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Sample records for pcr-based plasmid typing

  1. PCR-based typing of IncC plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    IncC (A/C2) plasmids are known to play an important role in the spread of multiple antibiotic resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenamases, amongst Gram negative bacterial populations. The ability to identify and track these plasmids is valuable in epidemiological and clinical studies. A recent comparative analysis of the backbones of sequenced IncC plasmids identified two distinct lineages, type 1 and type 2, with different evolutionary histories. Here, a simple PCR method to rapidly assign plasmids to one of these lineages by detecting variable regions in the backbone was developed. This PCR scheme uses two primer pairs to assign the plasmid to a lineage, and an additional two PCRs can be used to detect the i1 and i2 insertions, which are only found in type 2. PCRs were also developed to detect the presence or absence of the sul2-containing ARI-B island, which is found in some plasmids belonging to both type 1 and type 2, and the ARI-A island found in most type 1 plasmids. The PCR strategy was validated using sequenced type 1 plasmids pRMH760 and pDGO100, and the type 2 plasmid pSRC119-A/C, and a collection of non-IncC plasmids in Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Klebsiella pneumoniae backgrounds. An IncC plasmid detected in an antibiotic susceptible commensal E. coli isolate was examined and found to be a type 1, lacking any antibiotic resistance islands and missing a large backbone segment. Examination of pIP40a, an IncC plasmid isolated in Paris in 1969, by PCR revealed that it belongs to type 1 but lacks ARI-A. However, it includes both ends of the integrative element GIsul2, whereas only remnants of one end of this element are found in more recently isolated IncC plasmids. The sequence of pIP40a was determined and confirmed the assignment to type 1 and revealed the presence of a complete copy of GIsul2.

  2. Optimization of a quantitative PCR based method for plasmid copy number determination in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fliedl, Lukas; Kast, Florian; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2015-12-25

    Transient gene expression (TGE) is an essential tool for the production of recombinant proteins, especially in early drug discovery and development phases of biopharmaceuticals. The need for fast production of sufficient recombinant protein for initial tests has dramatically increased with increase in the identification of potential novel pharmaceutical targets. One of the critical factors for transient transfection is plasmid copy number (PCN), for which we here provide an optimized qPCR based protocol. Thereby, we show the loss of PCN during a typical batch process of HEK293 cells after transfection from 606,000 to 4560 copies per cell within 5 days. Finally two novel human kidney cell lines, RS and RPTEC/TERT1 were compared to HEK293 and proved competitive in terms of PCN and specific productivity. In conclusion, since trafficking and degradation of plasmid DNA is not fully understood yet, improved methods for analysis of PCN may contribute to design specific and more stable plasmids for high yield transient gene expression systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PCR-based polymorphisms in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NFI)

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, P.S.; Chee, S.; Low, P.S.

    1994-09-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common genetic disorders in humans with an incidence of 1 in 3,000. The NF1 gene is located on chromosome 17q 11.2 and encodes an ubiquitously expressed transcript of about 13kb. Direct mutation detection is difficult in this disorder due to the large gene size, high mutation rate and variety of mutations. We have studied the allele frequencies of seven PCR-based polymorphisms. Six of the probes used flank the NF1 gene, namely p11.3C4.2/Msp I (proximal), pEW206/Msp I (distal), p2.f9.8/Rsa I (distal), pEW207/Bgl II (distal), pEW207/Hind III (distal) and pHHH202/Rsa I (proximal). An intragenic RFLP, pEvi 2B-B/Eco R1 polymorphism in intron 27, was also analyzed by PCR. Allele frequencies for 48 normal unrelated individuals were obtained as follows: A1 = 0.40, A2 = 0.6 (p11.3C4.2/Msp I), A1 = 0.44, A2 = 0.56 (pEW206/Msp I), A1 = 0.17, A2 = 0.83 (p2.F9.8/Rsa I), A1 = 0.64, A2 = 0.36 (pEW207/Bgl I), A1 = 0.45, A2 = 0.55 (pEvi 2B-B/Eco RI). Heterozygosity rates of the alleles ranged from 20.8% to 51.7%. Using a combination of these markers, seven local families with NF1 were studied. Normal Mendelian segregation of alleles was observed in these families and no recombination was detected so far. These PCR-based markers were found to be useful for linkage analysis in our families.

  4. Plasmids with E2 epitope tags: tagging modules for N- and C-terminal PCR-based gene targeting in both budding and fission yeast, and inducible expression vectors for fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Tiina

    2009-01-01

    A single-step PCR-based epitope tagging enables fast and efficient gene targeting with various epitope tags. This report presents a series of plasmids for the E2 epitope tagging of proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. E2Tags are 10-amino acids (epitope E2a: SSTSSDFRDR)- and 12 amino acids (epitope E2b: GVSSTSSDFRDR)-long peptides derived from the E2 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1. The modules for C-terminal tagging with E2a and E2b epitopes were constructed by the modification of the pYM-series plasmid. The N-terminal E2a and E2b tagging modules were based on pOM-series plasmid. The pOM-series plasmids were selected for this study because of their use of the Cre-loxP recombination system. The latter enables a marker cassette to be removed after integration into the loci of interest and, thereafter, the tagged protein is expressed under its endogenous promoter. Specifically for fission yeast, high copy pREP plasmids containing the E2a epitope tag as an N-terminal or C-terminal tag were constructed. The properties of E2a and E2b epitopes and the sensitivity of two anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies (5E11 and 3F12) were tested using several S. cerevisiae and Sz. pombe E2-tagged strains.

  5. Fluorescent detection of Southern blots and PCR-based genetic typing tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, E.S.; Worley, J.M.; Zimmerman, P.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Southern blot is used to study gene organization, to identify disease-causing genomic rearrangements, or for typing RFLP markers in forensic, paternity, or prenatal diagnostic testing. Fluorescence offers a much greater dynamic range and a more linear response than film used in radioactive or chemiluminescent detection of RFLPs. We therefore investigated using the Fluorimager{trademark} 575 (Molecular Dynamics, Inc.) for analyzing Southern blots. Using a single-locus probe to D2S44 (YNH24) (Promega Corp.), we detect as little as 100 ng (0.05 attomole) genomic DNA. The alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe is detected using AttoPhos (JBL Scientific), and the developed membrane is scanned with the Fluorimager. Biotinylated hybridization probes can also be developed using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and AttoPhos. The instrument scan parameters can be adjusted to prevent overexposure and accompanying loss of resolution in images of blots, gels, or 96-well microplates. We have used these other sample formats in PCR-based genetic typing assays. We use FluorKit DQS (Molecular Dynamics) to accurately quantify PCR template DNA (1-500 ng) in 96-well microplates scanned using the same instrument. Mutation detection assays run include heteroduplex gels (5% polyacrylamide, 2.7 M urea), short tandem repeat (STR) markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AmpFLP), competitive priming PCR, and allele-specific oligotyping. These assays are run using either 1- or 2-color labeling. We detect unlabeled PCR products, such as the AmpFLP marker D1S80 (Perkin-Elmer) by post-staining gels for 10 minutes with SYBR Green 1 (Molecular Probes) and scanning the wet gel. The Fluorimager scans a 20 x 25 cm sample within three minutes, allowing rapid optimization of fluorescent protocols and high sample throughput.

  6. Complete sequences of a novel blaNDM-1-harbouring plasmid from Providencia rettgeri and an FII-type plasmid from Klebsiella pneumoniae identified in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mataseje, L F; Boyd, D A; Lefebvre, B; Bryce, E; Embree, J; Gravel, D; Katz, K; Kibsey, P; Kuhn, M; Langley, J; Mitchell, R; Roscoe, D; Simor, A; Taylor, G; Thomas, E; Turgeon, N; Mulvey, M R

    2014-03-01

    Emergence of plasmids harbouring bla(NDM-1) is a major public health concern due to their association with multidrug resistance and their potential mobility. PCR was used to detect bla(NDM-1) from clinical isolates of Providencia rettgeri (PR) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using Vitek 2. The complete DNA sequence of two bla(NDM-1) plasmids (pPrY2001 and pKp11-42) was obtained using a 454-Genome Sequencer FLX. Contig assembly and gap closures were confirmed by PCR-based sequencing. Comparative analysis was done using BLASTn and BLASTp algorithms. Both clinical isolates were resistant to all β-lactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and susceptible to tigecycline. Plasmid pPrY2001 (113 295 bp) was isolated from PR. It did not show significant homology to any known plasmid backbone and contained a truncated repA and novel repB. Two bla(NDM-1)-harbouring plasmids from Acinetobacter lwoffii (JQ001791 and JQ060896) shared 100% similarity to a 15 kb region that contained bla(NDM-1). pPrY2001 also contained a type II toxin/antitoxin system. pKp11-42 (146 695 bp) was isolated from KP. It contained multiple repA genes. The plasmid backbone had the highest homology to the IncFIIk plasmid type (51% coverage, 100% nucleotide identity). The bla(NDM-1) region was unique in that it was flanked upstream by IS3000 and downstream by a novel transposon designated Tn6229. pKp11-42 also contained a number of mutagenesis and plasmid stability proteins. pPrY2001 differed from all known plasmids due to its novel backbone and repB. pKp11-42 was similar to IncFIIk plasmids and contained a number of genes that aid in plasmid persistence.

  7. Virulence plasmid diversity in Clostridium perfringens type D isolates.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sameera; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2007-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D isolates are important in biodefense and also cause natural enterotoxemias in sheep, goats, and occasionally cattle. In these isolates, the gene (etx) encoding epsilon-toxin is thought to reside on poorly characterized large plasmids. Type D isolates sometimes also produce other potentially plasmid-encoded toxins, including C. perfringens enterotoxin and beta2 toxin, encoded by the cpe and cbp2 genes, respectively. In the current study we demonstrated that the etx, cpe, and cpb2 genes are carried on plasmids in type D isolates and characterized the toxin-encoding plasmids to obtain insight into their genetic organization, potential transferability, and diversity. Southern blotting of pulsed-field gels showed that the etx gene of type D isolates can be present on at least five different plasmids, whose sizes range from 48 to 110 kb. The etx plasmids also typically carried IS1151 and tcp open reading frames (ORFs) known to mediate conjugative transfer of C. perfringens plasmid pCW3. PCR studies revealed that other than their tcp ORFs, etx plasmids of type D isolates do not carry substantial portions of the conserved or variable regions in the cpe plasmids of type A isolates. Southern blotting also demonstrated that in type D isolates the cpe and cpb2 genes are sometimes present on the etx plasmid. Collectively, these findings confirmed that the virulence of type D isolates is heavily plasmid dependent and indicated that (i) a single type D isolate can carry multiple virulence plasmids, (ii) a single type D virulence plasmid can carry up to three different toxin genes, and (iii) many etx plasmids should be capable of conjugative transfer.

  8. Identical plasmid AmpC beta-lactamase genes and plasmid types in E. coli isolates from patients and poultry meat in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Voets, Guido M; Fluit, Ad C; Scharringa, Jelle; Schapendonk, Claudia; van den Munckhof, Thijs; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Stuart, James Cohen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide problem. Recent studies showed that poultry meat and humans share identical Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase genes, plasmid types, and Escherichia coli strain types, suggesting that transmission from poultry meat to humans may occur. The aim of this study was to compare plasmid-encoded Ambler class C beta-lactamase (pAmpC) genes, their plasmids, and bacterial strain types between E. coli isolates from retail chicken meat and clinical isolates in the Netherlands. In total, 98 Dutch retail chicken meat samples and 479 third-generation cephalosporin non-susceptible human clinical E. coli isolates from the same period were screened for pAmpC production. Plasmid typing was performed using PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). E coli strains were compared using Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST). In 12 of 98 chicken meat samples (12%), pAmpC producing E. coli were detected (all blaCMY-2). Of the 479 human E. coli, 25 (5.2%) harboured pAmpC genes (blaCMY-2 n = 22, blaACT n = 2, blaMIR n = 1). PBRT showed that 91% of poultry meat isolates harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 9% on an IncI1 plasmid. Of the human blaCMY-2 producing isolates, 42% also harboured blaCMY-2 on an IncK plasmid, and 47% on an IncI1 plasmid. Thus, 68% of human pAmpC producing E. coli have the same AmpC gene (blaCMY-2) and plasmid type (IncI1 or IncK) as found in poultry meat. MLST showed one cluster containing one human isolate and three meat isolates, with an IncK plasmid. These findings imply that a foodborne transmission route of blaCMY-2 harbouring plasmids cannot be excluded and that further evaluation is required.

  9. PCR-based DNA typing of saliva on stamps and envelopes.

    PubMed

    Allen, M; Saldeen, T; Gyllensten, U

    1994-09-01

    In forensic cases involving mail bombs, extortion, kidnapping or threatening letters, biological evidence such as the saliva used to attach the stamp and seal the envelope could be used for genetic analysis. We have developed a highly sensitive semi-nested PCR method for the HLA-DRB1 locus; suitable for the analyses of very limited amounts of DNA. When applied to a set of stamps and envelopes with saliva from control individuals, typing results were consistent with those obtained using hairs drawn from the same individuals. No interference was found due to DNA from the fingerprints of people handling the letters. The system was applied to three forensic cases with threatening letters. The first case resulted in an exclusion of the suspect. In the second case, the suspect could not be excluded (probability of identical genotype by chance > 0.01). These results demonstrate that biological evidence in cases with threatening letters is amenable to genetic typing.

  10. A PCR-based genotyping method to distinguish between wild-type and ornamental varieties of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Cseke, Leland J; Talley, Sharon M

    2012-02-20

    viable wind-dispersed seeds that spread cogongrass over wide distances(5-7). JBG has a slightly different genotype than cogongrass and may be able to form viable hybrids with cogongrass. To add to the problem, JBG is more cold and shade tolerant than cogongrass(8-10), and gene flow between these two varieties is likely to generate hybrids that are more aggressive, shade tolerant, and cold hardy than wild-type cogongrass. While wild-type cogongrass currently infests over 490 million hectares worldwide, in the Southeast U.S. it infests over 500,000 hectares and is capable of occupying most of the U.S. as it rapidly spreads northward due to its broad niche and geographic potential(3,7,11). The potential of a genetic crossing is a serious concern for the USDA-APHIS Federal Noxious Week Program. Currently, the USDA-APHIS prohibits JBG in states where there are major cogongrass infestations (e.g., Florida, Alabama, Mississippi). However, preventing the two varieties from combining can prove more difficult as cogongrass and JBG expand their distributions. Furthermore, the distribution of the JBG revert is currently unknown and without the ability to identify these varieties through morphology, some cogongrass infestations may be the result of JBG reverts. Unfortunately, current molecular methods of identification typically rely on AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms) and DNA sequencing, both of which are time consuming and costly. Here, we present the first cost-effective and reliable PCR-based molecular genotyping method to accurately distinguish between cogongrass and JBG revert.

  11. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Steven J; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies.

  12. Identification of IncA/C Plasmid Replication and Maintenance Genes and Development of a Plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Kate M.; Forde, Brian M.; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Paterson, David L.; Walsh, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM. Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053. Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies. PMID:27872077

  13. Clostridium perfringens type A-E toxin plasmids.

    PubMed

    Freedman, John C; Theoret, James R; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell.

  14. Clostridium perfringens type A–E toxin plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, John C.; Theoret, James R.; Wisniewski, Jessica A.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.; McClane, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens relies upon plasmid-encoded toxin genes to cause intestinal infections. These toxin genes are associated with insertion sequences that may facilitate their mobilization and transfer, giving rise to new toxin plasmids with common backbones. Most toxin plasmids carry a transfer of clostridial plasmids locus mediating conjugation, which likely explains the presence of similar toxin plasmids in otherwise unrelated C. perfringens strains. The association of many toxin genes with insertion sequences and conjugative plasmids provides virulence flexibility when causing intestinal infections. However, incompatibility issues apparently limit the number of toxin plasmids maintained by a single cell. PMID:25283728

  15. Production of toxin by Clostridium botulinum type A strains cured by plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Weickert, M J; Chambliss, G H; Sugiyama, H

    1986-01-01

    Twelve strains of Clostridium botulinum type A and seven strains of Clostridium sporogenes were screened for plasmids by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleared lysates of cells from 5 ml of mid-log-phase culture. Nine type A strains had one or more plasmids of 4.3, 6.8, or 36 megadaltons (MDa); several strains showed a large plasmid of 61 MDa, but it was not consistently recovered. Four C. sporogenes strains had one or more plasmids of 4.3, 5.6 or 36 MDa. Isolates obtained from cultures of plasmid-containing C. botulinum type A strains grown in ionic detergent broth and from spontaneously arising variants were screened both for toxin production and for plasmid content. Toxigenicity of C. botulinum could not be correlated with the presence of any one plasmid. Images PMID:3082278

  16. Conjugative transferability of the A/C plasmids from Salmonella enterica isolates that possess or lack blaCMY in the A/C plasmid backbone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the conjugative transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids from 205 Salmonella enterica strains, isolated from cattle to E. coli or Salmonella recipients. PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) was used to type incompatibility plasmid r...

  17. Characterization of virulence plasmid diversity among Clostridium perfringens type B isolates.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sameera; Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    The important veterinary pathogen Clostridium perfringens type B is unique for producing the two most lethal C. perfringens toxins, i.e., epsilon-toxin and beta-toxin. Our recent study (K. Miyamoto, J. Li, S. Sayeed, S. Akimoto, and B. A. McClane, J. Bacteriol. 190:7178-7188, 2008) showed that most, if not all, type B isolates carry a 65-kb epsilon-toxin-encoding plasmid. However, this epsilon-toxin plasmid did not possess the cpb gene encoding beta-toxin, suggesting that type B isolates carry at least one additional virulence plasmid. Therefore, the current study used Southern blotting of pulsed-field gels to localize the cpb gene to approximately 90-kb plasmids in most type B isolates, although a few isolates carried a approximately 65-kb cpb plasmid distinct from their etx plasmid. Overlapping PCR analysis then showed that the gene encoding the recently discovered TpeL toxin is located approximately 3 kb downstream of the plasmid-borne cpb gene. As shown earlier for their epsilon-toxin-encoding plasmids, the beta-toxin-encoding plasmids of type B isolates were found to carry a tcp locus, suggesting that they are conjugative. Additionally, IS1151-like sequences were identified upstream of the cpb gene in type B isolates. These IS1151-like sequences may mobilize the cpb gene based upon detection of possible cpb-containing circular transposition intermediates. Most type B isolates also possessed a third virulence plasmid that carries genes encoding urease and lambda-toxin. Collectively, these findings suggest that type B isolates are among the most plasmid dependent of all C. perfringens isolates for virulence, as they usually carry three potential virulence plasmids.

  18. Evaluation of a co-extraction method for real-time PCR-based body fluid identification and DNA typing.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Iwashima, Yasuki; Akutsu, Tomoko; Sekiguchi, Kazumasa; Sakurada, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Body fluid identification and individual identification are an important series of tests in usual criminal investigations. Recent reports have demonstrated a new approach using DNA/RNA co-extraction methods in which RNA for body fluid identification and DNA for short tandem repeat (STR) typing are extracted simultaneously from the same sample. This study evaluated a standard co-extraction kit, the AllPrep® DNA/RNA Mini Kit, in order to demonstrate the availability of the co-extraction procedure for those real-time polymerase chain reaction-based body fluid identification methods that we have validated previously. We demonstrated that the use of the Allprep Kit, for which we adjusted the lysis temperature to 56°C to improve extraction efficiency, can simultaneously extract sufficient RNA and DNA for body fluid identification and STR analysis; however, a longer incubation at a high temperature slightly affected the ΔCt value of each target gene and appeared to be not as effective for DNA extraction from old stains as from 1-day-old stains. This method is promising for future forensic investigations because the use of this kit can reduce sample consumption for body fluid identification and DNA typing.

  19. PCR-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha typing of blood stained light and dark blue denim fabric.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, S A; Marino, M A; Belgrader, P

    1996-05-01

    Obtaining typable PCR products from DNA purified from blood stained blue denim has been difficult since inhibitors of PCR in blue denim apparently co-purify with the DNA. Organic and chelex extraction methods were tested for their ability to purify typable DNA from either light or dark blue denim fabric both stained with blood. DNA purified from the light blue denim using either method was successfully used in obtaining correct HLA-DQ alpha typing results. The chelex, but not the organic, procedure was able to yield typable DNA when the dark blue denim was the substrate. Therefore, the chelex method may be more effective than the organic method in preventing compounds that inhibit PCR from co-purifying with the DNA.

  20. Separate F-Type Plasmids Have Shaped the Evolution of the H30 Subclone of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131

    PubMed Central

    Danzeisen, Jessica L.; Youmans, Bonnie; Case, Kyle; Llop, Katharine; Munoz-Aguayo, Jeannette; Flores-Figueroa, Cristian; Aziz, Maliha; Sokurenko, Evgeni; Price, Lance B.; Johnson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with the H30R/C1 clade, whereas an F2:A1:B− plasmid is associated with the H30Rx/C2 clade. A series of plasmid gene losses, gains, and rearrangements involving IS26 likely led to the current plasmid complements within each ST131-H30 sublineage, which contain several overlapping gene clusters with putative functions in virulence and fitness, suggesting plasmid-mediated convergent evolution. Evidence suggests that the H30Rx/C2-associated F2:A1:B− plasmid type was present in strains ancestral to the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance and prior to the introduction of a multidrug resistance-encoding gene cassette harboring blaCTX-M-15. In vitro experiments indicated a host strain-independent low frequency of plasmid transfer, differential levels of plasmid stability even between closely related ST131-H30 strains, and possible epistasis for carriage of these plasmids within the H30R/Rx lineages. IMPORTANCE A clonal lineage of Escherichia coli known as ST131 has emerged as a dominating strain type causing extraintestinal infections in humans. The evolutionary history of ST131 E. coli is now well understood. However, the role of plasmids in ST131’s evolutionary history is poorly defined. This study utilized real-time, single-molecule sequencing to compare plasmids from various current and historical

  1. Influence of Plasmid Type on the Replication of Rhodococcus equi in Host Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Willingham-Lane, Jennifer M.; Berghaus, Londa J.; Giguère, Steeve

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes. Possession of the pVAPA-type virulence plasmid by equine isolates bestows the capacity for intramacrophage replication essential for disease development in vivo. Swine isolates of R. equi are largely unstudied. Here, we show that R. equi isolates from pigs, carrying pVAPB-type plasmids, are able to replicate in a plasmid-dependent manner in macrophages obtained from a variety of species (murine, swine, and equine) and anatomical locations. Similarly, equine isolates carrying pVAPA-type plasmids are capable of replication in swine macrophages. Plasmid swapping between equine and swine strains through conjugation did not alter the intracellular replication capacity of the parental strain, indicating that coevolution of the plasmid and chromosome is not crucial for this attribute. These results demonstrate that while distinct plasmid types exist among R. equi isolates obtained from equine and swine sources, this tropism is not determined by host species-specific intramacrophage replication capabilities. IMPORTANCE This work greatly advances our understanding of the opportunistic pathogen Rhodococcus equi, a disease agent of animals and immunocompromised people. Clinical isolates from diseased foals carry a

  2. Influence of Plasmid Type on the Replication of Rhodococcus equi in Host Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Willingham-Lane, Jennifer M; Berghaus, Londa J; Giguère, Steeve; Hondalus, Mary K

    2016-01-01

    The soil-dwelling, saprophytic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is a multihost, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages. When inhaled by susceptible foals, it causes severe bronchopneumonia. It is also a pathogen of pigs, which may develop submaxillary lymphadenitis upon exposure. R. equi isolates obtained from foals and pigs possess conjugative plasmids housing a pathogenicity island (PAI) containing a novel family of genes of unknown function called the virulence-associated protein or vap family. The PAI regions of the equine and swine plasmids differ in vap gene composition, with equine isolates possessing six vap genes, including the major virulence determinant vapA, while the PAIs of swine isolates house vapB and five other unique vap genes. Possession of the pVAPA-type virulence plasmid by equine isolates bestows the capacity for intramacrophage replication essential for disease development in vivo. Swine isolates of R. equi are largely unstudied. Here, we show that R. equi isolates from pigs, carrying pVAPB-type plasmids, are able to replicate in a plasmid-dependent manner in macrophages obtained from a variety of species (murine, swine, and equine) and anatomical locations. Similarly, equine isolates carrying pVAPA-type plasmids are capable of replication in swine macrophages. Plasmid swapping between equine and swine strains through conjugation did not alter the intracellular replication capacity of the parental strain, indicating that coevolution of the plasmid and chromosome is not crucial for this attribute. These results demonstrate that while distinct plasmid types exist among R. equi isolates obtained from equine and swine sources, this tropism is not determined by host species-specific intramacrophage replication capabilities. IMPORTANCE This work greatly advances our understanding of the opportunistic pathogen Rhodococcus equi, a disease agent of animals and immunocompromised people. Clinical isolates from diseased foals carry a

  3. Replicon Typing of Plasmids Encoding Resistance to Newer β-Lactams

    PubMed Central

    Miriagou, Vivi; Bertini, Alessia; Loli, Alexandra; Colinon, Celine; Villa, Laura; Whichard, Jean M.; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction–based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems. PMID:16836838

  4. Replicon typing of plasmids encoding resistance to newer beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Miriagou, Vivi; Bertini, Alessia; Loli, Alexandra; Colinon, Celine; Villa, Laura; Whichard, Jean M; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction-based replicon typing represents a novel method to describe the dissemination and follow the evolution of resistance plasmids. We used this approach to study 26 epidemiologically unrelated Enterobacteriaceae and demonstrate the dominance of incompatibility (Inc) A/C or Inc N-related plasmids carrying some emerging resistance determinants to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems.

  5. Characterization and application of a rolling-circle-type plasmid from Cupriavidus taiwanensis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lin, Guang-Huey

    2007-05-01

    Two small cryptic plasmids, pTJ86-1 and pTJ86-2, identified in Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain TJ86, were detected and characterized. Complete sequencing of pTJ86-1 and pTJ86-2 revealed these plasmids to be 2221 and 2229bp in length with a GC content of 61.7% and 61.6%, respectively. Both plasmids harbored four open reading frames (ORF1, 2, 3 and 4). Only the predicted ORF1 gene product of both plasmids (436 amino acids) was homologous to Rep proteins previously identified on plasmids replicated using a rolling-circle replication (RCR). A double-stranded origin (DSO) of replication, highly conserved in the group III (cluster III) RCR plasmids, was identified and located immediately upstream of this putative Rep gene. In addition, both plasmids contained a putative single-stranded origin of replication (SSO) exhibiting similarity to the ssoA-type. Detection of single-stranded plasmid DNA by Southern analysis and S1 nuclease digestion confirmed that the cryptic plasmid replicated via an RCR mechanism. A potential shuttle vector, pS4-tet(R), was constructed by ligation of pTJ86-1 to the cloning vector pBluescript II SK(+) along with the insertion of a tetracycline-resistance (tet(R)) gene. It was successfully used for the transformation of genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus.

  6. A genetic study of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in south-western Ontario. II. A PCR based approach to molecular and prenatal diagnosis using linkage.

    PubMed Central

    Rodenhiser, D I; Ainsworth, P J; Coulter-Mackie, M B; Singh, S M; Jung, J H

    1993-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common, autosomal dominant genetic disorder with a variety of highly variable symptoms including cutaneous manifestations (such as café au lait spots), Lisch nodules, plexiform neurofibromas, skeletal abnormalities, an increased risk for malignancy, and the development of learning disabilities. The wide clinical variability of expression of the disease phenotype and high (spontaneous) mutation rate of the NF1 gene indicate that careful clinical examination of patients and family members is necessary to provide an accurate diagnosis of the disease. Since very few NF1 mutations have been identified, and with the apparent lack of a predominant mutation in this large, highly mutable gene, molecular diagnosis of NF1 will continue to be based on haplotypes using linkage analysis. Here we report our experiences while providing a molecular diagnostic service for NF1 in the ethnically diverse region of south-western Ontario. Molecular diagnoses with at least one informative probe/enzyme combination are reported for 19 families including two families requesting prenatal diagnosis for NF1. We have augmented the classical Southern based approach to linkage analysis with the use of PCR based assays for molecular linkage. Furthermore, criteria have been established in our laboratory for executing molecular linkage based on heterozygosity values, recombination fractions, and the use of intragenic probes/markers. Images PMID:8320697

  7. Prevalence of mip virulence gene and PCR-base sequence typing of Legionella pneumophila from cooling water systems of two cities in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadrajabi, Roya; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza; Iranmanesh, Zahra; Mollaei, Hamid Reza; Sobhanipoor, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila is the primary respiratory pathogen and mostly transmitted to human through water cooling systems and cause mild to severe pneumonia with high mortality rate especially in elderly both in hospitals and community. However, current Legionella risk assessments may be compromised by uncertainties in Legionella detection methods. Here, we investigated the presence of L. pneumophila mip gene in water samples collected from different hospitals cooling towers, nursing homes and building/hotels water coolants from two geographical locations of Iran (Kerman and Bam cities) during summer season of 2015 by both nested and real-time PCR methods. Analysis of the 128 water samples for presence of the mip gene by nested-PCR revealed, 18 (23%) positive cases in Kerman and 7(14%) in Bam. However, when samples were tested by real-time PCR, we identified 4 more new cases of L. pneumophila in the hospitals as well as nursing homes water systems that were missed by nested-PCR. The highest rate of contamination was detected in water obtained from hospitals cooling towers in both the cities (p≤0.05). Dendrogram analysis and clonal relationship by PCR-base sequence typing (SBT) of the L. pneumophila genomic DNAs in Kerman water samples showed close clonal similarities among the isolates, in contrast, isolates identified from Bam city demonstrated two fingerprint patterns. The clones from hospital water samples were more related to the L. pneumophila serogroup- 1. PMID:27028760

  8. PCR-Based Restriction Pattern Typing of the vacA Gene Provides Evidence for a Homogeneous Group among Helicobacter pylori Strains Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Manuela; Storni, Elisa; D’Apote, Lucia; Moreno, Sandra; Tucci, Antonio; Poli, Loris; Cevenini, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The results of PCR-based molecular typing of Helicobacter pylori strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of a 1,161-bp nucleotide sequence of the midregion of the vacA gene are reported. A total of 48 H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 18 patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, 15 patients with nonulcer dyspepsia, and 15 asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects were studied. Highly heterogeneous restriction patterns were obtained by digestion of PCR products with SauII, BglII, and HhaI, whereas HaeIII digestion resulted in a strictly homogeneous profile for H. pylori strains isolated from 14 of 18 (77.7%) patients with peptic ulcer dyspepsia, but a strictly homogeneous profile was found for strains from only 8 of 15 (53.3%) patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (P = 0.163) and 5 of 15 (33.3%) asymptomatic H. pylori-infected subjects (P = 0.014). A potentially important aspect of the results obtained is the clinical relevance, since a single restriction pattern seems to be able to identify the majority of H. pylori strains associated with peptic ulcer disease. PMID:10074500

  9. Analysis of plasmid diversity in 96 Rhodococcus equi strains isolated in Normandy (France) and sequencing of the 87-kb type I virulence plasmid.

    PubMed

    Duquesne, Fabien; Hébert, Laurent; Sévin, Corinne; Breuil, Marie-France; Tapprest, Jackie; Laugier, Claire; Petry, Sandrine

    2010-10-01

    To characterize the potential epidemiological relationship between the origin of Rhodococcus equi strains and the type of their virulence plasmids, we performed a comparative analysis of virulence plasmid types encountered in 96 R. equi strains isolated from (1) autopsied horses, (2) organic samples (horse faeces, manure and straw) and (3) environmental samples. Our results revealed no clear epidemiological link between virulence plasmid type and the origin of R. equi strains isolated from horse-related environments. To understand this result, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the second most frequently isolated virulence plasmid type: a 87-kb type I (pVAPA116) plasmid and compared it with the previously sequenced (and most commonly encountered) 85-kb type I (pVAPA1037) plasmid. Our results show that the divergence between these two plasmids is mainly due to the presence of three allelic exchange loci, resulting in the deletion of two genes and the insertion of three genes in pVAPA116 compared with pVAPA1037. In conclusion, it appears that the divergence between the two sequenced rhodococcal virulence plasmids is not associated with the vap pathogenicity island and may result from an evolutionary process driven by a mobility-related invertase/resolvase invA-like gene. © 2010 ANSES. Journal compilation © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Rapid species identification and epidemiological analysis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. by a PCR-based open reading frame typing method.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Endo, Kentaro; Sawase, Kaori; Anetai, Marie; Narita, Kazuya; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Ishifuji, Katsunori; Kurota, Makiko; Suwabe, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has become a global problem. In this study, 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complexes, identified using a conventional biochemical method at our hospital during 2004-2013, were studied for species identification and epidemiological analyses. Species identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, a partial sequence analysis of rpoB and a PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method. The POT method can not only identify the species of ACB complexes but also simultaneously determine the international epidemic clones and the genetic identities of Acinetobacterbaumannii in several hours. Carbapenem resistance gene detection by PCR, molecular epidemiological analysis by PFGE and Pasteur Institute multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis were performed. All three methods identified 18 isolates as A. baumannii (n=10), Acinetobacterpittii (n=4) and Acinetobacternosocomialis (n=4). A metallo-β-lactamase gene in all strains of A. pittii and A. nosocomialis and an ISAba1 gene in the upstream of the blaOXA-51-like gene in eight strains of A. baumannii were detected, respectively, as carbapenemase-related genes. Results from PFGE demonstrated that nine strains of A. baumannii were closely related genetically. Results of MLST analysis showed that A. baumannii are classifiable to sequence type 2. These results were consistent with those obtained using the POT method. This POT method can easily and rapidly identify the international epidemic clones and the identities of A. baumannii. It can be a useful tool for infection control.

  11. Rapid and Accurate Determination of Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Types in Klebsiella pneumoniae with a Novel PCR-Based O-Genotyping Method

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yun-Jui; Cheong, Cheng-Man; Yi, Wen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacillus that causes life-threatening infections in both hospitalized patients and ambulatory persons, can be classified into nine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen serotypes. The O-antigen type has important clinical and epidemiological significance. However, K. pneumoniae O serotyping is cumbersome, and the reagents are not commercially available. To overcome the limitations of conventional serotyping methods, we aimed to create a rapid and accurate PCR method for K. pneumoniae O genotyping. We sequenced the genetic determinants of LPS O antigen from serotypes O1, O2a, O2ac, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. We established a two-step genotyping scheme, based on the two genomic regions associated with O-antigen biosynthesis. The first set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wzm-wzt loci of the wb gene cluster, distinguishes between O1/O2, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. The second set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wbbY region, further differentiates between O1, O2a, and O2ac. We verified the specificity of O genotyping against the O-serotype reference strains. We then tested the sensitivity and specificity of O genotyping in K. pneumoniae, using the 56 K-serotype reference strains with known O serotypes determined by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). There is a very good correlation between the O genotypes and classical O serotypes. Three discrepancies were observed and resolved by nucleotide sequencing—all in favor of O genotyping. The PCR-based O genotyping, which can be easily performed in clinical and research microbiology laboratories, is a rapid and accurate method for determining the LPS O-antigen types of K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:26719438

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid replicon typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky isolates recovered from broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Kentucky has become the predominate serotype recovered from broiler slaughter in the United States and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has increased dramatically in this serotype. Relationships between AMR, genotype, and plasmid replicon types were characterized for 600 ...

  13. Use of plasmid profile typing for surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 from humans, poultry and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Threlfall, E. J.; Hampton, M. D.; Chart, H.; Rowe, B.

