gel materials to remove at least a portion of the solvent, to obtain an polybenzimidazole-based aerogel material.

  4. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  5. Defining Empirically Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a definition of empirically based practice, both conceptually and operationally. Describes a study of how research and practice were integrated in the graduate social work program at the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. (JAC)

  6. Microstereolithography for polymer-based based MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Xie, Jining

    2003-07-01

    Microfabrication techniques such as bulk micromachining and surface micromachining currently employed to conceive MEMS are largely derived from the standard IC and microelectronics technology. Even though many MEMS devices with integrated electronics have been achieved by using the traditional micromachining techniques, some limitations have nevertheless to be underlined: 1) these techniques are very expensive and need specific installations as well as a cleanroom environment, 2) the materials that can be used up to now are restricted to silicon and metals, 3) the manufacture of 3D parts having curved surfaces or an important number of layers is not possible. Moreover, for some biological applications, the materials used for sensors must be compatible with human body and the actuators need to have high strain and displacement which the current silicon based MEMS do not provide. It is thus natural for the researchers to 'look' for alternative methods such as Microstereolithography (MSL) to make 3D sensors and actuators using polymeric based materials. For MSL techniques to be successful as their silicon counterparts, one has to come up with multifunctional polymers with electrical properties comparable to silicon. These multifunctional polymers should not only have a high sensing capability but also a high strain and actuation performance. A novel UV-curable polymer uniformly bonded with functionalized nanotubes was synthesized via a modified three-step in-situ polymerization. Purified multi-walled nanotubes, gained from the microwave chemical vapor deposition method, were functionalized by oxidation. The UV curable polymer was prepared from toluene diisocyanate (TDI), functionalized nanotubes, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The chemical bonds between -NCO groups of TDI and -OH, -COOH groups of functionalized nanotubes help for conceiving polymeric based MEMS devices. A cost effective fabrication techniques was presented using Micro Stereo Lithography and

  7. Information Based Numerical Practice.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    N I IIi I2 LA 1.6 liii I~JIIN MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK CAMPUS INSTITUTE FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Technical Note S1-1059 INFORMATION BASED...K-0169 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NMEU AMC ADDRESS 16. PROGRAM CELEMNT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUNSERS, Institute for Physical Science and...BASED NUMERICAL PRACTICE I. Babuska Institute for Physical Science and Technology University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 a Partially supported by

  8. Layered nickel based superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ronning, Filip; Bauer, Eric D; Park, Tuson; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Klimczuk, T; Movshovich, R; Thompson, J D; Sefat, A S; Mandrus, D

    2009-01-01

    We review the properties of Ni-based superconductors which contain Ni{sub 2}X{sub 2} (X=As, P, Bi, Si, Ge, B) planes, a common structural element to the recently discovered FeAs superconductors. We also compare the properties ofthe Ni-and Fe-based systems from a perspective ofelectronic structure as well as structure-property relations.

  9. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  10. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  11. LDEF materials data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  12. [Evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

    1996-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool.

  13. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    , current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

  14. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    . However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

  15. SAR based adaptive GMTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2010-04-01

    We consider ground moving target indication (GMTI) and target velocity estimation based on multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Moreover, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. Adaptive beamforming techniques, including Capon and generalizedlikelihood ratio test (GLRT), are used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. The velocity estimation ambiguities caused by the multi-channel array geometry are analyzed. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha SAR based GMTI data set.

  16. Pediatric cardiothoracic program in Malaysia: a study based on the outcome of the program

    PubMed Central

    Piros Kulandasamy Pillai, Cornelius; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Justin Lawrence, Patrick; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima1, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vulnerable communities in Malaysia have been facing issues of accessibility and availability for pediatric cardiac services for years due to long waiting times, high costs and a lack of pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons. To ease this situation, the government has allocated a certain amount of funds, introduced through the Pediatric Cardiothoracic Program (PCP), in which the patients are transported to the Narayana Health Institute of Cardiac Science (NH) in India to receive a heart operation following an eligibility check at MediAssist4U Sdn Bhd in Selangor, Malaysia, a facility appointed by the NH. This study aimed to determine the demographic incidence of congenital heart diseases of patients in this program and to evaluate the outcome of the program in association with post-operative mortality rate and the beneficial factors of the program. In this study, 241 patients who participated in this program from August 2008 to September 2012 were reviewed. Fisher’s exact tests were applied to calculate p-values of categorical data. Out of 241, 11 patients were rejected because of their poor health condition for flight transportation to India, leaving 230 patients for analysis. The majority of patients were 1 to 4 years of age (57.8%), Malays (61.7%), from families of monthly household income less than RM 1,500 (86.5%) and with primary school-educated parents (86.5%). Patients could apply from any government hospital in Malaysia, but 34.8% of the patients were from the state of Johor. The region (Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia) of patients seeking pediatric cardiac services was significantly associated with race (p<0.001), low household income (p<0.001) and low education background of parents (p=0.004). The associations between the age group and diagnosis group (p=0.010) and between duration of hospitalization and outcome of medical management (p=0.013) were significant. Post-operative mortality rate was 1.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.5–4.4). In

  17. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  18. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  19. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  20. Intracranial dural based chondroma.

    PubMed

    Reinshagen, Clemens; Redjal, Navid; Sajed, Dipti P; Nahed, Brian V; Walcott, Brian P

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial chondromas are benign, slow-growing, cartilaginous tumors, which comprise only about 0.2% of all intracranial tumors. The majority of these lesions occur at the base of the skull, where they are thought to arise from residual embryonic chondrogenic cells along the basal synchondrosis. Very rarely, they may also originate from the convexity dura, falx cerebri, or the brain parenchyma. We present a patient with a dural based chondroma to highlight the technical considerations of surgical resection. The recent literature on intracranial chondromas regarding incidence, pathophysiologic origin, clinical symptoms, imaging, histopathology and prognosis is reviewed.

  1. Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yagielski, John

    In outline form, this document presents basic information on the school district, the reasons the district considered zero-base budgeting (ZBB), the formation and membership of the advisory School Cost Analysis Team, the district's investigation of the ZBB concept, an overview of the ways the district used the ZBB process, the identification of…

  2. Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…

  3. Orff-Based Improvisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Described are improvisational activities based on the Orff-Schulwerk teaching technique which include: sound and movement; sound and movement plus visuals; interpretation of designs from nature, architecture, paintings, rotating rondo, singing hands, and moving from words to song. Pictures of children participating in these activities are…

  4. Team Based Work. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on team-based work in human resource development (HRD). "Toward Transformational Learning in Organizations: Effects of Model-II Governing Variables on Perceived Learning in Teams" (Blair K. Carruth) summarizes a study that indicated that, regardless of which Model-II variable (valid…

  5. Gasification at Navy Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    Battalion Center at Port Hueneme, CA. The title of the contract was ’ Coal Gasification Feasibility Study.’ Coal gasification is recognized as a way...operated. A conceptual design study comparing coal gasification with central direct coal-fired boilers at five bases was performed.

  6. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  7. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  8. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  9. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  10. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  11. Developing Mobile Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Pastore, Raymond; Snider, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design class's experience developing instruction for the mobile web. The class was taught at a southeastern university in the United States in a master's level computer based instruction course. Two example projects are showcased and student reflections on design issues are highlighted. Additionally,…

  12. Aptamer-based nanobiosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Raston, Nurul Hanun Ahmad; Gu, Man Bock

    2016-02-15

    It has been more than two decades since aptamer and the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method were discovered by Larry Gold and Andrew Ellington in 1990, respectively. Based on the various advantages of aptamers, they have become a potent rival of antibodies in therapeutics and bio-analysis. Especially, the recent advances in aptamer biosensor application are remarkable due to its intrinsic properties of aptamers as nucleic acids and target induced conformational changes, in addition to the introduction of graphene oxide-based easy and simple immobilization-free screening method even for dual aptamers. In addition, the incorporation of various nanomaterials such as metallic nanoparticles, carbon materials, and functional nanospheres in aptasensors has facilitated the improvement of analytical performance and commercial application of aptasensors. In this review, recent prominent reports on aptasensors utilizing nanomaterials were introduced to understand the principle of aptamer-based biosensors and provide an insight for new strategies of aptasensors and the application of various nanomaterials. The perspective on aptamer-based biosensors and diagnostics was also discussed in view of technology and market.

  13. School Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  14. Shock wave data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levashov, P. R.; Fortov, V. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Lomov, I. N.; Lomonosov, I. V.

    1998-07-01

    The information on thermodynamic properties of matter under conditions of extremely high pressure and temperature is collected and treated. About 10000 experimental points are stored into ASCII files and converted into SQL format. Relational SQL data base is installed on server and graphical interface is elaborated. The information can be accessed via Internet with the help of Netscape Navigator 3.0 browser.

  15. Project-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Project-based science is an exciting way to teach science that aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). By focusing on core ideas along with practices and crosscutting concepts, classrooms become learning environments where teachers and students engage in science by designing and carrying out…

  16. Space based OTV servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcallister, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Space based servicing of an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) was previously outlined in sufficient detail to arrive at OTV and support system servicing requirements. Needed space station facilities and their functional requirements were identified. The impact of logistics and space serviceable design on the OTV design is detailed herein. RL10 derivative rocket engine inspection task times are enumerated.

  17. Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, L. James

    The concept of Zero-Base Budgeting (ZBB) is discussed in terms of its application, advantages, disadvantages, and implementation in an effective planning, management, and evaluation (PME) system. A ZBB system requires administrators to: review all programs and expenditures annually, set clear cut goals, and analyze all possible alternatives for…

  18. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  19. Risk Assessment: Evidence Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

  20. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  1. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  2. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  3. Nanocarbon-based photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Lohrman, Jessica; Kumar, Priyank V; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ferralis, Nicola; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-10-23

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active layers made solely of carbon nanomaterials that present the same advantages of conjugated polymer-based solar cells, namely, solution processable, potentially flexible, and chemically tunable, but with increased photostability and the possibility to revert photodegradation. The device active layer composition is optimized using ab initio density functional theory calculations to predict type-II band alignment and Schottky barrier formation. The best device fabricated is composed of PC(70)BM fullerene, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, and reduced graphene oxide. This active-layer composition achieves a power conversion efficiency of 1.3%-a record for solar cells based on carbon as the active material-and we calculate efficiency limits of up to 13% for the devices fabricated in this work, comparable to those predicted for polymer solar cells employing PCBM as the acceptor. There is great promise for improving carbon-based solar cells considering the novelty of this type of device, the high photostability, and the availability of a large number of carbon materials with yet untapped potential for photovoltaics. Our results indicate a new strategy for efficient carbon-based, solution-processable, thin film, photostable solar cells.

  4. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  5. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  6. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  7. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  8. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.I.; Banner, J.L.; Musgrove, M.

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year study in a central Texas cave quantifies multiple mechanisms that control dripwater composition and how these mechanisms vary at different drip sites. We monitored cave-air compositions, in situ calcite growth, dripwater composition and drip rate every 4-6weeks. Three groups of drip sites are delineated (Groups 1-3) based on geochemical variations in dripwater composition. Quantitative modeling of mineral-solution reactions within the host carbonate rock and cave environments is used to identify mechanisms that can account for variations in dripwater compositions. The covariation of Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations are dictated by water-rock interaction (i.e., calcite or dolomite recrystallization) or prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 1 dripwater compositions reflects a narrow range of the extent of water-rock interaction followed by varying amounts of prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 2 dripwater compositions are controlled by varying amounts of water-rock interaction with little to no PCP influence. Group 3 dripwater compositions are dictated by variable extents of both water-rock interaction and PCP. Group 1 drip sites show seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast to the findings of most previous dripwater Mg/Ca-Sr/Ca studies, these seasonal variations (at Group 1 drip sites) are independent of changes in water flux (i.e., rainfall and/or drip rate), and instead significantly correlate with changes in cave-air CO2 concentrations. These results are consistent with lower cave-air CO2, related to cool season ventilation of the cave atmosphere, enhancing calcite precipitation and leading to dripwater geochemical evolution via PCP. Group 1 dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca seasonality and evidence for PCP as a mechanism that can account for that seasonality, have two implications for many other regions where seasonal ventilation of caves

  9. UCG process data base

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    Process modeling in underground coal gasification (UCG) systems is a useful tool. Often, however, the experimental data necessary to test proposed models and mechanisms is not readily available. To help overcome this problem we describe in this paper a UCG Data Base we are developing to assist in making detailed data from DOE-sponsored field programs easily available. In addition, the data in the current data base are used to summarize the results of the Hoe Creek I, II, and III experiments. A statistical look at these data indicate a general lack of correlation between process variables. A simple gas compositional model is presented and is shown to be consistent with much of the available field data.

  10. Carbon Nanotube based Nanotechnolgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyyappan, M.

    2000-10-01

    Carbon nanotube(CNT) was discovered in the early 1990s and is an off-spring of C60(the fullerene or buckyball). CNT, depending on chirality and diameter, can be metallic or semiconductor and thus allows formation of metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor junctions. CNT exhibits extraordinary electrical and mechanical properties and offers remarkable potential for revolutionary applications in electronics devices, computing and data storage technology, sensors, composites, storage of hydrogen or lithium for battery development, nanoelectromechanical systems(NEMS), and as tip in scanning probe microscopy(SPM) for imaging and nanolithography. Thus the CNT synthesis, characterization and applications touch upon all disciplines of science and engineering. A common growth method now is based on CVD though surface catalysis is key to synthesis, in contrast to many CVD applications common in microelectronics. A plasma based variation is gaining some attention. This talk will provide an overview of CNT properties, growth methods, applications, and research challenges and opportunities ahead.

  11. Cosinor-based rhythmometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of cosinor-based techniques for the analysis of time series in chronobiology. Conceived as a regression problem, the method is applicable to non-equidistant data, a major advantage. Another dividend is the feasibility of deriving confidence intervals for parameters of rhythmic components of known periods, readily drawn from the least squares procedure, stressing the importance of prior (external) information. Originally developed for the analysis of short and sparse data series, the extended cosinor has been further developed for the analysis of long time series, focusing both on rhythm detection and parameter estimation. Attention is given to the assumptions underlying the use of the cosinor and ways to determine whether they are satisfied. In particular, ways of dealing with non-stationary data are presented. Examples illustrate the use of the different cosinor-based methods, extending their application from the study of circadian rhythms to the mapping of broad time structures (chronomes). PMID:24725531

  12. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  13. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  14. Space construction data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

  15. Flock-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Hitzbleck, Martina; Lovchik, Robert D; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2013-05-21

    Flock-based microfluidics are created by depositing hydrophilic microfibers on an adhesive-coated substrate using an electric field. This enables the fabrication of self-powered microfluidics from one or more different kinds of fibers that form 2D and 3D flowpaths, which can wick 40 microliters of liquid per square centimeter. With this approach, large areas of functional wicking materials can be produced at extremely low cost.

  16. Sea Basing Logistiek

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    iets wat nu voor zware goederen niet mogeljk is met de middelen binnen de Nederlandse krijgsmachit. Nederland heeft bijvoorbeeld (nog) geen specifieke...weer gevechtsklaar zijn. Nederlandse troepen voeren de reconstitute fase in het algemeen uit in Nederland . [Kang&Gue] A special concern in sea based...besluit Nederland zelf in te grijpen. De Nederlandse vredesmissie bevindt zich nabij de kust. maar ver van de grens met buurlanden. De operatie kan niet

  17. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  18. Pavement base drain evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    Portions of a highway drainage system design was revised. Essentially, the longitudinal drainage trench was moved closer to the pavement/shoulder joint, and the fine concrete sand layer was eliminated as a trench backfill material. The specified backfill material is a coarser crushed aggregate (pea gravel). An evaluation of the effects of these changes on pavement performance is given and the new pavement base drain system is compared to the older pipe foundation underdrain system at the same site.

  19. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  20. Refrigerator Based on Chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1987-01-01

    Reversible chemical reaction generates pressurized oxygen for cooling. Concept for cryogenic refrigerator based on chemical absorption of oxygen by praseodymium/cerium oxide (PCO) compound. Refrigerator produces cryogenic liquid for cooling infrared sensors. Also used for liquefying air and separating oxygen from nitrogen in air. In chemisorption refrigerator, PCO alternately absorbs and desorbs oxygen depending on whether cooled or heated. One pair of compressors accepts oxygen while others releases it. Compressed oxygen liquefied when precooked and expanded.

  1. Graphene-based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. A.; Davydov, V. Yu.; Novikov, S. N.; Litvin, D. P.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Klimovich, V. B.; Samoilovich, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Results of developing and testing graphene-based sensors capable of detecting protein molecules are presented. The biosensor operation was checked using an immunochemical system comprising fluorescein dye and monoclonal antifluorescein antibodies. The sensor detects fluorescein concentration on a level of 1-10 ng/mL and bovine serum albumin-fluorescein conjugate on a level of 1-5 ng/mL. The proposed device has good prospects for use for early diagnostics of various diseases.

  2. Projectile Base Flow Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) DCW Industries, Inc. 5354 Palm Drive La Canada, CA 91011 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...REPORT NUMBER DCW -38-R-05 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U. S. Army Research Office...Turbulence Modeling for CFD, Second Edition, DCW Industries, Inc., La Cañada, CA. Wilcox, D. C. (2001), “Projectile Base Flow Analysis,” DCW

  3. [Evidence based medicine].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is a systematic method employed to secure the best scientific available evidence when making clinical decisions. Several steps are taken in these process, describing a clinical scenario, formulating a specific clinical question, searching the literature for the pertinent studies, selecting the relevant articles using rules of evidence, understanding and calculating measures of effect, and finally incorporating the evidence and patients preferences in the clinical decision process.

  4. AIS Data Base Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    the area of natura , ianguage understanding by computer come from the fields of Computational Linguistics and Artificial Intelligence (Al). In the last...blocks of the data base. Another interestino approach to automated database generation is the :m,? taiean ty the Heurist~c P’ogrimming Projec~t at...operating system. 22 OSI’s Orientation O)perling Systems’ approach to automated database generatio,.I i_- irrneo ~~ ciilpport c,’ riformatlon

  5. Space Based Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James; Denson, Erik; Valencia, Lisa; Birr, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Current space lift launches on the Eastern and Western Range require extensive ground-based real-time tracking, communications and command/control systems. These are expensive to maintain and operate and cover only limited geographical areas. Future spaceports will require new technologies to provide greater launch and landing opportunities, support simultaneous missions, and offer enhanced decision support models and simulation capabilities. These ranges must also have lower costs and reduced complexity while continuing to provide unsurpassed safety to the public, flight crew, personnel, vehicles and facilities. Commercial and government space-based assets for tracking and communications offer many attractive possibilities to help achieve these goals. This paper describes two NASA proof-of-concept projects that seek-to exploit the advantages of a space-based range: Iridium Flight Modem and Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS). Iridium Flight Modem uses the commercial satellite system Iridium for extremely low cost, low rate two-way communications and has been successfully tested on four aircraft flights. A sister project at Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) using the Globalstar system has been tested on one rocket. The basic Iridium Flight Modem system consists of a L1 carrier Coarse/Acquisition (C/A)-Code Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an on-board computer, and a standard commercial satellite modem and antennas. STARS uses the much higher data rate NASA owned Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), a C/A-Code GPS receiver, an experimental low-power transceiver, custom built command and data handler processor, and digitized flight termination system (FTS) commands. STARS is scheduled to fly on an F-15 at Dryden Flight Research Center in the spring of 2003, with follow-on tests over the next several years.

  6. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  7. AFE base flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Palmer, Grant

    1991-01-01

    Hypersonic wake flows behind the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) geometry are analyzed using two Navier-Stokes flow solvers. Many of the AFE wake features observed in ballistic-range shadowgraphs are simulated using a simple, two-dimensional semicylinder geometry at moderate angles of attack. At free-stream conditions corresponding to a Hypersonic Free Flight Facility (HFFF) AFE experiment, the three-dimensional base flow for the AFE geometry is computed using an ideal-gas, Navier-Stokes solver. The computed results agree reasonably well with the shadowgraphs taken at the HFFF. An ideal-gas and a nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes solver have been coupled and applied to the complete flow around the AFE vehicle at the free-stream conditions corresponding to a nomial trajectory point. Limitations of the coupled ideal-gas and nonequilibrium solution are discussed. The nonequilibrium base flow solution is analyzed for the wake radiation and the radiation profiles along various lines of sight are compared. Finally, the wake unsteadiness is predicted using experimental correlations and the numerical solutions. An adaptive grid code, SAGE, has been used in all the simulations to enhance the solution accuracy. The grid adaptation is found to be necessary in obtaining base flow solutions with accurate flow features.

  8. Integration of porous coordination polymers and gold nanorods into core-shell mesoscopic composites toward light-induced molecular release.

    PubMed

    Khaletskaya, Kira; Reboul, Julien; Meilikhov, Mikhail; Nakahama, Masashi; Diring, Stéphane; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Isoda, Seiji; Kim, Franklin; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Fischer, Roland A; Kitagawa, Susumu; Furukawa, Shuhei

    2013-07-31

    Besides conventional approaches for regulating in-coming molecules for gas storage, separation, or molecular sensing, the control of molecular release from the pores is a prerequisite for extending the range of their application, such as drug delivery. Herein, we report the fabrication of a new porous coordination polymer (PCP)-based composite consisting of a gold nanorod (GNR) used as an optical switch and PCP crystals for controlled molecular release using light irradiation as an external trigger. The delicate core-shell structures of this new platform, composed of an individual GNR core and an aluminum-based PCP shell, were achieved by the selective deposition of an aluminum precursor onto the surface of GNR followed by the replication of the precursor into aluminum-based PCPs. The mesoscopic structure was characterized by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray elemental mapping, and sorption experiments. Combination at the nanoscale of the high storage capacity of PCPs with the photothermal properties of GNRs resulted in the implementation of unique motion-induced molecular release, triggered by the highly efficient conversion of optical energy into heat that occurs when the GNRs are irradiated into their plasmon band. Temporal control of the molecular release was demonstrated with anthracene as a guest molecule and fluorescent probe by means of fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: part II. Chronic toxicity of copper and pentachlorophenol to two endangered species and two surrogate species.