    1994-01-01

    Plasmids were found in 1022 of 1089 (94%) of drug-sensitive strains of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 from humans (sporadic and outbreak cases), poultry (chickens) and eggs in England and Wales in the 5-year period 1988-92 and 25 plasmid profile patterns were identified. Strains characterized by a single plasmid of 38 MDa predominated (= plasmid profile type SE 38), comprising over 90% of isolates from humans, 70% from poultry and 92% from eggs. Eleven profile types were identified in strains from humans, 21 in strains from poultry and 3 in strains from eggs. Eight of the 11 patterns identified in human isolates were found in strains from poultry and 2 in strains from eggs. In contrast 15 patterns seen in poultry were not found in strains from humans. Four percent of strains from humans and 13% from poultry did not carry the 38 MDa plasmid but all strains from eggs were found to carry this plasmid. The second most common profile type in strains isolated between 1981 and 1988 was not identified in strains isolated from 1988-92. It is concluded that plasmid profile typing is a useful method for rapid differentiation within phage type 4 of S. enteritidis but that methods which can discriminate within the predominant profile type, SE 38, are now required. PMID:8119362

  14. Type 3 Fimbriae Encoded on Plasmids Are Expressed from a Unique Promoter without Affecting Host Motility, Facilitating an Exceptional Phenotype That Enhances Conjugal Plasmid Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Riber, Leise; Kot, Witold; Basfeld, Alrun; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transmission of genetic material to a recipient that is not the progeny of the donor, is fundamental in bacterial evolution. HGT is often mediated by mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids, which may be in conflict with the chromosomal elements of the genome because they are independent replicons that may petition their own evolutionary strategy. Here we study differences between type 3 fimbriae encoded on wild type plasmids and in chromosomes. Using known and newly characterized plasmids we show that the expression of type 3 fimbriae encoded on plasmids is systematically different, as MrkH, a c-di-GMP dependent transcriptional activator is not needed for strong expression of the fimbriae. MrkH is required for expression of type 3 fimbriae of the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosome, wherefrom the fimbriae operon (mrkABCDF) of plasmids is believed to have originated. We find that mrkABCDFs of plasmids are highly expressed via a unique promoter that differs from the original Klebsiella promoter resulting in fundamental behavioral consequences. Plasmid associated mrkABCDFs did not influence the swimming behavior of the host, that hereby acquired an exceptional phenotype being able to both actively swim (planktonic behavior) and express biofilm associated fimbriae (sessile behavior). We show that this exceptional phenotype enhances the conjugal transfer of the plasmid. PMID:27627107

  15. Ordering the mob: Insights into replicon and MOB typing schemes from analysis of a curated dataset of publicly available plasmids.

    PubMed

    Orlek, Alex; Phan, Hang; Sheppard, Anna E; Doumith, Michel; Ellington, Matthew; Peto, Tim; Crook, Derrick; Walker, A Sarah; Woodford, Neil; Anjum, Muna F; Stoesser, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Plasmid typing can provide insights into the epidemiology and transmission of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. The principal plasmid typing schemes are replicon typing and MOB typing, which utilize variation in replication loci and relaxase proteins respectively. Previous studies investigating the proportion of plasmids assigned a type by these schemes ('typeability') have yielded conflicting results; moreover, thousands of plasmid sequences have been added to NCBI in recent years, without consistent annotation to indicate which sequences represent complete plasmids. Here, a curated dataset of complete Enterobacteriaceae plasmids from NCBI was compiled, and used to assess the typeability and concordance of in silico replicon and MOB typing schemes. Concordance was assessed at hierarchical replicon type resolutions, from replicon family-level to plasmid multilocus sequence type (pMLST)-level, where available. We found that 85% and 65% of the curated plasmids could be replicon and MOB typed, respectively. Overall, plasmid size and the number of resistance genes were significant independent predictors of replicon and MOB typing success. We found some degree of non-concordance between replicon families and MOB types, which was only partly resolved when partitioning plasmids into finer-resolution groups (replicon and pMLST types). In some cases, non-concordance was attributed to ambiguous boundaries between MOBP and MOBQ types; in other cases, backbone mosaicism was considered a more plausible explanation. β-lactamase resistance genes tended not to show fidelity to a particular plasmid type, though some previously reported associations were supported. Overall, replicon and MOB typing schemes are likely to continue playing an important role in plasmid analysis, but their performance is constrained by the diverse and dynamic nature of plasmid genomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of low temperature on stability of theta-type plasmids in Carnobacterium maltaromaticum.

    PubMed

    Bohaychuk, Valerie M; van Belkum, Marco J; Stiles, Michael E; McMullen, Lynn M

    2008-03-01

    The heterologous production of useful peptides such as bacteriocins by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been studied for use in the biopreservation of foods. Recombinant plasmids can suffer drawbacks such as segregational instability affecting the production of these peptides in certain environments such as absence of selective pressure or low temperature. The link between growth temperature characteristics of parental strains and stability of theta-type plasmids at a low temperature was investigated. The growth of four parental strains at 4 degrees C and stability of five derivative theta-type plasmids transformed into Carnobacterium maltaromaticum UAL26 at 25 and 4 degrees C were determined. Two plasmids (pCD11 and pCaT) derived from psychrotrophic LAB and plasmid, pHW800, from Enterococcus faecium 226 with unknown growth temperature characteristics, had excellent stability when strains were grown at 4 degrees C. Plasmids (pTRKH2 and pUCB820) derived from LAB that did not grow at refrigeration temperatures were not stable at 4 degrees C. When a DNA fragment from pCD11 containing 22-bp repeats, a putative replication initiation site, and the gene for the RepA protein was inserted into pTRKH2, the resulting derivative plasmid was 100% stable at 4 degrees C.

  17. Evolutionary Thrift: Mycobacteria Repurpose Plasmid Diversity during Adaptation of Type VII Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Tatum D.; Weber, Alexandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacteria have a distinct secretion system, termed type VII (T7SS), which is encoded by paralogous chromosomal loci (ESX) and associated with pathogenesis, conjugation, and metal homeostasis. Evolution of paralogous gene families is of interest because duplication is an important mechanism by which novel genes evolve, but there are potential conflicts between adaptive forces that stabilize duplications and those that enable evolution of new functions. Our objective was to delineate the adaptive forces underlying diversification of T7SS. Plasmid-borne ESX were described recently, and we found evidence that the initial duplication and divergence of ESX systems occurred on plasmids and was driven by selection for advantageous mutations. Plasmid conjugation has been linked to T7SS and type IV secretion systems (T4SS) in mycobacteria, and we discovered that T7SS and T4SS genes evolved in concert on the plasmids. We hypothesize that differentiation of plasmid ESX helps to prevent conjugation among cells harboring incompatible plasmids. Plasmid ESX appear to have been repurposed following migration to the chromosome, and there is evidence of positive selection driving further differentiation of chromosomal ESX. We hypothesize that ESX loci were initially stabilized on the chromosome by mediating their own transfer. These results emphasize the diverse adaptive paths underlying evolution of novelty, which in this case involved plasmid duplications, selection for advantageous mutations in the mobile and core genomes, migration of the loci between plasmids and chromosomes, and lateral transfer among chromosomes. We discuss further implications for the choice of model organism to study ESX functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:28391322

  18. High Heterogeneity of Escherichia coli Sequence Types Harbouring ESBL/AmpC Genes on IncI1 Plasmids in the Colombian Poultry Chain

    PubMed Central

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; León, Maribel; Clavijo, Viviana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Bernal, Johan F.; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Mevius, Dik J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Hordijk, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread. Objectives To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars). Methods A total of 541 non-clinical E. coli strains from epidemiologically independent samples and randomly isolated between 2008 and 2013 within the Coipars program were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Poultry isolates resistant to cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L) were screened for ESBL/AmpC genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY and blaOXA. Plasmid and strain characterization was performed for a selection of the ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. Plasmids were purified and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells or transferred by conjugation to E. coli W3110. When applicable, PCR Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), plasmid Multi Locus Sequence Typing (pMLST), plasmid Double Locus Sequence Typing (pDLST) and/or plasmid Replicon Sequence Typing (pRST) was performed on resulting transformants and conjugants. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used for strain characterization. Results In total, 132 of 541 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and 122 were found to carry ESBL/AmpC genes. Ninety-two harboured blaCMY-2 (75%), fourteen blaSHV-12 (11%), three blaSHV-5 (2%), five blaCTX-M-2 (4%), one blaCTX-M-15 (1%), one blaCTX-M-8 (1%), four a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12 (4%) and two a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-5 (2%). A selection of 39 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates was characterized at the plasmid and strain level. ESBL/AmpC genes from 36 isolates were transferable by transformation or conjugation of which 22 were located

  19. High Heterogeneity of Escherichia coli Sequence Types Harbouring ESBL/AmpC Genes on IncI1 Plasmids in the Colombian Poultry Chain.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Luis Ricardo; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; León, Maribel; Clavijo, Viviana; Arevalo, Alejandra; Bernal, Johan F; Timmerman, Arjen J; Mevius, Dik J; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hordijk, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread. To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars). A total of 541 non-clinical E. coli strains from epidemiologically independent samples and randomly isolated between 2008 and 2013 within the Coipars program were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Poultry isolates resistant to cefotaxime (MIC ≥ 4 mg/L) were screened for ESBL/AmpC genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY and blaOXA. Plasmid and strain characterization was performed for a selection of the ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. Plasmids were purified and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells or transferred by conjugation to E. coli W3110. When applicable, PCR Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), plasmid Multi Locus Sequence Typing (pMLST), plasmid Double Locus Sequence Typing (pDLST) and/or plasmid Replicon Sequence Typing (pRST) was performed on resulting transformants and conjugants. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used for strain characterization. In total, 132 of 541 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and 122 were found to carry ESBL/AmpC genes. Ninety-two harboured blaCMY-2 (75%), fourteen blaSHV-12 (11%), three blaSHV-5 (2%), five blaCTX-M-2 (4%), one blaCTX-M-15 (1%), one blaCTX-M-8 (1%), four a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12 (4%) and two a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-5 (2%). A selection of 39 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates was characterized at the plasmid and strain level. ESBL/AmpC genes from 36 isolates were transferable by transformation or conjugation of which 22 were located on IncI1 plasmids. These IncI1

  20. Complete plasmid sequence carrying type IV-like and type VII secretion systems from an atypical mycobacteria strain

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Sergio Mascarenhas; Marín, Michel Abanto; Freitas, Fernanda S; Fonseca, Erica Lourenço; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium is highly diverse and ubiquitous in nature, comprehending fast- and slow-growing species with distinct impact in public health. The plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer represents one of the major events in bacteria evolution. Here, we report the complete sequence of a 160,489 bp circular plasmid (pCBMA213_2) from an atypical and fast-growing environmental mycobacteria. This is a unique plasmid, in comparison with the characterised mycobacteria plasmids, harboring a type IV-like and ESX-P2 type VII secretion systems. pCBMA213_2 can be further explored for evolutionary and conjugation studies as well as a tool to manipulate DNA within this bacteria genus. PMID:28591314

  1. Complete plasmid sequence carrying type IV-like and type VII secretion systems from an atypical mycobacteria strain.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Sergio Mascarenhas; Marín, Michel Abanto; Freitas, Fernanda S; Fonseca, Erica Lourenço; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo

    2017-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium is highly diverse and ubiquitous in nature, comprehending fast- and slow-growing species with distinct impact in public health. The plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer represents one of the major events in bacteria evolution. Here, we report the complete sequence of a 160,489 bp circular plasmid (pCBMA213_2) from an atypical and fast-growing environmental mycobacteria. This is a unique plasmid, in comparison with the characterised mycobacteria plasmids, harboring a type IV-like and ESX-P2 type VII secretion systems. pCBMA213_2 can be further explored for evolutionary and conjugation studies as well as a tool to manipulate DNA within this bacteria genus.

  2. Phage type and DNA plasmid profile of Salmonella typhimurium isolates in the area of Isernia, Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Fantasia, M.; Ricci, N.; Manuppella, A.; Martini, A.; Filetici, E.; Laurelli, T.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-eight Salmonella typhimurium strains isolated from December 1987 to March 1988 in Isernia, Central Italy, were characterized on the basis of their phage type, resistance to antimicrobials and plasmid profiles. According to their phage types, the isolates could be assigned to one of six groups, the prevalent one being PT 195 which accounted for 73.6% of isolates. On the basis of their plasmid content, the isolates could be assigned to one of ten groups. The prevalent plasmid profile (60.0; 6.0; 4.3; 4.0; 3.2 megadaltons) was found in 60.4% of isolates. All the isolates from a particular food (salsicce), and as most of isolates from humans who had consumed this food belonged to phage type 195 and were of the same plasmid profile. The combined use of phage typing and DNA plasmid analysis proved to be a useful tool in identifying epidemiologically related isolates in this investigation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2209736

  3. Evolution of Chromosomal Clostridium botulinum Type E Neurotoxin Gene Clusters: Evidence Provided by Their Rare Plasmid-Borne Counterparts.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Peck, Michael W

    2016-03-02

    Analysis of more than 150 Clostridium botulinum Group II type E genomes identified a small fraction (6%) where neurotoxin-encoding genes were located on plasmids. Seven closely related (134-144 kb) neurotoxigenic plasmids of subtypes E1, E3, and E10 were characterized; all carried genes associated with plasmid mobility via conjugation. Each plasmid contained the same 24-kb neurotoxin cluster cassette (six neurotoxin cluster and six flanking genes) that had split a helicase gene, rather than the more common chromosomal rarA. The neurotoxin cluster cassettes had evolved as separate genetic units which had either exited their chromosomal rarA locus in a series of parallel events, inserting into the plasmid-borne helicase gene, or vice versa. A single intact version of the helicase gene was discovered on a nonneurotoxigenic form of this plasmid. The observed low frequency for the plasmid location may reflect one or more of the following: 1) Less efficient recombination mechanism for the helicase gene target, 2) lack of suitable target plasmids, and 3) loss of neurotoxigenic plasmids. Type E1 and E10 plasmids possessed a Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats locus with spacers that recognized C. botulinum Group II plasmids, but not C. botulinum Group I plasmids, demonstrating their long-term separation. Clostridium botulinum Group II type E strains also carry nonneurotoxigenic plasmids closely related to C. botulinum Group II types B and F plasmids. Here, the absence of neurotoxin cassettes may be because recombination requires both a specific mechanism and specific target sequence, which are rarely found together.

  4. Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 is associated with two types of IncA/C plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 was first detected in the Mexican Typhimurium population in 2001. It is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blaCMY-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between the ST213 genotype and blaCMY-2 plasmids. Results The blaCMY-2 gene was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. ST213 strains lacking the blaCMY-2 gene carried a different IncA/C plasmid. PCR analysis of seven DNA regions distributed throughout the plasmids showed that these IncA/C plasmids were related, but the presence and absence of DNA stretches produced two divergent types I and II. A class 1 integron (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2) was detected in most of the type I plasmids. Type I contained all the plasmids carrying the blaCMY-2 gene and a subset of plasmids lacking blaCMY-2. Type II included all of the remaining blaCMY-2-negative plasmids. A sequence comparison of the seven DNA regions showed that both types were closely related to IncA/C plasmids found in Escherichia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Photobacterium, Vibrio and Aeromonas. Analysis of our Typhimurium strains showed that the region containing the blaCMY-2 gene is inserted between traA and traC as a single copy, like in the E. coli plasmid pAR060302. The floR allele was identical to that of Newport pSN254, suggesting a mosaic pattern of ancestry with plasmids from other Salmonella serovars and E. coli. Only one of the tested strains was able to conjugate the IncA/C plasmid at very low frequencies (10-7 to 10-9). The lack of conjugation ability of our IncA/C plasmids agrees with the clonal dissemination trend suggested by the chromosomal backgrounds and plasmid pattern associations. Conclusions The ecological success of the newly emerging Typhimurium ST213 genotype in Mexico may be related to the carriage of IncA/C plasmids. We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated from a

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 is associated with two types of IncA/C plasmids carrying multiple resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Magdalena; Calva, Edmundo; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Cevallos, Miguel A; Campos, Freddy; Zaidi, Mussaret B; Silva, Claudia

    2011-01-11

    Salmonella Typhimurium ST213 was first detected in the Mexican Typhimurium population in 2001. It is associated with a multi-drug resistance phenotype and a plasmid-borne blaCMY-2 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between the ST213 genotype and blaCMY-2 plasmids. The blaCMY-2 gene was carried by an IncA/C plasmid. ST213 strains lacking the blaCMY-2 gene carried a different IncA/C plasmid. PCR analysis of seven DNA regions distributed throughout the plasmids showed that these IncA/C plasmids were related, but the presence and absence of DNA stretches produced two divergent types I and II. A class 1 integron (dfrA12, orfF and aadA2) was detected in most of the type I plasmids. Type I contained all the plasmids carrying the blaCMY-2 gene and a subset of plasmids lacking blaCMY-2. Type II included all of the remaining blaCMY-2-negative plasmids. A sequence comparison of the seven DNA regions showed that both types were closely related to IncA/C plasmids found in Escherichia, Salmonella, Yersinia, Photobacterium, Vibrio and Aeromonas. Analysis of our Typhimurium strains showed that the region containing the blaCMY-2 gene is inserted between traA and traC as a single copy, like in the E. coli plasmid pAR060302. The floR allele was identical to that of Newport pSN254, suggesting a mosaic pattern of ancestry with plasmids from other Salmonella serovars and E. coli. Only one of the tested strains was able to conjugate the IncA/C plasmid at very low frequencies (10-7 to 10-9). The lack of conjugation ability of our IncA/C plasmids agrees with the clonal dissemination trend suggested by the chromosomal backgrounds and plasmid pattern associations. The ecological success of the newly emerging Typhimurium ST213 genotype in Mexico may be related to the carriage of IncA/C plasmids. We conclude that types I and II of IncA/C plasmids originated from a common ancestor and that the

  6. Construction and expression of recombinant plasmids encoding type 1 fimbriae of a urinary Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, B K; Clegg, S

    1983-01-01

    The type 1 fimbriae of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been implicated as important virulence factors in mediating Klebsiella urinary infections. The chromosomally encoded fimbrial genes were cloned by a cosmid cloning technique. Further subcloning was performed with the cloning vehicles pBR322 and pACYC184, and a recombinant plasmid containing the fimbrial genes was constructed. After transformation by this plasmid, both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were shown to express fimbriae which reacted with Klebsiella fimbrial antiserum. The approximate location of the relevant genes on the chimeric plasmid was determined by insertion of the transposable element Tn5. Hemagglutination-negative phenotypes were used to estimate the minimum size of the DNA fragment necessary to encode fimbrial biosynthesis and expression. The size of the coding region of this fragment was found to be 5.5 kilobase pairs. PMID:6132874

  7. p39R861-4, A Type 2 A/C2 Plasmid Carrying a Segment from the A/C1 Plasmid RA1.

    PubMed

    Anantham, Sashindran; Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The largest plasmid in the strain 39R861, which is used as a plasmid size standard, was recovered by conjugation and sequenced to determine its exact size. Plasmid p39R861-4 transferred at high frequency. Although reported to be the A/C1 plasmid RA1, p39R861-4 is a 155794-bp Type 2 A/C2 plasmid, in which a 39-kb segment, derived from RA1 that includes a relative of the RA1 resistance island, replaces 26.5 kb of the Type 2 backbone. p39R861-4 includes a single copy of IS10 and two resistance islands with a CR2-sul2 region in each of them. The 84 kb of backbone between the resistance islands is inverted relative to other known A/C plasmids and this inversion has arisen through recombination between the CR2-sul2 regions that are inversely oriented. The two resistance islands present before this inversion occurred were one related to but longer than that found in RA1, and one that is a form of the ARI-B island and identical to ARI-B in the A/C2 plasmid R55. They contain genes conferring resistance to tetracycline (tetA(D)), sulfonamides (sul2), and florfenicol and chloramphenicol (floR). The tet(D) determinant is flanked by two IS26 in a transposon-like structure named Tntet(D). Both resistance islands contain remnants of the two ends of the integrative element GIsul2, consistent with the sul2 gene being mobilized by GIsul2 rather than by CR2.

  8. Three classes of plasmid (47-63 kb) carry the type B neurotoxin gene cluster of group II Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47-63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin-antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4.

  9. Complete Sequencing of Plasmids Containing blaOXA-163 and blaOXA-48 in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R; Crook, Derrick W; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-11-01

    OXA-48-like enzymes have emerged as important extended-spectrum β-lactamases/carbapenemases in Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131). We report the structures of the first fully sequenced blaOXA-163 plasmid and of two other blaOXA-48 plasmids in this lineage. blaOXA-163 was located on a 71-kb IncN plasmid with other resistance genes. blaOXA-48 was present on IncL/M plasmids, genetically similar to other blaOXA-48 plasmid sequences, and consistent with interspecies/interlineage spread. The presence of blaOXA-48-like genes on epidemic plasmids in ST131 is of concern. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Use of AFLP, plasmid typing and phenotyping in a comparative study to assess genetic diversity of Shigella flexneri strains.

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, S.; Cabrera, R.; Ramirez, M. M.; Usera, M. A.; Echeita, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Shigella flexneri infections are one of the main causes of acute diarrhoea in Cuba. Twenty strains isolated from sporadic cases in nine different Cuban provinces were characterized. Serotyping, antibiotic-resistance typing, plasmid-typing and AFLP-typing were used to determine their suitability for use in epidemiological studies of S. flexneri. The predominant serotypes were serotype 6 (35%) and serotype 2 (35%). Eleven different plasmid profiles were detected (Diversity Index = 0.92). AFLP-typing discriminated 12 different patterns (DI = 0.95), these patterns were not coincident with plasmid-typing patterns. Both techniques combined distinguished 14 patterns among the 20 studied strains (DI = 0.99). There was no consistent relationship between plasmid-typing and AFLP-typing patterns or antibiotic-resistance typing patterns. Ninety-five percent of S. flexneri strains were multiresistant. PMID:12558326

  11. Plasmids in diatom species.

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, M; Corey, D K; Ludwig, J R; Kukel, A; Feng, T Y; Volcani, B E

    1991-01-01

    We have discovered plasmids in 5 of 18 diatom species surveyed. In several species, more than one type of plasmid is present. Several of the plasmids show similarity by hybridization previously characterized plasmids in Cylindrotheca fusiformis (J. D. Jacobs et al., unpublished data). Additionally, there is similarity between the plasmids found in C. fusiformis and chloroplast DNA in three diatom species. These results add to the evidence that the plasmids have features of mobile genetic elements. Images PMID:1885558

  12. A multidrug resistance plasmid contains the molecular switch for type VI secretion in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Brent S.; Ly, Pek Man; Irwin, Joshua N.; Pukatzki, Stefan; Feldman, Mario F.

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the most troublesome and least studied multidrug-resistant superbugs, are increasing at alarming rates. A. baumannii encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS), an antibacterial apparatus of Gram-negative bacteria used to kill competitors. Expression of the T6SS varies among different strains of A. baumannii, for which the regulatory mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that several multidrug-resistant strains of A. baumannii harbor a large, self-transmissible resistance plasmid that carries the negative regulators for T6SS. T6SS activity is silenced in plasmid-containing, antibiotic-resistant cells, while part of the population undergoes frequent plasmid loss and activation of the T6SS. This activation results in T6SS-mediated killing of competing bacteria but renders A. baumannii susceptible to antibiotics. Our data show that a plasmid that has evolved to harbor antibiotic resistance genes plays a role in the differentiation of cells specialized in the elimination of competing bacteria. PMID:26170289

  13. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  14. Complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-harbouring plasmids in Escherichia coli of different sequence types

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jingxia; Wang, Xiuna; Deng, Xianbo; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the mobilized colistin resistance gene, representing a novel mechanism for bacterial drug resistance, challenges the last resort against the severe infections by Gram-negative bacteria with multi-drug resistances. Very recently, we showed the diversity in the mcr-1-carrying plasmid reservoirs from the gut microbiota. Here, we reported that a similar but more complex scenario is present in the healthy swine populations, Southern China, 2016. Amongst the 1026 pieces of Escherichia coli isolates from 3 different pig farms, 302 E. coli isolates were determined to be positive for the mcr-1 gene (30%, 302/1026). Multi-locus sequence typing assigned no less than 11 kinds of sequence types including one novel Sequence Type to these mcr-1-positive strains. PCR analyses combined with the direct DNA sequencing revealed unexpected complexity of the mcr-1-harbouring plasmids whose backbones are at least grouped into 6 types four of which are new. Transcriptional analyses showed that the mcr-1 promoter of different origins exhibits similar activity. It seems likely that complex dissemination of the diversified mcr-1-bearing plasmids occurs amongst the various ST E. coli inhabiting the healthy swine populations, in Southern China. PMID:27741523

  15. Plasmid Classification in an Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing: Application in Studies of Antibiotic Resistance Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Orlek, Alex; Stoesser, Nicole; Anjum, Muna F.; Doumith, Michel; Ellington, Matthew J.; Peto, Tim; Crook, Derrick; Woodford, Neil; Walker, A. Sarah; Phan, Hang; Sheppard, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements ubiquitous in bacteria, and commonly transmissible between host cells. Their genomes include variable repertoires of ‘accessory genes,’ such as antibiotic resistance genes, as well as ‘backbone’ loci which are largely conserved within plasmid families, and often involved in key plasmid-specific functions (e.g., replication, stable inheritance, mobility). Classifying plasmids into different types according to their phylogenetic relatedness provides insight into the epidemiology of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. Current typing schemes exploit backbone loci associated with replication (replicon typing), or plasmid mobility (MOB typing). Conventional PCR-based methods for plasmid typing remain widely used. With the emergence of whole-genome sequencing (WGS), large datasets can be analyzed using in silico plasmid typing methods. However, short reads from popular high-throughput sequencers can be challenging to assemble, so complete plasmid sequences may not be accurately reconstructed. Therefore, localizing resistance genes to specific plasmids may be difficult, limiting epidemiological insight. Long-read sequencing will become increasingly popular as costs decline, especially when resolving accurate plasmid structures is the primary goal. This review discusses the application of plasmid classification in WGS-based studies of antibiotic resistance epidemiology; novel in silico plasmid analysis tools are highlighted. Due to the diverse and plastic nature of plasmid genomes, current typing schemes do not classify all plasmids, and identifying conserved, phylogenetically concordant genes for subtyping and phylogenetics is challenging. Analyzing plasmids as nodes in a network that represents gene-sharing relationships between plasmids provides a complementary way to assess plasmid diversity, and allows inferences about horizontal gene transfer to be made. PMID:28232822

  16. Plasmid Classification in an Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing: Application in Studies of Antibiotic Resistance Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Orlek, Alex; Stoesser, Nicole; Anjum, Muna F; Doumith, Michel; Ellington, Matthew J; Peto, Tim; Crook, Derrick; Woodford, Neil; Walker, A Sarah; Phan, Hang; Sheppard, Anna E

    2017-01-01

    Plasmids are extra-chromosomal genetic elements ubiquitous in bacteria, and commonly transmissible between host cells. Their genomes include variable repertoires of 'accessory genes,' such as antibiotic resistance genes, as well as 'backbone' loci which are largely conserved within plasmid families, and often involved in key plasmid-specific functions (e.g., replication, stable inheritance, mobility). Classifying plasmids into different types according to their phylogenetic relatedness provides insight into the epidemiology of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. Current typing schemes exploit backbone loci associated with replication (replicon typing), or plasmid mobility (MOB typing). Conventional PCR-based methods for plasmid typing remain widely used. With the emergence of whole-genome sequencing (WGS), large datasets can be analyzed using in silico plasmid typing methods. However, short reads from popular high-throughput sequencers can be challenging to assemble, so complete plasmid sequences may not be accurately reconstructed. Therefore, localizing resistance genes to specific plasmids may be difficult, limiting epidemiological insight. Long-read sequencing will become increasingly popular as costs decline, especially when resolving accurate plasmid structures is the primary goal. This review discusses the application of plasmid classification in WGS-based studies of antibiotic resistance epidemiology; novel in silico plasmid analysis tools are highlighted. Due to the diverse and plastic nature of plasmid genomes, current typing schemes do not classify all plasmids, and identifying conserved, phylogenetically concordant genes for subtyping and phylogenetics is challenging. Analyzing plasmids as nodes in a network that represents gene-sharing relationships between plasmids provides a complementary way to assess plasmid diversity, and allows inferences about horizontal gene transfer to be made.

  17. Dissemination of NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Mediated by the IncX3-Type Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Du, Xiaoxing; Shen, Yuqin; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae have resulted in a worldwide public health risk that has affected some provinces of China. China is an exceptionally large country, and there is a crucial need to investigate the epidemic of blaNDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in our province. A total of 186 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) were collected in a grade-3 hospital in Zhejiang province. Carbapenem-resistant genes, including blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were screened and sequenced. Ninety isolates were identified as harboring the blaKPC-2 genes, and five blaNDM-1-positive isolates were uncovered. XbaI-PFGE revealed that three blaNDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to two different clones. S1-PFGE and southern blot suggested that the blaNDM-1 genes were located on IncX3-type plasmids with two different sizes ranging from 33.3 to 54.7 kb (n=4) and 104.5 to 138.9 kb (n=1), respectively, all of which could easily transfer to Escherichia coli by conjugation and electrotransformation. The high-throughput sequencing of two plasmids was performed leading to the identification of a smaller 54-kb plasmid, which had high sequence similarity with a previously reported pCFNDM-CN, and a larger plasmid in which only a 7.8-kb sequence of a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL-ΔInsE,) was detected. PCR mapping and sequencing demonstrated that four smaller blaNDM-1 plasmids contained a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (IS5-blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL). We monitored the CRE epidemic in our hospital and determined that KPC-2 carbapenemase was a major risk to patient health and the IncX3-type plasmid played a vital role in the spread of the blaNDM-1 gene among the CRE. PMID:26047502

  18. Dissemination of NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Mediated by the IncX3-Type Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Fang, Lanfang; Fu, Ying; Du, Xiaoxing; Shen, Yuqin; Yu, Yunsong

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae have resulted in a worldwide public health risk that has affected some provinces of China. China is an exceptionally large country, and there is a crucial need to investigate the epidemic of blaNDM-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in our province. A total of 186 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (CRE) were collected in a grade-3 hospital in Zhejiang province. Carbapenem-resistant genes, including blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 were screened and sequenced. Ninety isolates were identified as harboring the blaKPC-2 genes, and five blaNDM-1-positive isolates were uncovered. XbaI-PFGE revealed that three blaNDM-1-positive K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to two different clones. S1-PFGE and southern blot suggested that the blaNDM-1 genes were located on IncX3-type plasmids with two different sizes ranging from 33.3 to 54.7 kb (n=4) and 104.5 to 138.9 kb (n=1), respectively, all of which could easily transfer to Escherichia coli by conjugation and electrotransformation. The high-throughput sequencing of two plasmids was performed leading to the identification of a smaller 54-kb plasmid, which had high sequence similarity with a previously reported pCFNDM-CN, and a larger plasmid in which only a 7.8-kb sequence of a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL-ΔInsE,) was detected. PCR mapping and sequencing demonstrated that four smaller blaNDM-1 plasmids contained a common gene environment around blaNDM-1 (IS5-blaNDM-1-trpF- dsbC-cutA1-groEL). We monitored the CRE epidemic in our hospital and determined that KPC-2 carbapenemase was a major risk to patient health and the IncX3-type plasmid played a vital role in the spread of the blaNDM-1 gene among the CRE.

  19. Diversity of plasmids and Tn1546-type transposons among VanA Enterococcus faecium in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wardal, E; Kuch, A; Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing. Selected isolates were subjected to PFGE-S1 and Southern hybridization analyses. The vast majority of the isolates (95.8 %) belonged to lineages 17/18 (during the whole study period 1997-2010) and 78 (mostly in 2006-2010) of hospital-adapted meroclone of E. faecium. All isolates displayed a multi-drug resistance phenotype. Twenty-eight Tn1546 types (including 26 novel ones) were associated with eight different ISs (IS1216, IS1251, ISEfa4, ISEfa5, ISEfm2, ISEf1, IS3-like, ISEfm1-like). The vanA-determinant was typically located on plasmids, which most commonly carried rep2pRE25, rep17pRUM, rep18pEF418, rep1pIP501, ω-ε-ζ and axe-txe genes. VanA isolates from 1997-2005 to 2006-2010 differed in clonal composition, prevalence of gentamicin- and tetracycline-resistance and plasmidome. Our analysis revealed high complexity of Tn1546-type transposons and vanA-plasmids, and suggested that diverse genetic events, such as conjugation transfer, recombination, chromosomal integration and DNA mutations shaped the structure of these elements among Polish VREfm.

  20. Compatibility of plasmids encoding bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 and type 2 E2 in a single DNA vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Babiuk, Lorne A; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2007-08-10

    Type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has become increasingly prevalent worldwide, and currently the ratio of type 2 to type 1 strains in the USA approaches 50%. Although there is cross-reactivity between BVDV type 1 and type 2 strains, BVDV1 vaccine strains poorly protect from type 2 infection, so vaccines against BVDV should contain antigens from both BVDV types. Previously we demonstrated efficacy of a BVDV1 E2 DNA vaccine, and in this study we optimized a BVDV2 E2 DNA vaccine. Furthermore, as an approach to vaccinate with a DNA vaccine against both BVDV types, we compared two strategies, mixing of plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2, and co-expression of type 1 and type 2 E2 from one plasmid with an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). An evaluation of the IRES-containing plasmids demonstrated that the C-terminally expressed protein is produced at lower levels and induces weaker immune responses than the N-terminally expressed protein, regardless of the position of the type 1 and type 2 E2 genes. In contrast, when both plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2 were administered to mice, the immune responses were similar to those induced by the individual plasmids. Thus, a mixture of plasmids encoding type 1 and type 2 E2 could be a potential DNA vaccine candidate against both BVDV1 and BVDV2.

  1. A plasmid from a non-insect-transmissible line of a phytoplasma lacks two open reading frames that exist in the plasmid from the wild-type line.

    PubMed

    Nishigawa, Hisashi; Oshima, Kenro; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Jung, Hee-Young; Kuboyama, Tsutomu; Miyata, Shin-ichi; Ugaki, Masashi; Namba, Shigetou

    2002-10-02

    Two novel rolling circle replication (RCR) plasmids, pOYM (3932 nt) and pOYNIM (3062 nt), were isolated from a mildly pathogenic variant line (OY-M) and a mildly pathogenic plus non-insect-transmissible line (OY-NIM), respectively, of onion yellows (OY) phytoplasma, a plant and insect endocellular mollicute. OY-M was isolated from an original wild-type line (OY-W) after regular maintenance using alternate plant/insect infections, while OY-NIM was further isolated from OY-M after maintenance by plant grafting without insect vectors. The RCR-initiator proteins (Rep) of both plasmids, which have a characteristic structure with both plasmid- and virus-like domains, were highly homologous to that of a previously described OY-W plasmid, pOYW (3933 nt), and were expressed in OY-M- and OY-NIM-infected plants, indicating that this replicon is stably maintained in the phytoplasma. Interestingly, pOYNIM lacked two ORFs that exist in both pOYW and pOYM, which encode a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) and an uncharacterized putative membrane protein, indicating that these two proteins are not necessary for the phytoplasma to live in plant cells. These are the first candidates as phytoplasma proteins possibly related to host specificity.

  2. Characterization of an R-Plasmid Associated with Ampicillin Resistance in Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 Isolated from Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Crosa, Jorge H.; Olarte, Jorge; Mata, Leonardo J.; Luttropp, Linda K.; Peñaranda, Maria E.