    PubMed

    Besser, J M; Wang, N; Dwyer, F J; Mayer, F L; Ingersoll, C G

    2005-02-01

    Early life-stage toxicity tests with copper and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were conducted with two species listed under the United States Endangered Species Act (the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola, and the threatened spotfin chub, Cyprinella monacha) and two commonly tested species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results were compared using lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on statistical hypothesis tests and by point estimates derived by linear interpolation and logistic regression. Sublethal end points, growth (mean individual dry weight) and biomass (total dry weight per replicate) were usually more sensitive than survival. The biomass end point was equally sensitive as growth and had less among-test variation. Effect concentrations based on linear interpolation were less variable than LOECs, which corresponded to effects ranging from 9% to 76% relative to controls and were consistent with thresholds based on logistic regression. Fountain darter was the most sensitive species for both chemicals tested, with effect concentrations for biomass at < or = 11 microg/L (LOEC and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25]) for copper and at 21 microg/L (IC25) for PCP, but spotfin chub was no more sensitive than the commonly tested species. Effect concentrations for fountain darter were lower than current chronic water quality criteria for both copper and PCP. Protectiveness of chronic water-quality criteria for threatened and endangered species could be improved by the use of safety factors or by conducting additional chronic toxicity tests with species and chemicals of concern.

  10. RNA based evolutionary optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    1993-12-01

    The notion of an RNA world has been introduced for a prebiotic scenario that is dominated by RNA molecules and their properties, in particular their capabilities to act as templates for reproduction and as catalysts for several cleavage and ligation reactions of polynucleotides and polypeptides. This notion is used here also for simple experimental assays which are well suited to study evolution in the test tube. In molecular evolution experiments fitness is determined in essence by the molecular structures of RNA molecules. Evidence is presented for adaptation to environment in cell-free media. RNA based molecular evolution experiments have led to interesting spin-offs in biotechnology, commonly called ‘applied molecular evolution’, which make use of Darwinian trial-and-error strategies in order to synthesize new pharmacological compounds and other advanced materials on a biological basis. Error-propagation in RNA replication leads to formation of mutant spectra called ‘quasispecies’. An increase in the error rate broadens the mutant spectrum. There exists a sharply defined threshold beyond which heredity breaks down and evolutionary adaptation becomes impossible. Almost all RNA viruses studied so far operate at conditions close to this error threshold. Quasispecies and error thresholds are important for an understanding of RNA virus evolution, and they may help to develop novel antiviral strategies. Evolution of RNA molecules can be studied and interpreted by considering secondary structures. The notion of sequence space introduces a distance between pairs of RNA sequences which is tantamount to counting the minimal number of point mutations required to convert the sequences into each other. The mean sensitivity of RNA secondary structures to mutation depends strongly on the base pairing alphabet: structures from sequences which contain only one base pair (GC or AU are much less stable against mutation than those derived from the natural (AUGC) sequences

  11. [Stewart's acid-base approach].

    PubMed

    Funk, Georg-Christian

    2007-01-01

    In addition to paCO(2), Stewart's acid base model takes into account the influence of albumin, inorganic phosphate, electrolytes and lactate on acid-base equilibrium. It allows a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of acid-base disorders. Particularly simultaneous and mixed metabolic acid-base disorders, which are common in critically ill patients, can be assessed. Stewart's approach is therefore a valuable tool in addition to the customary acid-base approach based on bicarbonate or base excess. However, some chemical aspects of Stewart's approach remain controversial.

  12. Polyolefin-Based Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun; Gould, George

    2012-01-01

    An organic polybutadiene (PB) rubberbased aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection, exhibiting the flexibility, resiliency, toughness, and durability typical of the parent polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with the aerogels. The rubbery behaviors of the PB rubber-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogel insulation materials. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structure, the PB rubber aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. Since PB rubber aerogels also exhibit good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure, they will provide better performance reliability and durability as well as simpler, more economic, and environmentally friendly production over the conventional silica or other inorganic-based aerogels, which require chemical treatment to make them hydrophobic. Inorganic aerogels such as silica aerogels demonstrate many unusual and useful properties. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust toward handling in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain applications. Although the cross-linked organic aerogels such as resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient

  13. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  14. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. )

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  15. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  16. [Evidence-based physiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bender, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  17. Covering all the bases

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.F.; Gross, M.P.

    1996-04-01

    The use of silent discharge plasma technology (SDPT) to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at McClellan Air Force Base during a two-month test is described. SDPT was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and licensed to High Mesa Technologies. SDPT was used at McClellan to treat off-gases from air strippers, vapor-extraction systems, and incinerators at flow rates up to 10.4 scfm; destruction and removal efficiencies up to 99.4% were achieved. SDPT can also treat organic liquids by adding a packaged-bed reactor to the first stage system.

  18. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  19. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  20. Internet-Based Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702

  1. Mars base buildup scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  2. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus.

  3. Office-based anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Treasure, Trevor; Bennett, Jeffrey

    2007-02-01

    The practice of office-based oral and maxillofacial surgery is continuously expanding and involves the management of a diverse population in regards to the surgical procedures performed within the office and the age and medical health of the patients treated within the office. Comfort, cooperation, and hemodynamic stability are critical to satisfactorily accomplishing the surgical procedure. Various anesthetic techniques are used, including local anesthesia, anxiolysis, analgesia and sedation, and general anesthesia. The topic is vast and too extensive to be fully discussed in this article. The intent of this article is to provide a discussion of some fundamental concepts that can optimize anesthetic safety and care.

  4. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  5. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  6. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases.

  7. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  8. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  9. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric E.

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a DVD based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full HPGe spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either actual or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use whenever a complex data stream is required. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  10. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric

    2006-08-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and testing of a digital versatile disc (DVD) based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either real or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use in a variety of sitiuations. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  11. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  12. Model Based Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  13. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  14. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Alka; Verma, Anurag; Joshi, Himanshi; Yadav, Niti; Karki, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments for conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and hair damage have come into widespread use. In the cosmeceutical arena nanotechnology has played an important role. Using new techniques to manipulate matter at an atomic or molecular level, they have been at the root of numerous innovations, opening up new perspectives for the future of cosmeceutical industry. Nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals offer the advantage of diversity in products, and increased bioavailability of active ingredients and increase the aesthetic appeal of cosmeceutical products with prolonged effects. However increased use of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has raised concern about the possible penetration of nanoparticles through the skin and potential hazards to the human health. This review outlines the different nanoparticles used in various classes of cosmeceuticals, nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products present in the market, and the potential risk caused by nanoparticles on exposure and recent regulatory steps taken to overcome them. PMID:24963412

  16. Droplet based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin; Pfohl, Thomas; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Droplet based microfluidics is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research combining soft matter physics, biochemistry and microsystems engineering. Its applications range from fast analytical systems or the synthesis of advanced materials to protein crystallization and biological assays for living cells. Precise control of droplet volumes and reliable manipulation of individual droplets such as coalescence, mixing of their contents, and sorting in combination with fast analysis tools allow us to perform chemical reactions inside the droplets under defined conditions. In this paper, we will review available drop generation and manipulation techniques. The main focus of this review is not to be comprehensive and explain all techniques in great detail but to identify and shed light on similarities and underlying physical principles. Since geometry and wetting properties of the microfluidic channels are crucial factors for droplet generation, we also briefly describe typical device fabrication methods in droplet based microfluidics. Examples of applications and reaction schemes which rely on the discussed manipulation techniques are also presented, such as the fabrication of special materials and biophysical experiments.

  17. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  18. ECIL guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Johan; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk. Recent data indicate that children may benefit equally from a once-weekly regimen ( B-II: ). All other drugs, including pentamidine, atovaquone and dapsone, are considered second-line alternatives when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is poorly tolerated or contraindicated. The main indications of PCP prophylaxis are ALL, allogeneic HSCT, treatment with alemtuzumab, fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab combinations, >4 weeks of treatment with corticosteroids and well-defined primary immune deficiencies in children. Additional indications are proposed depending on the treatment regimen.

  19. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment for three chlorophenols in surface waters of China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liqun; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    Individual and combined assessment of risks of adverse effects to aquatic ecosystems of three chlorophenols (CPs), including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP), were conducted. A probabilistic approach based on the concentrations of CPs in surface waters of China was used to determine the likelihood of adverse effects. The potential risk of CPs in surface waters of China was determined to be of concern, especially PCP and mixtures of CPs. The risks of adverse effects were examined as the joint probabilities of exposure and response. The joint probability for PCP was 0.271 in the worst case and 0.111 in the median case, respectively. Based on the cumulative probability, 5% of aquatic organisms included in the assessment would be affected 21.36% of the time in the worst case and 5.99% of the time in median case, respectively. For the mixtures of CPs, the joint probability were 0.171 in the worst case and 0.503 in median case, respectively and 5% of species would be affected 49.83% of the time for the worst case and 12.72% in the median case, respectively. Risks of effects of the individual CPs, 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP were deemed to be acceptable with a overlapping probability of < 0.1 with 5% of species being affected less than 4% of the time.

  20. MS Based Metabonomics

    SciTech Connect

    Want, Elizabeth J.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Metabonomics is the latest and least mature of the systems biology triad, which also includes genomics and proteomics, and has its origins in the early orthomolecular medicine work pioneered by Linus Pauling and Arthur Robinson. It was defined by Nicholson and colleagues in 1999 as the quantitative measurement of perturbations in the metabolite complement of an integrated biological system in response to internal or external stimuli, and is often used today to describe many non-global types of metabolite analyses. Applications of metabonomics are extensive and include toxicology, nutrition, pharmaceutical research and development, physiological monitoring and disease diagnosis. For example, blood samples from millions of neonates are tested routinely by mass spectrometry (MS) as a diagnostic tool for inborn errors of metabolism. The metabonome encompasses a wide range of structurally diverse metabolites; therefore, no single analytical platform will be sufficient. Specialized sample preparation and detection techniques are required, and advances in NMR and MS technologies have led to enhanced metabonome coverage, which in turn demands improved data analysis approaches. The role of MS in metabonomics is still evolving as instrumentation and software becomes more sophisticated and as researchers realize the strengths and limitations of current technology. MS offers a wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and reproducible, quantitative analysis. These attributes are essential for addressing the challenges of metabonomics, as the range of metabolite concentrations easily exceeds nine orders of magnitude in biofluids, and the diversity of molecular species ranges from simple amino and organic acids to lipids and complex carbohydrates. Additional challenges arise in generating a comprehensive metabolite profile, downstream data processing and analysis, and structural characterization of important metabolites. A typical workflow of MS-based metabonomics is shown in Figure

  1. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  3. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  4. DNA based molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Jens; Muschielok, Adam; Andrecka, Joanna; Kügel, Wolfgang; Moffitt, Jeffrey R.

    2009-12-01

    Most of the essential cellular processes such as polymerisation reactions, gene expression and regulation are governed by mechanical processes. Controlled mechanical investigations of these processes are therefore required in order to take our understanding of molecular biology to the next level. Single-molecule manipulation and force spectroscopy have over the last 15 years been developed into extremely powerful techniques. Applying these techniques to the investigation of proteins and DNA molecules has led to a mechanistic understanding of protein function on the level of single molecules. As examples for DNA based molecular machines we will describe single-molecule experiments on RNA polymerases as well as on the packaging of DNA into a viral capsid-a process that is driven by one of the most powerful molecular motors.