    1977-01-01

    Ampicillin-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 isolated in epidemics in Mexico, Central America, and Bangla Desh were examined for the presence of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by gel electrophoresis. All strains contained a heterogeneous population of plasmids. Transfer experiments to Escherichia coli K-12 indicated that the ampicillin resistance determinant (Apr) was located on a 5.5-megadalton (Mdal) plasmid identical in all Shiga strains examined, as judged by DNA hybridization and by its molecular properties. This 5.5-Mdal plasmid contained the ampicillin transposon (TnA) sequences. There was not a high degree of homology between the Shiga Apr plasmid DNA and DNA obtained from AprSalmonella typhi strains isolated from typhoid epidemics in Mexico, previous to the dysentery outbreaks. Although low, the degree of reassociation observed indicated that probably part of the TnA sequence was present in S. typhi DNA. The DNA hybridization experiments showed, in addition, that there was a high degree of homology among Apr plasmids isolated from different enterobacteria, and this identity was confirmed by restriction endonuclease activity. These results together with their similarities in molecular and replicative properties indicate that the Apr plasmids, as was suggested for the Smr Sur plasmids, possibly evolved once and then epidemiologically spread in the Enterobacteriaceae. Images PMID:324394

  3. A Type Ib ParB Protein Involved in Plasmid Partitioning in a Gram-Positive Bacterium▿

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Ping; Li, Tai-Yuan; Xie, Mao-Hua; Jiang, Lina; Zhang, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Our current understanding of segregation of prokaryotic plasmids has been derived mainly from the study of the gram-negative bacterial plasmids. We previously reported a replicon of the cryptic plasmid from a gram-positive bacterium, Leifsonia xyli subsp. cynodontis. The replicon contains a putative plasmid partition cassette including a Walker-type ATPase followed by open reading frame 4 without sequence homologue. Here we reported that the orf4 gene was essential for maintaining the plasmid stability in L. xyli subsp. cynodontis. Furthermore, the purified orf4 protein specifically and cooperatively bound to direct repeat sequences located upstream of the parA gene in vitro, indicating that orf4 is a parB gene and that the direct repeat DNA sequences constitute a partition site, parS. The location of parS and the features of ParA and ParB proteins suggest that this plasmid partition cassette belongs to type Ib, representing the first type Ib cassette identified from a gram-positive bacterial plasmid. PMID:16997970

  4. Characterization of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Carrying Plasmids in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Yu; Lin, Heng-Jia; Chang, Lin-Li; Ma, Ling; Siu, L Kristopher; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Po-Liang

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the replicon types, sizes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of plasmids carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Taiwan. Fifty-one Escherichia coli transconjugant strains with plasmids from ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance III Program in 2002 were included. All the 51 plasmids carried a blaCTX-M gene, the majority of which were blaCTX-M-3 (28/51 [54.9%]). Plasmids ranged in size from 126 to 241 kb by S1 nuclease digestion and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the most common plasmid size (37.3%) was 161-170 kb. The most common replicon type of plasmids was incompatibility group (Inc)A/C (60.8%). The IncA/C plasmids all carried blaCTX-M (blaCTX-M-3, -14, -15), and some also carried blaSHV (blaSHV-5, -12) genes. All 51 plasmids could be typed with PstI, and 27 (52.9%) belonged to 10 clusters. Thirty-eight of the 51 plasmids were typable with BamHI, and 21 plasmids (55.3%) fell into 7 clusters. Plasmids in the same cluster belonged to the same incompatibility group, with the exception of cluster C6. In conclusion, IncA/C plasmids are the main plasmid type responsible for the dissemination of ESBL genes of K. pneumoniae from Taiwan. RFLP with PstI possessed better discriminatory power than that with BamHI and PCR-based replicon typing for ESBL-carrying plasmids in K. pneumoniae in this study. Greater than 50% of plasmids fell into clusters, and >60% of cluster-classified plasmids were present in clonally unrelated isolates, indicating that horizontal transfer of plasmids plays an important role in the spread of ESBL genes.

  5. Complete nucleotide sequences of two blaKPC-2-bearing IncN Plasmids isolated from sequence type 442 Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains four years apart.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; Cerdeira, Louise Teixeira; Queiroz, Maíse Gomes; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Pavez, Mónica; Lincopan, Nilton; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Sampaio, Jorge Luiz Mello; Nunes, Marcio Roberto Teixeira; McCulloch, John Anthony

    2014-05-01

    We sequenced the oldest blaKPC-2-bearing plasmid isolated in Brazil and another plasmid also carried by a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain of sequence type 442 (ST442), isolated 52 months later. Both plasmids present an IncN backbone and few acquired regions. Because the 2005 plasmid presented deletions and a truncated gene within Tn4401b compared to the 2009 plasmid, we can thus infer that IncN blaKPC-2-bearing plasmids pFCF1305 and pFCF3SP had a common ancestor circulating in Brazil prior to May 2005.

  6. Mycobacterial Pan-Genome Analysis Suggests Important Role of Plasmids in the Radiation of Type VII Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Emilie; Christina Boritsch, Eva; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Caro, Valerie; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Brosch, Roland; Sapriel, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In mycobacteria, various type VII secretion systems corresponding to different ESX (ESAT-6 secretory) types, are contributing to pathogenicity, iron acquisition, and/or conjugation. In addition to the known chromosomal ESX loci, the existence of plasmid-encoded ESX systems was recently reported. To investigate the potential role of ESX-encoding plasmids on mycobacterial evolution, we analyzed a large representative collection of mycobacterial genomes, including both chromosomal and plasmid-borne sequences. Data obtained for chromosomal ESX loci confirmed the previous five classical ESX types and identified a novel mycobacterial ESX-4-like type, termed ESX-4-bis. Moreover, analysis of the plasmid-encoded ESX loci showed extensive diversification, with at least seven new ESX profiles, identified. Three of them (ESX-P clusters 1–3) were found in multiple plasmids, while four corresponded to singletons. Our phylogenetic and gene-order-analyses revealed two main groups of ESX types: 1) ancestral types, including ESX-4 and ESX-4-like systems from mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial actinobacteria and 2) mycobacteria-specific ESX systems, including ESX-1-2-3-5 systems and the plasmid-encoded ESX types. Synteny analysis revealed that ESX-P systems are part of phylogenetic groups that derived from a common ancestor, which diversified and resulted in the different ESX types through extensive gene rearrangements. A converging body of evidence, derived from composition bias-, phylogenetic-, and synteny analyses points to a scenario in which ESX-encoding plasmids have been a major driving force for acquisition and diversification of type VII systems in mycobacteria, which likely played (and possibly still play) important roles in the adaptation to new environments and hosts during evolution of mycobacterial pathogenesis. PMID:26748339

  7. Mycobacterial Pan-Genome Analysis Suggests Important Role of Plasmids in the Radiation of Type VII Secretion Systems.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Emilie; Christina Boritsch, Eva; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Caro, Valerie; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Heym, Beate; Girard-Misguich, Fabienne; Brosch, Roland; Sapriel, Guillaume

    2016-01-08

    In mycobacteria, various type VII secretion systems corresponding to different ESX (ESAT-6 secretory) types, are contributing to pathogenicity, iron acquisition, and/or conjugation. In addition to the known chromosomal ESX loci, the existence of plasmid-encoded ESX systems was recently reported. To investigate the potential role of ESX-encoding plasmids on mycobacterial evolution, we analyzed a large representative collection of mycobacterial genomes, including both chromosomal and plasmid-borne sequences. Data obtained for chromosomal ESX loci confirmed the previous five classical ESX types and identified a novel mycobacterial ESX-4-like type, termed ESX-4-bis. Moreover, analysis of the plasmid-encoded ESX loci showed extensive diversification, with at least seven new ESX profiles, identified. Three of them (ESX-P clusters 1-3) were found in multiple plasmids, while four corresponded to singletons. Our phylogenetic and gene-order-analyses revealed two main groups of ESX types: 1) ancestral types, including ESX-4 and ESX-4-like systems from mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial actinobacteria and 2) mycobacteria-specific ESX systems, including ESX-1-2-3-5 systems and the plasmid-encoded ESX types. Synteny analysis revealed that ESX-P systems are part of phylogenetic groups that derived from a common ancestor, which diversified and resulted in the different ESX types through extensive gene rearrangements. A converging body of evidence, derived from composition bias-, phylogenetic-, and synteny analyses points to a scenario in which ESX-encoding plasmids have been a major driving force for acquisition and diversification of type VII systems in mycobacteria, which likely played (and possibly still play) important roles in the adaptation to new environments and hosts during evolution of mycobacterial pathogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Plasmid profile typing can be used to subdivide phage-type 49 of Salmonella typhimurium in outbreak investigations.

    PubMed Central

    Threlfall, E. J.; Frost, J. A.; Ward, L. R.; Rowe, B.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmid profile typing has been used to subdivide phage-type 49 of Salmonella typhimurium, the most common phage type in humans in England and Wales since 1985. Twenty profile patterns have been identified in 350 strains examined. Four profile patterns have been identified in 143 isolates from patients infected in 33 epidemiologically unrelated incidents and two patterns have predominated, ST49:62 and ST49:62, 1. These patterns were also common amongst S. typhimurium phage-type 49 isolated from cattle and poultry; however ST49:62 was more common in bovines whereas ST49:62, 1 predominated in poultry. S. typhimurium phage-type 49 with a different profile pattern, ST49:62, 3, was responsible for a large outbreak in London in 1988 which was traced to mayonnaise made from eggs supplied by one producer. Plasmid profile typing can now be regarded as a method of supplementing phage typing in investigating outbreaks caused by this organism. PMID:2182328

  9. STAR gene restriction profile analysis in epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: description of the new method and comparison with other polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods.

    PubMed

    Quelle, Liliana S; Corso, Alejandra; Galas, Marcelo; Sordelli, Daniel O

    2003-11-01

    A method based on restriction profile analysis of the STAR repetitive element PCR (STAR-RP PCR) product obtained by digestion with AluI and Tru9I was developed for typing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We evaluated a well defined collection of MRSA from Argentina, previously characterized by PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis) of chromosomal SmaI digests and hybridization with DNA probes for probes ClaI-mecA and ClaI-Tn554. We comparatively evaluated STAR-RP analysis with other PCR based methods such as Inter IS256-PCR, Rep-MP3 PCR and Coa-RP. The discriminatory power (D) of STAR-RP (0.86) was similar to that of PFGE (0.84) at the type level. Comparable results were obtained with Inter IS256 PCR (0.85) and Rep-MP3 PCR (0.80). A lower value (0.74) was obtained for Coa-RP. An excellent reproducibility (100%) of STAR-RP was observed. Good concordance between STAR-RP and other molecular typing methods was found for MRSA isolates (n = 39). STAR-RP typing showed 87% concordance with mecA::Tn554::PFGE, 87% with Inter IS256 PCR and 71% with Rep-MP3 typing. STAR-RP is suggested as an adequate molecular typing assay for MRSA epidemiologic assessment.

  10. Clinical optimization of antigen specific modulation of type 1 diabetes with the plasmid DNA platform.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Peter; Utz, Paul J; Robinson, William; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Some clinical trials in humans have aimed at modulation of type 1 diabetes (T1D) via alteration of the immune response to putative islet cell antigens, particularly proinsulin and insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase and the peptide, DiaPep 277, derived from heat shock protein 60. The focus here is on development of a specially engineered DNA plasmid encoding proinsulin to treat T1D. The plasmid is engineered to turn off adaptive immunity to proinsulin. This approach yielded exciting results in a randomized placebo controlled trial in 80 adult patients with T1D. The implications of this trial are explored in regards to the potential for sparing inflammation in islets and thus allowing the functioning beta cells to recover and produce more insulin. Strategies to further strengthen the effects seen thus far with the tolerizing DNA plasmid to proinsulin will be elucidated. The DNA platform affords an opportunity for easy modifications. In addition standard exploration of dose levels, route of administration and frequency of dose are practical. Optimization of the effects seen to date on C-peptide and on depletion of proinsulin specific CD8 T cells are feasible, with expected concomitant improvement in other parameters like hemoglobin A1c and reduction in insulin usage. T1D is one of the few autoimmune conditions where antigen specific therapy can be achieved, provided the approach is tested intelligently. Tolerizing DNA vaccines to proinsulin and other islet cell autoantigens is a worthy pursuit to potentially treat, prevent and to perhaps even 'cure' or 'prevent' type 1 diabetes.

  11. Expression of type 1 fimbriae and mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin by recombinant plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, G F; Clegg, S; Ness, N J; Swenson, D L; Allen, B L; Nichols, W A

    1989-01-01

    Deletions within the cloned genes (fimA) encoding the type 1 major fimbrial subunits of two isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae resulted in a nonfimbriate but hemagglutinating phenotype after transformation of Escherichia coli HB101 or ORN103. Phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae could be restored by transformation with plasmids containing the fimA genes of the fimbrial gene clusters from different strains. The surface fimbriae expressed were serologically identical to those of the polymerized product of the introduced fimA gene. The fimA gene products of Salmonella typhimurium and Serratia marcescens could utilize the accessory fimbrial genes of K. pneumoniae to produce surface-associated, hemagglutinating fimbriae. The relatedness of the type 1 fimbrial gene clusters from multiple isolates of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was examined by DNA hybridization techniques. These analyses demonstrated little nucleotide sequence agreement among distinct genera of the enteric bacteria. Images PMID:2563717

  12. Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Contain Conserved Type IV Secretion Systems on Multiple Genomic Islands and Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    van der Graaf–van Bloois, Linda; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Gorkiewicz, Gregor; Forbes, Ken J.; Zomer, Aldert L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    The features contributing to differences in pathogenicity of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins, which may disrupt host cell processes. In the genomes of 27 C. fetus strains, three phylogenetically-different T4SS-encoding regions (T4SSs) were identified: one was located in both the chromosome and in extra-chromosomal plasmids; one was located exclusively in the chromosome; and one exclusively in extra-chromosomal plasmids. We observed that C. fetus strains can contain multiple T4SSs and that homologous T4SSs can be present both in chromosomal genomic islands (GI) and on plasmids in the C. fetus strains. The GIs of the chromosomally located T4SS differed mainly by the presence of fic genes, insertion sequence elements and phage-related or hypothetical proteins. Comparative analysis showed that T4SS sequences, inserted in the same locations, were conserved in the studied C. fetus genomes. Using phylogenetic analysis of the T4SSs, it was shown that C. fetus may have acquired the T4SS regions from other Campylobacter species by horizontal gene transfer. The identified T4SSs and fic genes were found in Cff and Cfv strains, although the presence of T4SSs and fic genes were significantly associated with Cfv strains. The T4SSs and fic genes could not be associated with S-layer serotypes or geographical origin of the strains. PMID:27049518

  13. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Rebecca L; Frye, Jonathan G; Thitaram, Sutawee N; Meinersmann, Richard J; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Englen, Mark D

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli in relation to plasmid replicon types, animal sources, and genotypes. E. coli isolates (n = 35) from seven different animal sources were selected and tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to determine genetic relationships among the E. coli isolates. Plasmid types based on their incompatibility (Inc) replicon types were determined, and linkage disequilibrium analysis was performed for antimicrobial resistance profiles, replicon types, and animal source. A high degree of genotypic diversity was observed: 34 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types among the 35 isolates examined. Twelve different plasmid Inc types were detected, and all isolates carried at least one replicon type. IncF (n = 25; 71.4%) and IncFIB (n = 19; 54.3%) were the most common replicon types identified. Chloramphenicol resistance was significantly linked with four Inc types (A/C, FIIA, F, and Y), and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was linked with three Inc types (B/O, P and Y). Resistance to any other antimicrobial was linked to two or fewer replicon types. The isolate source was linked with resistance to seven antimicrobials and IncI1. We conclude that commensal E. coli from animal sources are highly variable genotypically and are reservoirs of a diverse array of plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Bronchopneumonia in wild boar (Sus scrofa) caused by Rhodococcus equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Monego, Fernanda; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Lazzari, Andrea Maria; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Ecco, Roselene; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Takai, Shinji

    2013-03-25

    Rhodococcus equi is associated with pyogranulomatous infections, especially in foals, and this bacterium has also emerged as a pathogen for humans, particularly immunocompromised patients. R. equi infections in pigs, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and humans are mainly due to strains carrying the intermediate virulence (VapB) plasmid. In Brazil, R. equi carrying the VapB type 8 plasmid is the most common type recovered from humans co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). R. equi infection in pigs and wild boar is restricted predominantly to the lymphatic system, without any reports of pulmonary manifestations. This report describes the microbiological and histopathological findings, and molecular characterization of R. equi in two bronchopneumonia cases in wild boar using PCR and plasmid profile analysis by digestion with restriction endonucleases. The histological findings were suggestive of pyogranulomatous infection, and the plasmid profile of both R. equi isolates enabled the characterization of the strains as VapB type 8. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boar due to R. equi. The detection of the VapB type 8 plasmid in R. equi isolates emphasize that wild boar may be a potential source of pathogenic R. equi strains for humans.

  15. Complete sequencing of IncI1 sequence type 2 plasmid pJIE512b indicates mobilization of blaCMY-2 from an IncA/C plasmid.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Kaitlin A; Iredell, Jonathan R; Partridge, Sally R

    2014-08-01

    Sequencing of pJIE512b, a 92.3-kb IncI1 sequence type 2 (ST2) plasmid carrying bla(CMY-2), revealed a bla(CMY-2) context that appeared to have been mobilized from an IncA/C plasmid by the insertion sequence IS1294. A comparison with published plasmids suggests that bla(CMY-2) has been mobilized from IncA/C to IncI1 plasmids more than once by IS1294-like elements. Alignment of pJIE512b with the only other available IncI1 ST2 plasmid revealed differences across the backbones, indicating variability within this sequence type.

  16. Complete nucleotide sequences of two NDM-1-encoding plasmids from the same sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

    PubMed

    Studentova, V; Dobiasova, H; Hedlova, D; Dolejska, M; Papagiannitsis, C C; Hrabak, J

    2015-02-01

    The sequence type 11 Klebsiella pneumoniae strain Kpn-3002cz was confirmed to harbor two NDM-1-encoding plasmids, pB-3002cz and pS-3002cz. pB-3002cz (97,649 bp) displayed extensive sequence similarity with the blaNDM-1-carrying plasmid pKPX-1. pS-3002cz (73,581 bp) was found to consist of an IncR-related sequence (13,535 bp) and a mosaic region (60,046 bp). A 40,233-bp sequence of pS-3002cz was identical to the mosaic region of pB-3002cz, indicating the en bloc acquisition of the NDM-1-encoding region from one plasmid by the other.

  17. Complete sequence of the IncT-type plasmid pT-OXA-181 carrying the blaOXA-181 carbapenemase gene from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Villa, Laura; Carattoli, Alessandra; Nordmann, Patrice; Carta, Claudio; Poirel, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The gene encoding the carbapenemase OXA-181 (an OXA-48 variant) was identified from a Citrobacter freundii isolate coproducing NDM-1. The whole sequence of plasmid pT-OXA-181 bearing the blaOXA-181 gene was determined and revealed a 84-kb mobilizable but non-self-conjugative IncT-type plasmid. It totally differs from the 7.6-kb ColE-type and blaOXA-181-bearing plasmid recently identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate. However, in both plasmids, insertion sequence ISEcp1 might have played a role in acquisition of the blaOXA-181 gene.

  18. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of IncP-1β Plasmid pDTC28 Reveals a Non-Functional Variant of the blaGES-Type Gene

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bingjun; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid pDTC28 was isolated from the sediments of Haihe River using E. coli CV601 (gfp-tagged) as recipient and indigenous bacteria from the sediment as donors. This plasmid confers reduced susceptibility to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole. The complete sequence of plasmid pDTC28 was 61,503 bp in length with an average G+C content of 64.09%. Plasmid pDTC28 belongs to the IncP-1β group by phylogenetic analysis. The backbones of plasmid pDTC28 and other IncP-1β plasmids are very classical and conserved, whereas the accessory regions of these plasmids are diverse. A blaGES-5-like gene was found on the accessory region, and this blaGES-5-like gene contained 18 silent mutations and 7 missense mutations compared with the blaGES-5 gene. The mutations resulted in 7 amino acid substitutions in GES-5 carbapenemase, causing the loss of function of the blaGES-5-like gene on plasmid pDTC28 against carbapenems and even β-lactams. The enzyme produced by the blaGES-5-like gene cassette may be a new variant of GES-type enzymes. Thus, the plasmid sequenced in this study will expand our understanding of GES-type β-lactamases and provide insights into the genetic platforms used for the dissemination of GES-type genes. PMID:27152950

  19. Mapping Type IV Secretion Signals on the Primase Encoded by the Broad-Host-Range Plasmid R1162 (RSF1010).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The plasmid R1162 (RSF1010) encodes a primase essential for its replication. This primase makes up the C-terminal part of MobA, a multifunctional protein with the relaxase as a separate N-terminal domain. The primase is also translated separately as the protein RepB'. Here, we map two signals for type IV secretion onto the recently solved structure of RepB'. One signal is located internally within RepB' and consists of a long α-helix and an adjacent disordered region rich in arginines. The second signal is made up of the same α-helix and a second, arginine-rich region at the C-terminal end of the protein. Successive arginine-to-alanine substitutions revealed that either signal can be utilized by the type IV secretion complex of the plasmid R751. The internal signal also enables conjugal transfer when linked to the relaxase part of MobA. Both signals are similar to those previously identified for type IV secretion substrates in the Vir system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Moreover, the C-terminal arginine-rich segment of RepB' has been shown to be secreted by Vir. However, with R751, the signals require MobB, an R1162-encoded accessory protein active in conjugal transfer. The results of two-hybrid assays revealed that MobB interacts, via its membrane-associated domain, with the R751 plasmid coupling protein TraG. In addition, MobB interacts with a region of MobA just outside the RepB' domain. Therefore, MobB is likely an adaptor that is essential for recognition of the primase-associated signals by the R751 secretion machinery. For most plasmids, type IV secretion is an intrinsic part of the mechanism for conjugal transfer. Protein relaxases, bound to the 5' end of the transferring strand, are mobilized into recipient cells by the type IV pathway. In this work, we identify and characterize two signals for secretion in the primase domain of MobA, the relaxase of the IncQ plasmid R1162 (RSF1010). We also show that the adaptor protein MobB is required for engagement

  20. ESBL-plasmids carrying toxin-antitoxin systems can be “cured” of wild-type Escherichia coli using a heat technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmid-encoded extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-enzymes are frequently produced by Escherichia coli. Several ESBL-plasmids contain genes for toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, which assure the maintenance of plasmids in bacteria and prevent the cells from “post-segregational killing”. These systems limit options to “cure” plasmids of ESBL-wild-type strains due to the death of the bacterial cells. A helpful tool to understand the role of ESBL-plasmids in the dissemination of pandemic multi-resistant E. coli are ESBL-plasmid-“cured”-variants (PCVs) and their comparison to ESBL-wild-type strains. The purpose of this study was to construct PCVs of ESBL-wild-type E. coli strains despite the presence of genes for TA systems. Findings Using enhanced temperatures and brain-heart-infusion broth it was possible to construct viable PCVs of wild-type ESBL-E. coli strains. The occurrence of TA system-genes including hok/sok, srnB/C, vagC/D, pemI/K on ESBL-plasmids of replicon types FIA or FIB was demonstrated by bioinformatic analyses. The loss of the plasmid and the genetic identity of PCV and corresponding wild-type strain was confirmed via different methods including plasmid-profile-analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and bioinformatics using generated whole genome data of the strains. Conclusions This short report describes the successful construction of viable PCVs of ESBL-wild-type E. coli strains. The results are hence surprising due to the fact that all “cured” ESBL-plasmids contained at least one complete toxin-antitoxin system, whose loss would normally mean the death of bacterial cells. PMID:24245987

  1. A novel type 1/2 hybrid IncC plasmid carrying fifteen antimicrobial resistance genes recovered from Proteus mirabilis in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Kong, Ling-Han; Ma, Su-Zhen; Liu, Bi-Hui; Chen, Yan-Peng; Zhang, An-Yun; Wang, Hong-Ning

    2017-07-27

    IncC plasmids are of great concern as vehicles of broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems resistance genes blaCMY and blaNDM. The aim of this study was to sequence and characterize a multidrug resistance (MDR) IncC plasmid (pPm14C18) recovered from Proteus mirabilis. pPm14C18 was identified in a CMY-2-producing P. mirabilis isolate from chicken in China in 2014, and could be transferred to Escherichia coli conferring an MDR phenotype. Whole genome sequencing confirmed pPm14C18 was a novel type 1/2 hybrid IncC plasmid 165,992bp in size, containing fifteen antimicrobial resistance genes. It harboured a novel MDR mosaic region comprised of a hybrid Tn21tnp-pDUmer, in which blaCTX-M-65, dfrA32 and ereA were firstly reported in IncC plasmid. Phylogenetic relationship reconstruction based on the nucleotide sequences of the 52 IncC backbones showed all type 1 IncC plasmids were clustered into one clade, and then merged with pPm14C18 and finally with the type 2 IncC plasmids and another type 1/2 hybrid IncC plasmid pYR1. The MDR IncC plasmids in P. mirabilis of animal origin might threaten public health, which should be drawn more attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changing plasmid types responsible for extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the United States, 1996-2009.

    PubMed

    Folster, J P; Pecic, G; Stroika, S; Rickert, R; Whichard, J

    2014-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a major cause of foodborne illness. Plasmids are genetic elements that mobilize antimicrobial resistance determinants including blaCMY β-lactamases that confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). ESCs are important for treating a variety of infections. IncA/C plasmids are found among diverse sources, including cattle, the principal source of E. coli O157 infections in humans. IncI1 plasmids are common among E. coli and Salmonella from poultry and other avian sources. To broaden our understanding of reservoirs of blaCMY, we determined the types of plasmids carrying blaCMY among E. coli O157. From 1996 to 2009, 3742 E. coli O157 isolates were tested. Eleven (0.29%) were ceftriaxone resistant and had a blaCMY-2-containing plasmid. All four isolates submitted before 2001 and a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY encoded on IncA/C plasmids, while all five isolates submitted after 2001 and a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY carried on IncI1 plasmids. The IncI1 plasmids were ST2, ST20, and ST23. We conclude that cephalosporin resistance among E. coli O157:H7 is due to plasmid-encoded blaCMY genes and that plasmid types appear to have shifted from IncA/C to IncI1. This shift suggests either a change in plasmid type among animal reservoirs or that the organism has expanded into avian reservoirs. More analysis of human, retail meat, and food animal isolates is necessary to broaden our understanding of the antimicrobial resistance determinants of ESC resistance among E. coli O157.

  3. Changing plasmid types responsible for extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the USA, 1996-2009.

    PubMed

    Folster, J P; Pecic, G; Stroika, S; Rickert, R; Whichard, J M

    2014-06-01

    Escherichia coli O157 is a major cause of food-borne illness. Plasmids are genetic elements that mobilise antimicrobial resistance determinants, including blaCMY β-lactamases that confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). ESCs are important for treating a variety of infections. IncA/C plasmids are found among diverse sources, including cattle, the principal source of E. coli O157 infections in humans. IncI1 plasmids are common among E. coli and Salmonella from poultry and other avian sources. To broaden our understanding of the reservoirs of blaCMY, the types of plasmids carrying blaCMY among E. coli O157 were determined. From 1996 to 2009, 3742 E. coli O157 isolates were tested. Eleven isolates (0.29%) were ceftriaxone-resistant and had a blaCMY-2-containing plasmid. All four isolates submitted before 2001 as well as a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY encoded on IncA/C plasmids, whilst all five isolates submitted after 2001 and a single 2001 isolate had blaCMY carried on IncI1 plasmids. The IncI1 plasmids were ST2, ST20 and ST23. We conclude that cephalosporin resistance among E. coli O157:H7 is due to plasmid-encoded blaCMY genes and that plasmid types appear to have shifted from IncA/C to IncI1. This shift suggests either a change in plasmid type among animal reservoirs or that the organism has expanded into avian reservoirs. More analysis of human, retail meat and food animal isolates is necessary to broaden our understanding of the antimicrobial resistance determinants of ESC resistance among E. coli O157. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Plasmid-encoded antirestriction protein ArdA can discriminate between type I methyltransferase and complete restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Nekrasov, Sergei V; Agafonova, Olga V; Belogurova, Nataly G; Delver, Eugene P; Belogurov, Anatol A

    2007-01-12

    Many promiscuous plasmids encode the antirestriction proteins ArdA (alleviation of restriction of DNA) that specifically affect the restriction activity of heterooligomeric type I restriction-modification (R-M) systems in Escherichia coli cells. In addition, a lot of the putative ardA genes encoded by plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are found as a result of sequencing of complete genomic sequences, suggesting that ArdA proteins and type I R-M systems that seem to be widespread among bacteria may be involved in the regulation of gene transfer among bacterial genomes. Here, the mechanism of antirestriction action of ArdA encoded by IncI plasmid ColIb-P9 has been investigated in comparison with that of well-studied T7 phage-encoded antirestriction protein Ocr using the mutational analysis, retardation assay and His-tag affinity chromatography. Like Ocr, ArdA protein was shown to be able to efficiently interact with EcoKI R-M complex and affect its in vivo and in vitro restriction activity by preventing its interaction with specific DNA. However, unlike Ocr, ArdA protein has a low binding affinity to EcoKI Mtase and the additional C-terminal tail region (VF-motif) is needed for ArdA to efficiently interact with the type I R-M enzymes. It seems likely that this ArdA feature is a basis for its ability to discriminate between activities of EcoKI Mtase (modification) and complete R-M system (restriction) which may interact with unmodified DNA in the cells independently. These findings suggest that ArdA may provide a very effective and delicate control for the restriction and modification activities of type I systems and its ability to discriminate against DNA restriction in favour of the specific modification of DNA may give some advantage for efficient transmission of the ardA-encoding promiscuous plasmids among different bacterial populations.

  5. Iteron Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Konieczny, Igor; Bury, Katarzyna; Wawrzycka, Aleksandra; Wegrzyn, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    Iteron-containing plasmids are model systems for studying the metabolism of extrachromosomal genetic elements in bacterial cells. Here we describe the current knowledge and understanding of the structure of iteron-containing replicons, the structure of the iteron plasmid encoded replication initiation proteins, and the molecular mechanisms for iteron plasmid DNA replication initiation. We also discuss the current understanding of control mechanisms affecting the plasmid copy number and how host chaperone proteins and proteases can affect plasmid maintenance in bacterial cells.

  6. Effect of amine type on the expression of plasmid DNA by cationized dextran.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jun-ichiro; Nagane, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare a non-viral carrier of gene expression from the polysaccharide dextran and evaluate the effect of amine compounds introduced to dextran on the level of gene expression. Dextran with a molecular weight of 74 x 10(3) was cationized by the chemical introduction of different amine compounds. The cationized dextran was complexed with a plasmid DNA and the vitro gene transfection was investigated for HeLa cells. The level of gene expression depended on the amine compound introduced to dextran. The highest level was observed for the complex of spermine-introduced dextran and plasmid DNA. The highest cellular internalization and the best buffering effect were observed among every cationized dextran. Every complex did not show any cytotoxicity. It is concluded that the superior properties of spermine-introduced dextran enabled the plasmid DNA to enhance the expression level to a great extent compared with other cationized dextrans. Cationized dextran is a promising non-viral carrier of plasmid DNA.

  7. Construction and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus type 6b L1 recombinant plasmid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Jia-bi; Zuo, Ya-gang; Liu, Yue-hua; Ma, Dong-lai

    2004-09-01

    To construct a DNA vaccine as a prophylactic model to prevent condyloma acuminatum and detect its immunogenicity in mice. The major capsid protein (L1) gene of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6b was inserted into an eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1). The recombinant plasmid was transfected into COS-7 cells. Western blot were performed to detect whether L1 protein can be expressed in eukaryotic cells. Eighteen female BALB/c mice were tested for immunogenicity study. The recombinant plasmid (pcDNA3.1-HPV6bL1) was verified as HPV6b L1 gene by sequencing. Western blot showed specific strip. Anti-L1 protein antibodies could be detected in the mice's sera inoculated with pcDNA3.1-HPV6bL1. Similarly, IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-gamma were increased in the same mice. HPV6b L1 recombinant plasmid was constructed successfully which had immunogenicity for BALB/c mice. It provided experimental evidence for the research of DNA vaccine of condyloma acuminata.

  8. Cefotaxime resistant Escherichia coli collected from a healthy volunteer; characterisation and the effect of plasmid loss.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Miranda; Abuoun, Manal; Mafura, Muriel; Bagnall, Mary; Hunt, Theresa; Thomas, Christopher; Weile, Jan; Anjum, Muna F

    2013-01-01

    In this study 6 CTX-M positive E. coli isolates collected during a clinical study examining the effect of antibiotic use in a human trial were analysed. The aim of the study was to analyse these isolates and assess the effect of full or partial loss of plasmid genes on bacterial fitness and pathogenicity. A DNA array was utilised to assess resistance and virulence gene carriage. Plasmids were characterised by PCR-based replicon typing and addiction system multiplex PCR. A phenotypic array and insect virulence model were utilised to assess the effect of plasmid-loss in E. coli of a large multi-resistance plasmid. All six E. coli carrying bla CTX-M-14 were detected from a single participant and were identical by pulse field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Plasmid profiling and arrays indicated absence of a large multi-drug resistance (MDR) F-replicon plasmid carrying blaTEM, aadA4, strA, strB, dfrA17/19, sul1, and tetB from one isolate. Although this isolate partially retained the plasmid it showed altered fitness characteristics e.g. inability to respire in presence of antiseptics, similar to a plasmid-cured strain. However, unlike the plasmid-cured or plasmid harbouring strains, the survival rate for Galleria mellonella infected by the former strain was approximately 5-times lower, indicating other possible changes accompanying partial plasmid loss. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that an apparently healthy individual can harbour bla CTX-M-14 E. coli strains. In one such strain, isolated from the same individual, partial absence of a large MDR plasmid resulted in altered fitness and virulence characteristics, which may have implications in the ability of this strain to infect and any subsequent treatment.

  9. Evaluating quantitative methods for measuring plasmid copy numbers in single cells

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Shay; Paulsson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The life of plasmids is a constant battle against fluctuations: failing to correct copy number fluctuations can increase the plasmid loss rate by many orders of magnitude, as can a failure to more evenly divide the copies between daughters at cell division. Plasmids are therefore long-standing model systems for stochastic processes in cells, much thanks to the efforts of Kurt Nordström to whose memory this issue is dedicated. Here we analyze a range of experimental methods for measuring plasmid copy numbers in single cells, focusing on challenges, trade-offs and necessary experimental controls. In particular we analyze published and unpublished strategies to infer copy numbers from expression of plasmid-encoded reporters, direct labeling of plasmids with fluorescent probes or DNA binding proteins fused to fluorescent reporters, PCR based methods applied to single cell lysates, and plasmid-specific replication arrest. We conclude that no method currently exists to measure plasmid copy numbers in single cells, and that most methods instead inadvertently measure various types of experimental noise. We also discuss how accurate methods can be developed. PMID:22305922

  10. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profiles of Escherichia coli strains isolated from foods.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Ahmet; Durak, Yusuf

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial contamination in foods and antimicrobial resistance levels of common pathogenic strains causing food-borne disease are important in human health. Thus, typing technologies are important tools to determine primary sources of bacterial contamination. In this study, 40 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 85 food samples were evaluated in terms of genetic diversity, susceptibility to certain antibiotics, and plasmid profiles. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to identify the genetic relations of E. coli isolates. It was determined that the 40 E. coli strains revealed 32 different pulsotypes represented by 6 subtypes. Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted by using a disc diffusion method against 15 antibiotics showed that although the isolates revealed 14 different types of resistance profiles, the strains showed the greatest resistance to ampicillin (77.5%), followed by ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (30%), tetracycline (22.5%), and cephalothin (14.5%). Plasmid isolations studies of the strains conducted by the method of alkaline lysis revealed that 18 (45%) of 40 E. coli strains contain 31 different plasmid bands ranging between 64.4 and 1 kb. The results showed that PFGE was a powerful method in tracking sources of food contamination and that the antibiotic resistance levels of food isolates were high and should be monitored.

  11. Calcium-regulated type III secretion of Yop proteins by an Escherichia coli hha mutant carrying a Yersinia pestis pCD1 virulence plasmid.

    PubMed

    Bartra, Sara Schesser; Jackson, Michael W; Ross, Julia A; Plano, Gregory V

    2006-02-01

    A series of four large deletions that removed a total of ca. 36 kb of DNA from the ca. 70-kb Yersinia pestis pCD1 virulence plasmid were constructed using lambda Red-mediated recombination. Escherichia coli hha deletion mutants carrying the virulence plasmid with the deletions expressed a functional calcium-regulated type III secretion system. The E. coli hha/pCD1 system should facilitate molecular studies of the type III secretion process.

  12. Construction of adiponectin-encoding plasmid DNA and gene therapy of non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nan, Mei Hua; Park, Jeong-Sook; Myung, Chang-Seon

    2010-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN), an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, stimulates glucose uptake, inhibits gluconeogenesis, and plays an important role in improving insulin sensitivity. Since blood levels of ADN are low in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), this study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of increasing the ADN level through injection of plasmid DNA encoding ADN in type 2 DM. A non-obese type 2 DM mouse model was established via combined administration of streptozotocin with nicotinamide and exhibited significantly higher plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance compared with normal controls according to oral glucose tolerance and insulin challenge tests. Plasmid DNA encoding mouse ADN from differentiated NIH3T3 adipocytes was constructed in pVAX1 (pVAX/ADN). Transfection of pVAX/ADN into various cell lines including HeLa, HT22, HEK293, HepG2, and SK-Hep1 cells, increased ADN mRNA expression levels in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of pVAX/ADN into non-obese type 2 DM mice via tail vein significantly increased the blood level of ADN and decreased the plasma glucose concentration. Moreover, the parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity (QUICKI) were significantly improved. These results suggest that ADN gene therapy could be a clinically effective tool for the treatment of type 2 DM.

  13. Replication and segregation of plasmids containing cis-acting regulatory sites of silent mating-type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled by the SIR genes.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerly, W J; Rine, J

    1987-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two cis-acting regulatory sites called E and I flank the silent mating-type gene, HMRa, and mediate SIR-dependent transcriptional repression of the a1-a2 promoters. It has been shown previously that the E and I sites have plasmid replicator (ARS) activity. We show in this report that the ARS activity of the E and I sites is governed by the SIR genotype of the cell. In wild-type cells, a plasmid carrying the E site from HMRa (HMR E) in the vector YIp5 exhibited very high mitotic stability at a copy number of approximately 25 per cell. However, in sir2, sir3, or sir4 mutants, plasmids with HMR E had the low mitotic stability characteristic of plasmids containing ARS1, a SIR-independent replicator. Elevated mitotic stability of plasmids that carry HMR E is due to a segregation mechanism provided by SIR and HMR E. In sir2 and sir4 mutants, the plasmid copy number was significantly lowered, suggesting that these gene products also participate in the replication of plasmids carrying HMR E. The phenotype of point mutations introduced at an 11-base-pair ARS consensus sequence present at HMR E indicated that this sequence is functional but not absolutely required for autonomous replication of the plasmid and that it is not required for SIR-dependent mitotic stabilization. A plasmid carrying both a centromere and HMR E exhibited reduced mitotic stability in wild-type cells. This destabilization appeared to be due to antagonism between the segregation functions provided by the centromere and by HMR E. Images PMID:3325822

  14. IncH-Type Plasmid Harboring blaCTX-M-15, blaDHA-1, and qnrB4 Genes Recovered from Animal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Andreas; Nordmann, Patrice; Bonnin, Rémy A.; Millemann, Yves; Eikmeyer, Felix G.; Wibberg, Daniel; Pühler, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The whole sequence of plasmid pENVA carrying the extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-15 was determined. It was identified from a series of clonally related Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 274 strains recovered from companion animals. This plasmid was 253,984 bp in size and harbored, in addition to blaCTX-M-15, a large array of genes encoding resistance to many antibiotic molecules, including β-lactams (blaTEM-1, blaDHA-1), aminoglycosides (aacA2, aadA1), tetracycline (tetA), quinolones (qnrB4), trimethoprim (dfrA15), and sulfonamides (two copies of sul1). In addition, genes encoding resistance to mercury, tellurium, nickel, and quaternary compounds were identified. It also carried genes encoding DNA damage protection and mutagenesis repair and a locus for a CRISPR system, which corresponds to an immune system involved in protection against bacteriophages and plasmids. Comparative analysis of the plasmid scaffold showed that it possessed a structure similar to that of only a single plasmid, which was pNDM-MAR encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and identified from human K. pneumoniae isolates. Both plasmids possessed two replicons, namely, those of IncFIB-like and IncHIB-like plasmids, which were significantly different from those previously characterized. The blaCTX-M-15 gene, together with the other antibiotic resistance genes, was part of a large module likely acquired through a transposition process. We characterized here a new plasmid type carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene identified in a K. pneumoniae isolate of animal origin. The extent to which this plasmid type may spread efficiently and possibly further enhance the dissemination of blaCTX-M-15 among animal and human isolates remains to be determined. PMID:24752252

  15. Novel plasmid and its variant harboring both a bla(NDM-1) gene and type IV secretion system in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter lwoffii.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyan; Hu, Yongfei; Pan, Yuanlong; Liang, Hui; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiumei; Hao, Qinfang; Yang, Xiaoli; Yang, Xi; Xiao, Xue; Luan, Chunguang; Yang, Yi; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu; Gao, George F; Song, Yajun; Zhu, Baoli

    2012-04-01

    The spread of the bla(NDM-1) gene is gaining worldwide attentions. This gene is usually carried by large plasmids and has been discovered in diverse bacteria since it was originally found in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Here we report the complete sequences of a bla(NDM-1)-bearing plasmid, pNDM-BJ01, and its variant, pNDM-BJ02, isolated from clinical Acinetobacter lwoffii strains. The plasmid pNDM-BJ01 is 47.3 kb in size and cannot be classified into any known plasmid incompatibility group, thus representing a novel plasmid with an unknown maintenance mechanism. This plasmid contains both a bla(NDM-1) gene and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) gene cluster. The T4SS is assigned to the P-type T4SS group, which usually encode a short, rigid pilus, and the bla(NDM-1) gene is located within a composite transposon flanked by two insertion elements of ISAba125. Plasmid pNDM-BJ02 is nearly identical to pNDM-BJ01 except that one copy of the ISAba125 element is missing, and it is therefore regarded as a variant of pNDM-BJ01. Sequence alignment indicated that this bla(NDM-1)-containing composite transposon, which can also be captured by other mobile elements, was probably a product of multiple recombination events and can move as a whole by transposition.

  16. Horizontal Gene Transfer of a ColV Plasmid Has Resulted in a Dominant Avian Clonal Type of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Thorsness, Jessica L.; Anderson, Cole P.; Lynne, Aaron M.; Foley, Steven L.; Han, Jing; Fricke, W. Florian; McDermott, Patrick F.; White, David G.; Khatri, Mahesh; Stell, Adam L.; Flores, Cristian; Singer, Randall S.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella enterica continues to be a significant cause of foodborne gastrointestinal illness in humans. A wide variety of Salmonella serovars have been isolated from production birds and from retail poultry meat. Recently, though, S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Kentucky has emerged as one of the prominent Salmonella serovars isolated from broiler chickens. Recent work suggests that its emergence apparently coincides with its acquisition of a ColV virulence plasmid. In the present study, we examined 902 Salmonella isolates belonging to 59 different serovars for the presence of this plasmid. Of the serovars examined, the ColV plasmid was found only among isolates belonging to the serovars Kentucky (72.9%), Typhimurium (15.0%) and Heidelberg (1.7%). We demonstrated that a single PFGE clonal type of S. Kentucky harbors this plasmid, and acquisition of this plasmid by S. Kentucky significantly increased its ability to colonize the chicken cecum and cause extraintestinal disease. Comparison of the completed sequences of three ColV plasmids from S. Kentucky isolated from different geographical locales, timepoints and sources revealed a nearly identical genetic structure with few single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions. Overall, it appears that the ColV plasmid was recently acquired by a single clonal type S. Kentucky and confers to its host enhanced colonization and fitness capabilities. Thus, the potential for horizontal gene transfer of virulence and fitness factors to Salmonella from other enteric bacteria exists in poultry, representing a potential human health hazard. PMID:21203520

  17. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactamases. DNA sequencing showed that all isolates encoded genes for TEM-1-type β-lactamase. Moreover, 78.2% of the isolates transferred the TEM-1-type β-lactamase gene via conjugation. In plasmid replicon typing of all donors, IncFIB and IncFIA were identified in 71.4% and 41.0% of plasmids, respectively. In transconjugants, IncFIB and IncFIA were the most frequent types detected (61.5% and 41.0%, respectively). Overall, the present study indicates that selection pressures of antimicrobials on β-lactamases in beef cattle may be low relative to other livestock animals in Korea. Moreover, to reduce selection pressure and dissemination of β-lactamase, the long-term surveillance of antimicrobial use in domestic beef cattle should be established. PMID:26119172

  18. Degradative plasmids from sphingomonads.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Large plasmids ('megaplasmids') are commonly found in members of the Alphaproteobacterial family Sphingomonadaceae ('sphingomonads'). These plasmids contribute to the extraordinary catabolic flexibility of this group of organisms, which degrade a broad range of recalcitrant xenobiotic compounds. The genomes of several sphingomonads have been sequenced during the last years. In the course of these studies, also the sequences of several plasmids have been determined. The analysis of the published information and the sequences deposited in the public databases allowed a first classification of these plasmids into a restricted number of groups according to the proteins involved in the initiation of replication, plasmid partition and conjugation. The sequence comparisons demonstrated that the plasmids from sphingomonads encode for four main groups of replication initiation (Rep) proteins. These Rep proteins belong to the protein superfamilies RepA_C (Pfam 04796), Rep_3 (Pfam 01051), RPA (Pfam 10134) and HTH-36 (Pfam 13730). The 'degradative megaplasmids' pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02, pCHQ1, pISP0, and pISP1, which code for genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, carbazole, dibenzo-p-dioxin and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, carry Rep proteins which either belong to the RepA_C- (plasmids pNL2, pCAR3, pSWIT02), Rep-3- (plasmids pCHQ1, pISP0) or RPA-superfamily (pISP1). The classification of these 'degradative megaplasmids' into three groups is also supported by sequence comparisons of the proteins involved in plasmid partition (ParAB) and the organization of the three genes on the respective plasmids. All analysed 'degradative megaplasmids' carry genes, which might allow a conjugative transfer of the plasmids. Sequence comparisons of these genes suggest the presence of at least two types of transfer functions, which either are closer related to the tra- or vir-genes previously described for plasmids from other sources.

  19. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and plasmids among Escherichia coli isolates from zoo animals, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Dobiasova, Hana; Dolejska, Monika; Jamborova, Ivana; Brhelova, Eva; Blazkova, Lucie; Papousek, Ivo; Kozlova, Marketa; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    Commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy zoo animals kept in Ostrava Zoological Garden, Czech Republic, were investigated to evaluate the dissemination of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. A total of 160 faecal samples of various animal species were inoculated onto MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (2 mg L(-1)) or ciprofloxacin (0.05 mg L(-1)) to obtain ESBL- or PMQR-positive E. coli isolates. Clonality of E. coli isolates was investigated by multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Plasmids carrying ESBL or PMQR genes were typed by PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-nine (71%, n = 69) cefotaxime-resistant and 15 (16%, n = 94) ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates harboured ESBL or PMQR genes. Isolates were assigned to 18 sequence types (ST) and 20 clusters according to their macrorestriction patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The genes blaCTX -M-1 and qnrS1 were detected on highly related IncI1 plasmids assigned to clonal complex 3 (ST3, ST38) and on non-related IncN plasmids of ST1 and ST3, respectively. The gene qnrS1 was located on related IncX1 plasmids. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance is associated with spreading of particular E. coli clones and plasmids of specific incompatibility groups among various animal species.

  20. First Report of cfr-Carrying Plasmids in the Pandemic Sequence Type 22 Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type IV Clone

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Anna C.; Lazaris, Alexandros; Kinnevey, Peter M.; Brennan, Orla M.; Brennan, Gráinne I.; O'Connell, Brian; Feßler, Andrea T.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Linezolid is often the drug of last resort for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Linezolid resistance is mediated by mutations in 23S rRNA and genes for ribosomal proteins; cfr, encoding phenicol, lincosamide, oxazolidinone, pleuromutilin, and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) resistance; its homologue cfr(B); or optrA, conferring oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance. Linezolid resistance is rare in S. aureus, and cfr is even rarer. This study investigated the clonality and linezolid resistance mechanisms of two MRSA isolates from patients in separate Irish hospitals. Isolates were subjected to cfr PCR, PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA PCR and sequencing, DNA microarray profiling, spa typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), plasmid curing, and conjugative transfer. Whole-genome sequencing was used for single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis, multilocus sequence typing, L protein mutation identification, cfr plasmid sequence analysis, and optrA and cfr(B) detection. Isolates M12/0145 and M13/0401 exhibited linezolid MICs of 64 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and harbored identical 23S rRNA and L22 mutations, but M12/0145 exhibited the mutation in 2/6 23S rRNA alleles, compared to 1/5 in M13/0401. Both isolates were sequence type 22 MRSA staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (ST22-MRSA-IV)/spa type t032 isolates, harbored cfr, exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype, and lacked optrA and cfr(B). They differed by five PFGE bands and 603 SNVs. Isolate M12/0145 harbored cfr and fexA on a 41-kb conjugative pSCFS3-type plasmid, whereas M13/0401 harbored cfr and lsa(B) on a novel 27-kb plasmid. This is the first report of cfr in the pandemic ST22-MRSA-IV clone. Different cfr plasmids and mutations associated with linezolid resistance in genotypically distinct ST22-MRSA-IV isolates highlight that prudent management of linezolid use is essential. PMID:26953212

  1. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli by antimicrobial resistance profiles, plasmid replicon typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aim: Plasmid characterization has particular clinical importance because genes encoding significant traits including antimicrobial resistance are frequently carried on plasmids. The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Escherichia coli in relation ...

  2. Typing and characterization of ColE1-like plasmids conferring kanamycin resistance in Salmonella enterica serotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Multi-antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes are increasing in prevalence and concern in human and animal health. Many strains carry resistance determinants on plasmids; current practices focus heavily on large plasmids and the role small plasmids play in resistance gene tra...

  3. Mechanisms of plasmid segregation: have multicopy plasmids been overlooked?

    PubMed

    Million-Weaver, Samuel; Camps, Manel

    2014-09-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating pieces of DNA typically bearing non-essential genes. Given that plasmids represent a metabolic burden to the host, mechanisms ensuring plasmid transmission to daughter cells are critical for their stable maintenance in the population. Here we review these mechanisms, focusing on two active partition strategies common to low-copy plasmids: par systems type I and type II. Both involve three components: an adaptor protein, a motor protein, and a centromere, which is a sequence area in the plasmid that is recognized by the adaptor protein. The centromere-bound adaptor nucleates polymerization of the motor, leading to filament formation, which can pull plasmids apart (par I) or push them towards opposite poles of the cell (par II). No such active partition mechanisms are known to occur in high copy number plasmids. In this case, vertical transmission is generally considered stochastic, due to the random distribution of plasmids in the cytoplasm. We discuss conceptual and experimental lines of evidence questioning the random distribution model and posit the existence of a mechanism for segregation in high copy number plasmids that moves plasmids to cell poles to facilitate transmission to daughter cells. This mechanism would involve chromosomally-encoded proteins and the plasmid origin of replication. Modulation of this proposed mechanism of segregation could provide new ways to enhance plasmid stability in the context of recombinant gene expression, which is limiting for large-scale protein production and for bioremediation.

  4. Mobility of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Smillie, Chris; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Francia, M Victoria; Rocha, Eduardo P C; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Plasmids are key vectors of horizontal gene transfer and essential genetic engineering tools. They code for genes involved in many aspects of microbial biology, including detoxication, virulence, ecological interactions, and antibiotic resistance. While many studies have decorticated the mechanisms of mobility in model plasmids, the identification and characterization of plasmid mobility from genome data are unexplored. By reviewing the available data and literature, we established a computational protocol to identify and classify conjugation and mobilization genetic modules in 1,730 plasmids. This allowed the accurate classification of proteobacterial conjugative or mobilizable systems in a combination of four mating pair formation and six relaxase families. The available evidence suggests that half of the plasmids are nonmobilizable and that half of the remaining plasmids are conjugative. Some conjugative systems are much more abundant than others and preferably associated with some clades or plasmid sizes. Most very large plasmids are nonmobilizable, with evidence of ongoing domestication into secondary chromosomes. The evolution of conjugation elements shows ancient divergence between mobility systems, with relaxases and type IV coupling proteins (T4CPs) often following separate paths from type IV secretion systems. Phylogenetic patterns of mobility proteins are consistent with the phylogeny of the host prokaryotes, suggesting that plasmid mobility is in general circumscribed within large clades. Our survey suggests the existence of unsuspected new relaxases in archaea and new conjugation systems in cyanobacteria and actinobacteria. Few genes, e.g., T4CPs, relaxases, and VirB4, are at the core of plasmid conjugation, and together with accessory genes, they have evolved into specific systems adapted to specific physiological and ecological contexts.

  5. The E8∧E2 Gene Product of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Represses Early Transcription and Replication but Is Dispensable for Viral Plasmid Persistence in Keratinocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Anson, James R.; Thomas, Gregory S.; Turek, Lubomir P.; Haugen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    A conserved E8∧E2 spliced mRNA is detected in keratinocytes transfected with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) plasmid DNA. Expression of HPV-16 E8∧E2 (16-E8∧E2) is independent of the major early promoter, P97, and is modulated by both specific splicing events and conserved cis elements in the upstream regulatory region in a manner that differs from transcriptional regulation of other early viral genes. Mutations that disrupt the predicted 16-E8∧E2 message also increase initial HPV-16 plasmid amplification 8- to 15-fold and major early gene (P97) transcription 4- to 5-fold over those of the wild type (wt). Expressing the 16-E8∧E2 gene product from the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter represses HPV-16 early gene transcription from P97 in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by RNase protection assays. When expressed from the CMV promoter, 16-E8∧E2 also inhibits the amplification of an HPV-16 plasmid and a heterologous simian virus 40 (SV40) ori plasmid that contains E2 binding sites in cis. In contrast, cotransfections with HPV-16 wt genomes that express physiologic levels of 16-E8∧E2 are sufficient to repress HPV-16 plasmid amplification but are limiting and insufficient for the repression of SV40 amplification. 16-E8∧E2-dependent repression of HPV-16 E1 expression is sufficient to account for this observed inhibition of initial HPV-16 plasmid amplification. Unlike with other papillomaviruses, primary human keratinocytes immortalized by the HPV-16 E8 mutant genome contain more than eightfold-higher levels of unintegrated plasmid than the wt, demonstrating that 16-E8∧E2 limits the viral copy number but is not required for plasmid persistence and maintenance. PMID:18753207

  6. A two-plasmid strategy for engineering a dengue virus type 3 infectious clone from primary Brazilian isolate.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jefferson J S; Cordeiro, Marli T; Bertani, Giovani R; Marques, Ernesto T A; Gil, Laura H V G

    2014-12-01

    Dengue infections represent one of the most prevalent arthropod-borne diseases worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes. Engineered infectious clone is an important tool to study Dengue virus (DENV) biology. Functional full-length cDNA clones have been constructed for many positive-strand RNA viruses and have provided valuable tools for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in viral genome replication, virion assembly, virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. We report herein the successful development of an infectious clone from a primary Brazilian isolate of dengue virus 3 (DENV3) of the genotype III. Using a two-plasmid strategy, DENV3 genome was divided in two parts and cloned separately into a yeast-bacteria shuttle vector. All plasmids were assembled in yeast by homologous recombination technique and a full-length template for transcription was obtained by in vitro ligation of the two parts of the genome. Transcript-derived DENV3 is infectious upon transfection into BHK-21 cells and in vitro characterization confirmed its identity. Growth kinetics of transcript-derived DENV3 was indistinguishable from wild type DENV3. This system is a powerful tool that will help shed light on molecular features of DENV biology, as the relationship of specific mutations and DENV pathogenesis.

  7. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Duarte Miguel F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids are currently an indispensable molecular tool in life science research and a central asset for the modern biotechnology industry, supporting its mission to produce pharmaceutical proteins, antibodies, vaccines, industrial enzymes, and molecular diagnostics, to name a few key products. Furthermore, plasmids have gradually stepped up in the past 20 years as useful biopharmaceuticals in the context of gene therapy and DNA vaccination interventions. This review provides a concise coverage of the scientific progress that has been made since the emergence of what are called today plasmid biopharmaceuticals. The most relevant topics are discussed to provide researchers with an updated overview of the field. A brief outline of the initial breakthroughs and innovations is followed by a discussion of the motivation behind the medical uses of plasmids in the context of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. The molecular characteristics and rationale underlying the design of plasmid vectors as gene transfer agents are described and a description of the most important methods used to deliver plasmid biopharmaceuticals in vivo (gene gun, electroporation, cationic lipids and polymers, and micro- and nanoparticles) is provided. The major safety issues (integration and autoimmunity) surrounding the use of plasmid biopharmaceuticals is discussed next. Aspects related to the large-scale manufacturing are also covered, and reference is made to the plasmid products that have received marketing authorization as of today.

  8. IncHI2 Plasmids Are Predominant in Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyao; Fang, Tingzi; Zhou, Xiujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Shi, Xianming; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    The wide usage of antibiotics contributes to the increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella. Plasmids play a critical role in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance markers in Salmonella. This study aimed to screen and characterize plasmid profiles responsible for antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and ultimately to clarify the molecular mechanism of transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. A total of 226 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility by a disk diffusion method. Thirty-two isolates (14.2%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and β-lactamase genes were established by PCR amplification. PCR-based replicon typing revealed that these 32 isolates represented seven plasmid incompatibility groups (IncP, HI2, A/C, FIIs, FIA, FIB, and I1), and the IncHI2 (59.4%) was predominant. Antibiotic resistance markers located on plasmids were identified through plasmid curing. Fifteen phenotypic variants were obtained with the curing efficiency of 46.9% (15/32). The cured plasmids mainly belong to the HI2 incompatibility group. The elimination of IncHI2 plasmids correlated with the loss of β-lactamase genes (blaOXA-1 and blaTEM-1) and PMQR genes (qnrA and aac(6′)-Ib-cr). Both IncHI2 and IncI1 plasmids in a S. enterica serovar Indiana isolate SJTUF 10584 were lost by curing. The blaCMY -2-carrying plasmid pS10584 from SJTUF 10584 was fully sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that it possessed a plasmid scaffold typical for IncI1 plasmids with the unique genetic arrangement of IS1294-ΔISEcp1-blaCMY -2-blc-sugE-ΔecnR inserted into the colicin gene cia. These data suggested that IncHI2 was the major plasmid lineage contributing to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and the activity of multiple mobile genetic elements may contribute to antibiotic resistance evolution and dissemination between different plasmid

  9. Antirestriction protein Ard (Type C) encoded by IncW plasmid pSa has a high similarity to the "protein transport" domain of TraC1 primase of promiscuous plasmid RP4.

    PubMed

    Belogurov, A A; Delver, E P; Agafonova, O V; Belogurova, N G; Lee, L Y; Kado, C I

    2000-03-03

    The IncW plasmid pSa contains the gene ard encoding an antirestriction function that is specific for type I restriction and modification systems. The nucleotide sequence of ard was determined and an appropriate polypeptide of about 33 kDa was identified in Escherichia coli T7 expression system. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence of Ard encoded by pSa revealed that this protein has no significant similarities with the known Ard proteins (ArdA and ArdB types) except the "antirestriction" motif (14 amino acid residues in length) conserved for all known Ard proteins. This finding suggests that pSa Ard may be classified as a new type of Ard proteins which we designated ArdC. The remarkable feature of ArdC is that it has a high degree of similarity (about 38 % identity) to the N-terminal region of RP4 TraC1 primase which includes about 300 amino acid residues and seems to be essential for binding to the single-stranded DNA and TraC1 protein transport to the recipient cells during the conjugal transfer of plasmid DNA. ArdC also binds to single-stranded DNA. In addition, this protein is able in vitro to protect the single-stranded but not double-stranded plasmid DNA against the activity of type II restriction endonuclease HhaI that cleaves both single and double-stranded DNA. We suggest that like TraC1, ArdC would be transported as a result of their interaction with the single-stranded DNA of transferred plasmid strand during conjugative passage through the cell envelope to the recipient bacterium. Such properties of ArdC protein might be useful to protect immediately the incoming single-stranded DNA from the host endonucleases.

  10. Optimized PCR-based detection of mycoplasma.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolny, Paige L; Bess, Dan

    2011-06-20

    The maintenance of contamination-free cell lines is essential to cell-based research. Among the biggest contaminant concerns are mycoplasma contamination. Although mycoplasma do not usually kill contaminated cells, they are difficult to detect and can cause a variety of effects on cultured cells, including altered metabolism, slowed proliferation and chromosomal aberrations. In short, mycoplasma contamination compromises the value of those cell lines in providing accurate data for life science research. The sources of mycoplasma contamination in the laboratory are very challenging to completely control. As certain mycoplasma species are found on human skin, they can be introduced through poor aseptic technique. Additionally, they can come from contaminated supplements such as fetal bovine serum, and most importantly from other contaminated cell cultures. Once mycoplasma contaminates a culture, it can quickly spread to contaminate other areas of the lab. Strict adherence to good laboratory practices such as good aseptic technique are key, and routine testing for mycoplasma is highly recommended for successful control of mycoplasma contamination. PCR-based detection of mycoplasma has become a very popular method for routine cell line maintenance. PCR-based detection methods are highly sensitive and can provide rapid results, which allows researchers to respond quickly to isolate and eliminate contamination once it is detected in comparison to the time required using microbiological techniques. The LookOut Mycoplasma PCR Detection Kit is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of only 2 genomes per μl. Taking advantage of the highly specific JumpStart Taq DNA Polymerase and a proprietary primer design, false positives are greatly reduced. The convenient 8-tube format, strips pre-coated with dNTPs, and associated primers helps increase the throughput to meet the needs of customers with larger collections of cell lines. Given the extreme sensitivity of the kit, great

  11. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from horses in Poland: pVapA characteristics and plasmid new variant, 85-kb type V.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Feret, Małgorzata; Gawryś, Marta; Witkowski, Maciej; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-26

    Rhodococcus equi is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens affecting foals up to 6 months of age worldwide. Rhodococcosis is present in Poland however information about molecular characterization of R. equi isolates is scarce. This study describes molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi infection on 13 horse breeding farms in Poland between 2001 and 2012. Samples were collected by tracheobronchial aspiration from pneumonic foals or during necropsy. The R. equi isolates were genotyped by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Totally, 58 R. equi isolates were investigated. One isolate lost its plasmid. Among the 57 VapA-positive isolates, 48 contained 85-kb type I plasmid (82.8%), 8 contained 87-kb type I plasmid (13.8%). One isolate (1.7%) had a unique restriction cleavage pattern and the 2nd fragment of EcoRI digests of this plasmid DNA was about 2600 bases smaller than that of the 85 kb type I. This new plasmid variant was designated as the "85-kb type V". Among the 58 isolates typeable with VspI-PFGE, ten PFGE clusters were detected. The majority of foals were infected mostly with isolates of low genetic diversity. Most of clinical isolates of R. equi from foals in Poland contain pVapA 85-kb type I and 87-kb type I similarly to the other European countries and the United States. However, the new variant of pVapA 85-kb type V was identified. The chromosomal variability was detected among some of the investigated isolates and the presence of farm-specific isolates might be possible.

  12. Involvement of a plasmid-encoded type IV secretion system in the plant tissue watersoaking phenotype of Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Engledow, Amanda S; Medrano, Enrique G; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; LiPuma, John J; Gonzalez, Carlos F

    2004-09-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia strain K56-2, a representative of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, is part of the epidemic and clinically problematic ET12 lineage. The strain produced plant tissue watersoaking (ptw) on onion tissue, which is a plant disease-associated trait. Using plasposon mutagenesis, mutants in the ptw phenotype were generated. The translated sequence of a disrupted gene (ptwD4) from a ptw-negative mutant showed homology to VirD4-like proteins. Analysis of the region proximal to the transfer gene homolog identified a gene cluster located on the 92-kb resident plasmid that showed homology to type IV secretion systems. The role of ptwD4, ptwC, ptwB4, and ptwB10 in the expression of ptw activity was determined by conducting site-directed mutagenesis. The ptw phenotype was not expressed by K56-2 derivatives with a disruption in ptwD4, ptwB4, or ptwB10 but was observed in a derivative with a disruption in ptwC. Complementation of ptw-negative K56-2 derivatives in trans resulted in complete restoration of the ptw phenotype. In addition, analysis of culture supernatants revealed that the putative ptw effector(s) was a secreted, heat-stable protein(s) that caused plasmolysis of plant protoplasts. A second chromosomally encoded type IV secretion system with complete homology to the VirB-VirD system was identified in K56-2. Site-directed mutagenesis of key secretory genes in the VirB-VirD system did not affect expression of the ptw phenotype. Our findings indicate that in strain K56-2, the plasmid-encoded Ptw type IV secretion system is responsible for the secretion of a plant cytotoxic protein(s).

  13. Complete Genome and Plasmid Sequences of Three Canadian Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis Belonging to Phage Types 8, 13, and 13a

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Muhammad Attiq; Labbé, Geneviève; Ziebell, Kim; Nash, John H. E.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a prominent cause of human salmonellosis frequently linked to poultry products. In Canada, S. Enteritidis phage types 8, 13, and 13a predominate among both clinical and poultry isolates. Here, we report the complete genome and plasmid sequences of poultry isolates of these three phage types. PMID:26404595

  14. The first NDM metallo-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolate in Poland: evolution of IncFII-type plasmids carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Fiett, J; Baraniak, A; Izdebski, R; Sitkiewicz, I; Żabicka, D; Meler, A; Filczak, K; Hryniewicz, W; Gniadkowski, M

    2014-01-01

    Poland's first Enterobacteriaceae isolate producing the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) was identified in August 2011. Escherichia coli sequence type ST410 NDM-1 was cultured from a critically ill patient who had been transferred directly from the Congo. The blaNDM-1 gene was carried by conjugative IncFII-type plasmid pMC-NDM (87,619 bp), which showed structural similarity to plasmid pGUE-NDM, which was identified earlier in France in an E. coli ST131 isolate of Indian origin.

  15. Characterization of blaCTX-M IncFII plasmids and clones of Escherichia coli from pets in France.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Safia; Haenni, Marisa; Châtre, Pierre; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2013-12-01

    To characterize bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids and clones of Escherichia coli from cats and dogs and to compare them with bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids reported in humans. From December 2006 to April 2010, 518 E. coli isolates from clinical infections in cats and dogs were screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by disc diffusion and resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing and sub-typing schemes, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, S1-PFGE and Southern hybridization. Isolates were characterized by PFGE, phylogenetic grouping, O25b typing and multilocus sequence typing. Nineteen E. coli isolates (3.7%) produced ESBLs, of which 14 (74%) carried bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids. The bla(CTX-M) gene was predominant and located on F31:A4:B1, F36:A4:B1 or F36:A1:B20 plasmids, abundantly reported in humans. The bla(CTX-M) F22:A1:B20 or F2:A2:B20 plasmids were also found. Different sequence types (STs) were identified, such as ST10, ST410, ST359, ST617 and ST224. Only one E. coli isolate belonged to the ST131 E. coli clone and carried a bla(CTX-M) F2:A2:B20 plasmid. This is the first known extensive study on ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pets in France. The ST131 clone was rare. However, the predominance of human-like bla(CTX-M) IncFII plasmids suggests exchanges of these plasmids with the human reservoir.

  16. Intramuscular delivery of a naked DNA plasmid encoding proinsulin and pancreatic regenerating III protein ameliorates type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Rui; Xie, Sheng-Nan; Wang, Hong-Jie; Su, Yu-Yong; Lu, Jing-Li; Li, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Xiang, Ming

    2011-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of β cells. Up to now, there is still no cure for this devastating disease and alternative approach should be developed. To explore a novel gene therapy strategy combining immunotherapy and β cell regeneration, we constructed a non-viral plasmid encoding proinsulin (PI) and pancreatic regenerating (Reg) III protein (pReg/PI). Therapeutic potentials of this plasmid for T1DM were investigated. Intramuscular delivery of pReg/PI resulted in a significant reduction in hyperglycemia and diabetes incidence, with an increased insulin contents in the serum of T1DM mice model induced by STZ. Treatment with pReg/PI also restored the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and expanded CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells, which may attribute to the establishment of self-immune tolerance. Additionally, in comparison to the mice treated with empty vector pBudCE4.1 (pBud), attenuated insulitis and apoptosis achieved by inhibiting activation of NF-κB in the pancreas of pReg/PI treated mice were observed. In summary, these results indicate that intramuscular delivery of pReg/PI distinctly ameliorated STZ-induced T1DM by reconstructing the immunological self-tolerance and promoting the regeneration of β cells, which might be served as a promising candidate for the gene therapy of T1DM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. VapB type 8 plasmids in Rhodococcus equi isolated from the small intestine of pigs and comparison of selective culture media.

    PubMed

    Lara, G H B; Takai, S; Sasaki, Y; Kakuda, T; Listoni, F J P; Risseti, R M; de Morais, A B C; Ribeiro, M G

    2015-09-01

    The virulence-plasmid profile of Rhodococcus equi strains isolated from Suidae and humans is similar. Recent evidence suggests that the consumption of pork products contaminated with faeces might be a potential source of R. equi infections in humans, mainly to patients with rhodococcosis without history of contact with pigs or pig farms. This study investigated the virulence-associated genes (vapA and vapB) and plasmid profiles of R. equi among the 150 samples of small intestinal content obtained from slaughtered pigs. In addition, all samples were subjected to microbiological culture in conventional sheep blood agar and CAZ-NB, TCP and TVP selective media. A total of 40 (26·7%) of the samples recovered R. equi, with two samples recovering isolates harbouring the VapB type 8 plasmid. Among the 150 pigs sampled herein, CAZ-NB was considered the best selective medium for the isolation of R. equi from faeces. Our results provide evidence that the contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, this study is the first description of R. equi strains carrying the VapB plasmid in the gut of pigs. Intermediately virulent (VapB) is a common plasmid-type harboured by R. equi isolated from pigs and humans with AIDS. Curiously, humans with rhodococcosis usually have no history of contact with pigs or pig farms. Virulence-plasmid profile of 40 R. equi isolated among 150 small intestine content samples from pigs revelled two carrying isolates with the VapB type-8 plasmids. Moreover, comparison of three selective culture media shows that CAZ-NB was the best. Our results provide evidence that contamination of slaughtered pig carcasses with pathogenic R. equi might occur through faeces, representing a public health concern. Furthermore, R. equi carrying VapB type-8 plasmids types are described for the first time in the gut of the pig. © 2015 The Society for Applied

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain YU15 (Sequence Type 19) Harboring the Salmonella Genomic Island 1 and Virulence Plasmid pSTV

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Edmundo; Puente, José L.; Zaidi, Mussaret B.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium sequence type 19 (ST19) strain YU15, isolated in Yucatán, Mexico, from a human baby stool culture, was determined using PacBio technology. The chromosome contains five intact prophages and the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). This strain carries the Salmonella virulence plasmid pSTV. PMID:27081132

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid containing the botulinum neurotoxin gene in Clostridium botulinum type B strain 111 isolated from an infant patient in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Koji; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Kohda, Tomoko; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Umeda, Kaoru; Iida, Tetsuya; Kozaki, Shunji; Mukamoto, Masafumi

    2014-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are highly potent toxins that are produced by Clostridium botulinum. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a plasmid containing the botulinum neurotoxin gene in C. botulinum type B strain 111 in order to obtain an insight into the toxigenicity and evolution of the bont gene in C. botulinum. Group I C. botulinum type B strain 111 was isolated from the first case of infant botulism in Japan in 1995. In previous studies, botulinum neurotoxin subtype B2 (BoNT/B2) produced by strain 111 exhibited different antigenic properties from those of authentic BoNT/B1 produced by strain Okra. We have recently shown that the isolates of strain 111 that lost toxigenicity were cured of the plasmid containing the bont/B2 gene. In the present study, the plasmid (named pCB111) was circular 265,575 bp double-stranded DNA and contained 332 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). 85 gene products of these ORFs could be functionally assigned on the basis of sequence homology to known proteins. The bont/B2 complex genes were located on pCB111 and some gene products may be involved in the conjugative plasmid transfer and horizontal transfer of bont genes. pCB111 was similar to previously identified plasmids containing bont/B1, /B5, or/A3 complex genes in other group I C. botulinum strains. It was suggested that these plasmids had been derived from a common ancestor and had played important roles for the bont gene transfer between C. botulinum.

  20. Wound-released chemical signals may elicit multiple responses from an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an octopine-type Ti plasmid.

    PubMed

    Kalogeraki, V S; Winans, S C

    1998-11-01

    The vir regions of octopine-type and nopaline-type Ti plasmids direct the transfer of oncogenic T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the nuclei of host plant cells. Previous studies indicate that at least two genetic loci at the left ends of these two vir regions are sufficiently conserved to form heteroduplexes visible in the electron microscope. To initiate an investigation of these genetic loci, we determined the DNA sequences of these regions of both Ti plasmids and identified both conserved loci. One of these is the 2.5-kb virH locus, which was previously identified on the octopine-type Ti plasmid but thought to be absent from the nopaline-type Ti plasmid. The virH operon contains two genes that resemble P-450-type monooxygenases. The other locus encodes a 0.5-kb gene designated virK. In addition, we identified other potential genes in this region that are not conserved between these two plasmids. To determine (i) whether these genes are members of the vir regulon and, (ii) whether they are required for tumorigenesis, we used a genetic technique to disrupt each gene and simultaneously fuse its promoter to lacZ. Expression of these genes was also measured by nuclease S1 protection assays. virK and two nonconserved genes, designated virL and virM, were strongly induced by the vir gene inducer acetosyringone. Disruptions of virH, virK, virL, or virM did not affect tumorigenesis of Kalanchöe diagramontiana leaves or carrot disks, suggesting that they may play an entirely different role during pathogenesis.