  5. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  6. Ferroelectrics based absorbing layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Jianping; Sadaune, Véronique; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lippens, Didier

    2014-07-01

    We show that ferroelectrics-based periodic structure made of BaSrTiO3 (BST) cubes, arrayed onto a metal plate with a thin dielectric spacer film exhibit a dramatic enhancement of absorbance with value close to unity. The enhancement is found around the Mie magnetic resonance of the Ferroelectrics cubes with the backside metal layer stopping any transmitted waves. It also involves quasi-perfect impedance matching resulting in reflection suppression via simultaneous magnetic and electrical activities. In addition, it was shown numerically the existence of a periodicity optimum, which is explained from surface waves analysis along with trade-off between the resonance damping and the intrinsic loss of ferroelectrics cubes. An experimental verification in a hollow waveguide configuration with a good comparison with full-wave numerical modelling is at last reported by measuring the scattering parameters of single and dual BST cubes schemes pointing out coupling effects for densely packed structures.

  7. Information-based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Noam; Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Tkačik, Gašper; Bialek, William

    2005-01-01

    In an age of increasingly large data sets, investigators in many different disciplines have turned to clustering as a tool for data analysis and exploration. Existing clustering methods, however, typically depend on several nontrivial assumptions about the structure of data. Here, we reformulate the clustering problem from an information theoretic perspective that avoids many of these assumptions. In particular, our formulation obviates the need for defining a cluster “prototype,” does not require an a priori similarity metric, is invariant to changes in the representation of the data, and naturally captures nonlinear relations. We apply this approach to different domains and find that it consistently produces clusters that are more coherent than those extracted by existing algorithms. Finally, our approach provides a way of clustering based on collective notions of similarity rather than the traditional pairwise measures. PMID:16352721

  8. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  9. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  10. Race-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2008-08-01

    The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.

  11. Base Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett Sondreal; John Hendrikson

    2009-03-31

    In June 2009, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed 11 years of research under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40320 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy (OFE) and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A wide range of diverse research activities were performed under annual program plans approved by NETL in seven major task areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, (6) advanced materials, and (7) strategic studies. This report summarizes results of the 67 research subtasks and an additional 50 strategic studies. Selected highlights in the executive summary illustrate the contribution of the research to the energy industry in areas not adequately addressed by the private sector alone. During the period of performance of the agreement, concerns have mounted over the impact of carbon emissions on climate change, and new programs have been initiated by DOE to ensure that fossil fuel resources along with renewable resources can continue to supply the nation's transportation fuel and electric power. The agreement has addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration while expanding the supply and use of domestic energy resources for energy security. It has further contributed to goals for near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources (e.g., wind-, biomass-, and coal-based electrical generation).

  12. Loyalty-based management.

    PubMed

    Reichheld, F F

    1993-01-01

    Despite a flurry of activities aimed at serving customers better, few companies have systematically revamped their operations with customer loyalty in mind. Instead, most have adopted improvement programs ad hoc, and paybacks haven't materialized. Building a highly loyal customer base must be integral to a company's basic business strategy. Loyalty leaders like MBNA credit cards are successful because they have designed their entire business systems around customer loyalty--a self-reinforcing system in which the company delivers superior value consistently and reinvents cash flows to find and keep high-quality customers and employees. The economic benefits of high customer loyalty are measurable. When a company consistently delivers superior value and wins customer loyalty, market share and revenues go up, and the cost of acquiring new customers goes down. The better economics mean the company can pay workers better, which sets off a whole chain of events. Increased pay boosts employee moral and commitment; as employees stay longer, their productivity goes up and training costs fall; employees' overall job satisfaction, combined with their experience, helps them serve customers better; and customers are then more inclined to stay loyal to the company. Finally, as the best customers and employees become part of the loyalty-based system, competitors are left to survive with less desirable customers and less talented employees. To compete on loyalty, a company must understand the relationships between customer retention and the other parts of the business--and be able to quantify the linkages between loyalty and profits. It involves rethinking and aligning four important aspects of the business: customers, product/service offering, employees, and measurement systems.

  13. Electrical percolation based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-10-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of "electrical percolation". In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a "gate" and SEB as an "actuator", it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create "biological central processing units (CPUs)" with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously.

  14. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  15. Problem-Based Learning in Web-Based Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heeyoung; Chung, Ji-Sook; Kim, Younghoon

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how general problem-based learning (PBL) models and social-constructivist perspectives are applied to the design and development of a Web-based science program, which emphasizes inquiry-based learning for fifth grade students. The paper also deals with the general features and learning process of a Web-based…

  16. Pneumocystis pneumonia associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert F; Huang, Laurence; Walzer, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is caused by the yeastlike fungus Pneumocystis. Despite the widespread availability of specific anti-Pneumocystis prophylaxis and of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), PCP remains a common AIDS-defining presentation. PCP is increasingly recognized among persons living in Africa. Pneumocystis cannot be cultured and bronchoalveolar lavage is the gold standard diagnostic test to diagnose PCP. Use of adjunctive biomarkers for diagnosis requires further evaluation. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the preferred first-line treatment regimen. In the era of ART, mortality from PCP is approximately 10% to 12%. The optimal time to start ART in a patient with PCP remains uncertain.

  17. Planar cell polarity and the kidney.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Helen

    2009-10-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a form of spatial organization in tissue that was first described in Drosophila melanogaster. PCP plays a critical conserved role in several aspects of mammalian development. Exciting data implicate PCP in normal kidney development and suggest the loss of oriented cell division and convergent extension downstream of defective PCP signaling lead to cystic kidney disease in mouse models. In this review, I first cover the current knowledge of PCP signaling in invertebrate and vertebrate models and then explore how loss of PCP might underlie some forms of cystic kidney disease.

  18. Critical body residues for pentachlorophenol in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Atanasoff, M.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), an ionizable phenol, is strongly dependent on environmental pH and temperature. Using the invertebrate species, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), the authors tested whether CBRs could be used to resolve the differences in toxicity under varying conditions. The authors simultaneously measured acute toxicity and tissue concentrations of PCP under 9 different combinations of pH and temperature. CBRs were determined from tissue residues as LD{sub 50}, values and were also calculated from LC{sub 50}s in conjunction with toxicokinetic parameters determined under each set of conditions. The data show that when toxicity is based on aqueous concentrations of PCP needed to cause mortality (LC{sub 50}s), that the resulting LC{sub 50}s varied by a factor of 372 X across the range of conditions tested. However, when LD{sub 50}s were calculated from tissue residues in the mussel, the latter varied only by a factor of 12.7 across the range of conditions examined. When CBRs were determined toxicokinetically, instead of from direct measurement of tissue concentrations, these CBRs were both higher than the measured LD{sub 50}s and more variable. The authors believe this is a result of the animals having a higher filtering rate and a greater tolerance for PCP in the short-term exposures from which the toxicokinetic values were obtained. Their data generally support the utility of CBRs in minimizing variation attributable to environmental variables but also demonstrate that the method of determining a CBR will be critical.

  19. The myth of standardized workflow in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, John W; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Stone, Jamie A; Smith, Paul D; Wetterneck, Tosha B

    2016-01-01

    Objective Primary care efficiency and quality are essential for the nation’s health. The demands on primary care physicians (PCPs) are increasing as healthcare becomes more complex. A more complete understanding of PCP workflow variation is needed to guide future healthcare redesigns. Methods This analysis evaluates workflow variation in terms of the sequence of tasks performed during patient visits. Two patient visits from 10 PCPs from 10 different United States Midwestern primary care clinics were analyzed to determine physician workflow. Tasks and the progressive sequence of those tasks were observed, documented, and coded by task category using a PCP task list. Variations in the sequence and prevalence of tasks at each stage of the primary care visit were assessed considering the physician, the patient, the visit’s progression, and the presence of an electronic health record (EHR) at the clinic. Results PCP workflow during patient visits varies significantly, even for an individual physician, with no single or even common workflow pattern being present. The prevalence of specific tasks shifts significantly as primary care visits progress to their conclusion but, notably, PCPs collect patient information throughout the visit. Discussion PCP workflows were unpredictable during face-to-face patient visits. Workflow emerges as the result of a “dance” between physician and patient as their separate agendas are addressed, a side effect of patient-centered practice. Conclusions Future healthcare redesigns should support a wide variety of task sequences to deliver high-quality primary care. The development of tools such as electronic health records must be based on the realities of primary care visits if they are to successfully support a PCP’s mental and physical work, resulting in effective, safe, and efficient primary care. PMID:26335987

  20. Pediatrician Identification of Latino Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Kimber; Donelan, Karen; Batbayar, Oyundari; Baghaee, Anita; Bethell, Christina

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Latino–white disparities in age at autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis may be modified by primary care pediatrician (PCP) practices and beliefs. The objectives of this study were to assess ASD and developmental screening practices, attitudes toward ASD identification in Latino children, and barriers to ASD identification for Latino children, in a sample of 267 California PCPs. METHODS: In mail-based PCP survey, we assessed rates of bilingual general developmental and ASD screening, perceptions of parent ASD knowledge in Latino and white families, reports of difficulty assessing for ASDs in Latino and white children, and perceptions of barriers to early ASD identification for Latinos. RESULTS: Although 81% of PCPs offered some form of developmental screening, 29% of PCPs offered Spanish ASD screening per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, and only 10% offered both Spanish general developmental and Spanish ASD screening per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Most PCPs thought that Latino (English and Spanish primary family language) parents were less knowledgeable about ASDs than white parents. PCPs had more difficulty assessing ASD risk for Latino children with Spanish primary family language than for white children, even when the PCP conducted recommended ASD screening or had >25% Latino patients. The most frequent barrier to ASD identification in Latinos was access to developmental specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple factors in the primary care setting may contribute to delayed ASD identification for Latinos. Promoting language-appropriate screening, disseminating culturally appropriate ASD materials to Latino families, improving the specialist workforce, and providing PCP support in screening and referral of Latino children may be important ways to reduce racial and ethnic differences in care. PMID:23958770

  1. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Since ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain, fails to acquire a global planar axis, but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin. PMID:26441348

  2. Mechanical strain determines the axis of planar polarity in ciliated epithelia.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Keller, Ray; Kintner, Chris; Shook, David R

    2015-11-02

    Epithelia containing multiciliated cells align beating cilia along a common planar axis specified by the conserved planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Specification of the planar axis is also thought to require a long-range cue to align the axis globally, but the nature of this cue in ciliated and other epithelia remains poorly understood. We examined this issue using the Xenopus larval skin, where ciliary flow aligns to the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. We first show that a planar axis initially arises in the developing skin during gastrulation, based on the appearance of polarized apical microtubules and cell junctions with increased levels of stable PCP components. This axis also arises in severely ventralized embryos, despite their deficient embryonic patterning. Because ventralized embryos still gastrulate, producing a mechanical force that strains the developing skin along the A-P axis, we asked whether this strain alone drives global planar patterning. Isolated skin explanted before gastrulation lacks strain and fails to acquire a global planar axis but responds to exogenous strain by undergoing cell elongation, forming polarized apical microtubules, and aligning stable components of the PCP pathway orthogonal to the axis of strain. The planar axis in embryos can be redirected by applying exogenous strain during a critical period around gastrulation. Finally, we provide evidence that apical microtubules and the PCP pathway interact to align the planar axis. These results indicate that oriented tissue strain generated by the gastrulating mesoderm plays a major role in determining the global axis of planar polarity of the developing skin.