  1. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The features contributing to the differences in pathogenicity of the C. fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic-domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins. In the genomes of ...

  2. First Report of the Globally Disseminated IncX4 Plasmid Carrying the mcr-1 Gene in a Colistin-Resistant Escherichia coli Sequence Type 101 Isolate from a Human Infection in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, John A.; Vianello, Marco A.; Moura, Quézia; Pérez-Chaparro, Paula J.; Esposito, Fernanda; Sartori, Luciana; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria H.; Lira, Débora P. A.; Mamizuka, Elsa M.

    2016-01-01

    A colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strain was recovered from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in Brazil. Whole-genome analysis revealed that the E. coli isolate belonged to the widespread sequence type (ST) 101 and harbored the mcr-1 gene on an IncX4 plasmid that was highly similar to mcr-1-bearing IncX4 plasmids that were recently identified in Enterobacteriaceae from food, animal, and human samples recovered on different continents. These results suggest that self-transmissible IncX4-type plasmids may represent promiscuous plasmids contributing to the intercontinental spread of the mcr-1 gene. PMID:27503650

  3. Chromosome-Directed PCR-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacillus cereus Group Members with Focus on B. thuringiensis Serovar israelensis Active against Nematoceran Larvae.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Salome; Hendriksen, Niels B; Melin, Petter; Lundström, Jan O; Sundh, Ingvar

    2015-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment.

  4. Chromosome-Directed PCR-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacillus cereus Group Members with Focus on B. thuringiensis Serovar israelensis Active against Nematoceran Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Niels B.; Melin, Petter; Lundström, Jan O.; Sundh, Ingvar

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is a wide-spread soil bacterium affiliated with the B. cereus group (Bcg) and is widely used in biocontrol products applied against mosquito and black fly larvae. For monitoring and quantification of applied B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and its effect on indigenous B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg assemblages, efficient and reliable tools are essential. The abundance and properties of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strains in the environment traditionally have been investigated with cultivation-dependent techniques, which are hampered by low sensitivity and the morphological similarity between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Currently available PCR-based detection and quantification tools target markers located on plasmids. In this study, a new cultivation-independent PCR-based method for efficient and specific quantification of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg is presented, utilizing two sets of PCR primers targeting the bacterial chromosome. Sequence database searches and empirical tests performed on target and nontarget species, as well as on bulk soil DNA samples, demonstrated that this diagnostic tool is specific for B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Bcg. The method will be useful for comparisons of Bcg and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis abundances in the same samples. Moreover, the effect of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis-based insecticide application on the total Bcg assemblages, including indigenous populations, can be investigated. This type of information is valuable in risk assessment and policy making for use of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the environment. PMID:25979887

  5. Demonstration that a Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolated from an insect (Nezara viridula) harbors a plasmid-borne type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Medrano, Enrique Gino; Bell, Alois A

    2017-09-01

    Previously, we reported the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies pneumoniae strain Kp 5-1 from a southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula) that is a significant pest of numerous economically important crops. We subsequently sequenced the strains whole genome. Here, we report the presence of a functional plasmid-borne type IV secretion (TFSS) system that was identified using genomic mining of the annotated genome. Comparison of the Kp 5-1 resident 186 kb plasmid (pKp 5-1) with nine other Klebsiella with plasmids of comparable size from clinical and environmental strains revealed putative TFSS with identities ranging from 70 to 99%. A primer set was designed at the pKp 5-1 region that shared homology with traC of the conjugation capable F-plasmid. The 2.4 kb amplified PCR product was cloned, sequenced, and used in hybridization experiments verify that the predicted gene was extra-chromosomally located. Based on biparental mating experimental results, a K. pneumoniae Kp 5-1 derivative transformed with the non-self-transmissible pMMB207αβ (an IncQ RSF1010 derivative) mobilized the vector into the parental strain with transfer frequencies of 10(-3) transconjugants/donor. Identification of a TFSS in strain Kp 5-1 is significant since in other systems the mobilization capacity is involved in dissemination of plasmids that may confer antibiotic resistance and/or the delivery of virulence proteins into host cells, and thus may have an important role in the fitness of this strain as well. This is the first report that both compared and demonstrated functionality of a plasmid-harbored TFSS in a K. pneumoniae isolated from a N. viridula.

  6. pDGO100, a type 1 IncC plasmid from 1981 carrying ARI-A and a Tn1696-like transposon in a novel integrating element.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Partridge, Sally R; Hall, Ruth M

    2016-07-01

    Most A/C plasmids sequenced to date were recovered in the last two decades. To gain insight into the evolution of this group, the IncC plasmid pDGO100, found in a multiply antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strain isolated in 1981, was sequenced. pDGO100 belongs to the type 1 lineage and carries an ARI-A antibiotic resistance island but not an ARI-B island. The A/C2 backbone of pDGO100 has a deletion in the rhs1 gene previously found in pRMH760 and differs by only six single base pair substitutions from pRMH760, recovered at the same hospital 16years later. This confirms that the separation of type 1 and type 2 IncC plasmids is long standing. The ARI-A islands are also closely related, but pRMH760 contains Tn4352B in tniA of Tn402, while in pDGO100, Tn4352 has inserted into merA of pDUmer. pDGO100 also carries an additional 46kb insertion that includes a Tn1696-like transposon with the dfrB3 gene cassette. This insertion was identified as a novel integrating element, with an int gene at one end, and also includes the fec iron uptake operon that has been acquired from the E. coli chromosome. Related integrating elements carrying the same int gene were found in A/C2, IncHI1, and IncHI2 plasmids, and in the chromosomes of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Cronobacter sakazakii isolates. In the Enterobacteriaceae chromosomes, these integrating elements appear to target a gene encoding a radical SAM superfamily protein. In the A/C2, IncHI1, and IncHI2 plasmids, genes encoding a phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase were interrupted. The extremities of the integrating element are highly conserved, whilst the internal gene content varies. The detection of integrative elements in plasmids demonstrates an increased range of locations into which this type of mobile element can integrate and insertion in plasmids is likely to assist their spread.

  7. Destabilization of IncA and IncC plasmids by SGI1 and SGI2 type Salmonella genomic islands.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hamidian, Mohammad; Ambrose, Stephanie J; Hall, Ruth M

    Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C2) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene. The plasmid was transferred at a similar frequency. However, we observed that co-transfer of the SGI and the plasmid was rarer. In E. coli to E. coli transfer, the frequency of transfer of the IncC plasmid pRMH760 was at least 1000-fold lower when the donor carried SGI1-I or SGI1-K, indicating that the SGI suppresses transfer of the plasmid. In addition, pRMH760 was rapidly lost from both E. coli and S. enterica strains that also carried SGI1-I, SGI1-F or SGI2. However, plasmid loss was not seen when the SGI1 variant was SGI1-K, which lacks two segments of the SGI1 backbone. The complete sequence of the SGI1-I and SGI1-F were determined and SGI1-K also carries two single base substitutions relative to SGI1-I. The IncA (A/C1) plasmid RA1 was also shown to mobilize SGI2-A and though there are significant differences between the backbones of IncA and IncC plasmids, RA1 was also rapidly lost when SGI2-A was present in the same cell. We conclude that there are multiple interactions, both cooperative and antagonistic, between an IncA or IncC plasmid and the SGI1 and SGI2 family genomic islands.

  8. Characterization of KPC-encoding plasmids from two endemic settings, Greece and Italy.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Giani, Tommaso; Giakkoupi, Panagiota; Riccobono, Eleonora; Landini, Giulia; Miriagou, Vivi; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis C; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-10-01

    Global dissemination of KPC-type carbapenemases is mainly associated with the spread of high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae and of KPC-encoding plasmids. In this study, we explored the population structure of KPC-encoding plasmids from the recent epidemics of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) in Greece and Italy, the two major European endemic settings. Thirty-four non-replicate clinical strains of KPC-Kp representative of the early phases (2008-11) of the Greek (n = 22) and Italian (n = 12) epidemics were studied. Isolates were typed by MLST, and blaKPC-carrying plasmids were characterized by S1 profiling, PCR-based replicon typing and RFLP. Transfer experiments by conjugation or transformation were carried out with Escherichia coli recipients. Eleven plasmids, representative of all different restriction profiles, were completely sequenced. The representative Greek strains belonged to 14 sequence types (STs), with a predominance of ST258. The representative Italian strains belonged to three STs, with a predominance of clonal complex 258 (ST258, ST512). The 34 strains carried plasmids of variable size (78-166 kb), either with blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 gene embedded in a Tn4401a transposon. Plasmids from Greek strains were mostly of a single RFLP type (A) and resembled the archetypal pKpQIL KPC-encoding plasmid, while plasmids from Italian strains belonged to a more heterogeneous population, showing five RFLP profiles (A, C-F). Types A and C resembled pKpQIL or deletion derivatives thereof, while types D-F included plasmids with hybrid structures between pKpQIL, pKPN3 and pKPN101-IT. pKpQIL-like plasmids played a major role in the dissemination of blaKPC in Greece and Italy, but evolved with different dynamics in these endemic settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Construction of plasmid, bacterial expression, purification, and assay of dengue virus type 2 NS5 methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Boonyasuppayakorn, Siwaporn; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes self-limiting dengue fever as well as life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Its positive sense RNA genome has a cap at the 5'-end and no poly(A) tail at the 3'-end. The viral RNA encodes a single polyprotein, C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5. The polyprotein is processed into 3 structural proteins (C, prM, and E) and 7 nonstructural (NS) proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5). NS3 and NS5 are multifunctional enzymes performing various tasks in viral life cycle. The N-terminal domain of NS5 has distinct GTP and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding sites. The role of GTP binding site is implicated in guanylyltransferase (GTase) activity of NS5. The SAM binding site is involved in both N-7 and 2'-O-methyltransferase (MTase) activities involved in formation of type I cap. The C-terminal domain of NS5 catalyzes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity involved in RNA synthesis. We describe the construction of the MTase domain of NS5 in an E. coli expression vector, purification of the enzyme, and conditions for enzymatic assays of N7- and 2'O-methyltransferase activities that yield the final type I 5'-capped RNA ((7Me)GpppA2'OMe-RNA).

  10. IncF Plasmids Are Commonly Carried by Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Temba, Sylivester; Kipasika, Honest; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by breakpoint assay and plasmid conjugation was determined by filter-mating experiments. PCR and sequencing were used to identify resistance genes and PCR-based replicon typing was used to determine plasmid types. Filter mating experiments indicated conjugation efficiencies ranged from 10(-1) to 10(-7). Over 80% of the donor cells successfully passed their resistance traits and eleven different replicon types were detected (IncI1, FIC, P, FIIA, A/C, FIB, FIA, H12, K/B B/O, and N). IncF plasmids were most commonly detected (49% of isolates), followed by types IncI1 and IncA/C. Detection of these public health-relevant conjugative plasmids and antibiotic resistant traits in Tanzanian water suggests the possible pollution of these water sources from human, livestock, and wild animal wastes and also shows the potential of these water sources in the maintenance and transmission of these resistance traits between environments, animals, and people.

  11. IncF Plasmids Are Commonly Carried by Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Temba, Sylivester; Kipasika, Honest; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by breakpoint assay and plasmid conjugation was determined by filter-mating experiments. PCR and sequencing were used to identify resistance genes and PCR-based replicon typing was used to determine plasmid types. Filter mating experiments indicated conjugation efficiencies ranged from 10−1 to 10−7. Over 80% of the donor cells successfully passed their resistance traits and eleven different replicon types were detected (IncI1, FIC, P, FIIA, A/C, FIB, FIA, H12, K/B B/O, and N). IncF plasmids were most commonly detected (49% of isolates), followed by types IncI1 and IncA/C. Detection of these public health-relevant conjugative plasmids and antibiotic resistant traits in Tanzanian water suggests the possible pollution of these water sources from human, livestock, and wild animal wastes and also shows the potential of these water sources in the maintenance and transmission of these resistance traits between environments, animals, and people. PMID:27110245

  12. Validation of a real-time PCR based method for detection of Clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C in a multicenter collaborative trial.

    PubMed

    Woudstra, Cedric; Skarin, Hanna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Drigo, Ilenia; Hansen, Trine; Löfström, Charlotta; Hamidjaja, Raditijo; van Rotterdam, Bart J; Koene, Miriam; Bäyon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Buffereau, Jean-Philippe; Fach, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Two real-time PCR arrays based on the GeneDisc(®) cycler platform (Pall-GeneDisc Technologies) were evaluated in a multicenter collaborative trial for their capacity to specifically detect and discriminate Clostridium botulinum types C, D and their mosaic variants C-D and D-C that are associated with avian and mammalian botulism. The GeneDisc(®) arrays developed as part of the DG Home funded European project 'AnibioThreat' were highly sensitive and specific when tested on pure isolates and naturally contaminated samples (mostly clinical specimen from avian origin). Results of the multicenter collaborative trial involving eight laboratories in five European Countries (two laboratories in France, Italy and The Netherlands, one laboratory in Denmark and Sweden), using DNA extracts issued from 33 pure isolates and 48 naturally contaminated samples associated with animal botulism cases, demonstrated the robustness of these tests. Results showed a concordance among the eight laboratories of 99.4%-100% for both arrays. The reproducibility of the tests was high with a relative standard deviation ranging from 1.1% to 7.1%. Considering the high level of agreement achieved between the laboratories these PCR arrays constitute robust and suitable tools for rapid detection of C. botulinum types C, D and mosaic types C-D and D-C. These are the first tests for C. botulinum C and D that have been evaluated in a European multicenter collaborative trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Conjugative Plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Pachulec, Emilia; van der Does, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Many clinical isolates of the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae contain conjugative plasmids. The host range of these plasmids is limited to Neisseria species, but presence of a tetracycline (tetM) determinant inserted in several of these plasmids is an important cause of the rapid spread of tetracycline resistance. Previously plasmids with different backbones (Dutch and American type backbones) and with and without different tetM determinants (Dutch and American type tetM determinants) have been identified. Within the isolates tested, all plasmids with American or Dutch type tetM determinants contained a Dutch type plasmid backbone. This demonstrated that tetM determinants should not be used to differentiate between conjugal plasmid backbones. The nucleotide sequences of conjugative plasmids with Dutch type plasmid backbones either not containing the tetM determinant (pEP5233) or containing Dutch (pEP5289) or American (pEP5050) type tetM determinants were determined. Analysis of the backbone sequences showed that they belong to a novel IncP1 subfamily divergent from the IncP1α, β, γ, δ and ε subfamilies. The tetM determinants were inserted in a genetic load region found in all these plasmids. Insertion was accompanied by the insertion of a gene with an unknown function, and rearrangement of a toxin/antitoxin gene cluster. The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence associated protein D of the VapD/VapX toxin/antitoxin family. Remarkably, presence of VapX of pJD1, a small cryptic neisserial plasmid, in the acceptor strain strongly increased the conjugation efficiency, suggesting that it functions as an antitoxin for the conjugative plasmid. The presence of the toxin and antitoxin on different plasmids might explain why the host range of this IncP1 plasmid is limited to Neisseria species. The isolated plasmids conjugated efficiently between

  14. Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors.

    PubMed

    Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J

    2014-03-18

    Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens.

  15. Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens. PMID:25437615

  16. A sensitive real-time PCR based assay to estimate the impact of amino acid substitutions on the competitive replication fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Holte, Sarah; Rao, Ushnal; McClure, Jan; Konopa, Philip; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn; Kim, Moon; Chen, Lennie; Mullins, James I

    2013-04-01

    Fixation of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), such as those conferring drug resistance and immune escape, can result in a change in replication fitness. To assess these changes, a real-time TaqMan PCR detection assay and statistical methods for data analysis were developed to estimate sensitively relative viral fitness in competitive viral replication experiments in cell culture. Chimeric viruses with the gene of interest in an HIV-1NL4-3 backbone were constructed in two forms, vifA (native vif gene in NL4-3) and vifB (vif gene with six synonymous nucleotide differences from vifA). Subsequently, mutations of interest were introduced into the chimeric viruses in NL4-3VifA backbones, and the mutants were competed against the chimera with the isogenic viral sequence in the NL4-3VifB backbone in cell culture. In order to assess subtle fitness differences, culture supernatants were sampled longitudinally, and the viruses differentially quantified using vifA- and vifB-specific primers in real-time PCR assays. Based on an exponential net growth model, the growth rate of each virus was determined and the fitness cost of the mutation(s) distinguishing the two viruses represented as the net growth rate difference between the mutant and the native variants. Using this assay, the fitness impact of eight amino acid substitutions was quantitated at highly conserved sites in HIV-1 Gag and Env.

  17. Toward the identification of a type I toxin-antitoxin system in the plasmid DNA of dairy Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    PubMed

    Folli, Claudia; Levante, Alessia; Percudani, Riccardo; Amidani, Davide; Bottazzi, Stefania; Ferrari, Alberto; Rivetti, Claudio; Neviani, Erasmo; Lazzi, Camilla

    2017-09-21

    Plasmids carry genes that give bacteria beneficial traits and allow them to survive in competitive environments. In many cases, they also harbor toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems necessary for plasmid maintenance. TA systems are generally characterized by a stable "toxin", a protein or peptide capable of killing the cell upon plasmid loss and by an unstable "antitoxin", a protein or a non-coding RNA that inhibits toxin activity. Here we report data toward the identification of a RNA-regulated TA system in the plasmid DNA of L. rhamnosus isolated from cheese. The proposed TA system comprises two convergently transcribed RNAs: a toxin RNA encoding a 29 amino acid peptide named Lpt and an antitoxin non-coding RNA. Both toxin and antitoxin RNAs resulted upregulated under conditions mimicking cheese ripening. The toxicity of the Lpt peptide was demonstrated in E. coli by cloning the Lpt ORF under the control of an inducible promoter. Bioinformatics screening of the bacterial nucleotide database, shows that regions homologous to the Lpt TA locus are widely distributed in the Lactobacillus genus, particularly within the L. casei group, suggesting a relevant role of TA systems in plasmid maintenance of cheese microbiota.

  18. Characterization of a novel type of MLSB resistance plasmid from Staphylococcus saprophyticus carrying a constitutively expressed erm(C) gene.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Tomasz; Lüthje, Petra; Schwarz, Stefan

    2006-06-15

    An erm(C)-carrying plasmid of unusual size and restriction map, designated pSES22, was identified in a Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain and sequenced completely. Constitutive expression of the erm(C) gene from pSES22 is based on a novel 22-bp tandem duplication in the erm(C) translational attenuator. Comparative analysis of the deduced Erm(C) amino acid sequence revealed that Erm(C) from pSES22 - together with an Erm(C) methylase from S. hyicus - represented a separate branch in the homology tree of Erm(C) methylases. Structural comparisons showed that plasmid pSES22 differed distinctly from all other completely sequenced erm(C)-carrying resistance plasmids. However, pSES22 was similar to several members of a diverse group of small plasmids, all of which carried closely related plasmid backbones consisting of the genes repU and pre/mob, but differed in their resistance genes.

  19. [The effectiveness of empirical antibiotic therapy of pyelonephritis in patients with type 2 diabetes and without depending on the availability of plasmid-mediated resistance genes].

    PubMed

    Chub, O I; Bilchenko, A V

    2015-02-01

    Multi-drug resistance has been increasing in the treatment of urinary tract infections, especially complicated. The prevalence of plasmid-mediated resistance genes among urinary pathogens has nether been studied in Ukraine. So, the aim of our study was to identify the plasmid-mediated resistance genes and to determine their impact on the efficacy of the treatment. A total of 105 adult patients with chronic pyelonephritis were included in the study. Among them, 32 patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of pyelonephritis was verified according to the criteria EAU, 2013. Plasmid-mediated resistance genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms among patients with pyelonephritis were 44,4%. ESBLs was the most common isolated genes. Favorable clinical response was seen in 11/31 (35,5%) infected with ESBL-producing organisms compared with 59/74 (79,7%) patients with non-ESBL-producing organisms (p<0,05). In 16% of patients with resistance organisms antimicrobial agent was changed. Antibiotic efficiency was reduced in patients with complicated pyelonephritis due to presence of plasmid-mediated resistance genes. Therefore, prоpеr mаnagеment fоr prescriptiоn of аntibiоtics and also idеntificаtiоn of ESBL-prоducing bаcteria in cоmmunitiеs arе impоrtant fоr prevеntion.

  20. PCR-based identification of drowning: four case reports.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Tóth, Dénes; Patonai, Zoltán; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Kozma, Zsolt; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2016-09-01

    Proper diagnosis in drowning victims is often difficult due to the lack of signs specific to drowning. The diatom test is a widely used procedure for the diagnosis. Some types of water contain only minimal amounts of diatom cells which may provide false-negative results, while a negative diatom test result does not exclude drowning. In proving drowning, we used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based biological method in addition to the conventional methods. DNA was extracted from postmortem spleen tissues and water of the drowning site. Samples were tested with algae (diatoms and small green algae)- and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)-specific primers. We present here multiple drowning cases in which diatom tests of the postmortem tissue samples and the water were negative. In each case, the presence of phytoplanktonic DNA strengthened the autopsy diagnosis of drowning even in the absence of visible diatoms. In the future, the PCR method may be of consideration as a possible supplement of the diatom test in the examination of presumed drowning cases.

  1. Multiple ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Sequence Types Carrying Quinolone and Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes Circulating in Companion and Domestic Farm Animals in Mwanza, Tanzania, Harbor Commonly Occurring Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Seni, Jeremiah; Falgenhauer, Linda; Simeo, Nabina; Mirambo, Mariam M; Imirzalioglu, Can; Matee, Mecky; Rweyemamu, Mark; Chakraborty, Trinad; Mshana, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    The increased presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in humans, animals, and their surrounding environments is of global concern. Currently there is limited information on ESBL presence in rural farming communities worldwide. We performed a cross-sectional study in Mwanza, Tanzania, involving 600 companion and domestic farm animals between August/September 2014. Rectal swab/cloaca specimens were processed to identify ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We detected 130 (21.7%) animals carrying ESBL-producing bacteria, the highest carriage being among dogs and pigs [39.2% (51/130) and 33.1% (43/130), respectively]. The majority of isolates were Escherichia coli [93.3% (125/134)] and exotic breed type [OR (95%CI) = 2.372 (1.460-3.854), p-value < 0.001] was found to be a predictor of ESBL carriage among animals. Whole-genome sequences of 25 ESBL-producing E. coli were analyzed for phylogenetic relationships using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and core genome comparisons. Fourteen different sequence types were detected of which ST617 (7/25), ST2852 (3/25), ST1303 (3/25) were the most abundant. All isolates harbored the bla CTX-M-15 allele, 22/25 carried strA and strB, 12/25 aac(6')-lb-cr, and 11/25 qnrS1. Antibiotic resistance was associated with IncF, IncY, as well as non-typable plasmids. Eleven isolates carried pPGRT46-related plasmids, previously reported from isolates in Nigeria. Five isolates had plasmids exhibiting 85-99% homology to pCA28, previously detected in isolates from the US. Our findings indicate a pan-species distribution of ESBL-producing E. coli clonal groups in farming communities and provide evidence for plasmids harboring antibiotic resistances of regional and international impact.

  2. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: Lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  3. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme g (CC-Lys-g) produced in E. coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect chann...

  4. Complete Sequence of a KPC-Producing IncN Multidrug-Resistant Plasmid from an Epidemic Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Hu, Hongyan; Chavda, Kalyan D.; Zhao, Shulong; Liu, Renkun; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiumei; Jacobs, Michael R.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the nucleotide sequence of a novel blaKPC-2-harboring incompatibility group N (IncN) plasmid, pECN580, from a multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) isolate recovered from Beijing, China. pECN580 harbors β-lactam resistance genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-3, and blaTEM-1; aminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene aac(6′)-Ib-cr; quinolone resistance gene qnrS1; rifampin resistance gene arr-3; and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA14. The emergence of a blaKPC-2-harboring multidrug-resistant plasmid in an epidemic E. coli ST131 clone poses a significant potential threat in community and hospital settings. PMID:24395232

  5. Detection of microalgal resting cysts in European coastal sediments using a PCR-based assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Antonella; Battocchi, Cecilia; Garcés, Esther; Anglès, Silvia; Cucchiari, Emellina; Totti, Cecilia; Kremp, Anke; Satta, Cecilia; Grazia Giacobbe, Maria; Bravo, Isabel; Bastianini, Mauro

    2010-02-01

    A PCR-based assay was developed and applied to sediment and sediment trap samples for the detection of different cysts belonging to dinoflagellates and raphidophytes in European coastal areas. Oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the ITS-5.8S and LSU ribosomal gene sequences. The specificity and sensitivity of the PCR assay were assessed using genomic DNA from clonal cultures, plasmid copy number of cloned target sequences, as well as from sediment samples. Qualitative PCR determinations of different cysts in sediment and sediment trap samples were compared to taxonomic examinations by light microscopy. This molecular methodology permitted a fast and specific detection of target cysts in sediment samples. We also detected dinoflagellate and raphidophyte cysts at concentrations not detectable by microscopic methods or that are difficult to identify. The results given by molecular and microscopic methods were comparable. However, higher values of positive detection for target cysts were obtained by PCR than with microscopy. Some taxa were detected in 100% of the samples using PCR, while others were only found in 10% of the samples. The data obtained in this study showed that the PCR-based method is a valid tool for cyst identification in marine sediments.

  6. Dutch patients, retail chicken meat and poultry share the same ESBL genes, plasmids and strains.

    PubMed

    Leverstein-van Hall, M A; Dierikx, C M; Cohen Stuart, J; Voets, G M; van den Munckhof, M P; van Essen-Zandbergen, A; Platteel, T; Fluit, A C; van de Sande-Bruinsma, N; Scharinga, J; Bonten, M J M; Mevius, D J

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing bacteria in food-producing animals and contamination of retail meat may contribute to increased incidences of infections with ESBL-producing bacteria in humans. Therefore, distribution of ESBL genes, plasmids and strain genotypes in Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and retail chicken meat in the Netherlands was determined and defined as 'poultry-associated' (PA). Subsequently, the proportion of E. coli isolates with PA ESBL genes, plasmids and strains was quantified in a representative sample of clinical isolates. The E. coli were derived from 98 retail chicken meat samples, a prevalence survey among poultry, and 516 human clinical samples from 31 laboratories collected during a 3-month period in 2009. Isolates were analysed using an ESBL-specific microarray, sequencing of ESBL genes, PCR-based replicon typing of plasmids, plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST) and strain genotyping (MLST). Six ESBL genes were defined as PA (bla(CTX-M-1) , bla(CTX-M-2) , bla(SHV-2) , bla(SHV-12) , bla(TEM-20) , bla(TEM-52) ): 35% of the human isolates contained PA ESBL genes and 19% contained PA ESBL genes located on IncI1 plasmids that were genetically indistinguishable from those obtained from poultry (meat). Of these ESBL genes, 86% were bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(TEM-52) genes, which were also the predominant genes in poultry (78%) and retail chicken meat (75%). Of the retail meat samples, 94% contained ESBL-producing isolates of which 39% belonged to E. coli genotypes also present in human samples. These findings are suggestive for transmission of ESBL genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates from poultry to humans, most likely through the food chain.

  7. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  8. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  9. Quantification of genetically modified soybeans using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system and a plasmid reference standard.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Akie; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Mitsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Hisayuki; Hino, Akihiro; Esaka, Muneharu; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-04-01

    Because the labeling of grains and feed- and foodstuffs is mandatory if the genetically modified organism (GMO) content exceeds a certain level of approved genetically modified varieties in many countries, there is a need for a rapid and useful method of GMO quantification in food samples. In this study, a rapid detection system was developed for Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) quantification using a combination of a capillary-type real-time PCR system, a LightCycler real-time PCR system, and plasmid DNA as the reference standard. In addition, we showed for the first time that the plasmid and genomic DNA should be similar in the established detection system because the PCR efficiencies of using plasmid DNA and using genomic DNA were not significantly different. The conversion factor (Cf) to calculate RRS content (%) was further determined from the average value analyzed in three laboratories. The accuracy and reproducibility of this system for RRS quantification at a level of 5.0% were within a range from 4.46 to 5.07% for RRS content and within a range from 2.0% to 7.0% for the relative standard deviation (RSD) value, respectively. This system rapidly monitored the labeling system and had allowable levels of accuracy and precision.

  10. Whole genome sequencing and analysis of Campylobacter coli YH502 from retail chicken reveals a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Ghatak, Sandeep; He, Yiping; Reed, Sue; Strobaugh, Terence; Irwin, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States. WGS, de novo assembly, and annotation of the genome revealed a chromosome of 1,718,974 bp and a mega-plasmid (pCOS502) of 125,964 bp. GC content of the genome was 31.2% with 1931 coding sequences and 53 non-coding RNAs. Multiple virulence factors including a plasmid-borne type VI secretion system and antimicrobial resistance genes (beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycoside) were found. The presence of T6SS in a mobile genetic element (plasmid) suggests plausible horizontal transfer of these virulence genes to other organisms. The C. coli YH502 genome also harbors CRISPR sequences and associated proteins. Phylogenetic analysis based on average nucleotide identity and single nucleotide polymorphisms identified closely related C. coli genomes available in the NCBI database. Taken together, the analyzed genomic data of this potentially virulent strain of C. coli will facilitate further understanding of this important foodborne pathogen most likely leading to better control strategies. The chromosome and plasmid sequences of C. coli YH502 have been deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers CP018900.1 and CP018901.1, respectively.

  11. Integron types, gene cassettes, antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids of Shigella sonnei isolates from outbreaks and sporadic cases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chung-Che; Lee, Tsong-Ming; Tsai, Mei-Yin; Chang, Lin-Li

    2011-02-01

    This study analysed the presence, location and transferability of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in 103 Shigella sonnei outbreak isolates and in 32 sporadic isolates from Taiwan. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was common in both outbreak (95 %) and sporadic (97 %) isolates. Class 1 integrons were present in 34 outbreak isolates (33 %) and in six sporadic isolates (19 %). This study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify an atypical sul3-associated class 1 integron carrying the estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA-aadA1-qacH cassette array in Shigella. Class 2 integrons carrying the dfr1-sat2-aadA1 cassette array were predominant in outbreak isolates (90 %) but were not present in sporadic isolates. Other antimicrobial resistance genes not associated with integrons were found to encode resistance to ampicillin (bla(TEM)), chloramphenicol (cat1), sulfonamide (sul2) and tetracycline (tetA and tetB). The most common plasmid size was 130 kb (observed in 43 and 97 % of 1998 outbreak and sporadic isolates, respectively). In conclusion, the plasmid location of resistance genes and horizontal plasmid transfer promote the spread of multiple resistance genes in outbreak and sporadic isolates of S. sonnei.

  12. Characterization of pFOX-7a, a conjugative IncL/M plasmid encoding the FOX-7 AmpC-type β-lactamase, involved in a large outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Cresti, Stefania; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-10-01

    FOX-type enzymes are a lineage of AmpC-type β-lactamases from Aeromonas spp. whose genes have been mobilized to plasmids spreading among Enterobacteriaceae, where they can be responsible for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations. Little is known about the genetic context and plasmid vehicles of bla(FOX) determinants. Here, we have characterized a plasmid encoding the FOX-7 β-lactamase, which was involved in a large outbreak caused by two Klebsiella pneumoniae clones in a neonatal intensive care unit. Plasmid transferability was tested in conjugation experiments using Escherichia coli recipients. Plasmids from different strains were compared by restriction profiling and PCR mapping. The complete sequence of pFOX-7a plasmid was determined by a next-generation sequencing approach followed by gap filling using PCR and sequencing. An apparently identical conjugative plasmid encoding FOX-7 was detected in representatives of the K. pneumoniae clones that caused the outbreak and in sporadic FOX-7-producing strains of other species from the same ward. The plasmid, named pFOX-7a, has an IncL/M-type backbone and two separate resistance modules including a Tn3-like transposon and a novel Tn1696 derivative, named Tn6234, which carries an integron platform, a hybrid (but still functional) mercury resistance module and a novel putative transposon of original structure, named Tn6240, associated with the bla(FOX-7) gene. pFOX-7a is the first completely characterized plasmid encoding a FOX-type β-lactamase. The bla(FOX-7) gene was associated with a putative transposable element of original structure, which was likely involved in its mobilization from the Aeromonas metagenome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinitz, D.M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  14. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type class A carbapenemase genes on novel chromosomal integrative elements and plasmids.

    PubMed

    Boyd, David A; Mataseje, Laura F; Davidson, Ross; Delport, Johannes A; Fuller, Jeff; Hoang, Linda; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Levett, Paul; Roscoe, Diane L; Willey, Barbara M; Mulvey, Michael R

    2017-02-21

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates submitted to a reference laboratory from 2010 to 2015 were screened by PCR for seven common carbapenemase gene groups, namely, KPC, NDM, OXA-48, VIM, IMP, GES, and NMC-A/IMI. Nineteen of the submitted isolates (1.7%) were found to harbor Ambler class A blaNMC-A or blaIMI-type carbapenemases. All 19 isolates were resistant to at least one carbapenem but susceptible to aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and ciprofloxacin. Most isolates (17/19) gave positive results with the Carba-NP test for phenotypic carbapenemase detection. Isolates were genetically diverse by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing, and hsp60 gene analysis. The genes were found in various Enterobacter cloacae complex species, however blaNMC-A was highly associated with Enterobacter ludwiggii Whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis revealed that all NMC-A (n=10), IMI-1 (n=5), and IMI-9 (n=2) producers harbored the carbapenemase gene on EludIMEX-1-like integrative mobile elements, EcloIMEXs, located in the identical chromosomal locus. Two novel genes, blaIMI-5 and blaIMI-6, were harbored on different IncFII-type plasmids. Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates harboring blaNMC-A/IMI-type carbapenemases are relatively rare in Canada. Though mostly found integrated into the chromosome, some variants are located on plasmids that may enhance their mobility potential.

  15. Complete sequence of a conjugative incn plasmid harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Doi, Yohei

    2014-11-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.

  16. Complete Sequence of a Conjugative IncN Plasmid Harboring blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, and qnrS1 from an Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Jie; Lee, Chang-Seop; Sheng, Ji-Fang

    2014-01-01

    We sequenced a novel conjugative blaKPC-2-harboring IncN plasmid, pYD626E, from an Escherichia coli sequence type 648 strain previously identified in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pYD626E was 72,800 bp long and carried four β-lactamase genes, blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaLAP-1, and blaTEM-1. In addition, it harbored qnrS1 (fluoroquinolone resistance) and dfrA14 (trimethoprim resistance). The plasmid profile and clinical history supported the in vivo transfer of this plasmid between Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. PMID:25182636

  17. First Report of blaIMP-14 on a Plasmid Harboring Multiple Drug Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Sheppard, Anna E; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert P; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke W; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R; Crook, Derrick W; Pitout, Johann D

    2016-08-01

    The blaIMP-14 carbapenem resistance gene has largely previously been observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. As part of global surveillance and sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, we identified a sequence type 131 strain harboring blaIMP-14 within a class 1 integron, itself nested within an ∼54-kb multidrug resistance region on an epidemic IncA/C2 plasmid. The emergence of blaIMP-14 in this context in the ST131 lineage is of potential clinical concern. Copyright © 2016 Stoesser et al.

  18. First Report of blaIMP-14 on a Plasmid Harboring Multiple Drug Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Anna E.; Peirano, Gisele; Sebra, Robert P.; Lynch, Tarah; Anson, Luke W.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Motyl, Mary R.; Crook, Derrick W.; Pitout, Johann D.