  3. Synergetic inhibition of PCDD/F formation from pentachlorophenol by mixtures of urea and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Li, Liewu; Su, Guijin; Huang, Xinchen; Zhao, Yanhui; Li, Binke; Miao, Xue; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-11-05

    Chlorophenols are structurally similar to PCDD/Fs and have been considered as highly potential precursors for PCDD/Fs formation. The suppressing effects of PCDD/F formation from pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated on various mass ratios of CaO and urea. The total concentration of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, mostly dominated by OCDD, was determined to be 48.58-10186ng/mg in inhibitor-reaction systems, being much lower than that in blank reaction system (75654ng/mg). Interestingly, compared with pure CaO and urea reaction system, the concentration and TEQ of formed 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in mixed urea/CaO reaction system were lower, especially with 5-20% urea reaction systems being respectively at decrease by 96.5-99.4% and 99.2-99.7%. The suppression efficiency of TEQ in 5-20% urea reaction systems could be always approximately 100% under 250-350°C. These results suggested that mixed inhibitors, especially 5-20% urea inhibitors, have a synergetic inhibition effect for PCDD/Fs formation from PCP. Mixed inhibitor generated several intermediates, involving CO2, H2O, NH3, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, HNCO, biuret and ammelide. The complex between PCP and Ca, N-doped species, lower chlorinated phenols and benzenediol, and organic acids were also determined. Synergetic inhibition mechanism may be attributed to accelerated facilitation of acid-base reaction and N doping. The decomposition of PCP itself also contributes to prevent PCDD/Fs formation.

  4. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  5. Product-State Approximations to Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.

    2016-02-01

    We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.

  6. Mechanical behaviour of endodontic restorations with multiple prefabricated posts: a finite-element approach.

    PubMed

    Maceri, Franco; Martignoni, Marco; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates some mechanical aspects of a new endodontic restoration technique, based on the idea that the root cavity can be more efficiently filled if multiple prefabricated composite posts (PCP) are employed. Multi-post technique increases bearing capacity and durability of endodontically treated teeth, as shown by numerical simulations performed through three-dimensional elastic finite-element static analyses of a lower premolar, constrained by a non-linearly elastic spring system representing the periodontal ligament, under several parafunctional loads. The influence of PCPs' number, material and dimensions is investigated by comparison of the resulting stress fields with those obtained in cases of traditional restorations (cast metal post and cemented single-PCP) and natural tooth, highlighting the advantages of the proposed technique when standard restorative materials are considered. A risk-analysis of root-fracture and interface-failure shows that cast gold-alloy post produces high stress concentrations at post-dentin interface, whereas multi-post solution leads to a behaviour closer to the natural tooth's, exhibiting some advantages with respect to single-PCP restorations. As a matter of fact, whenever PCPs' overall cross-section area increases, multi-post solution induces a significant reduction of stress levels into the residual dentin (and therefore the root-fracture-risk decreases) as well as of the expected polymerization shrinkage effects. Moreover, interfacial stress values in multi-post restorations can be higher than the single-PCP ones when carbon-fibre posts are considered. Nevertheless, the interfacial adhesive/cohesive failure-risk is certainly acceptable if glass-fibre posts are employed.

  7. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  8. Neighborhood-Based Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Susan Whitelaw

    This report provides an overview of neighborhood-based family-support programs and describes the development of the family-support movement. It includes sections on the definition of neighborhood-based family-support programs, the principles and theories on which they are based, a discussion of the problems they are designed to address, a…

  9. Mentalization-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Anthony; Fonagy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mentalizing has captured the interest and imagination of an astonishing range of people—from psychoanalysts to neuroscientists, from child development researchers to geneticists, from existential philosophers to phenomenologists—all of whom seem to have found it useful. According to the Thompson Reuter maintained Web of Science, the use of the term in titles and abstracts of scientific papers increased from 10 to 2,750 between 1991 and 2011. Clinicians in particular have enthusiastically embraced the idea, and have put it to innovative use in their practices. Mentalization-based treatment (MBT)—making mentalizing a core focus of therapy—was initially developed for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in routine clinical services delivered in group and individual modalities. Therapy with mentalizing as a central component is currently being developed for treatment of numerous groups, including people with antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse, eating disorders, and at-risk mothers with infants and children (A. Bateman & Fonagy, 2011). It is also being used with families and adolescents, in schools, and in managing social groups (Asen & Fonagy, 2011; Fonagy et al., 2009; Twemlow, Fonagy, & Sacco, 2005a, 2005b). In this article, we focus on MBT in the treatment of BPD. PMID:26157198

  10. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  11. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans. PMID:24937089

  12. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  13. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  14. Lunar base construction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  15. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  16. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  17. Graphene based GHz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Anthony K.; El Fatimy, Abdel; Barbara, Paola; Nath, Anindya; Campbell, Paul M.; Myers-Ward, Rachael; Daniels, Kevin; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    Graphene demonstrates great promise as a detector over a wide spectral range especially in the GHz range. This is because absorption is enhanced due to the Drude contribution. In the GHz range there are viable detection mechanisms for graphene devices. With this in mind, two types of GHz detectors are fabricated on epitaxial graphene using a lift off resist-based clean lithography process to produce low contact resistance. Both device types use asymmetry for detection, consistent with recent thoughts of the photothermoelectric effect (PTE) mechanism. The first is an antenna coupled device. It utilizes two dissimilar contact metals and the work function difference produces the asymmetry. The other device is a field effect transistor constructed with an asymmetric top gate that creates a PN junction and facilitates tuning the photovoltaic response. The response of both device types, tested from 100GHz to 170GHz, are reported. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  18. Alphavirus-based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-06-16

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.

  19. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  20. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  1. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  2. SGIM-AMDA-AGS Consensus Best Practice Recommendations for Transitioning Patients' Healthcare from Skilled Nursing Facilities to the Community.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Lee A; Miller, Rachel K; Saltsman, Wayne S; Carnahan, Jennifer; Rowe, Theresa A; Arbaje, Alicia I; Werner, Nicole; Boockvar, Kenneth; Steinberg, Karl; Baharlou, Shahla

    2017-02-01

    We assembled a cross-cutting team of experts representing primary care physicians (PCPs), home care physicians, physicians who see patients in skilled nursing facilities (SNF physicians), skilled nursing facility medical directors, human factors engineers, transitional care researchers, geriatricians, internists, family practitioners, and three major organizations: AMDA, SGIM, and AGS. This work was sponsored through a grant from the Association of Subspecialty Physicians (ASP). Members of the team mapped the process of discharging patients from a skilled nursing facility into the community and subsequent care of their outpatient PCP. Four areas of process improvement were identified, building on the prior work of the AMDA Transitions of Care Committee and the experiences of the team members. The team identified issues and developed best practices perceived as feasible for SNF physician and PCP practices to accomplish. The goal of these consensus-based recommended best practices is to provide a safe and high-quality transition for patients moving between the care of their SNF physician and PCP.

  3. Conservation of spin polarization during triplet-triplet energy transfer in reconstituted peridinin-chlorophyll-protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Di Valentin, Marilena; Tait, Claudia; Salvadori, Enrico; Ceola, Stefano; Scheer, Hugo; Hiller, Roger G; Carbonera, Donatella

    2011-11-17

    Peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP) complexes, where the N-terminal domain of native PCP from Amphidinium carterae has been reconstituted with different chlorophyll (Chl) species, have been investigated by time-resolved EPR in order to elucidate the details of the triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) mechanism. This spectroscopic approach exploits the concept of spin conservation during TTET, which leads to recognizable spin-polarization effects in the observed time-resolved EPR spectra. The spin polarization produced at the acceptor site (peridinin) depends on the initial polarization of the donor (chlorophyll) and on the relative geometric arrangement of the donor-acceptor spin axes. A variation of the donor triplet state properties in terms of population probabilities or triplet spin axis directions, as produced by replacement of chlorophyll a (Chl a) with non-native chlorophyll species (ZnChl a and BacterioChl a) in the reconstituted complexes, is unambiguously reflected in the polarization pattern of the carotenoid triplet state. For the first time, in the present investigation spin-polarization conservation has been shown to occur among natural cofactors in protein complexes during the TTET process. Proving the validity of the assumption of spin conservation adopted in the EPR spectral analysis, the results reinforce the hypothesis that in PCP proteins peridinin 614, according to X-ray nomenclature (Hofmann, E.; et al. Science 1996, 272, 1788-1791), is the carotenoid of election in the photoprotection mechanism based on TTET.

  4. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr.; Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L.

    1992-11-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW{trademark}) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  5. Bell Pole CROW pilot test results and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fahy, L.J.; Johnson, L.A. Jr. ); Sola, D.V.; Horn, S.G.; Christofferson, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, efforts were initiated to implement an in situ remediation project to address the creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated surficial aquifer at the Bell Lumber and Pole Company (Bell Pole) Site. The remediation project involves the application of the Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes (CROW[trademark]) process which consists of hot-water injection to displace and recover the non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL). Based on the results from the pilot test the following conclusions can be made: (1) The pilot test provided sufficient hydraulic information to design the full-scale CROW remediation system. The pumping test portion of the pilot test indicated uniform aquifer properties. The entire thickness of the aquifer reached the target temperature range and containment of the injected hot water was achieved. (2) Pretest injection and production rate predictions were achieved. (3) The post test soil boring data indicated hot-water injection displaced greater than 80% of the NAPL near the injection well. The data indicates that a NAPL saturation of approximately 19% (pore volume basis) and a 500 fold decrease in PCP concentration can be achieved with 20 pore volumes of flushing. (4) The treatment system used during the pilot test was effective in reducing PCP and PAH compounds to concentrations acceptable for sanitary sewer discharge. (5) The microbial assay of the post test samples found an encouraging increase in microbial population compared to earlier data collected before the pilot test.

  6. Humin as an electron donor for enhancement of multiple microbial reduction reactions with different redox potentials in a consortium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Zhang, Chunfang; Xiao, Zhixing; Suzuki, Daisuke; Katayama, Arata

    2015-02-01

    A solid-phase humin, acting as an electron donor, was able to enhance multiple reductive biotransformations, including dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP), dissimilatory reduction of amorphous Fe (III) oxide (FeOOH), and reduction of nitrate, in a consortium. Humin that was chemically reduced by NaBH4 served as an electron donor for these microbial reducing reactions, with electron donating capacities of 0.013 mmol e(-)/g for PCP dechlorination, 0.15 mmol e(-)/g for iron reduction, and 0.30 mmol e(-)/g for nitrate reduction. Two pairs of oxidation and reduction peaks within the humin were detected by cyclic voltammetry analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequencing-based microbial community analysis of the consortium incubated with different terminal electron acceptors, suggested that Dehalobacter sp., Bacteroides sp., and Sulfurospirillum sp. were involved in the PCP dechlorination, dissimilatory iron reduction, and nitrate reduction, respectively. These findings suggested that humin functioned as a versatile redox mediator, donating electrons for multiple respiration reactions with different redox potentials.

  7. Military Bases and Conservation Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ankeny

    2007-09-01

    Over time, DoD is likely to be one of the largest buyers and sellers in a water quality trading market. The Department of Defense (DoD) operates military bases that resemble small cities in infrastructure. As units redeploy, bases are likely to find themselves well within their environmental limits at the originating base and potentially bumping against limits such as nitrate and phosphate loading at the destination base. Stricter rules and heavier loadings in growing watersheds also present challenges to local bases and municipalities as regulators clamp down on loadings from existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to meet water quality standards.