    2016-01-01

    The blaIMP-14 carbapenem resistance gene has largely previously been observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. As part of global surveillance and sequencing of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli, we identified a sequence type 131 strain harboring blaIMP-14 within a class 1 integron, itself nested within an ∼54-kb multidrug resistance region on an epidemic IncA/C2 plasmid. The emergence of blaIMP-14 in this context in the ST131 lineage is of potential clinical concern. PMID:27246777

  19. Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    Invertrons are genetic elements composed of DNA with inverted terminal repeats at both ends, covalently bonded to terminal proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication at both their 5' termini when they exist in the cytoplasm of their host in free form. They function as viruses, linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and sometimes combinations of two of these properties. They differ from retroviruses and related retro-type transposons which have direct repeats on both their genomic ends and exploit RNA intermediates for replication of their DNA. A model for replication and integration of invertrons is presented, as well as a model for transposition of transposable elements. PMID:2157134

  20. Persistence of a pKPN3-like CTX-M-15-encoding IncFIIK plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumonia ST17 host during two years of intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Löhr, Iren Høyland; Hülter, Nils; Bernhoff, Eva; Johnsen, Pål Jarle; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Naseer, Umaer

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST17 strain, responsible for an outbreak at a Norwegian neonatal intensive care unit and subsequent colonization of affected children for up to two years. To identify plasmid-mediated features relevant for the outbreak dynamics, and to investigate the plasmids capability of horizontal transfer, its segregational stability and plasmid-mediated fitness costs. Plasmid profiling was performed by S1-nuclease PFGE, PCR-based replicon typing and Southern blot-hybridization. The complete sequence of the CTX-M-15-encoding plasmid was obtained by 454 sequencing. Plasmid self-transferability was investigated by broth- and filter mating, segregational stability was explored by serial passage, and plasmid-conferred fitness costs were examined in pairwise head-to-head competitions and by growth rate comparisons. CTX-M-15 was encoded by a ~180 kb IncFIIK plasmid in K. pneumoniae ST17. S1-nuclease PFGE profiles of the first and the last CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, recovered from the four children colonized the longest, suggested that the plasmid was stably maintained during intestinal carriage of up to two years. The DNA sequence of the pKPN3-like plasmid, pKp848CTX, uncovered a Tn3-like antibiotic resistance region and multiple heavy metal- and thermoresistance determinants. Plasmid pKp848CTX could not be transferred to Escherichia coli in vitro and we found no evidence to support horizontal plasmid transfer in vivo. Segregational plasmid loss ranging from 0.83% to 17.5% was demonstrated in evolved populations in vitro, but only minor fitness costs were associated with plasmid-carriage. Plasmid pKp848CTX encodes phenotypic traits, which may have had an impact on the fitness and survival of the K. pneumoniae ST17 strain in the outbreak setting. The antibiotic resistance plasmid pKp848CTX was stably maintained during two years of intestinal colonization, conferring negligible fitness cost to its

  1. Isolation of VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis strains from nosocomial infections: first report of the isolation and identification of the pheromone-responsive plasmids pMG2200, Encoding VanB-type vancomycin resistance and a Bac41-type bacteriocin, and pMG2201, encoding erythromycin resistance and cytolysin (Hly/Bac).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takako; Ike, Yasuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    Eighteen identical VanB-type Enterococcus faecalis isolates that were obtained from different hospitalized patients were examined for their drug resistance and plasmid DNAs. Of the 18 strains, 12 strains exhibited resistance to erythromycin (Em), gentamicin (Gm), kanamycin (Km), tetracycline (Tc), and vancomycin (Van) and produced cytolysin (Hly/Bac) and a bacteriocin (Bac) active against E. faecalis strains. Another six of the strains exhibited resistance to Gm, Km, Tc, and Van and produced a bacteriocin. Em and Van resistance was transferred individually to E. faecalis FA2-2 strains at a frequency of about 10(-4) per donor cell by broth mating. The Em-resistant transconjugants and the Van-resistant transconjugants harbored a 65.7-kbp plasmid and a 106-kbp plasmid, respectively. The 106-kbp and 65.7-kbp plasmids isolated from the representative E. faecalis NKH15 strains were designated pMG2200 and pMG2201, respectively. pMG2200 conferred vancomycin resistance and bacteriocin activity on the host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cCF10 for pCF10, while pMG2201 conferred erythromycin resistance and cytolysin activity on its host strain and responded to the synthetic pheromone cAD1 for pAD1. The complete DNA sequence of pMG2200 (106,527 bp) showed that the plasmid carried a Tn1549-like element encoding vanB2-type resistance and the Bac41-like bacteriocin genes of pheromone-responsive plasmid pYI14. The plasmid contained the regulatory region found in pheromone-responsive plasmids and encoded the genes prgX and prgQ, which are the key negative regulatory elements for plasmid pCF10. pMG2200 also encoded TraE1, a key positive regulator of plasmid pAD1, indicating that pMG2200 is a naturally occurring chimeric plasmid that has a resulting prgX-prgQ-traE1 genetic organization in the regulatory region of the pheromone response. The functional oriT region and the putative relaxase gene of pMG2200 were identified and found to differ from those of pCF10 and pAD1

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2015-11-12

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Human-Invasive Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Strain of the Emerging Sequence Type 213 Harboring a Multidrug Resistance IncA/C Plasmid and a blaCMY-2-Carrying IncF Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Edmundo; Calva, Juan J.; Wiesner, Magdalena; Fernández-Mora, Marcos; Puente, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 33676 was isolated in Mexico City, Mexico, from a patient with a systemic infection, and its complete genome sequence was determined using PacBio single-molecule real-time technology. Strain 33676 harbors an IncF plasmid carrying the extended-spectrum cephalosporin gene blaCMY-2 and a multidrug resistance IncA/C plasmid. PMID:26564044

  4. Characterization of IncI1 sequence type 71 epidemic plasmid lineage responsible for the recent dissemination of CTX-M-65 extended-spectrum β-lactamase in the Bolivian Chaco region.

    PubMed

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Di Maggio, Tiziana; Revollo, Carmen; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2015-09-01

    During the last decade, a significant diffusion of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed in commensal Escherichia coli from healthy children in the Bolivian Chaco region, with initial dissemination of CTX-M-2, which was then replaced by CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-65. In this work, we demonstrate that the widespread dissemination of CTX-M-65 observed in this context was related to the polyclonal spreading of an IncI1 sequence type 71 (ST71) epidemic plasmid lineage. The structure of the epidemic plasmid population was characterized by complete sequencing of four representatives and PCR mapping of the remainder (n = 16). Sequence analysis showed identical plasmid backbones (similar to that of the reference IncI1 plasmid, R64) and a multiresistance region (MRR), which underwent local microevolution. The MRR harbored genes responsible for resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, and fosfomycin (with microevolution mainly consisting of deletion events of resistance modules). The bla CTX-M-65 module harbored by the IncI1 ST71 epidemic plasmid was apparently derived from IncN-type plasmids, likely via IS26-mediated mobilization. The plasmid could be transferred by conjugation to several different enterobacterial species (Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica) and was stably maintained without selective pressure in these species, with the exception of K. oxytoca and S. enterica. Fitness assays performed in E. coli recipients demonstrated that the presence of the epidemic plasmid was apparently not associated with a significant biological cost. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Characterization of IncI1 Sequence Type 71 Epidemic Plasmid Lineage Responsible for the Recent Dissemination of CTX-M-65 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase in the Bolivian Chaco Region

    PubMed Central

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Di Maggio, Tiziana; Revollo, Carmen; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Pallecchi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, a significant diffusion of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) was observed in commensal Escherichia coli from healthy children in the Bolivian Chaco region, with initial dissemination of CTX-M-2, which was then replaced by CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-65. In this work, we demonstrate that the widespread dissemination of CTX-M-65 observed in this context was related to the polyclonal spreading of an IncI1 sequence type 71 (ST71) epidemic plasmid lineage. The structure of the epidemic plasmid population was characterized by complete sequencing of four representatives and PCR mapping of the remainder (n = 16). Sequence analysis showed identical plasmid backbones (similar to that of the reference IncI1 plasmid, R64) and a multiresistance region (MRR), which underwent local microevolution. The MRR harbored genes responsible for resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, and fosfomycin (with microevolution mainly consisting of deletion events of resistance modules). The blaCTX-M-65 module harbored by the IncI1 ST71 epidemic plasmid was apparently derived from IncN-type plasmids, likely via IS26-mediated mobilization. The plasmid could be transferred by conjugation to several different enterobacterial species (Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica) and was stably maintained without selective pressure in these species, with the exception of K. oxytoca and S. enterica. Fitness assays performed in E. coli recipients demonstrated that the presence of the epidemic plasmid was apparently not associated with a significant biological cost. PMID:26100713

  6. PCR-Based Detection of DNA Copy Number Variation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Copy number variations are important polymorphisms that can influence gene expression within and close to the rearranged region, and results in phenotypic variation. Techniques that detect abnormalities in DNA copy number are therefore useful for studying the associations between DNA aberrations and disease phenotype and for locating critical genes. PCR-based detection of copy number of target gene using TaqMan copy number assay offers a reliable method to measure copy number variation in human genome.

  7. Diversity of plasmids harboring blaCMY-2 in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from poultry in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Andrade, Leonardo Neves; Berchieri Junior, Angelo; Darini, Ana Lúcia Costa

    2017-08-01

    Multidrug-resistance (MDR) has been increasingly reported in Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal microbiota, environment and food-producing animals. Resistance plasmids able to harbor different transposable elements are capable to mobilize antimicrobial resistance genes and transfer to other bacterial hosts. Plasmids carrying blaCMY are frequently associated with MDR. The present study assessed the presence of plasmid-encoded ampC genes (blacmy, blamox, blafox, blalat, blaact, blamir, bladha, blamor) in commensal E. coli isolated from apparently healthy broiler chickens. Furthermore, we characterized the plasmids and identified those harboring the resistance genes. We isolated 144/200 (72%) of E. coli isolates with resistance to cefotaxime and the resistance gene identified was blaCMY-2. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed high diversity of the genetic profiles. The phylogenetic groups A, B1, B2, and D were identified among E. coli isolates and group D was the most prevalent. The PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) analysis identified four distinct plasmid incompatibility groups (Inc) in MDR isolates. Moreover, plasmids harboring blaCMY-2, ranged in size from 50kb to 150kb and 51/144 (35%) belonged to IncK, 21/144 (14.5%) to IncB/O, 8/144 (5.5%) to IncA/C, 1/144 (0.5%) to IncI, while 63/144 (44.5%) were not typeable by PBRT. Overall, a high prevalence of blaCMY-2 genes was found in a diverse population of commensal MDR E. coli from poultry in Brazil, harbored into different plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An active type IV secretion system encoded by the F plasmid sensitizes Escherichia coli to bile salts.

    PubMed

    Bidlack, James E; Silverman, Philip M

    2004-08-01

    F(+) strains of Escherichia coli infected with donor-specific bacteriophage such as M13 are sensitive to bile salts. We show here that this sensitivity has two components. The first derives from secretion of bacteriophage particles through the cell envelope, but the second can be attributed to expression of the F genes required for the formation of conjugative (F) pili. The latter component was manifested as reduced or no growth of an F(+) strain in liquid medium containing bile salts at concentrations that had little or no effect on the isogenic F(-) strain or as a reduced plating efficiency of the F(+) strain on solid media; at 2% bile salts, plating efficiency was reduced 10(4)-fold. Strains with F or F-like R factors were consistently more sensitive to bile salts than isogenic, plasmid-free strains, but the quantitative effect of bile salts depended on both the plasmid and the strain. Sensitivity also depended on the bile salt, with conjugated bile salts (glycocholate and taurocholate) being less active than unconjugated bile salts (deoxycholate and cholate). F(+) cells were also more sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate than otherwise isogenic F(-) cells, suggesting a selectivity for amphipathic anions. A mutation in any but one F tra gene required for the assembly of F pili, including the traA gene encoding F pilin, substantially restored bile salt resistance, suggesting that bile salt sensitivity requires an active system for F pilin secretion. The exception was traW. A traW mutant was 100-fold more sensitive to cholate than the tra(+) strain but only marginally more sensitive to taurocholate or glycocholate. Bile salt sensitivity could not be attributed to a generalized change in the surface permeability of F(+) cells, as judged by the effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antibiotics and by leakage of periplasmic beta-lactamase into the medium.

  9. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  10. Detection of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Escherichia coli isolates from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christin; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Kadlec, Kristina; Hassel, Melanie; Schwarz, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates have been increasingly reported during recent years. The aims of this study were to characterize ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis as well as their ESBL gene-carrying plasmids. A culture collection of E. coli isolated from bovine quarter milk samples (2009-2013), was screened for ESBL production using ESBL selective agar plates. Putative ESBL producers (n=16) were investigated by phenotypic confirmatory tests and were characterized by the detection/sequencing of ESBL genes, XbaI macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phylotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. ESBL gene-carrying plasmids were investigated by transfer experiments, PCRs for the detection of co-located antimicrobial resistance genes, PCR-based replicon typing and S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twelve ESBL-producing isolates were found. They showed eleven different XbaI patterns and were distributed among eight MLST types [ST10 (n=3), ST117 (n=2), ST361 (n=1), ST362 (n=1), ST540 (n=1), ST1431 (n=2), ST1508 (n=1), and the novel ST5447 (n=1)] and the phylogenetic groups A (n=6), B1 (n=2), B2 (n=1) and D (n=3). ESBL genes blaCTX-M-1 (n=5), blaCTX-M-2 (n=2), blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 (n=4) were found on conjugative plasmids (35-225kb) of diverse incompatibility groups (e.g. IncF, IncI1 or HI2+P). Co-located resistance to sulfonamides, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol/florfenicol was detected on five ESBL gene-carrying plasmids, but seven plasmids conferred solely resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The presence of additional resistance genes on the ESBL gene-carrying plasmids suggests that co-selection of ESBL genes may occur even in the absence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  11. Characterization of blaCMY plasmids and their possible role in source attribution of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections.

    PubMed

    Folster, Jason P; Tolar, Beth; Pecic, Gary; Sheehan, Deborah; Rickert, Regan; Hise, Kelley; Zhao, Shaohua; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; McDermott, Patrick; Whichard, Jean M

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of foodborne illness; however, identifying the source of these infections can be difficult. This is especially true for Salmonella serotype Typhimurium, which is found in diverse agricultural niches. Extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) are one of the primary treatment choices for complicated Salmonella infections. In Salmonella, ESC resistance in the United States is mainly mediated by blaCMY genes carried on various plasmids. In this study, we examined whether the characterization of blaCMY plasmids, along with additional information, can help us identify potential sources of infection by Salmonella, and used serotype Typhimurium as a model. In the United States, monitoring of retail meat, food animals, and ill persons for antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella is conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. In 2008, 70 isolates (70/581; 12.0%) (34 isolates from retail meat, 23 food animal, and 13 human) were resistant to ceftriaxone and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. All were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for blaCMY and 59/70 (84.3%) of these genes were plasmid encoded. PCR-based replicon typing identified 42/59 (71.2%) IncI1-blaCMY plasmids and 17/59 (28.8%) IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from chickens or chicken products with blaCMY plasmids primarily had IncI1-blaCMY plasmids (37/40; 92.5%), while all isolates from cattle had IncA/C-blaCMY plasmids. Isolates from humans had either IncA/C- blaCMY (n=8/12; [66.7%]) or IncI1- blaCMY (n=4/12 [33.3%]) plasmids. All of the IncI1-blaCMY plasmids were ST12 or were closely related to ST12. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (AST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the isolates were also compared and differences were identified between isolate sources. When the source of a Typhimurium outbreak or sporadic illness is unknown, characterizing the outbreak isolate's blaCMY plasmids, AST, and PFGE patterns may help identify it.

  12. Plasmids of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Maia, M; Sanchez, J M; Vela, G R

    1988-01-01

    Four laboratory strains and two isolates of Azotobacter vinelandii were found to contain plasmids. Twenty-five laboratory strains which could fix nitrogen did not have free, covalently closed circular plasmid DNA. The plasmids varied in size from 9 to 52 megadaltons, and each strain yielded only one plasmid. No discernible differences in ability to fix nitrogen were found between plasmid-bearing and cured cultures. PMID:3350795

  13. Outbreak of KPC-2-producing Enterobacteriaceae caused by clonal dissemination of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST307 carrying an IncX3-type plasmid harboring a truncated Tn4401a.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ok; Song, Sae Am; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Shin, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Hyukmin; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon

    2017-04-01

    Over a 5-month period between the end of June and the beginning of November in 2015, a KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreak occurred in a general hospital in Busan, South Korea, being associated with a total of 50 clinical isolates from 47 patients. Multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were carried out for strain typing and whole-genome sequencing was performed to characterize the plasmids. A clonal spread of K. pneumoniae sequence type 307 (ST307) carrying a self-transferable IncX3-type plasmid harboring blaKPC-2 was responsible for the outbreak. Sporadic emergence of K. pneumoniae ST697 carrying an IncFII-type plasmid and a ST11 isolate harboring a small plasmid devoid of any known origin of replication were observed to be associated with blaKPC-3, but no further dissemination of these strains was identified. The results indicated a healthcare-associated infection associated with a blaKPC-harboring plasmid dissemination and a clonal spread of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

  14. A PCR-based tool for the cultivation-independent monitoring of Pandora neoaphidis.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Enkerli, J; Keller, S; Widmer, F

    2008-09-01

    Pandora neoaphidis is one of the most important fungal pathogens of aphids and has a great potential for use in biocontrol. Little is known on how this fungus persists in an area and in particular on its overwintering strategies. It is hypothesized that natural areas play an important role for survival and that soil may serve as a source of inoculum for new aphid populations in spring. To test these hypotheses, a cultivation-independent PCR-based diagnostic tool was developed, that allows the detection of P. neoaphidis in the environment. Two P. neoaphidis specific PCR primer pairs were designed, targeting sequences in the ribosomal RNA gene cluster. Specificity of both primer pairs was demonstrated with P. neoaphidis and non-target close entomophthoralean relatives. Moreover, single amplicons of expected sizes were obtained with both primer pairs from various environmental sample types, including aphid cadavers, plant material, and soil. The PCR-based diagnostic tool was applied to investigate the persistence of P. neoaphidis in soil samples obtained in 2004/2005 from a nettle field harboring infected aphids in fall 2004. P. neoaphidis was detected in every sample collected in November 2004 and March 2005, suggesting an overwintering stage of P. neoaphidis in top soil layers. The developed cultivation-independent PCR-based tool will be valuable for further investigation of the ecology of P. neoaphidis and for the development and future implementation of management strategies against aphids involving conservation biocontrol.

  15. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick; Krupovic, Mart; Raymann, Kasie; Soler, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Many plasmids have been described in Euryarchaeota, one of the three major archaeal phyla, most of them in salt-loving haloarchaea and hyperthermophilic Thermococcales. These plasmids resemble bacterial plasmids in terms of size (from small plasmids encoding only one gene up to large megaplasmids) and replication mechanisms (rolling circle or theta). Some of them are related to viral genomes and form a more or less continuous sequence space including many integrated elements. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota have been useful for designing efficient genetic tools for these microorganisms. In addition, they have also been used to probe the topological state of plasmids in species with or without DNA gyrase and/or reverse gyrase. Plasmids from Euryarchaeota encode both DNA replication proteins recruited from their hosts and novel families of DNA replication proteins. Euryarchaeota form an interesting playground to test evolutionary hypotheses on the origin and evolution of viruses and plasmids, since a robust phylogeny is available for this phylum. Preliminary studies have shown that for different plasmid families, plasmids share a common gene pool and coevolve with their hosts. They are involved in gene transfer, mostly between plasmids and viruses present in closely related species, but rarely between cells from distantly related archaeal lineages. With few exceptions (e.g., plasmids carrying gas vesicle genes), most archaeal plasmids seem to be cryptic. Interestingly, plasmids and viral genomes have been detected in extracellular membrane vesicles produced by Thermococcales, suggesting that these vesicles could be involved in the transfer of viruses and plasmids between cells.

  16. Plasmid-Encoded Iron Uptake Systems.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Manuela; Stork, Michiel

    2014-12-01

    Plasmids confer genetic information that benefits the bacterial cells containing them. In pathogenic bacteria, plasmids often harbor virulence determinants that enhance the pathogenicity of the bacterium. The ability to acquire iron in environments where it is limited, for instance the eukaryotic host, is a critical factor for bacterial growth. To acquire iron, bacteria have evolved specific iron uptake mechanisms. These systems are often chromosomally encoded, while those that are plasmid-encoded are rare. Two main plasmid types, ColV and pJM1, have been shown to harbor determinants that increase virulence by providing the cell with essential iron for growth. It is clear that these two plasmid groups evolved independently from each other since they do not share similarities either in the plasmid backbones or in the iron uptake systems they harbor. The siderophores aerobactin and salmochelin that are found on ColV plasmids fall in the hydroxamate and catechol group, respectively, whereas both functional groups are present in the anguibactin siderophore, the only iron uptake system found on pJM1-type plasmids. Besides siderophore-mediated iron uptake, ColV plasmids carry additional genes involved in iron metabolism. These systems include ABC transporters, hemolysins, and a hemoglobin protease. ColV- and pJM1-like plasmids have been shown to confer virulence to their bacterial host, and this trait can be completely ascribed to their encoded iron uptake systems.

  17. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  18. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, George A; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C

    2014-10-01

    Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat.

  19. Characterization of a Novel IncHI2 Plasmid Carrying Tandem Copies of blaCTX-M-2 in a fosA6-Harboring Escherichia coli Sequence Type 410 Strain.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinglan; Ding, Baixing; Jové, Thomas; Stoesser, Nicole; Cooper, Vaughn S; Wang, Minggui; Doi, Yohei

    2016-11-01

    The extended-spectrum β-lactamase gene blaCTX-M-2 is mainly associated with ISCR1 embedded in complex sul1-type integrons, but information on the genetic context of plasmids harboring the ISCR1-blaCTX-M-2 module remains limited. In this study, a blaCTX-M-2-harboring plasmid (pYD786-1) belonging to the sequence type 2 (ST2)-IncHI2 plasmid type and isolated from an Escherichia coli ST410 clinical strain was sequenced and analyzed. pYD786-1 belongs to the APEC-O1-R-type IncHI2 plasmids, which are widely distributed in human, poultry, and livestock strains. It contains a multidrug resistance mosaic region (MRR) consisting of a Tn21::In2 transposon backbone augmented by acquisition of duplicate ISCR1-blaCTX-M-2 modules. Tn2411, a Tn21::In2 precursor, likely played a role in the generation of the MRR in pN13-01290_23, the putative progenitor plasmid of pYD786-1, found in a foodborne Salmonella strain. Tn21/Tn2411::In::ISCR1-blaCTX-M-2 derivatives, including pYD786-1, have been identified in strains from Europe, South America, and the United States, suggesting potential global dissemination of the blaCTX-M-2 modules mediated by this vehicle.

  20. Multiple plasmid interference - Pledging allegiance to my enemy's enemy.

    PubMed

    Gama, João Alves; Zilhão, Rita; Dionisio, Francisco

    2017-08-24

    As shown in the previous article, two distinct conjugative plasmids sometimes interact within bacterial cells, implicating changes of transfer rates. In most cases of interactions within bacteria, the transfer of one of the plasmids decreases. Less frequently, the transfer rate of one of the plasmids increases. Here we analyse what happens if three distinct conjugative plasmids colonize the same bacterial cell. Our aim is to understand how interactions between two plasmids affect the transfer rate of the third plasmid. After showing that plasmids interact in 59 out of 84 possible interactions we show that, with some exceptions, if the transfer rate of a plasmid decreases in the presence of a second plasmid, a decrease is also observed in the presence of a third plasmid. Moreover, if the conjugation rate of a plasmid increases in the presence of another, an increase is also observed if there is a third plasmid in the cell. Both types of interactions are mostly independent of the third plasmid's identity, even if sometimes the third plasmid quantitatively distorts the interaction of the other two plasmids. There is a bias towards negative intensifying interactions, which provide good news concerning the spread conjugative plasmids encoding antibiotic-resistance genes and virulence factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of pECL18 and pKPN2: a proposed pathway for the evolution of two plasmids that carry identical genes for a Type II restriction-modification system.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, M V; Beletskaya, I V; Denjmukhametov, M M; Yurkova, T V; Semenova, L M; Shlyapnikov, M G; Solonin, A S

    2002-04-01

    The primary structures of the plasmids pECL18 (5571 bp) and pKPN2 (4196 bp) from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively, which carry genes for a Type II restriction-modification system (RMS2) with the specificity 5'-CCNGG-3', were determined in order to elucidate the structural relationship between them. The data suggest a possible role for recombination events at bom (basis of mobility) regions and the sites of resolution of multimer plasmid forms (so-called cer sequences) in the structural evolution of multicopy plasmids. Analysis of the sequences of pECL18 and pKPN2 showed that the genes for RM* Ecl18kI and RM* Kpn2kI, and the sequences of the rep (replication) regions in the two plasmids, are almost identical. In both plasmids, these regions are localized between the bom regions and the cer sites. The rest of the pECL18 sequence is almost identical to that of the mob (mobilization) region of ColE1, and the corresponding segment of pKPN2 is almost identical to part of pHS-2 from Shigella flexneri. The difference in primary structures results in different mobilization properties of pECL18 and pKPN2. The complete sequences of pECL18, pKPN2 and the pairwise comparison of the sequences of pECL18, pKPN2, ColE1 and pHS-2 suggest that plasmids may exchange DNA units via site-specific recombination events at bom and cer sites. In the course of BLASTN database searches using the cer sites of pECL18 and pKPN2 as queries, we found twenty cer sites of natural plasmids. Alignment of these sequences reveals that they fall into two classes. The plasmids in each group possess related segments between their cer and bom sites.

  2. Nopaline-type Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium encodes a VirF-like functional F-box protein.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Benoît; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2015-11-20

    During Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plants, several bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins are translocated into the host cell to facilitate infection. One of the most important of such translocated factors is VirF, an F-box protein produced by octopine strains of Agrobacterium, which presumably facilitates proteasomal uncoating of the invading T-DNA from its associated proteins. The presence of VirF also is thought to be involved in differences in host specificity between octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium, with the current dogma being that no functional VirF is encoded by nopaline strains. Here, we show that a protein with homology to octopine VirF is encoded by the Ti plasmid of the nopaline C58 strain of Agrobacterium. This protein, C58VirF, possesses the hallmarks of functional F-box proteins: it contains an active F-box domain and specifically interacts, via its F-box domain, with SKP1-like (ASK) protein components of the plant ubiquitin/proteasome system. Thus, our data suggest that nopaline strains of Agrobacterium have evolved to encode a functional F-box protein VirF.

  3. Plasmid transfer systems in the rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Hynes, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Rhizobia are agriculturally important bacteria that can form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of leguminous plants. Agricultural application of rhizobial inoculants can play an important role in increasing leguminous crop yields. In temperate rhizobia, genes involved in nodulation and nitrogen fixation are usually located on one or more large plasmids (pSyms) or on symbiotic islands. In addition, other large plasmids of rhizobia carry genes that are beneficial for survival and competition of rhizobia in the rhizosphere. Conjugative transfer of these large plasmids thus plays an important role in the evolution of rhizobia. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of conjugative transfer of large rhizobial plasmids provides foundations for maintaining, monitoring, and predicting the behaviour of these plasmids during field release events. In this minireview, we summarize two types of known rhizobial conjugative plasmids, including quorum sensing regulated plasmids and RctA-repressed plasmids. We provide evidence for the existence of a third type of conjugative plasmid, including pRleVF39c in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain VF39SM, and we provide a comparison of the different types of conjugation genes found in members of the rhizobia that have had their genomes sequenced so far.

  4. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily. PMID:26527149

  5. High-throughput real-time PCR-based genotyping without DNA purification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While improvements in genotyping technology have allowed for increased throughput and reduced time and expense, protocols remain hindered by the slow upstream steps of isolating, purifying, and normalizing DNA. Various methods exist for genotyping samples directly through blood, without having to purify the DNA first. These procedures were designed to be used on smaller throughput systems, however, and have not yet been tested for use on current high-throughput real-time (q)PCR based genotyping platforms. In this paper, a method of quantitative qPCR-based genotyping on blood without DNA purification was developed using a high-throughput qPCR platform. Findings The performances of either DNA purified from blood or the same blood samples without DNA purification were evaluated through qPCR-based genotyping. First, 60 different mutations prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population were genotyped in 12 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals using the QuantStudio™12K Flex Real-Time PCR System. Genotyping directly from blood gave a call rate of 99.21%, and an accuracy of 100%, while the purified DNA gave a call rate of 92.49%, and an accuracy of 99.74%. Although no statistical difference was found for these parameters, an F test comparing the standard deviations of the wild type clusters for the two different methods indicated significantly less variation when genotyping directly from blood instead of after DNA purification. To further establish the ability to perform high-throughput qPCR based genotyping directly from blood, 96 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish decent were genotyped for the same 60 mutations (5,760 genotypes in 5 hours) and resulted in a call rate of 98.38% and a diagnostic accuracy of 99.77%. Conclusion This study shows that accurate qPCR-based high-throughput genotyping can be performed without DNA purification. The direct use of blood may further expedite the entire genotyping process, reduce costs, and avoid tracking errors which can occur during

  6. Recombinant goose-type lysozyme in channel catfish: lysozyme activity and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    PubMed

    Pridgeon, Julia W; Klesius, Phillip H; Dominowski, Paul J; Yancey, Robert J; Kievit, Michele S

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate whether recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (CC-Lys-g) produced in Escherichia coli expression system possesses any lysozyme activity; and 2) to evaluate whether channel catfish lysozyme-g plasmid DNA could be used as an immunostimulant to protect channel catfish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Recombinant CC-Lys-g produced in E. coli expression system exhibited significant (P < 0.05) lytic activity against Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Gram-negative A. hydrophila. When pcDNA3.2-vectored recombinant channel catfish lysozyme-g (pcDNA-Lys-g) was transfected in channel catfish gill cells G1B, the over-expression of pcDNA-Lys-g offered significant (P < 0.05) protection to G1B cells against A. hydrophila infection. When channel catfish were intraperitoneally injected with pcDNA-Lys-g along with an adjuvant QCDCR, the transcriptional level of Lys-g was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. When pcDNA-Lys-g injected fish was challenged with a highly virulent A. hydrophila strain AL-09-71, pcDNA-Lys-g offered 100% protection to channel catfish at two days post DNA injection. Macrophages of fish injected with pcDNA-Lys-g produced significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide than that of fish injected with pcDNA vector alone at two days post DNA injection. Taken together, our results suggest that pcDNA-Lys-g could be used as a novel immunostimulant to offer immediate protection to channel catfish against A. hydrophila infection.

  7. Plasmid diversity in neisseriae.

    PubMed

    van Passel, Mark W J; van der Ende, Arie; Bart, Aldert

    2006-08-01

    Horizontal gene transfer constitutes an important force in prokaryotic genome evolution, and it is well-known that plasmids are vehicles for DNA transfer. Chromosomal DNA is frequently exchanged between pathogenic and commensal neisseriae, but relatively little is known about plasmid diversity and prevalence among these nasopharyngeal inhabitants. We investigated the plasmid contents of 18 Neisseria lactamica isolates and 20 nasopharyngeal Neisseria meningitidis isolates. Of 18 N. lactamica strains, 9 harbored one or more plasmids, whereas only one N. meningitidis isolate contained a plasmid. Twelve plasmids were completely sequenced, while five plasmid sequences from the public databases were also included in the analyses. On the basis of nucleic acid sequences, mobilization, and replicase protein alignments, we distinguish six different plasmid groups (I to VI). Three plasmids from N. lactamica appeared to be highly similar on the nucleotide level to the meningococcal plasmids pJS-A (>99%) and pJS-B (>75%). The genetic organizations of two plasmids show a striking resemblance with that of the recently identified meningococcal disease-associated (MDA) phage, while four putative proteins encoded by these plasmids show 25% to 39% protein identity to those encoded by the MDA phage. The putative promoter of the gene encoding the replicase on these plasmids contains a polycytidine tract, suggesting that replication is subjected to phase variation. In conclusion, extensive plasmid diversity is encountered among commensal neisseriae. Members of three plasmid groups are found in both pathogenic and commensal neisseriae, indicating plasmid exchange between these species. Resemblance between plasmids and MDA phage may be indicative of dissemination of phage-related sequences among pathogenic and commensal neisseriae.

  8. Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Francia, María Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996–2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30–150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  9. A PCR-based linkage map of human chromosome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Engelstein, M.; Hudson, T.J.; Lane, J.M.; Lee, M.K.; Dracopoli, C. ); Leverone, B.; Landes, G.M. ); Peltonen, L. ); Weber, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    A genetic linkage map of human chromosome 1 based entirely on PCR-typable markers has been developed using 38 simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms. These SSRs include 36 dinucleotide repeats and 2 tetranucleotide repeats. The average heterozygosity at these markers was 0.73 and ranged form 0.52 to 0.95. Multipoint linkage analysis was used to develop a map of these 38 markers in which the relative placement of each locus is supported by likelihood odds > 1000:1. This PCR-based map was anchored at the centromere by the D1Z5 [alpha]-satellite polymorphism, and the ends of the map were defined by D1Z2 and D1S68, which are the most distal loci in the CEPH consortium map of chromosome 1. The sex-averaged, male, and female maps extend for 328, 273, and 409 cM, respectively. The average distance between markers on the sex-averaged map is 8 cM, and the largest interval is 32 cM. This map of highly informative PCR-based markers will provide a rapid means of screening human chromosome 1 for the presence of disease genes. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Plasmidic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Isolates in Argentina†

    PubMed Central

    Petroni, Alejandro; Corso, Alejandra; Melano, Roberto; Cacace, María Luisa; Bru, Ana María; Rossi, Alicia; Galas, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992 there have been seven major outbreaks of cholera in Argentina. Susceptibility analysis of 1,947 isolates (40% of reported cases) of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor suggested the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in 28 isolates. Because of their different susceptibility profiles, V. cholerae isolates M1502, M1516, M1573, and M3030 (all of which are of the Ogawa serotype) were selected for the present study. By susceptibility analysis, isoelectric focusing, and PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, CTX-M-type enzymes were identified in three isolates, whereas a PER-2-type enzyme, in addition to a TEM-1-like enzyme, was identified in the other isolate. The presence of these ESBLs in V. cholerae isolates resulted in MICs well below those commonly observed for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Genes that encode both ESBLs were transferred to Escherichia coli by conjugation, together with all determinants of resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics (gentamicin, kanamycin, and sulfamethoxazole for all isolates; amikacin and streptomycin for three isolates; trimethoprim, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol for two isolates). Plasmid profile analysis and Southern blotting revealed the presence of single plasmids of about 150 kb in the four V. cholerae isolates and their respective transconjugants and revealed that the plasmids harbored genes encoding CTX-M-type or PER-2-type ESBLs. These results strongly suggest the broad spread of these ESBLs among genera belong to families other than the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:11959583

  11. A Digital PCR-Based Method for Efficient and Highly Specific Screening of Genome Edited Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jennifer R.; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The rapid adoption of gene editing tools such as CRISPRs and TALENs for research and eventually therapeutics necessitates assays that can rapidly detect and quantitate the desired alterations. Currently, the most commonly used assay employs “mismatch nucleases” T7E1 or “Surveyor” that recognize and cleave heteroduplexed DNA amplicons containing mismatched base-pairs. However, this assay is prone to false positives due to cancer-associated mutations and/or SNPs and requires large amounts of starting material. Here we describe a powerful alternative wherein droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used to decipher homozygous from heterozygous mutations with superior levels of both precision and sensitivity. We use this assay to detect knockout inducing alterations to stem cell associated proteins, NODAL and SFRP1, generated using either TALENs or an “all-in-one” CRISPR/Cas plasmid that we have modified for one-step cloning and blue/white screening of transformants. Moreover, we highlight how ddPCR can be used to assess the efficiency of varying TALEN-based strategies. Collectively, this work highlights how ddPCR-based screening can be paired with CRISPR and TALEN technologies to enable sensitive, specific, and streamlined approaches to gene editing and validation. PMID:27089539

  12. Autotransmissible resident plasmid of Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Bedmar, E J; Olivares, J

    1980-01-01

    A resident plasmid of wild-type strains of Rhizobium meliloti of 59.6 megadaltons has been shown to be transferred at a high frequency to "cured" strains of this bacterial species. This plasmid, named pEZ1, that confers phage-sensitivity to cells carrying it is also transmissible to Escherichia coli and from it to "cured" R. meliloti strains.

  13. Designing plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Nonviral gene therapy vectors are commonly based on recombinant bacterial plasmids or their derivatives. The plasmids are propagated in bacteria, so, in addition to their therapeutic cargo, they necessarily contain a bacterial replication origin and a selection marker, usually a gene conferring antibiotic resistance. Structural and maintenance plasmid stability in bacteria is required for the plasmid DNA production and can be achieved by carefully choosing a combination of the therapeutic DNA sequences, replication origin, selection marker, and bacterial strain. The use of appropriate promoters, other regulatory elements, and mammalian maintenance devices ensures that the therapeutic gene or genes are adequately expressed in target human cells. Optimal immune response to the plasmid vectors can be modulated via inclusion or exclusion of DNA sequences containing immunostimulatory CpG sequence motifs. DNA fragments facilitating construction of plasmid vectors should also be considered for inclusion in the design of plasmid vectors. Techniques relying on site-specific or homologous recombination are preferred for construction of large plasmids (>15 kb), while digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes with subsequent ligation of the resulting DNA fragments continues to be the mainstream approach for generation of small- and medium-size plasmids. Rapid selection of a desired recombinant plasmid against a background of other plasmids continues to be a challenge. In this chapter, the emphasis is placed on efficient and flexible versions of DNA cloning protocols using selection of recombinant plasmids by restriction endonucleases directly in the ligation mixture.

  14. Enhancement of the immunogenicity of a porcine circovirus type 2 DNA vaccine by a recombinant plasmid coexpressing capsid protein and porcine interleukin-6 in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Lin-Qing; Qiao, Han; Yang, Xing-Wu; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    The development of effective vaccines against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has been accepted as an important strategy in the prophylaxis of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome; a DNA vaccine expressing the major immunogenic capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is considered to be a promising candidate. However, DNA vaccines usually induce weak immune responses. In this study, it was found that the efficacy of a DNA vaccine expressing Cap protein was improved by simultaneous expression of porcine IL-6. A plasmid (pIRES-ORF2/IL6) separately expressing both Cap protein and porcine IL-6 was constructed and compared with another plasmid (pIRES-ORF2) expressing Cap protein for its potential to induce PCV2-specific immune responses. Mice were vaccinated i.m. twice at 3 week intervals and the induced humoral and cellular responses evaluated. All animals vaccinated with pIRES-ORF2/IL6 and pIRES-ORF2 developed specific anti-PCV2 antibodies (according to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and a T lymphocyte proliferation response. The percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), and CD3(+)CD4(+) subgroups of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes were significantly higher in mice immunized with pIRES-ORF2/IL6 than in those that had received pIRES-ORF2. After challenge with the virulent PCV2 Wuzhi isolate, mice vaccinated with pIRES-ORF2/IL6 had significantly less viral replication than those vaccinated with pIRES-ORF2, suggesting that the protective immunity induced by pIRES-ORF2/IL6 is superior to that induced by pIRES-ORF2.

  15. Plasmid-Encoded Proinsulin Preserves C-Peptide While Specifically Reducing Proinsulin-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Joana R. F.; Harrison, Leonard C.; Eisenbarth, George S.; Yu, Liping; Leviten, Michael; Hagopian, William A.; Buse, John B.; von Herrath, Matthias; Quan, Joanne; King, Robert S.; Robinson, William H.; Utz, Paul J.; Garren, Hideki; Steinman, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D) an intense inflammatory response destroys β cells in the pancreas, where insulin is produced and released. A therapy for T1D that reduces the specific autoimmune response in this disease while leaving the remainder of the immune system intact has long been sought. Proinsulin is a major target of adaptive immunity in T1D. We hypothesized that an engineered DNA plasmid encoding proinsulin (BHT-3021) would preserve β cell function in T1D patients through reduction of insulin-specific T cells. We studied 80 subjects over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with T1D within 5 years. Subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive intramuscular injections of BHT-3021 or BHT-placebo, weekly for 12 weeks, and then monitored for safety and immune responses in a blinded fashion. Four dose levels of BHT-3021 were evaluated: 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg. C-peptide served as an exploratory measure of efficacy and safety. Islet-specific CD8+ T cell frequencies were assessed with multimers of monomeric human leukocyte antigen class I molecules loaded with peptides containing pancreatic or unrelated antigens. No serious adverse events related to BHT-3021 occurred. C-peptide levels improved relative to placebo at all doses, most notably at 1 mg at 15 weeks (+19.5% BHT-3021 versus −8.8% BHT-placebo, P < 0.026). Proinsulin-reactive CD8+ T cells, but not T cells against unrelated islet or foreign molecules, declined in the BHT-3021 arm (P < 0.006). Thus, we demonstrate that a plasmid encoding proinsulin reduces the frequency of CD8+ T cells reactive to proinsulin while preserving C-peptide over the course of dosing. PMID:23803704

  16. Proteolysis in plasmid DNA stable maintenance in bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Karlowicz, Anna; Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Dubiel, Andrzej; Ropelewska, Malgorzata; Konieczny, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Plasmids, as extrachromosomal genetic elements, need to work out strategies that promote independent replication and stable maintenance in host bacterial cells. Their maintenance depends on constant formation and dissociation of nucleoprotein complexes formed on plasmid DNA. Plasmid replication initiation proteins (Rep) form specific complexes on direct repeats (iterons) localized within the plasmid replication origin. Formation of these complexes along with a strict control of Rep protein cellular concentration, quaternary structure, and activity, is essential for plasmid maintenance. Another important mechanism for maintenance of low-copy-number plasmids are the toxin-antitoxin (TA) post-segregational killing (psk) systems, which prevent plasmid loss from the bacterial cell population. In this mini review we discuss the importance of nucleoprotein complex processing by energy-dependent host proteases in plasmid DNA replication and plasmid type II toxin-antitoxin psk systems, and draw attention to the elusive role of DNA in this process.

  17. Identification and classification of bacterial Type III toxin–antitoxin systems encoded in chromosomal and plasmid genomes

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Tim R.; Short, Francesca L.; Rao, Feng; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Pei, Xue Y.; Fineran, Peter C.; Luisi, Ben F.; Salmond, George P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems are widespread in bacteria and archaea. They perform diverse functional roles, including the generation of persistence, maintenance of genetic loci and resistance to bacteriophages through abortive infection. Toxin–antitoxin systems have been divided into three types, depending on the nature of the interacting macromolecules. The recently discovered Type III toxin–antitoxin systems encode protein toxins that are inhibited by pseudoknots of antitoxic RNA, encoded by short tandem repeats upstream of the toxin gene. Recent studies have identified the range of Type I and Type II systems within current sequence databases. Here, structure-based homology searches were combined with iterative protein sequence comparisons to obtain a current picture of the prevalence of Type III systems. Three independent Type III families were identified, according to toxin sequence similarity. The three families were found to be far more abundant and widespread than previously known, with examples throughout the Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. Functional assays confirmed that representatives from all three families act as toxin–antitoxin loci within Escherichia coli and at least two of the families confer resistance to bacteriophages. This study shows that active Type III toxin–antitoxin systems are far more diverse than previously known, and suggests that more remain to be identified. PMID:22434880

  18. Broad host range plasmids.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aayushi; Srivastava, Preeti

    2013-11-01

    Plasmids are and will remain important cloning vehicles for biotechnology. They have also been associated with the spread of a number of diseases and therefore are a subject of environmental concern. With the advent of sequencing technologies, the database of plasmids is increasing. It will be of immense importance to identify the various bacterial hosts in which the plasmid can replicate. The present review article describes the features that confer broad host range to the plasmids, the molecular basis of plasmid host range evolution, and applications in recombinant DNA technology and environment.

  19. Enhanced anti-fibrotic activity of plasmid DNA expressing small interference RNA for TGF-beta type II receptor for a mouse model of obstructive nephropathy by cationized gelatin prepared from different amine compounds.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Nagata-Nakajima, Natsuki; Sugai, Manabu; Shimizu, Akira; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2006-02-21

    The objective of this study is to increase the transfection efficiency of a plasmid DNA expressing small interference RNA (siRNA) for transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-betaR) by various cationized gelatins of non-viral carrier and evaluate the anti-fibrotic effect with a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Ethylenediamine, putrescine, spermidine or spermine was chemically introduced to the carboxyl groups of gelatin for the cationization. The plasmid DNA of TGF-betaR siRNA expression vector with or without complexation of each cationized gelatin was injected to the left kidney of mice via the ureter to prevent the progression of renal fibrosis of UUO mice. Irrespective of the type of cationized gelatin, the injection of plasmid DNA-cationized gelatin complex significantly decreased the renal level of TGF-betaR over-expression and the collagen content of mice kidney, in marked contrast to free plasmid DNA injection. It is concluded that retrograde injection of TGF-betaR siRNA expression vector plasmid DNA complexed with the cationized gelatin is available to suppress the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis.

  20. pKBuS13, a KPC-2-Encoding Plasmid from Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 833, Carrying Tn4401b Inserted into an Xer Site-Specific Recombination Locus

    PubMed Central

    Garbari, Luigi; Busetti, Marina; Dolzani, Lucilla; Petix, Vincenzo; Knezevich, Anna; Bressan, Raffaela; Gionechetti, Fabrizia; Tonin, Enrico A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the first detection of a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase 2 (KPC-2)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain belonging to sequence type 833 (ST833), collected in an Italian hospital from a patient coming from South America. Its blaKPC determinant was carried by a ColE1 plasmid, pKBuS13, that showed the Tn4401b::blaKPC-2 transposon inserted into the regulatory region of an Xer site-specific recombination locus. This interfered with the correct resolution of plasmid multimers into monomers, lowering plasmid stability and leading to overestimation of the number of plasmids harbored by a single host cell. Sequencing of the fragments adjacent to Tn4401b detected a region that did not have significant matches in databases other than the genome of a carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli strain collected during the same year at a hospital in Boston. This is interesting in an epidemiologic context, as it suggests that despite the absence of tra genes and the instability under nonselective conditions, the circulation of pKBuS13 or of analogous plasmids might be wider than reported. PMID:26077252

  1. The oxygenating constituent of 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase from the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida: the first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Isupov, Michail N.; Schröder, Ewald; Gibson, Robert P.; Beecher, Jean; Donadio, Giuliana; Saneei, Vahid; Dcunha, Stephlina A.; McGhie, Emma J.; Sayer, Christopher; Davenport, Colin F.; Lau, Peter C.; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Iwaki, Hiroaki; Kadow, Maria; Balke, Kathleen; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.; Bourenkov, Gleb; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2015-10-31

    The first crystal structure of a type II Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenase reveals a different ring orientation of its FMN cofactor compared with other related bacterial luciferase-family enzymes. The three-dimensional structures of the native enzyme and the FMN complex of the overexpressed form of the oxygenating component of the type II Baeyer–Villiger 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase have been determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure of this dimeric FMN-dependent enzyme, which is encoded on the large CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida, has been solved by a combination of multiple anomalous dispersion from a bromine crystal soak and molecular replacement using a bacterial luciferase model. The orientation of the isoalloxazine ring of the FMN cofactor in the active site of this TIM-barrel fold enzyme differs significantly from that previously observed in enzymes of the bacterial luciferase-like superfamily. The Ala77 residue is in a cis conformation and forms a β-bulge at the C-terminus of β-strand 3, which is a feature observed in many proteins of this superfamily.

  2. A novel type of self-assembled nanoparticles as targeted gene carriers: an application for plasmid DNA and antimicroRNA oligonucleotide delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanliang; Liang, Gaofeng; Sun, Bo; Tian, Tian; Hu, Feihu; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new type of amphiphilic cetylated polyethyleneimine (PEI) was synthesized, and then polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)/cetylated PEI/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (PCPH NPs) were developed by self-assembly as a novel type of gene-delivering vehicle. The PCPH NPs showed good DNA-condensation ability by forming polyplexes with small particle size and positive zeta potential. The transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of PCPH NPs were evaluated as plasmid DNA vectors to transfect HepG2 in vitro. PCPH NPs exhibited much lower cytotoxicity and higher gene-transfection efficiency than PEI (25,000) and commercial transfection reagents. Furthermore, PCPH NPs were used as an anti-miR-221 vector for transfecting HepG2 cells, and anti-miR-221 was effectively transfected into cells and produced a greater inhibitory effect on cancer-cell growth by PCPH NPs. These results demonstrate that PCPH NPs can be a promising nonviral vector for gene-delivery systems. PMID:26869785

  3. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  4. An asymmetric PCR-based, reliable and rapid single-tube native DNA engineering strategy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Widely used restriction-dependent cloning methods are labour-intensive and time-consuming, while several types of ligase-independent cloning approaches have inherent limitations. A rapid and reliable method of cloning native DNA sequences into desired plasmids are highly desired. Results This paper introduces ABI-REC, a novel strategy combining asymmetric bridge PCR with intramolecular homologous recombination in bacteria for native DNA cloning. ABI-REC was developed to precisely clone inserts into defined location in a directional manner within recipient plasmids. It featured an asymmetric 3-primer PCR performed in a single tube that could robustly amplify a chimeric insert-plasmid DNA sequence with homologous arms at both ends. Intramolecular homologous recombination occurred to the chimera when it was transformed into E.coli and produced the desired recombinant plasmids with high efficiency and fidelity. It is rapid, and does not involve any operational nucleotides. We proved the reliability of ABI-REC using a double-resistance reporter assay, and investigated the effects of homology and insert length upon its efficiency. We found that 15 bp homology was sufficient to initiate recombination, while 25 bp homology had the highest cloning efficiency. Inserts up to 4 kb in size could be cloned by this method. The utility and advantages of ABI-REC were demonstrated through a series of pig myostatin (MSTN) promoter and terminator reporter plasmids, whose transcriptional activity was assessed in mammalian cells. We finally used ABI-REC to construct a pig MSTN promoter-terminator cassette reporter and showed that it could work coordinately to express EGFP. Conclusions ABI-REC has the following advantages: (i) rapid and highly efficient; (ii) native DNA cloning without introduction of extra bases; (iii) restriction-free; (iv) easy positioning of directional and site-specific recombination owing to formulated primer design. ABI-REC is a novel approach to

  5. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies—uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    PubMed Central

    Dib, Julián R.; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E.; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which—despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria—are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions. PMID:26074886

  6. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies-uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián R; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which-despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria-are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions.

  7. Plasmid-encoded proinsulin preserves C-peptide while specifically reducing proinsulin-specific CD8⁺ T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Roep, Bart O; Solvason, Nanette; Gottlieb, Peter A; Abreu, Joana R F; Harrison, Leonard C; Eisenbarth, George S; Yu, Liping; Leviten, Michael; Hagopian, William A; Buse, John B; von Herrath, Matthias; Quan, Joanne; King, Robert S; Robinson, William H; Utz, Paul J; Garren, Hideki; Steinman, Lawrence

    2013-06-26

    In type 1 diabetes (T1D), there is an intense inflammatory response that destroys the β cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, the site where insulin is produced and released. A therapy for T1D that targets the specific autoimmune response in this disease while leaving the remainder of the immune system intact, has long been sought. Proinsulin is a major target of the adaptive immune response in T1D. We hypothesized that an engineered DNA plasmid encoding proinsulin (BHT-3021) would preserve β cell function in T1D patients through reduction of insulin-specific CD8⁺ T cells. We studied 80 subjects over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with T1D within the past 5 years. Subjects were randomized 2:1 to receive intramuscular injections of BHT-3021 or BHT-placebo, weekly for 12 weeks, and then monitored for safety and immune responses in a blinded fashion. Four dose levels of BHT-3021 were evaluated: 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg. C-peptide was used both as an exploratory efficacy measure and as a safety measure. Islet-specific CD8⁺ T cell frequencies were assessed with multimers of monomeric human leukocyte antigen class I molecules loaded with peptides from pancreatic and unrelated antigens. No serious adverse events related to BHT-3021 were observed. C-peptide levels improved relative to placebo at all doses, at 1 mg at the 15-week time point (+19.5% BHT-3021 versus -8.8% BHT-placebo, P < 0.026). Proinsulin-reactive CD8⁺ T cells, but not T cells against unrelated islet or foreign molecules, declined in the BHT-3021 arm (P < 0.006). No significant changes were noted in interferon-γ, interleukin-4 (IL-4), or IL-10 production in CD4 T cells. Thus, we demonstrate that a plasmid encoding proinsulin reduces the frequency of CD8⁺ T cells reactive to proinsulin while preserving C-peptide over the course of dosing.

  8. Identification of new protein-protein interactions involving the products of the chromosome- and plasmid-encoded type IV secretion loci of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Alegria, Marcos C; Souza, Diorge P; Andrade, Maxuel O; Docena, Cassia; Khater, Leticia; Ramos, Carlos H I; da Silva, Ana C R; Farah, Chuck S

    2005-04-01

    The recently sequenced genome of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri contains two virB gene clusters, one on the chromosome and one on a 64-kb plasmid, each of which codes for a previously uncharacterized type IV secretion system (T4SS). Here we used a yeast two-hybrid assay to identify protein-protein interactions in these two systems. Our results revealed interactions between known T4SS components as well as previously uncharacterized interactions involving hypothetical proteins coded by open reading frames in the two X. axonopodis pv. citri virB loci. Our results indicate that both loci may code for previously unidentified VirB7 proteins, which we show interact with either VirB6 or VirB9 or with a hypothetical protein coded by the same locus. Furthermore, a set of previously uncharacterized Xanthomonas proteins have been found to interact with VirD4, whose gene is adjacent to the chromosomal virB locus. The gene for one member of this family is found within the chromosomal virB locus. All these uncharacterized proteins possess a conserved 120-amino-acid domain in their C termini and may represent a family of cofactors or substrates of the Xanthomonas T4SS.

  9. Plasmids spread very fast in heterogeneous bacterial communities.

    PubMed Central

    Dionisio, Francisco; Matic, Ivan; Radman, Miroslav; Rodrigues, Olivia R; Taddei, François

    2002-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids can mediate gene transfer between bacterial taxa in diverse environments. The ability to donate the F-type conjugative plasmid R1 greatly varies among enteric bacteria due to the interaction of the system that represses sex-pili formations (products of finOP) of plasmids already harbored by a bacterial strain with those of the R1 plasmid. The presence of efficient donors in heterogeneous bacterial populations can accelerate plasmid transfer and can spread by several orders of magnitude. Such donors allow millions of other bacteria to acquire the plasmid in a matter of days whereas, in the absence of such strains, plasmid dissemination would take years. This "amplification effect" could have an impact on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that exist in heterogeneous bacterial communities because conjugative plasmids can carry virulence or antibiotic-resistance genes. PMID:12524329

  10. Usefulness of blood vessels as a DNA source for PCR-based genotyping based on two cases of corpse dismemberment.

    PubMed

    Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Harada, Kazuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The success of PCR-based genotyping of decomposed remains depends on the quality of extracted DNA. Hard tissues and muscles are preferred because of their DNA stability. However, in dismembered corpses the choice of a suitable DNA source is more limited. In short tandem repeat (STR) analysis in two cases of dismembered corpses, we found an advantage of using blood vessels over muscles. To confirm that blood vessels are better for STR typing compared to muscle, we collected nine sets of blood vessels and the adjacent muscle from six other decomposed remains and compared the STR profiles between the blood vessel and muscle samples. Better results for STR typing were obtained in blood vessels. Based on these results, we recommend use of blood vessels as material for PCR-based genotyping in identification of dismembered human remains with heavy postmortem changes.

  11. A type 2 A/C2 plasmid carrying the aacC4 apramycin resistance gene and the erm(42) erythromycin resistance gene recovered from two Salmonella enterica serovars.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Holt, Kathryn E; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the relationships between RepA/C2 plasmids carrying several antibiotic resistance genes found in isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Ohio and Senftenberg from pigs. Illumina HiSeq was used to sequence seven S. enterica isolates. BLAST searches identified relevant A/C2 plasmid contigs and contigs were assembled using PCR. Two serovar Ohio isolates were ST329 and the five Senftenberg isolates were ST210. The A/C2 plasmids recovered from the seven isolates belong to type 2 and contain two resistance islands. Their backbones are closely related, differing by five or fewer SNPs. The sul2-containing resistance island ARI-B is 19.9 kb and also contains the kanamycin and neomycin resistance gene aphA1, the tetracycline resistance gene tetA(D) and an erythromycin resistance gene, erm(42), not previously seen in A/C2 plasmids. A second 30.3 kb resistance island, RI-119, is in a unique location in the A/C2 backbone 8.2 kb downstream of rhs. RI-119 contained genes conferring resistance to apramycin, netilmicin and tobramycin (aacC4), hygromycin (hph), sulphonamides (sul1) and spectinomycin and streptomycin (aadA2). In one of the seven plasmids, this resistance region contained two IS26-mediated deletions. A discrete 5.7 kb segment containing the aacC4 and hph genes and bounded by IS26 on one side and the inverted repeat of Tn5393 on the other was identified. The presence of almost identical A/C2 plasmids in two serovars indicates a common origin. Type 2 A/C2 plasmids continue to evolve via addition of new resistance regions such as RI-119 and evolution of existing ones. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Plasmid Partition Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Jamie C; Funnell, Barbara E

    2014-12-01

    The stable maintenance of low-copy-number plasmids in bacteria is actively driven by partition mechanisms that are responsible for the positioning of plasmids inside the cell. Partition systems are ubiquitous in the microbial world and are encoded by many bacterial chromosomes as well as plasmids. These systems, although different in sequence and mechanism, typically consist of two proteins and a DNA partition site, or prokaryotic centromere, on the plasmid or chromosome. One protein binds site-specifically to the centromere to form a partition complex, and the other protein uses the energy of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to transport the plasmid, via interactions with this partition complex inside the cell. For plasmids, this minimal cassette is sufficient to direct proper segregation in bacterial cells. There has been significant progress in the last several years in our understanding of partition mechanisms. Two general areas that have developed are (i) the structural biology of partition proteins and their interactions with DNA and (ii) the action and dynamics of the partition ATPases that drive the process. In addition, systems that use tubulin-like GTPases to partition plasmids have recently been identified. In this chapter, we concentrate on these recent developments and the molecular details of plasmid partition mechanisms.

  13. Yeast DNA plasmids.

    PubMed

    Gunge, N

    1983-01-01

    The study of yeast DNA plasmids has been initiated with the discovery of the 2-micron DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This multiple copy plasmid, organized into chromatin structure in vivo, probably exists in the nucleus and provides a good system to obtain information on eukaryotic DNA replication. Yeast transformation with the 2-micron DNA or artificially constructed chimeric plasmids had contributed significantly to the study of the molecular biology of yeast and eukaryotes, allowing the isolation and characterization of various genes, ars, centromeres, and telomeres, and also serving as a tool to study the expression of various heterologous genes. Encouraged by these fruitful results, new yeast plasmids have been screened among phylogenetically distant yeasts. The linear DNA plasmids (pGKl1 and pGKl2) from Kluyveromyces lactis are the first case of yeast plasmids associated with biological function (killer phenotype). This plasmid system would be ideal as a model to study the structure and function of eukaryotic linear chromosomes. The extracellular secretion of protein toxin suggests the plasmids to be an excellent candidate for a secretion vector. The importance of yeasts as suitable materials for the study of eukaryotic cell biology would be much enhanced by the advent of new transformation systems with diverse host yeasts of genetically and phylogenetically distinct properties.

  14. The secretome of Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 type II secretion system reveals a novel plasmid encoded phospholipase that could be implicated in lung colonization.

    PubMed

    Elhosseiny, Noha M; El-Tayeb, Ossama M; Yassin, Aymen S; Lory, Stephen; Attia, Ahmed S

    2016-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii infections are compounded with a striking lack of treatment options. In many Gram-negative bacteria, secreted proteins play an important early role in avoiding host defences. Typically, these proteins are targeted to the external environment or into host cells using dedicated transport systems. Despite the fact that medically relevant species of Acinetobacter possess a type II secretion system (T2SS), only recently, its significance as an important pathway for delivering virulence factors has gained attention. Using in silico analysis to characterize the genetic determinants of the T2SS, which are found clustered in other organisms, in Acinetobacter species, they appear to have a unique genetic organization and are distributed throughout the genome. When compared to other T2SS orthologs, individual components of the T2SS apparatus showed the highest similarity to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A mutant of Acinetobacter baumannii strain ATCC 17978 lacking the secretin component of the T2SS (ΔgspD), together with a trans-complemented mutant, were tested in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays to determine the role of T2SS in pathogenicity. The ΔgspD mutant displayed decreased lipolytic activity, associated with attenuated colonization ability in a murine pneumonia model. These phenotypes are linked to LipAN, a novel plasmid-encoded phospholipase, identified through mass spectroscopy as a T2SS substrate. Recombinant LipAN showed specific phospholipase activity in vitro. Proteomics on the T2-dependent secretome of ATCC 17978 strain revealed its potential dedication to the secretion of a number of lipolytic enzymes, among others which could contribute to its virulence. This study highlights the role of T2SS as an active contributor to the virulence of A. baumannii potentially through secretion of a newly identified phospholipase.

  15. Identification of bacterial plasmids based on mobility and plasmid population biology.

    PubMed

    Garcillán-Barcia, Maria Pilar; Alvarado, Andrés; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Plasmids contain a backbone of core genes that remains relatively stable for long evolutionary periods, making sense to speak about plasmid species. The identification and characterization of the core genes of a plasmid species has a special relevance in the study of its epidemiology and modes of transmission. Besides, this knowledge will help to unveil the main routes that genes, for example antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes, use to travel from environmental reservoirs to human pathogens. Global dissemination of multiple antibiotic resistances and virulence traits by plasmids is an increasing threat for the treatment of many bacterial infectious diseases. To follow the dissemination of virulence and AbR genes, we need to identify the causative plasmids and follow their path from reservoirs to pathogens. In this review, we discuss how the existing diversity in plasmid genetic structures gives rise to a large diversity in propagation strategies. We would like to propose that, using an identification methodology based on plasmid mobility types, we can follow the propagation routes of most plasmids in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as their cargo genes, in complex ecosystems. Once the dissemination routes are known, designing antidissemination drugs and testing their efficacy will become feasible. We discuss in this review how the existing diversity in plasmid genetic structures gives rise to a large diversity in propagation strategies. We would like to propose that, by using an identification methodology based on plasmid mobility types, we can follow the propagation routes of most plasmids in ?-proteobacteria, as well as their cargo genes, in complex ecosystems.

  16. Biochemical transformation of thymidine kinase (TK)-deficient mouse cells by herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA fragments purified from hybrid plasmids.

    PubMed

    Kit, S; Otsuka, H; Qavi, H; Trkula, D; Dubbs, D R; Hazen, M

    1980-11-25

    The thymidine kinase (TK) gene of HSV-1 has been cloned in Escherichia coli K12 plasmids, pMH1, pMH1A, and pMH4. These plasmids contain a 1,92Obp HSV-1 TK DNA sequence, which replaces a 2,067 bp EcoR I to Pvu II sequence of plasmid pBR322 DNA. Superhelical DNAs of plasmids pMH1, pMH1A, and pMH4 as well as plasmid DNAs cleaved by EcoR I, Hinc II, Bg1 II, Sma I, and Pvu II transformed TK-deficient LM(TK-) cells to the TK+ phenotype. A 1,230bp EcoR I-Sma I fragment purified from pMH1 DNA (and from plasmid pAGO, DNA, the parent of pMH1) also transformed LM(TK-) cells. Serological and disc PAGE studies demonstrated that the TK activity expressed in biochemically transformed cells were HSV-1-specific. The experiments suggest that the HSV-1 TK coding region may be contained within a l.1kbp DNA sequence extending from about the Hinc II (or Bgl II) cleavage site to the Sma I site. 35S-methionine labeling experiments carried out on cell lines transformed by Hinc II-cleaved pMH1 DNA and by the EcoR I-Sma I fragment showed that the TKs purified from the transformed cells consisted of about 39-40,000 dalton polypeptides.

  17. Multiplex PCR based on a universal biotinylated primer to generate templates for pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiyao; Liu, Yunlong; Duan, Wenbang; Ye, Hui; Wu, Haiping; Li, Jinheng; Zhou, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    Pyrosequencing is a powerful tool widely used in genetic analysis, however template preparation prior to pyrosequencing is still costly and time-consuming. To achieve an inexpensive and labor-saving template preparation for pyrosequencing, we have successfully developed a single-tube multiplex PCR including a pre-amplification and a universal amplification. In the process of pre-amplification, a low concentration of target-specific primers tagged with universal ends introduced universal priming regions into amplicons. In the process of universal amplification, a high concentration of universal primers was used for yielding amplicons with various SNPs of interest. As only a universal biotinylated primer and one step of single-stranded DNA preparation were required for typing multiple SNPs located on different sequences, pyrosequencing-based genotyping became time-saving, labor-saving, sample-saving, and cost-saving. By a simple optimization of multiplex PCR condition, only a 4-plex and a 3-plex PCR were required for typing 7 SNPs related to tamoxifen metabolism. Further study showed that pyrosequencing coupled with an improved multiplex PCR protocol allowed around 30% decrease of either typing cost or typing labor. Considering the biotinylated primer and the optimized condition of the multiplex PCR are independent of SNP locus, it is easy to use the same condition and the identical biotinylated primer for typing other SNPs. The preliminary typing results of the 7 SNPs in 11 samples demonstrated that multiplex PCR-based pyrosequencing could be promising in personalized medicine at a low cost.

  18. The Agrobacterium Ti Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Christie, Peter J; Gordon, Jay E

    2014-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen with the capacity to deliver a segment of oncogenic DNA carried on a large plasmid called the tumor-inducing or Ti plasmid to susceptible plant cells. A. tumefaciens belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria, whose members include other plant pathogens (Agrobacterium rhizogenes), plant and insect symbionts (Rhizobium spp. and Wolbachia spp., respectively), human pathogens (Brucella spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp.), and nonpathogens (Caulobacter crescentus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides). Many species of Alphaproteobacteria carry large plasmids ranging in size from ∼100 kb to nearly 2 Mb. These large replicons typically code for functions essential for cell physiology, pathogenesis, or symbiosis. Most of these elements rely on a conserved gene cassette termed repABC for replication and partitioning, and maintenance at only one or a few copies per cell. The subject of this review is the ∼200-kb Ti plasmids carried by infectious strains of A. tumefaciens. We will summarize the features of this plasmid as a representative of the repABC family of megaplasmids. We will also describe novel features of this plasmid that enable A. tumefaciens cells to incite tumor formation in plants, sense and respond to an array of plant host and bacterial signal molecules, and maintain and disseminate the plasmid among populations of agrobacteria. At the end of this review, we will describe how this natural genetic engineer has been adapted to spawn an entire industry of plant biotechnology and review its potential for use in future therapeutic applications of plant and nonplant species.

  19. Marine Diatom Plasmids and their Biotechnological Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-27

    plasmid is homologous to the Tn21-type transposable elements. The element carries an open reading frame encoding a DNA invertase gene. Sequence comparisons...of regions upstream and downstream of the invertase gene indicate that the diatom plasmid is most similar to the Staphylococcus aureus transposon...the highly prokaryotic nature (i.e., codon usage bias, promoter sequences, etc.) of the invertase gene we have sequenced, we have tentatively

  20. Recovery of infectious type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus from suckling mice directly inoculated with an RNA polymerase I/II-driven unidirectional transcription plasmid.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Zixiang; Cao, Weijun; Jin, Ye; Li, Dan; Zhang, Keshan; Guo, Jianhong; Zheng, Haixue; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-02

    We developed an RNA polymerase (pol) I- and II-driven plasmid-based reverse genetics system to rescue infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from cloned cDNA. In this plasmid-based transfection, the full-length viral cDNA was flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and hepatitis delta ribozyme (HdvRz) sequences, which were arranged downstream of the two promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and pol I promoter) and upstream of the terminators and polyadenylation signal, respectively. The utility of this method was demonstrated by the recovery of FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 in BHK-21 cells transfected with cDNA plasmids. Furthermore, infectious FMDV Asia1 HN/CHA/06 could be rescued from suckling mice directly inoculated with cDNA plasmids. Thus, this reverse genetics system can be applied to fundamental research and vaccine studies, most notably to rescue those viruses for which there is currently an absence of a suitable cell culture system.

  1. Comparative PCR-based fingerprinting of Vibrio cholerae isolated in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shuan Ju Teh, Cindy; Thong, Kwai Lin; Osawa, Ro; Heng Chua, Kek

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is endemic in many parts of the world, especially in countries poor in resources. Molecular subtyping of V. cholerae is useful to trace the regional spread of a clone or multidrug-resistant strains during outbreaks of cholera. Current available PCR-based fingerprinting methods such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus Sequence (ERIC)-PCR, and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP)-PCR were used to subtype V. cholerae. However, there are problems for inter-laboratory comparison as these PCR methods have their own limitations especially when different PCR methods have been used for molecular typing. In this study, a Vibrio cholerae Repeats-PCR (VCR-PCR) approach which targets the genetic polymorphism of the integron island of Vibrios was used and compared with other PCR-based fingerprinting methods in subtyping. Forty-three V. cholerae of different serogroups from various sources were tested. The PCR-fingerprinting approaches were evaluated on typeability, reproducibility, stability and discriminatory power. Overall, Malaysian non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae were more diverse than O1 strains. Four non-O1/non-O139 strains were closely related with O1 strains. The O139 strain in this study shared similarity with strains of both O1 and non-O1/non-O139 serogroups. ERIC-PCR was the most discriminative approach (D value = 0.996). VCR-PCR was useful in discriminating non-O1/non-O139 strains. RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR were less suitable for efficient subtyping purposes as they were not reproducible and lacked stability. The combination of the ERIC-PCR and VCR-PCR may overcome the inadequacy of any one approach and hence provide more informative data.