  8. Graphene based gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI

  9. Measurement-based quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2016-03-01

    We review and discuss the potential of using measurement-based elements in quantum communication schemes, where certain tasks are realized with the help of entangled resource states that are processed by measurements. We consider long-range quantum communication based on the transmission of encoded quantum states, where encoding, decoding and syndrome readout are implemented using small-scale resource states. We also discuss entanglement-based schemes and consider measurement-based quantum repeaters. An important element in these schemes is entanglement purification, which can also be implemented in a measurement-based way. We analyze the influence of noise and imperfections in these schemes and show that measurement-based implementation allows for very large error thresholds of the order of 10 % noise per qubit and more. We show how to obtain optimal resource states for different tasks and discuss first experimental realizations of measurement-based quantum error correction using trapped ions and photons.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Based Light Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, russell A. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A light sensor substrate comprises a base made from a semi-conductive material and topped with a layer of an electrically non-conductive material. A first electrode and a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors are positioned on the layer of electrically non-conductive material with the CNT-based conductors being distributed in a spaced apart fashion about a periphery of the first electrode. Each CNT-based conductor is coupled on one end thereof to the first electrode and extends away from the first electrode to terminate at a second free end. A second or gate electrode is positioned on the non-conductive material layer and is spaced apart from the second free end of each CNT-based conductor. Coupled to the first and second electrode is a device for detecting electron transfer along the CNT-based conductors resulting from light impinging on the CNT-based conductors.

  11. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  12. Soy-based renoprotection

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Nancy J; Krul, Elaine S; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem as risk factors such as advanced age, obesity, hypertension and diabetes rise in the global population. Currently there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for this disease. The role of diet is important for slowing the progression of CKD and managing symptoms in later stages of renal insufficiency. While low protein diets are generally recommended, maintaining adequate levels of intake is critical for health. There is an increasing appreciation that the source of protein may also be important. Soybean protein has been the most extensively studied plant-based protein in subjects with kidney disease and has demonstrated renal protective properties in a number of clinical studies. Soy protein consumption has been shown to slow the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and significantly improve proteinuria in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with nephropathy. Soy’s beneficial effects on renal function may also result from its impact on certain physiological risk factors for CKD such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia. Soy intake is also associated with improvements in antioxidant status and systemic inflammation in early and late stage CKD patients. Studies conducted in animal models have helped to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms that may play a role in the positive effects of soy protein on renal parameters in polycystic kidney disease, metabolically-induced kidney dysfunction and age-associated progressive nephropathy. Despite the established relationship between soy and renoprotection, further studies are needed for a clear understanding of the role of the cellular and molecular target(s) of soy protein in maintaining renal function. PMID:27152261

  13. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  14. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  15. Space-based detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

  16. Ferrocene-Based Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence R. Sita

    2006-02-15

    Ferrocene-based molecular components for nanoelectronics offer a number of distinct advantages relative to all carbon frameworks due to metal-centered molecular states that should be closer in energy to the Fermi levels of the metal electrodes in metal / molecule / metal heterojunctions. Given this, the overall goal of the project was to investigate the conduction physics of a variety of proposed ferrocene diode / transistor designs in order to address the fundamental question; can electron transport within nm-length scale structures be modulated in a controlled fashion? During the funded period, substantial progress towards achieving this goal was made by surmounting a number of scientific and technical obstacles. More specifically, a concise and general synthetic route to several mono- and diferrocene dithiols and monothiols was achieved that now allows for the directed and controlled assembly of a variety of metal / molecule /metal test structures for the single molecule conductance measurements and the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) that are amenable to quantitative electrochemical characterization of electron-transfer rates. Most importantly, by using an electromigrated test structure, reproducible I/V data for one of the ferrocene dithiol molecules have been collected which exhibit surprisingly high conductance. Exceptional agreement of this result with theory serves to substantiate the original hypothesis that metal-centered states within a molecular bridge can indeed serve to establish higher conductance relative to all-organic molecular bridges. Overall, the successful demonstration of the ability of ferrocene-molecular frameworks to serve as exceptional molecular conductors will play an important role in the continued evolution in design of molecular components for nanoelectronic devices, which in turn, will have a positive impact on the science and potential technologies associated with these systems.

  17. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  18. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  19. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  20. Regulation of neuronal migration by Dchs1-Fat4 planar cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Sana; Mao, Yaopan; Kuta, Anna; de Sousa, Catia Ferreira; Gaufo, Gary O.; McNeill, Helen; Hindges, Robert; Guthrie, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Summary Planar-cell polarity (PCP) describes the polarisation of cell structures and behaviors within the plane of a tissue. PCP is essential for the generation of tissue architecture during embryogenesis and for post-natal growth and tissue repair, yet how it is oriented to coordinate cell polarity remains poorly understood [1]. In Drosophila, PCP is mediated via the Frizzled-Flamingo (Fz-PCP) and Dachsous-Fat (Fat-PCP) pathways [1-3]. Fz-PCP is conserved in vertebrates but an understanding in vertebrates of whether and how Fat-PCP polarizes cells, and its relationship to Fz-PCP signaling, is lacking. Mutations in human FAT4 and DCHS1 cause Van Maldergem syndrome, characterized by severe neuronal abnormalities indicative of altered neuronal migration [4]. Here, we investigate the role and mechanisms of Fat-PCP during neuronal migration using the murine facial branchiomotor neurons (FBM) as a model. We find that Fat4 and Dchs1, key components of Fat-PCP signaling, are expressed in complementary gradients and are required for the collective tangential migration of FBM and for their PCP. Fat4 and Dchs1 are required intrinsically within the FBM and extrinsically within the neuroepithelium. Remarkably, Fat-PCP and Fz-PCP regulate FBM migration along orthogonal axes. Disruption of the Dchs1 gradients by mosaic inactivation of Dchs1 alters FBM polarity and migration. This study implies that PCP in vertebrates can be regulated via gradients of Fat4 and Dchs1 expression, which establish intracellular polarity across FBM cells during their migration. Our results also identify Fat-PCP as a novel neuronal guidance system, and reveal that Fat-PCP and Fz-PCP can act along orthogonal axes. PMID:24998526

  1. Systematic review of pentachlorophenol occurrence in the environment and in humans in China: not a negligible health risk due to the re-emergence of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Yu, Huan; Wang, Xia; Qu, Weidong

    2012-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been widely used for killing snails in areas of China where schistosomiasis is epidemic. With the re-emergence of schistosomiasis, the warranted production and consumption of PCP has inevitably resulted in persistent environmental contamination by it and its impurities, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). This study aimed to evaluate the contamination status and human burden of PCP and its impurities (PCDD/Fs) in China, considering the previous epidemic and re-emergence of schistosomiasis. We searched studies relevant to PCP occurrence in the environment and in humans in China. Data on snail elimination areas were included to estimate PCP consumption. Relevant publications were analyzed to distinguish PCDD/Fs contamination from PCP usage. PCP contamination was detected ubiquitously in various environmental media and in human samples; environmental levels were generally low, with the exception of some hot spots. In schistosomiasis-epidemic areas, there were significantly higher PCP levels in the environment and in humans than in control areas. Spatial disparities indicated the consistency between serious schistosomiasis epidemic areas and hot spots of PCP contamination. The data suggest an increased trend in PCP contamination of the environment. Specific PCDD/Fs contamination from PCP usage existed even at low environmental levels. The occurrence of PCP in the environment and in humans positively correlated with the epidemic of schistosomiasis. Thyroid-disrupting effects and cancer risk caused by PCP and PCDD/Fs even at low environmental levels in China's schistosomiasis-epidemic areas are of concern.

  2. Audiovisual temporal recalibration: space-based versus context-based.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Li, Baolin; Bi, Cuihua; Yin, Huazhan; Huang, Xiting

    2012-01-01

    Recalibration of perceived simultaneity has been widely accepted to minimise delay between multisensory signals owing to different physical and neural conduct times. With concurrent exposure, temporal recalibration is either contextually or spatially based. Context-based recalibration was recently described in detail, but evidence for space-based recalibration is scarce. In addition, the competition between these two reference frames is unclear. Here, we examined participants who watched two distinct blob-and-tone couples that laterally alternated with one asynchronous and the other synchronous and then judged their perceived simultaneity and sequence when they swapped positions and varied in timing. For low-level stimuli with abundant auditory location cues space-based aftereffects were significantly more apparent (8.3%) than context-based aftereffects (4.2%), but without such auditory cues space-based aftereffects were less apparent (4.4%) and were numerically smaller than context-based aftereffects (6.0%). These results suggested that stimulus level and auditory location cues were both determinants of the recalibration frame. Through such joint judgments and the simple reaction time task, our results further revealed that criteria from perceived simultaneity to successiveness profoundly shifted without accompanying perceptual latency changes across adaptations, hence implying that criteria shifts, rather than perceptual latency changes, accounted for space-based and context-based temporal recalibration.

  3. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  4. Game-based versus traditional case-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Telner, Deanna; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Chan, David; Chester, Bob; Marlow, Bernard; Meuser, James; Rothman, Arthur; Harvey, Bart

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate family physicians’ enjoyment of and knowledge gained from game-based learning, compared with traditional case-based learning, in a continuing medical education (CME) event on stroke prevention and management. DESIGN An equivalence trial to determine if game-based learning was as effective as case-based learning in terms of attained knowledge levels. Game questions and small group cases were developed. Participants were randomized to either a game-based or a case-based group and took part in the event. SETTING Ontario provincial family medicine conference. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two family physicians and 3 senior family medicine residents attending the conference. INTERVENTION Participation in either a game-based or a case-based CME learning group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scores on 40-item immediate and 3-month posttests of knowledge and a satisfaction survey. RESULTS Results from knowledge testing immediately after the event and 3 months later showed no significant difference in scoring between groups. Participants in the game-based group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the learning experience. CONCLUSION Games provide a novel way of organizing CME events. They might provide more group interaction and discussion, as well as improve recruitment to CME events. They might also provide a forum for interdisciplinary CME. Using games in future CME events appears to be a promising approach to facilitate participant learning. PMID:20841574

  5. Wavelet Features Based Fingerprint Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagadi, Shweta U.; Thalange, Asha V.; Jain, Giridhar P.

    2010-11-01

    In this work; we present a automatic fingerprint identification system based on Level 3 features. Systems based only on minutiae features do not perform well for poor quality images. In practice, we often encounter extremely dry, wet fingerprint images with cuts, warts, etc. Due to such fingerprints, minutiae based systems show poor performance for real time authentication applications. To alleviate the problem of poor quality fingerprints, and to improve overall performance of the system, this paper proposes fingerprint verification based on wavelet statistical features & co-occurrence matrix features. The features include mean, standard deviation, energy, entropy, contrast, local homogeneity, cluster shade, cluster prominence, Information measure of correlation. In this method, matching can be done between the input image and the stored template without exhaustive search using the extracted feature. The wavelet transform based approach is better than the existing minutiae based method and it takes less response time and hence suitable for on-line verification, with high accuracy.

  6. Logistics support of lunar bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    Concepts for lunar base design and operations have been studied for over twenty years. A brief summary of past concepts is presented, with reference to new ideas on design, uses and logistics schemes. Transportation systems and mission modes are reviewed, showing the significant cost benefits of reusable transportation at the higher traffic rates representative of lunar base buildup and logistics operations. Parametric studies are presented over the range of base size from 6 crew to 1000 crew, and the "choke points", or barriers to growth are identified and means for their resolution presented. The leverages of food growth on the Moon, crew stay time, use of lunar oxygen, indigenous resources for construction of facilities, and transportation systems size and operations modes are presented. It is concluded that bases as large as 1000 people are affordable at less than twice the cost of an initial base of six people if these leverages of advanced basing technologies are exploited.

  7. Concurrent array-based queue

    SciTech Connect

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  8. Principles of models based engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  9. Base Camp Design Simulation Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    It is a treasure-trove of engineering blueprints, bill of materials ( BOMs ), and plans. This 600- man base camp, Figure 6, inputted into VBS2TM...the technical proficiencies required in the construction of base camps. There are no blue prints or bill of materials included in the training. Yet...that “base camps need DOTMLPF (doctrine, organization, training, material , leadership and education, personnel, and facilities) solutions to address

  10. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  11. Evidence-Based Medicine: Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed.

  12. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  13. Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…

  14. Estolides: Bioderived synthetic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One novel technology to reach the lubricant market in recent years is the estolide, a class of high-performance, environmentally acceptable lubricant base oils. Estolides have been tested against a set of similar competing base oils from the marketplace, and the results show that they have excellent...

  15. Electrorheological Material Based Smart Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    based in-situ structural vibration monitoring, and real-time neural network based vibration control. In order to facilitate the basic science...structural vibration model was developed and tested with corresponding experimentation. Novel fiber-optic sensors and neural network controllers were also

  16. Problem-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2008-01-01

    One way of implementing project-based science (PBS) is to use problem-based learning (PBL), in which students formulate their own problems. These problems are often ill-structured, mirroring complex real-life problems where data are often messy and inclusive. In this article, the authors describe how they used PBL in a ninth-grade biology class in…

  17. Competency Based Education: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen, Ed.

    This bibliography is a sampling of the types of publications which have appeared recently on the subject of competency based education. Emphasis is given to current (1970-76) materials and to adult career-related competencies. Titles specifically naming some phase of competency-based education are preferred above titles that emphasize performance,…

  18. Constraint-Based Scheduling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte; Eskey, Megan; Stock, Todd; Taylor, Will; Kanefsky, Bob; Drascher, Ellen; Deale, Michael; Daun, Brian; Davis, Gene

    1995-01-01

    Report describes continuing development of software for constraint-based scheduling system implemented eventually on massively parallel computer. Based on machine learning as means of improving scheduling. Designed to learn when to change search strategy by analyzing search progress and learning general conditions under which resource bottleneck occurs.

  19. Isomap based supporting vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W. N.

    2015-12-01

    This research presents a new isomap based supporting vector machine method. Isomap is a dimension reduction method which is able to analyze nonlinear relationship of data on manifolds. Accordingly, support vector machine is established on the isomap manifold to classify given and predict unknown data. A case study of the isomap based supporting vector machine for environmental planning problems is conducted.

  20. Cloud-Based Data Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The vulnerability and inefficiency of backing up data on-site is prompting school districts to switch to more secure, less troublesome cloud-based options. District auditors are pushing for a better way to back up their data than the on-site, tape-based system that had been used for years. About three years ago, Hendrick School District in…

  1. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  2. Discipline Based Arts Education. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Lori

    This 5-part video lesson deals with discipline-based art education in the elementary school. The video features a university professor who is a specialist in methods and the integration of art into the elementary classroom; each part of the video lesson is 30 minutes in length. First defining discipline-based art education as an approach, not a…

  3. Computer-Based Hindi Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Tej K.

    This paper brings out the structure and salient features of the Computer-Based Hindi Teaching (CBHT) course, which is being developed at the University of Illinois. The following topics are treated specifically: (1) areas of the Hindi Language course that can be efficiently and economically taught with computer-based pedagogy; (2) a demonstration…

  4. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  5. Using dBase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Four articles on dBASE III include three on library applications: a photocopy invoicing system for interlibrary loan, a vertical file subject headings list program, and a subject index to statistical resources. Another article explains the differences between interpreters and compilers and the advantages of the Clipper compiler for dBASE III. (EM)

  6. C-21 Fleet: Base Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    assigned to the operational support airlift mission, located at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland and Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. The missions flown... Scott and Andrews AFB is the optimal assignment. If nine total assets were optimized, five would be assigned to Scott AFB and four to Andrews AFB

  7. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors.

  8. Colloidal nanomaterial-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Descroix, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Nanomaterials have been widely developed for their use in nanomedicine, especially for immunoassay-based diagnosis. In this review we focus on the use of nanomaterials as a nanoplatform for colloidal immunoassays. While conventional heterogeneous immunoassays suffer from mass transfer limitations and consequently long assay time, colloidal immunosupports allow target capture in the entire volume, thus speeding up reaction kinetics and shortening assay time. Owing to their wide range of chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are an interesting candidate for immunoassay development. The most popular colloidal nanomaterials for colloidal immunoassays will be discussed, as well as their influence on immune reactions. Recent advances in nanomaterial applications for different formats of immunoassays will be reported, such as nanomaterial-based indirect immunoassays, optical-based agglutination immunoassays, resonance energy transfer-based immunoassays and magnetic relaxation-based immunoassays. Finally, the future of using nanomaterials for homogeneous immunoassays dedicated to clinical diagnosis will be discussed.

  9. Substance Abuse Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.) h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.) i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, ... Valium, Serepax, Rohypnol, etc.) h. Hallucinogens (LSD, acid, mushrooms, PCP, Special K, etc.) i. Opioids (heroin, morphine, ...

  10. Molecular Evidence of Interhuman Transmission of Pneumocystis Pneumonia among Renal Transplant Recipients Hospitalized with HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rabodonirina, Meja; Vanhems, Philippe; Couray-Targe, Sandrine; Gillibert, René-Pierre; Ganne, Christell; Nizard, Nathalie; Colin, Cyrille; Fabry, Jacques; Touraine, Jean-Louis; van Melle, Guy; Nahimana, Aimable; Francioli, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Ten Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) cases were diagnosed in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) during a 3-year period. Nosocomial transmission from HIV-positive patients with PCP was suspected because these patients shared the same hospital building, were not isolated, and were receiving suboptimal anti-PCP prophylaxis or none. P. jirovecii organisms were typed with the multitarget polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism method. Among the 45 patients with PCP hospitalized during the 3-year period, 8 RTRs and 6 HIV-infected patients may have encountered at least 1 patient with active PCP within the 3 months before the diagnosis of their own PCP episode. In six instances (five RTRs, one HIV-infected patient), the patients harbored the same P. jirovecii molecular type as that found in the encountered PCP patients. The data suggest that part of the PCP cases observed in this building, particularly those observed in RTRs, were related to nosocomial interhuman transmission. PMID:15504262

  11. Pentachlorophenol degradation: a pure bacterial culture and an epilithic microbial consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, E J; Pignatello, J J; Martinson, M M; Crawford, R L

    1986-01-01

    The steady-state growth of a Flavobacterium strain known to utilize pentachlorophenol (PCP) was examined when cellobiose and PCP simultaneously limited its growth rate in continuous culture. A concentration of 600 mg of PCP per liter in influent medium could be continuously degraded without affecting steady-state growth. We measured specific rates of PCP carbon degradation as high as 0.15 +/- 0.01 g (dry weight) of C per h at a growth rate of 0.045 h-1. Comparable specific rates of PCP degradation were obtained and maintained by PCP-adapted, natural consortia of epilithic microorganisms. The consortium results suggest that a fixed-film bioreactor containing a PCP-adapted natural microbial population could be used to treat PCP-contaminated water. PMID:3729408

  12. ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL USING GAC FLUIDIXED BED REACTORS: OPTIMIZATION OF THE EMPTY BED CONTACT TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated reactor system has been developed to remediate pentachlorophenol (PCP) containing wastes using sequential anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation. Anaerobically, PCP was degraded to approximately equimolar concentrations (>99%) of chlorophenol (CP) in a granular activa...

  13. Short-term variability and predictors of urinary pentachlorophenol levels in Ohio preschool children

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant. No published data exist on the temporal variability or important predictors of urinary PCP concentrations in young children. In this further analysis of study data, we have examined the associations...

  14. Pentachlorophenol degradation: a pure bacterial culture and an epilithic microbial consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.J.; Pignatello, J.J.; Martinson, M.M.; Crawford, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    The steady-state growth of a Flavobacterium strain known to utilize pentachlorophenol (PCP) was examined when cellobiose and PCP simultaneously limited its growth rate in continuous culture. A concentration of 600 mg of PCP per liter in influent medium could be continuously degraded without affecting steady-state growth. We measured specific rates of PCP carbon degradation as high as 0.15 +/- 0.01 g (dry weight) of C per h at a growth rate of 0.045 h-1. Comparable specific rates of PCP degradation were obtained and maintained by PCP-adapted, natural consortia of epilithic microorganisms. The consortium results suggest that a fixed-film bioreactor containing a PCP-adapted natural microbial population could be used to treat PCP-contaminated water.

  15. Object-based media and stream-based computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, V. Michael, Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Object-based media refers to the representation of audiovisual information as a collection of objects - the result of scene-analysis algorithms - and a script describing how they are to be rendered for display. Such multimedia presentations can adapt to viewing circumstances as well as to viewer preferences and behavior, and can provide a richer link between content creator and consumer. With faster networks and processors, such ideas become applicable to live interpersonal communications as well, creating a more natural and productive alternative to traditional videoconferencing. In this paper is outlined an example of object-based media algorithms and applications developed by my group, and present new hardware architectures and software methods that we have developed to enable meeting the computational requirements of object- based and other advanced media representations. In particular we describe stream-based processing, which enables automatic run-time parallelization of multidimensional signal processing tasks even given heterogenous computational resources.

  16. Value-based metrics and Internet-based enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Krishan M.

    2001-10-01

    Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.

  17. Outcome-based and Participation-based Wellness Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Barleen, Nathan A.; Marzec, Mary L.; Boerger, Nicholas L.; Moloney, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Eric M.; Dobro, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether worksite wellness program participation or achievement of health improvement targets differed according to four incentive types (participation-based, hybrid, outcome-based, and no incentive). Methods: The study included individuals who completed biometric health screenings in both 2013 and 2014 and had elevated metrics in 2013 (baseline year). Multivariate logistic regression modeling tested for differences in odds of participation and achievement of health improvement targets between incentive groups; controlling for demographics, employer characteristics, incentive amounts, and other factors. Results: No statistically significant differences between incentive groups occurred for odds of participation or achievement of health improvement target related to body mass index, blood pressure, or nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Given the null findings of this study, employers cannot assume that outcome-based incentives will result in either increased program participation or greater achievement of health improvement targets than participation-based incentives. PMID:28146041

  18. Coronavirus phylogeny based on triplets of nucleic acids bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Liu, Yanshu; Li, Renfa; Zhu, Wen

    2006-04-01

    We considered the fully overlapping triplets of nucleotide bases and proposed a 2D graphical representation of protein sequences consisting of 20 amino acids and a stop code. Based on this 2D graphical representation, we outlined a new approach to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of coronaviruses by constructing a covariance matrix. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the two-dimensional curves.

  19. Mineral-resource data bases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Data bases are essential for modern scientific research. The new and exciting work being done in the Mineral Resource Program in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) usually begins with the question, "Where are the known deposits?" A mineral-resource data base containing this type of information and more can be useful not just to USGS scientists, but to anyone who needs such data. Users of the data bases from outside the USGS include mining and exploration companies, environmental groups, academia, other Federal Agencies, and the general public. At present, the USGS has two large mineral-resource data bases, MRDS (Mineral Resource Data System) and MAS (Minerals Availability System). MRDS was built and is mamtained by the USGS, and MAS was built and maintained by the Bureau of Mines. In 1996, after the Bureau was abolished, MAS was transferred to the USGS. The two data bases were compiled for different purposes and contain very different mformation. For instance, MAS contains information on costs, details of mining methods, and feasibility studies. MRDS has mineralogical and geologic data that are not contained in MAS. Because they are both mineral-resource data bases, however, they contain some information in common, such as location, name(s) of sites, and commodities present. Both data bases are international in scope, and both are quite large. MRDS contains over 110,000 records, while MAS has over 220,000. One reason that MAS has more records is that it contains information on smelters, mill sites, and fossil fuel sites, as well as mineral- resource sites. The USGS is working to combine the information in both data bases. This is a large undertaking that will require some years to complete. In the interim, information from both data bases will still be available

  20. Interactions between space-based and feature-based attention

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Carly J.; Balestreri, Angela; Luck, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Although early research suggested that attention to nonspatial features (i.e., red) was confined to stimuli appearing at an attended spatial location, more recent research has emphasized the global nature of feature-based attention. For example, a distractor sharing a target feature may capture attention even if it occurs at a task-irrelevant location. Such findings have been used to argue that feature-based attention operates independently of spatial attention. However, feature-based attention may nonetheless interact with spatial attention, yielding larger feature-based effects at attended locations than at unattended locations. The present study tested this possibility. In two experiments, participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream and identified a target letter defined by its color. Target-colored distractors were presented at various task-irrelevant locations during the RSVP stream. We found that feature-driven attentional capture effects were largest when the target-colored distractor was closer to the attended location. These results demonstrate that spatial attention modulates the strength of feature-based attention capture, calling into question the prior evidence that feature-based attention operates in a global manner that is independent of spatial attention. PMID:25285472

  1. New carbohydrate-based materials

    SciTech Connect

    Callstrom, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    We have prepared a series of new carbohydrate-based materials based on the use of carbohydrates as a template for the introduction of functionality to polymeric materials with complete regio- and stereochemical control. The synthesis of these new materials by the use of chemical and enzymatic methods allows for the rational design of new materials based on the properties of the monomeric subunit. These materials have potential applications that range from their use in enhanced oil recovery to biodegradable plastics to biological applications including targeted drug delivery and enzyme stabilization.

  2. DSP based data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Peeyush; Subrahmanya, C. R.

    A new DSP based data acquisition system based on commercial, off-the-shelf available hardware is presented. The board features friendly high speed input and output interfaces, a powerful DSP and hardware offloading of essing to an FPGA. For flexibility of development, a soft realtime linux based kernel popular among embedded developers (uClinux) has been ported on the board.The development environment is fully open source both for the target as well as for host software. The motivation behind creating the system, the development ess and the current status is described. Some results obtained with this system as used in typical applications are also presented.

  3. The computer-based lecture.

    PubMed

    Wofford, M M; Spickard, A W; Wofford, J L

    2001-07-01

    Advancing computer technology, cost-containment pressures, and desire to make innovative improvements in medical education argue for moving learning resources to the computer. A reasonable target for such a strategy is the traditional clinical lecture. The purpose of the lecture, the advantages and disadvantages of "live" versus computer-based lectures, and the technical options in computerizing the lecture deserve attention in developing a cost-effective, complementary learning strategy that preserves the teacher-learner relationship. Based on a literature review of the traditional clinical lecture, we build on the strengths of the lecture format and discuss strategies for converting the lecture to a computer-based learning presentation.

  4. Evaluation of a series of prolylamidepyridines as the chiral derivatization reagents for enantioseparation of carboxylic acids by LC-ESI-MS/MS and the application to human saliva.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Tomohiro; Takayama, Takahiro; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a popular analytical tool because of its high sensitivity and specificity. The use of a chiral derivatization reagent for the mass spectrometry (MS) detection seems to be efficient for the enantiomeric separation of racemates. However, the number of chiral reagents for the liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis is very limited. According to these observations, we are currently in the process of developing novel labeling reagents for chiral molecules in MS/MS analysis. The derivatization reagent that is effective for enhancing not only the electrospray ionization-MS/MS sensitivity but also the reversed-phase LC resolution of carboxylic acid enantiomers should have a highly proton-affinitive moiety and an asymmetric structure near the reactive functional group. Furthermore, the resulting derivative has to provide a characteristic product ion suitable for the selected reaction monitoring. Based upon these considerations, a series of prolylamidepyridines ((S)-N-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid N-(pyridine-2-yl)amide (PCP2), (S)-N-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid N-(pyridine-3-yl)amide, and (S)-N-pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid N-(pyridine-4-yl)amide) was synthesized as ideal labeling reagents for the enantioseparation of chiral carboxylic acids and evaluated in terms of separation efficiency and detection sensitivity by ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS. Among the synthesized reagents, PCP2 was the most efficient chiral derivatization reagent for the enantioseparation of carboxylic acid. The Rs values and the detection limits of the derivatives of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which were selected as the representative carboxylic acids, were in the range of 2.52-6.07 and 49-260 amol, respectively. The sensitive detection of biological carboxylic acids (detection limits, 32-520 amol) was also carried out by the proposed method using PCP2 and UPLC-MS/MS. The PCP2 was applied to the determination of carboxylic acids in human saliva. Several

  5. An animal model of schizophrenia based on chronic LSD administration: old idea, new results.

    PubMed

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D; Nichols, David E

    2011-09-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as "clearly a paranoid state." We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP.

  6. School-Based Health Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hall. Staffed by health care workers like nurses and doctors, school-based health centers provide a ... including mental health care. Centers may even have nurse practitioners, medical students, doctors, social workers, drug counselors, ...

  7. Community-Based Biofuel Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Monroe County, New York, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  8. Improvements in bracket base design.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C; Maijer, R

    1983-04-01

    Acid etch bonding of orthodontic attachments to the labial and lingual surfaces of teeth is generally adequate for clinical service. Failures do occur, and these are related to technique problems in acid etching or resin manipulation or to bracket base design. The widely used foil mesh base can present problems in retention because of design defects or corrosion. Improvement in mechanical retention of resin to the attachment base would result in significant improvements in bonding and fewer clinical failures. One of our approaches to improved retention is to fuse metallic or ceramic particles onto the bracket base so as to achieve a particulate or porous layer into which resin can penetrate. The results of bond-strength tests showed that a 100 percent increase in bond strength could be obtained with sintered porous metal-coated brackets. Further development is proceeding.

  9. Double-Base Binder Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The general objective of this program is to improve the mechanical properties of composite modified double base ( CMDB ) propellants, with particular emphasis upon those prepared by the slurry cast process.

  10. Surface stress-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengbo; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Pengwei; Hu, Jie; Li, Gang

    2014-01-15

    Surface stress-based biosensors, as one kind of label-free biosensors, have attracted lots of attention in the process of information gathering and measurement for the biological, chemical and medical application with the development of technology and society. This kind of biosensors offers many advantages such as short response time (less than milliseconds) and a typical sensitivity at nanogram, picoliter, femtojoule and attomolar level. Furthermore, it simplifies sample preparation and testing procedures. In this work, progress made towards the use of surface stress-based biosensors for achieving better performance is critically reviewed, including our recent achievement, the optimally circular membrane-based biosensors and biosensor array. The further scientific and technological challenges in this field are also summarized. Critical remark and future steps towards the ultimate surface stress-based biosensors are addressed.

  11. Probing Microcomputer-Based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tom

    1985-01-01

    Microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs) refer to a laboratory where a microcomputer gathers and displays data directly from the environment. Program listings for a response timer (using game paddles) to illustrate the nature of MBLs are presented. (JN)

  12. Pitch based foam with particulate

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  13. Classifying Chondrules Based on Cathodoluminesence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristarela, T. C.; Sears, D. W.

    2011-03-01

    Sears et al. (1991) proposed a scheme to classify chondrules based on cathodoluminesence color and electron microprobe analysis. This research evaluates that scheme and criticisms received from Grossman and Brearley (2005).

  14. Chip-based droplet sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  15. Contingency Base Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    CB-EMS is the latest implementation of DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance), which was previously patented by PNNL. CB-EMS WAS specifically designed for contingency bases for the US Army. It is a software package that is designed to monitor energy consumption at an Army contingency base to alert the camp manager when the systems are wasting energy. It's main feature that separates it from DSOM is it's ability to add systems using a plug and play menu system.

  16. Voltage Identify Based Encryption (VIBE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Invented by Dr. Dan Boneh and Dr. Matt Franklin in 2001, Identity-Based...20 Introduction Invented by Dr. Dan Boneh and Dr. Matt Franklin in 2001, Identity-Based Encryption or IBE, is a breakthrough in...the effectiveness of the technology developed to implement the Boneh -Franklin IBE. This contract provided for the necessary hardware and software

  17. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients. PMID:28096722

  18. Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-16

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal January 16, 2014 Approved for public release...17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Proanthocyanidin-based Endotoxin Removal Brandy J. White, James B. Delehanty, Baochuan Lin, and George P. Anderson Naval...Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 20 Brandy J. White (202) 404-6100 The application of proanthocyanidins (PACs) to the capture and removal of

  19. Knowledge-Based Image Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    UNCLASSIF1 ED ETL-025s N IIp ETL-0258 AL Ai01319 S"Knowledge-based image analysis u George C. Stockman Barbara A. Lambird I David Lavine Laveen N. Kanal...extraction, verification, region classification, pattern recognition, image analysis . 3 20. A. CT (Continue on rever.. d. It necessary and Identify by...UNCLgSTFTF n In f SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Date Entered) .L1 - I Table of Contents Knowledge Based Image Analysis I Preface

  20. Osmium-Based Pyrimidine Contrast Tags for Enhanced Nanopore-Based DNA Base Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Henley, Robert Y; Vazquez-Pagan, Ana G; Johnson, Michael; Kanavarioti, Anastassia; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-01-01

    Nanopores are a promising platform in next generation DNA sequencing. In this platform, an individual DNA strand is threaded into nanopore using an electric field, and enzyme-based ratcheting is used to move the strand through the detector. During this process the residual ion current through the pore is measured, which exhibits unique levels for different base combinations inside the pore. While this approach has shown great promise, accuracy is not optimal because the four bases are chemically comparable to one another, leading to small differences in current obstruction. Nucleobase-specific chemical tagging can be a viable approach to enhancing the contrast between different bases in the sequence. Herein we show that covalent modification of one or both of the pyrimidine bases by an osmium bipyridine complex leads to measureable differences in the blockade amplitudes of DNA molecules. We qualitatively determine the degree of osmylation of a DNA strand by passing it through a solid-state nanopore, and are thus able to gauge T and C base content. In addition, we show that osmium bipyridine reacts with dsDNA, leading to substantially different current blockade levels than exhibited for bare dsDNA. This work serves as a proof of principle for nanopore sequencing and mapping via base-specific DNA osmylation.