  2. A plasmid construct encoding murine interferon beta antagonizes the replication of herpes simplex virus type I in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cui, B; Carr, D J

    2000-08-01

    In the present study, we employed a plasmid DNA encoding murine interferon (IFN)-beta to assess its antiviral efficacy in an in vitro transfection-infection assay and in an ocular HSV-1 infection model of mice. In the in vitro assay, transfection of mouse fibroblasts with the IFN-beta transgene resulted in a 17-fold or greater reduction in the viral load of HSV-1 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 compared to that of those mice treated with the plasmid control. RT-PCR analysis of representative immediate early (ICP27), early (thymidine kinase, TK) and late (VP16) viral genes found no changes in the level of expression comparing the IFN-beta transgene- to the vector-treated control group, suggesting that the IFN-beta transgene may act at the post-transcriptional level of viral replication. In the ocular HSV-1 infection model, topical application of the plasmid DNA encoding murine IFN-beta onto mouse cornea enhanced cumulative survival and significantly reduced the viral load of HSV-1 in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia of mice at both day 3 and 6 post-infection compared with mice treated with the plasmid vector control or normal saline. Neutralizing antibody to IFN-beta blocked the protective effect elicited by the IFN-beta transgene. Unlike the in vitro experiment, viral gene expression was reduced in the trigeminal ganglion of mice pre-treated 24 h with the IFN-beta transgene day 3 (ICP27 and VP16) and day 6 (ICP27, TK, DNA polymerase, and VP16) post-infection in comparison to mice treated with the plasmid vector control as determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

  3. Characterization of pKP-M1144, a Novel ColE1-Like Plasmid Encoding IMP-8, GES-5, and BEL-1 β-Lactamases, from a Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 252 Isolate.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Dolejska, Monika; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Dobiasova, Hana; Studentova, Vendula; Esteves, Francisco J; Derde, Lennie P G; Bonten, Marc J M; Hrabák, Jaroslav; Gniadkowski, Marek

    2015-08-01

    IMP-8 metallo-β-lactamase was identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 252 (ST252), isolated in a Portuguese hospital in 2009. blaIMP-8 was the first gene cassette of a novel class 3 integron, In1144, also carrying the blaGES-5, blaBEL-1, and aacA4 cassettes. In1144 was located on a ColE1-like plasmid, pKP-M1144 (12,029 bp), with a replication region of limited nucleotide similarity to those of other RNA-priming plasmids, such as pJHCMW1. In1144 and pKP-M1144 represent an interesting case of evolution of resistance determinants in Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Accuracy and Sensitivity of Commercial PCR-Based Methods for Detection of Salmonella enterica in Feed ▿

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, M. Gunnar; Häggblom, Per

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of commercial PCR-based Salmonella enterica detection methods (BAX System Q7, the iQ-Check Salmonella II kit, and the TaqMan Salmonella enterica detection kit) with culture-based methods (modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis [MSRV] and NMKL71) in spiked and naturally contaminated samples of feed mill scrapings (FMS), palm kernel meal (PKM), pelleted feed (PF), rape seed meal (RSM), soybean meal (SM), and wheat grain (WG). When results from the various feeds were compared, the number of Salmonella enterica CFU/25 g required to produce a positive were as follows: PKM > FMS = WG > RSM = SM = PF. These data are similar to those developed in earlier studies with culture-based Salmonella detection methods. PCR-based methods were performed similarly to culture-based methods, with respect to sensitivity and specificity. However, many PCR positives could not be confirmed by Salmonella isolation and for that reason the evaluated methods were found to be suitable only when rapid results were paramount. Nevertheless, PCR-based methods cannot presently replace culture-based methods when typing information is required for tracing studies or epidemiological investigations. The observed difference in detection levels is a potential problem when prevalence data are compared as well as when feed ingredients are tested for conformance with microbiological criteria. This paper also presents a statistical model that describes the detection probability when different levels (CFU) of Salmonella contamination are present in feed materials. PMID:20228106

  5. Correlation between transgen expression and plasmid DNA loss in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Ryohei; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Transgene expression from plasmid DNA is dependent on the expression efficiency per plasmid and the amount of intranuclear plasmid. In the present study, intranuclear dispositions of two types of plasmid DNAs (i.e. the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmids) that maintain transgene expression in mouse liver were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between transgene expression and plasmid stability in the nucleus was examined. First, the pCpGfree and pLIVE plasmid DNAs, bearing the mouse secreted alkaline phosphatase (Seap) gene, were administered into mouse liver by the hydrodynamics-based method. Next, various Seap-plasmid DNAs containing different promoters, upstream and downstream sequences, and backbones were injected into mice, and both SEAP expression and plasmid DNA amounts were monitored for 28 days. At the 14- and 28-day time points, the amount of the pCpGfree plasmid DNA was one order of magnitude less than that of the pLIVE plasmid. Meanwhile, the expression efficiency per plasmid was one order of magnitude more efficient for the pCpGfree plasmid DNA. Moreover, the administration of various Seap-plasmid DNAs revealed that negative correlations exist between plasmid stability and SEAP expression level. The results obtained suggest that the pCpGfree plasmid is unstable from the viewpoint of quantity and maintains transgene expression by its high expression efficiency and also that transgene expression negatively affects the stability of plasmid DNA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  7. Plasmid partitioning systems of conjugative plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Watts, Thomas D; Bulach, Dieter M; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

    2015-07-01

    Many pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens carry several highly similar toxin or antibiotic resistance plasmids that have 35 to 40 kb of very closely related syntenous sequences, including regions that carry the genes encoding conjugative transfer, plasmid replication and plasmid maintenance functions. Key questions are how are these closely related plasmids stably maintained in the same cell and what is the basis for plasmid incompatibility in C. perfringens. Comparative analysis of the Rep proteins encoded by these plasmids suggested that this protein was not the basis for plasmid incompatibility since plasmids carried in a single strain often encoded an almost identical Rep protein. These plasmids all carried a similar, but not identical, parMRC plasmid partitioning locus. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced ParM proteins revealed that these proteins could be divided into ten separate groups. Importantly, in every strain that carried more than one of these plasmids, the respective ParM proteins were from different phylogenetic groups. Similar observations were made from the analysis of phylogenetic trees of the ParR proteins and the parC loci. These findings provide evidence that the basis for plasmid incompatibility in the conjugative toxin and resistance plasmid family from C. perfringens resides in subtle differences in the parMRC plasmid partitioning loci carried by these plasmids.

  8. Differential humoral and cellular immunity induced by vaccination using plasmid DNA and protein recombinant expressing the NS3 protein of dengue virus type 3.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Melgoza, M L; Ramos-Ligonio, A; Álvarez-Rodríguez, L M; Meza-Menchaca, T; López-Monteon, A

    2016-12-01

    The dengue non-structural 3 (NS3) is a multifunctional protein, containing a serine-protease domain, located at the N-terminal portion, and helicase, NTPase and RTPase domains present in the C-terminal region. This protein is considered the main target for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses during dengue infection, which may be involved in protection. However, few studies have been undertaken evaluating the use of this protein as a protective antigen against dengue, as well as other flavivirus. In the present work we evaluated the potential of the NS3 (protease domain) as a protective antigen by comparing the administration of a recombinant protein versus a DNA vaccine in the mouse model. BALB/c mice were immunized with the recombinant protein NS3-DEN3 via intraperitoneal and with plasmid pcDNA3/NS3-DEN3 intramuscularly and the immune response was evaluated. The activity of T lymphocytes was analyzed by the MTT assay, and cells of mice immunized with the recombinant protein showed no activity when stimulated with the homologous protein. However, cells from mice immunized with DNA, responded to stimulation with the recombinant protein. When the expression (RT-PCR) and cytokine production (ELISA) was evaluated in the splenocytes, different behavior depending on the type of immunization was observed, splenocytes of mice immunized with the recombinant protein expressed cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 and produced high concentrations of IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα. Splenocytes from mice immunized with DNA expressed IL-2 and IFNγ and did not produce IL-6. In addition, immunization with the recombinant protein induced the production of antibodies that are detected up to a dilution 1:3200 by ELISA and Western blot assays, however, the serum of mice immunized with DNA presented no detectable antibody titers. The results obtained in this study show that administration of pcDNA3/NS3-DEN3 induces a favorable response in the activation of T lymphocytes with low production of specific

  9. Plasmid curing of Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Mesas, Juan M; Rodríguez, M Carmen; Alegre, M Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Two strains of Oenococcus oeni, RS1 (which carries the plasmid pRS1) and RS2 (which carries the plasmids pRS2 and pRS3), were grown in the presence of different curing agents and at different temperatures. Sublethal temperature together with acriflavine generated all possible types of cured strains, i.e., lacking pRS1 (from strain RS1), and lacking pRS2, pRS3, or both (from strain RS2). Sublethal temperature together with acridine orange only generated cured strains lacking pRS3. These results suggest that acriflavine is a better curing agent than acridine orange for O. oeni, and that pRS3 is the most sensitive to these curing agents. We also observed spontaneous loss of pRS2 or both pRS2 and pRS3 by electroporation. The ability to cure O. oeni strains of plasmids provides a critical new tool for the genetic analysis and engineering of this commercially important bacterium.

  10. Characterisation of multidrug-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli cultured from pigs in China: co-occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- and mcr-1-encoding genes on plasmids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Li; Hurley, Daniel; Li, Juan; Meng, Qiong; Wang, Juan; Fanning, Séamus; Xiong, Yanwen

    2016-10-01

    Identification of Enterobacteriaceae harbouring the plasmid-mediated transferable colistin resistance gene mcr-1 presents a new challenge to public health. The aim of this study was to characterise multidrug-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) harbouring the mcr-1 gene on plasmids cultured from pigs in China. Using CHROMagar™ ECC plates combined with stx gene detection by PCR, 93 STEC were recovered from 326 faecal, 351 small intestine content and 326 colon content samples taken from healthy pigs in 2011 and 2012 in China. This study, in which ten colistin-resistant isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-12 mg/L were identified and found to be positive by PCR for the mcr-1 gene, is a follow-up to an earlier investigation. Plasmid profiling by S1-nuclease digestion followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) identified several high-molecular-weight plasmids and these were typed by PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). Two of the ten isolates, namely STEC-CQ09 (O116:H11/CC23/ST88) and CQ10 (O2:H32/ST3628), were selected for further study as described in this report.

  11. Cloning and biochemical characterization of FOX-5, an AmpC-type plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase from a New York City Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Queenan, A M; Jenkins, S; Bush, K

    2001-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 5064, isolated in New York, carried plasmid-mediated resistance to multiple beta-lactams and was unresponsive to clavulanic acid. The beta-lactamase gene responsible for cephalosporin resistance encoded FOX-5, with 96 to 97% amino acid identities to other members of the FOX family of beta-lactamases. The bla(FOX-5) coding region was located next to a transposase gene from the Aeromonas salmonicida insertion element ISAS2.

  12. War Wound Treatment Complications Due to Transfer of an IncN Plasmid Harboring blaOXA-181 from Morganella morganii to CTX-M-27-Producing Sequence Type 131 Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Snesrud, Erik; Ong, Ana C.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Koren, Michael; Kwak, Yoon I.; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old male developed a recurrent sacral abscess associated with embedded shrapnel following a blast injury. Cultures grew extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli. Ertapenem was administered, but the infection recurred after each course of antibiotics. Initial surgical interventions were unsuccessful, and subsequent cultures yielded E. coli and Morganella morganii, both nonsusceptible to carbapenems. The isolates were Carba NP test negative, gave ambiguous results with the modified Hodge test, and amplified the blaOXA48-like gene by real-time PCR. All E. coli isolates were sequence type 131 (ST131), carried nine resistance genes (including blaCTX-M-27) on an IncF plasmid, and were identical by genome sequencing, except for 150 kb of plasmid DNA in carbapenem-nonsusceptible isolates only. Sixty kilobases of this was shared by M. morganii and represented an IncN plasmid harboring blaOXA-181. In M. morganii, the gene was flanked by IS3000 and ISKpn19, but in all but one of the E. coli isolates containing blaOXA-181, a second copy of ISKpn19 had inserted adjacent to IS3000. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of blaOXA-181 in the virulent ST131 clonal group and carried by the promiscuous IncN family of plasmids. The tendency of M. morganii to have high MICs of imipenem, a blaOXA-181 substrate profile that includes penicillins but not extended-spectrum cephalosporins, and weak carbapenemase activity almost resulted in the presence of blaOXA-181 being overlooked. We highlight the importance of surveillance for carbapenem resistance in all species, even those with intrinsic resistances, and the value of advanced molecular techniques in detecting subtle genetic changes. PMID:25870058

  13. GFP plasmid-induced defects in Salmonella invasion depend on plasmid architecture, not protein expression.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leann; Martinez-Argudo, Isabel; Humphrey, Tom J; Jepson, Mark A

    2009-02-01

    We have investigated the impact of plasmids and GFP expression on invasion of cultured epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain SL1344. The invasiveness of SL1344 carrying plasmids derived from pBR322, encoding promoterless GFP or constitutively expressed rpsM-GFP, was compared under optimal growth conditions with that of SL1344(pBR322), unmodified SL1344 and a strain with chromosome-integrated rpsM-GFP. The strain carrying pBR322 exhibited normal invasion, but the presence of modified plasmids impaired invasiveness, and impairment was exacerbated by plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol resistance (CmR). Using a different antibiotic resistance marker, kanamycin (KmR), did not impair invasiveness. Despite the effect of plasmid-encoded CmR, the strain containing chromosomally encoded GFP, also carrying a CmR gene, was as invasive as the wild-type. To investigate the mechanism by which plasmid carriage decreases invasion, we monitored SPI-1 gene expression using prgH promoter activity as an index of SPI-1 activity. An SL1344 strain with a chromosome-integrated prgH::gfp reporter construct exhibited lower GFP expression during exponential phase when carrying plasmids incorporating CmR or gfp, mirroring invasion data. These data provide evidence that suppression of SPI-1 gene expression is a major factor in the loss of invasiveness associated with plasmid carriage. Our findings also indicate that some plasmids, especially those carrying CmR, should be used with caution, as virulence traits and gene expression may be affected by their presence. Integration of reporter proteins into the bacterial chromosome, however, appears to circumvent the adverse effects observed with plasmids.

  14. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  15. Invasion of E. coli biofilms by antibiotic resistance plasmids.

    PubMed

    Król, Jaroslaw E; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J; Rogers, Linda M; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Krone, Stephen M; Top, Eva M

    2013-07-01

    In spite of the contribution of plasmids to the spread of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens, little is known about the transferability of various drug resistance plasmids in bacterial biofilms. The goal of this study was to compare the efficiency of transfer of 19 multidrug resistance plasmids into Escherichia coli recipient biofilms and determine the effects of biofilm age, biofilm-donor exposure time, and donor-to-biofilm attachment on this process. An E. coli recipient biofilm was exposed separately to 19 E. coli donors, each with a different plasmid, and transconjugants were determined by plate counting. With few exceptions, plasmids that transferred well in a liquid environment also showed the highest transferability in biofilms. The difference in transfer frequency between the most and least transferable plasmid was almost a million-fold. The 'invasibility' of the biofilm by plasmids, or the proportion of biofilm cells that acquired plasmids within a few hours, depended not only on the type of plasmid, but also on the time of biofilm exposure to the donor and on the ability of the plasmid donor to attach to the biofilm, yet not on biofilm age. The efficiency of donor strain attachment to the biofilm was not affected by the presence of plasmids. The most invasive plasmid was pHH2-227, which based on genome sequence analysis is a hybrid between IncU-like and IncW plasmids. The wide range in transferability in an E. coli biofilm among plasmids needs to be taken into account in our fight against the spread of drug resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  17. Molecular characterization of CTNS deletions in nephropathic cystinosis: development of a PCR-based detection assay.

    PubMed

    Forestier, L; Jean, G; Attard, M; Cherqui, S; Lewis, C; van't Hoff, W; Broyer, M; Town, M; Antignac, C

    1999-08-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by accumulation of intralysosomal cystine and is caused by a defect in the transport of cystine across the lysosomal membrane. Using a positional cloning strategy, we recently cloned the causative gene, CTNS, and identified pathogenic mutations, including deletions, that span the cystinosis locus. Two types of deletions were detected-one of 9.5-16 kb, which was seen in a single family, and one of approximately 65 kb, which is the most frequent mutation found in the homozygous state in nearly one-third of cystinotic individuals. We present here characterization of the deletion breakpoints and demonstrate that, although both deletions occur in regions of repetitive sequences, they are the result of nonhomologous recombination. This type of mechanism suggests that the approximately 65-kb deletion is not a recurrent mutation, and our results confirm that it is identical in all patients. Haplotype analysis shows that this large deletion is due to a founder effect that occurred in a white individual and that probably arose in the middle of the first millenium. We also describe a rapid PCR-based assay that will accurately detect both homozygous and heterozygous deletions, and we use it to show that the approximately 65-kb deletion is present in either the homozygous or the heterozygous state in 76% of cystinotic patients of European origin.

  18. Evaluation of Two PCR-Based Swine-Specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the specificity and distribution of these targets have not been adequately assessed. Consequently, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination...

  19. Evaluation of Two PCR-Based Swine-Specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the specificity and distribution of these targets have not been adequately assessed. Consequently, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination...

  20. Phytoplasma plasmid DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mark T; Liefting, Lia W

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasma plasmids have generally been detected from DNA extracted from plants and insects using methods designed for the purification of total phytoplasma DNA. Methods include extraction from tissues that are high in phytoplasma titre, such as the phloem of plants, with the use of CsCl-bisbenzimide gradients that exploit the low G+C content of phytoplasma DNA. Many of the methods employed for phytoplasma purification have been described elsewhere in this book. Here we describe in detail two methods that are specifically aimed at isolating plasmid DNA.

  1. Generation of a reliable full-length cDNA of infectiousTembusu virus using a PCR-based protocol.

    PubMed

    Liang, Te; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Cui, Shulin; Qu, Shenghua; Wang, Dan; Liu, Ning; Wang, Fumin; Ning, Kang; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-02-02

    Full-length cDNA of Tembusu virus (TMUV) cloned in a plasmid has been found instable in bacterial hosts. Using a PCR-based protocol, we generated a stable full-length cDNA of TMUV. Different cDNA fragments of TMUV were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and cloned into plasmids. Fragmented cDNAs were amplified and assembled by fusion PCR to produce a full-length cDNA using the recombinant plasmids as templates. Subsequently, a full-length RNA was transcribed from the full-length cDNA in vitro and transfected into BHK-21 cells; infectious viral particles were rescued successfully. Following several passages in BKH-21 cells, the rescued virus was compared with the parental virus by genetic marker checks, growth curve determinations and animal experiments. These assays clearly demonstrated the genetic and biological stabilities of the rescued virus. The present work will be useful for future investigations on the molecular mechanisms involved in replication and pathogenesis of TMUV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmid flux in Escherichia coli ST131 sublineages, analyzed by plasmid constellation network (PLACNET), a new method for plasmid reconstruction from whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ-proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages.

  3. Plasmid Flux in Escherichia coli ST131 Sublineages, Analyzed by Plasmid Constellation Network (PLACNET), a New Method for Plasmid Reconstruction from Whole Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Jorge; Coque, Teresa M.; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial whole genome sequence (WGS) methods are rapidly overtaking classical sequence analysis. Many bacterial sequencing projects focus on mobilome changes, since macroevolutionary events, such as the acquisition or loss of mobile genetic elements, mainly plasmids, play essential roles in adaptive evolution. Existing WGS analysis protocols do not assort contigs between plasmids and the main chromosome, thus hampering full analysis of plasmid sequences. We developed a method (called plasmid constellation networks or PLACNET) that identifies, visualizes and analyzes plasmids in WGS projects by creating a network of contig interactions, thus allowing comprehensive plasmid analysis within WGS datasets. The workflow of the method is based on three types of data: assembly information (including scaffold links and coverage), comparison to reference sequences and plasmid-diagnostic sequence features. The resulting network is pruned by expert analysis, to eliminate confounding data, and implemented in a Cytoscape-based graphic representation. To demonstrate PLACNET sensitivity and efficacy, the plasmidome of the Escherichia coli lineage ST131 was analyzed. ST131 is a globally spread clonal group of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC), comprising different sublineages with ability to acquire and spread antibiotic resistance and virulence genes via plasmids. Results show that plasmids flux in the evolution of this lineage, which is wide open for plasmid exchange. MOBF12/IncF plasmids were pervasive, adding just by themselves more than 350 protein families to the ST131 pangenome. Nearly 50% of the most frequent γ–proteobacterial plasmid groups were found to be present in our limited sample of ten analyzed ST131 genomes, which represent the main ST131 sublineages. PMID:25522143

  4. Plasmid Detection, Characterization, and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Smalla, Kornelia; Jechalke, Sven; Top, Eva M

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are important vehicles for rapid adaptation of bacterial populations to changing environmental conditions. It is thought that to reduce the cost of plasmid carriage, only a fraction of a local population carries plasmids or is permissive to plasmid uptake. Plasmids provide various accessory traits which might be beneficial under particular conditions. The genetic variation generated by plasmid carriage within populations ensures the robustness toward environmental changes. Plasmid-mediated gene transfer plays an important role not only in the mobilization and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes but also in the spread of degradative pathways and pathogenicity determinants of pathogens. Here we summarize the state-of-the-art methods to study the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of plasmids in environmental bacteria. Increasingly, cultivation-independent total-community DNA-based methods are being used to characterize and quantify the diversity and abundance of plasmids in relation to various biotic and abiotic factors. An improved understanding of the ecology of plasmids and their hosts is crucial in the development of intervention strategies for antibiotic-resistance-gene spread. We discuss the potentials and limitations of methods used to determine the host range of plasmids, as the ecology of plasmids is tightly linked to their hosts. The recent advances in sequencing technologies provide an enormous potential for plasmid classification, diversity, and evolution studies, but numerous challenges still exist.

  5. Standardised PCR-based molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Allix-Béguec, C; Supply, P; Wanlin, M; Bifani, P; Fauville-Dufaux, M

    2008-05-01

    A population-based molecular epidemiology investigation has been undertaken to evaluate tuberculosis transmission and control in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium). All tuberculosis cases reported from January 2003 to December 2004 were investigated. In total, 536 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (89% of culture-positive samples) were genotyped by the newly standardised 24 loci-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem-repeat typing, spoligotyping and IS6110 fingerprinting. Of all the patients, 30% were grouped based on strain clusters, suggesting a transmission index of 20%. An unsuspected outbreak entailing > or = 23 patients was evidenced by molecular typing analysis and confirmed by contact tracing. Foreign-born status accounted for 79% of the studied patients, including 37.9% illegal immigrants and asylum seekers. Among foreign-born patients, asylum seekers and illegal immigrants were significantly less abundant in strain clusters than settled residents. Tuberculosis in the Brussels-Capital Region is a bi-faceted problem, comprising both persisting recent transmission and "imported diseases". Molecular epidemiology based on real-time genotyping techniques has proven invaluable in better understanding tuberculosis transmission. However, it will most efficiently contribute to tuberculosis control when implemented in an integrated public health system.

  6. Large plasmids of Escherichia coli and Salmonella encode highly diverse arrays of accessory genes on common replicon families.

    PubMed

    Williams, Laura E; Wireman, Joy; Hilliard, Valda C; Summers, Anne O

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are important in evolution and adaptation of host bacteria, yet we lack a comprehensive picture of their own natural variation. We used replicon typing and RFLP analysis to assess diversity and distribution of plasmids in the ECOR, SARA, SARB and SARC reference collections of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Plasmids, especially large (≥30 kb) plasmids, are abundant in these collections. Host species and genotype clearly impact plasmid prevalence; plasmids are more abundant in ECOR than SAR, but, within ECOR, subgroup B2 strains have the fewest large plasmids. The majority of large plasmids have unique RFLP patterns, suggesting high variation, even within dominant replicon families IncF and IncI1. We found only four conserved plasmid types within ECOR, none of which are widely distributed. Within SAR, conserved plasmid types are primarily serovar-specific, including a pSLT-like plasmid in 13 Typhimurium strains. Conservation of pSLT contrasts with variability of other plasmids, suggesting evolution of serovar-specific virulence plasmids is distinct from that of most enterobacterial plasmids. We sequenced a conserved serovar Heidelberg plasmid but did not detect virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. Our data illustrate the high degree of natural variation in large plasmids of E. coli and Salmonella, even among plasmids sharing backbone genes.

  7. Plasmid interference for curing antibiotic resistance plasmids in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Muhammad; Shoma, Shereen; Thomas, Christopher M; Partridge, Sally R; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of death from infection by common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in developed and developing countries alike. Most important modern antibiotic resistance genes spread between such species on self-transmissible (conjugative) plasmids. These plasmids are traditionally grouped on the basis of replicon incompatibility (Inc), which prevents coexistence of related plasmids in the same cell. These plasmids also use post-segregational killing ('addiction') systems, which poison any bacterial cells that lose the addictive plasmid, to guarantee their own survival. This study demonstrates that plasmid incompatibilities and addiction systems can be exploited to achieve the safe and complete eradication of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in vitro and in the mouse gut. Conjugative 'interference plasmids' were constructed by specifically deleting toxin and antibiotic resistance genes from target plasmids. These interference plasmids efficiently cured the corresponding antibiotic resistant target plasmid from different Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and restored antibiotic susceptibility in vivo to all bacterial populations into which plasmid-mediated resistance had spread. This approach might allow eradication of emergent or established populations of resistance plasmids in individuals at risk of severe sepsis, enabling subsequent use of less toxic and/or more effective antibiotics than would otherwise be possible, if sepsis develops. The generalisability of this approach and its potential applications in bioremediation of animal and environmental microbiomes should now be systematically explored.

  8. Chemotherapy of Bacterial Plasmids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-29

    multiresistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, mediated drug resistance are the emergence of strains determined by R-plasmids, causes treatment failures of Haemophilus ... influenzae , resistant to ampicillin [8] of hospital infections, foremost in patients with a or chloramphenicol [9] and of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  9. Plasmids of Legionella Species.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    these organisms could support the replication of other plasmids. In recent years, there have been epidemics of typhoid fever in Vietnam and Mexico due...and M. Pollack. 1973. Chloram- phenicol-resistant typhoid fever in Vietnam associated with R factor. Lancet ii:983-985. IA I~ ! l -- +t.-t, lo. re

  10. Development of a PCR-Based Reverse Genetics System for an Attenuated Duck Tembusu Virus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaogang; Shi, Ying; Yan, Dawei; Li, Xuesong; Yan, Pixi; Gao, Xuyuan; Zhang, Yuee; Yu, Lei; Ren, Chaochao; Li, Guoxin; Yan, Liping; Teng, Qiaoyang; Li, Zejun

    2016-01-01

    The infectious disease caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has resulted in massive economic losses to the Chinese duck industry in China since 2010. Research on the molecular basis of DTMUV pathogenicity has been hampered by the lack of a reliable reverse genetics system for this virus. Here we developed a PCR-based reverse genetics system with high fidelity for the attenuated DTMUV strain FX2010-180P. The rescued virus was characterized by using both indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) and whole genome sequencing. The rescued virus (rFX2010-180P) grew to similar titers as compared with the wild-type virus in DF-1 cells, and had similar replication and immunogenicity properties in ducks. To determine whether exogenous proteins could be expressed from DTMUV, both an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene were introduced between the NS5 gene and the 3' non-coding sequence of FX2010-180P. A recombinant DTMUV expressing eGFP was rescued, but eGFP expression was unstable after 4 passages in DF-1 cells due to a deletion of 1,294 nucleotides. The establishment of a reliable reverse genetics system for FX2010-180P provides a foundation for future studies of DTMUV. PMID:27248497

  11. Sequence of Two Plasmids from Clostridium perfringens Chicken Necrotic Enteritis Isolates and Comparison with C. perfringens Conjugative Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, Valeria R.; Costa, Marcio; Eikmeyer, Felix; Blom, Jochen; Prescott, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-six isolates of Clostridium perfringens of different MLST types from chickens with necrotic enteritis (NE) (15 netB-positive) or from healthy chickens (6 netB-positive, 5 netB-negative) were found to contain 1–4 large plasmids, with most netB-positive isolates containing 3 large and variably sized plasmids which were more numerous and larger than plasmids in netB-negative isolates. NetB and cpb2 were found on different plasmids consistent with previous studies. The pathogenicity locus NELoc1, which includes netB, was largely conserved in these plasmids whereas NeLoc3, present in the cpb2 containing plasmids, was less well conserved. A netB-positive and a cpb2-positive plasmid were likely to be conjugative, and the plasmids were completely sequenced. Both plasmids possessed the intact tcp conjugative region characteristic of C. perfringens conjugative plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis of nine CpCPs, including the two plasmids described here, showed extensive gene rearrangements including pathogenicity locus and accessory gene insertions around rather than within the backbone region. The pattern that emerges from this analysis is that the major toxin-containing regions of the variety of virulence-associated CpCPs are organized as complex pathogenicity loci. How these different but related CpCPs can co-exist in the same host has been an unanswered question. Analysis of the replication-partition region of these plasmids suggests that this region controls plasmid incompatibility, and that CpCPs can be grouped into at least four incompatibility groups. PMID:23189158

  12. Divergent Evolution of the repFII Replicon of IncF Plasmids Carrying Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor cnf2, Cytolethal Distending Toxin cdtIII, and f17Ae Fimbrial Variant Genes in Type 2 Necrotoxigenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Calves

    PubMed Central

    Bihannic, Morgan; Haenni, Marisa; Oswald, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Among the pathovars of Escherichia coli in cattle, necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) is defined by the production of cytotoxic necrotizing factors (CNFs). In particular, type 2 NTEC (NTEC2) strains are frequent in diarrheic and septicemic calves and usually coproduce CNF type 2 (CNF2), cytolethal distending toxin type III (CDTIII), and fimbrial adhesins of the F17 family, whose genetic determinants have frequently been reported on the same Vir-like plasmid. In this study, we investigated the genetic environment of the cnf2, f17Ae, and cdtIII genes in a collection of fecal E. coli isolates recovered from 484 French and 58 Iranian calves. In particular, we highlighted the spread of cnf2, f17Ae, and cdtIII on similar 150-kb IncF plasmids harboring the newly assigned repFII replicon allele F74 in NTEC2 isolates. Interestingly, this 150-kb IncF plasmid differed from the 140-kb IncF plasmid harboring the newly assigned repFII replicon allele F75 and carrying cnf2 alone. These results suggest two divergent lineages of cnf2-carrying IncF plasmids depending on the presence of the f17Ae and cdtIII genes. This partition was observed in E. coli strains of unrelated backgrounds, suggesting two different evolutionary paths of cnf2-carrying IncF plasmids rather than divergent evolutions of NTEC2 clones. The driving forces for such divergent evolutions are not known, and further studies are required to clarify the selection of plasmid subtypes spreading virulence determinants in E. coli, in particular, plasmids of the IncF family. PMID:26546422

  13. Plasmid interference for curing antibiotic resistance plasmids in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kamruzzaman, Muhammad; Shoma, Shereen; Thomas, Christopher M.; Partridge, Sally R.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance increases the likelihood of death from infection by common pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in developed and developing countries alike. Most important modern antibiotic resistance genes spread between such species on self-transmissible (conjugative) plasmids. These plasmids are traditionally grouped on the basis of replicon incompatibility (Inc), which prevents coexistence of related plasmids in the same cell. These plasmids also use post-segregational killing (‘addiction’) systems, which poison any bacterial cells that lose the addictive plasmid, to guarantee their own survival. This study demonstrates that plasmid incompatibilities and addiction systems can be exploited to achieve the safe and complete eradication of antibiotic resistance from bacteria in vitro and in the mouse gut. Conjugative ‘interference plasmids’ were constructed by specifically deleting toxin and antibiotic resistance genes from target plasmids. These interference plasmids efficiently cured the corresponding antibiotic resistant target plasmid from different Enterobacteriaceae in vitro and restored antibiotic susceptibility in vivo to all bacterial populations into which plasmid-mediated resistance had spread. This approach might allow eradication of emergent or established populations of resistance plasmids in individuals at risk of severe sepsis, enabling subsequent use of less toxic and/or more effective antibiotics than would otherwise be possible, if sepsis develops. The generalisability of this approach and its potential applications in bioremediation of animal and environmental microbiomes should now be systematically explored. PMID:28245276

  14. Association of fluoroquinolone resistance, virulence genes, and IncF plasmids with extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and ST405 clonal groups.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Ito, Yutaka; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    The global increase of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is associated with the specific clonal group sequence type 131 (ST131). In order to understand the successful spread of ESBL-producing E. coli clonal groups, we characterized fluoroquinolone resistance determinants, virulence genotypes, and plasmid replicons of ST131 and another global clonal group, ST405. We investigated 41 ST131-O25b, 26 ST131-O16, 41 ST405, and 41 other ST (OST) ESBL-producing isolates, which were collected at seven acute care hospitals in Japan. The detection of ESBL types, fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations (including quinolone resistance-determining regions [QRDRs]), virulence genotypes, plasmid replicon types, and IncF replicon sequence types was performed using PCR and sequencing. blaCTX-M, specifically blaCTX-M-14, was the most common ESBL gene type among the four groups. Ciprofloxacin resistance was found in 90% of ST131-O25b, 19% of ST131-O16, 100% of ST405, and 54% of OST isolates. Multidrug resistance was more common in the ST405 group than in the ST131-O25 group (56% versus 32%; P = 0.045). All ST131-O25b isolates except one had four characteristic mutations in QRDRs, but most of the isolates from the other three groups had three mutations in common. The ST131-O25b and ST405 groups had larger numbers of virulence genes than the OST group. All of the ST131-O25b and ST405 isolates and most of the ST131-O16 and OST isolates carried IncF replicons. The most prevalent IncF replicon sequence types differed between the four clonal groups. Both the ST131-O25b and ST405 clonal groups had a fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism in QRDRs, multidrug resistance, high virulence, and IncF plasmids, suggesting the potential for further global expansion and a need for measures against these clonal groups.

  15. F33: A-: B-, IncHI2/ST3, and IncI1/ST71 plasmids drive the dissemination of fosA3 and blaCTX−M−55/−14/−65 in Escherichia coli from chickens in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Wuling; Liu, Yiyun; Wang, Jing; Lv, Luchao; Chen, Xiaojie; He, Dandan; Yang, Tong; Hou, Jianxia; Tan, Yinjuan; Xing, Li; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli from chickens and to characterize the plasmids carrying fosA3. A total of 661 E. coli isolates of chicken origin collected from 2009 to 2011 were screened for plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants by PCR. Plasmids were characterized using PCR-based replicon typing, plasmid multilocus sequence typing, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Associated addiction systems and resistance genes were identified by PCR. PCR-mapping was used for analysis of the genetic context of fosA3. Fosfomycin resistance was detected in 58 isolates that also carried the fosA3 gene. Fifty-seven, 17, and 52 FosA3-producers also harbored blaCTX−M, rmtB, and floR genes, respectively. Most of the 58 fosA3-carrying isolates were clonally unrelated, and all fosA3 genes were located on plasmids belonged to F33:A-:B- (n = 18), IncN-F33:A-:B- (n = 7), IncHI2/ST3 (n = 10), IncI1/ST71 (n = 3), IncI1/ST108 (n = 3), and others. The genetic structures, IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX−M−55-orf477-blaTEM-1-IS26-fosA3-1758bp-IS26 and ISEcp1-blaCTX−M−65-IS903-iroN-IS26-fosA3-536bp-IS26 were located on highly similar F33:A-:B- plasmids. In addition, blaCTX−M−14-fosA3-IS26 was frequently present on similar IncHI2/ST3 plasmids. IncFII plasmids had a significantly higher frequency of addiction systems (mean 3.5) than other plasmids. Our results showed a surprisingly high prevalence of fosA3 gene in E. coli isolates recovered from chicken in China. The spread of fosA3 can be attributed to horizontal dissemination of several epidemic plasmids, especially F33:A-:B- plasmids. Since coselection by other antimicrobials is the major driving force for the diffusion of the fosA3 gene, a strict antibiotic use policy is urgently needed in China. PMID:25566207

  16. PCR-based method for targeting 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions among Vibrio species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genus Vibrio is a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria comprised of 74 species. Furthermore, the genus has and is expected to continue expanding with the addition of several new species annually. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to have a method which is able to reliably and efficiently differentiate the numerous Vibrio species. Results In this study, a novel and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based intergenic spacer (IGS)-typing system for vibrios was developed that is based on the well-known IGS regions located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes on the bacterial chromosome. The system was optimized to resolve heteroduplex formation as well as to take advantage of capillary gel electrophoresis technology such that reproducible analyses could be achieved in a rapid manner. System validation was achieved through testing of 69 archetypal Vibrio strains, representing 48 Vibrio species, from which an 'IGS-type' profile database was generated. These data, presented here in several cluster analyses, demonstrated successful differentiation of the 69 type strains showing that this PCR-based fingerprinting method easily discriminates bacterial strains at the species level among Vibrio. Furthermore, testing 36 strains each of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus, important food borne pathogens, isolated from a variety of geographical locations with the IGS-typing method demonstrated distinct IGS-typing patterns indicative of subspecies divergence in both populations making this technique equally useful for intraspecies differentiation, as well. Conclusion This rapid, reliable and efficient IGS-typing system, especially in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequencing, has the capacity to not only discern and identify vibrios at the species level but, in some cases, at the sub-species level, as well. This procedure is particularly well-suited for preliminary species identification and, lends itself nicely to epidemiological investigations

  17. Large linear plasmids of Borrelia species that cause relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shelley Campeau; Porcella, Stephen F; Raffel, Sandra J; Schwan, Tom G; Barbour, Alan G

    2013-08-01

    Borrelia species of relapsing fever (RF) and Lyme disease (LD) lineages have linear chromosomes and both linear and circular plasmids. Unique to RF species, and little characterized to date, are large linear plasmids of ∼160 kb, or ∼10% of the genome. By a combination of Sanger and next-generation methods, we determined the sequences of large linear plasmids of two New World species: Borrelia hermsii, to completion of its 174-kb length, and B. turicatae, partially to 114 kb of its 150 kb. These sequences were then compared to corresponding sequences of the Old World species B. duttonii and B. recurrentis and to plasmid sequences of LD Borrelia species. The large plasmids were largely colinear, except for their left ends, about 27 kb of which was inverted in New World species. Approximately 60% of the B. hermsii lp174 plasmid sequence was repetitive for 6 types of sequence, and half of its open reading frames encoded hypothetical proteins not discernibly similar to proteins in the database. The central ∼25 kb of all 4 linear plasmids was syntenic for orthologous genes for plasmid maintenance or partitioning in Borrelia species. Of all the sequenced linear and circular plasmids in Borrelia species, the large plasmid's putative partition/replication genes were most similar to those of the 54-kb linear plasmids of LD species. Further evidence for shared ancestry was the observation that two of the hypothetical proteins were predicted to be structurally similar to the LD species' CspA proteins, which are encoded on the 54-kb plasmids.

  18. Large Linear Plasmids of Borrelia Species That Cause Relapsing Fever

    PubMed Central

    Porcella, Stephen F.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Schwan, Tom G.; Barbour, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia species of relapsing fever (RF) and Lyme disease (LD) lineages have linear chromosomes and both linear and circular plasmids. Unique to RF species, and little characterized to date, are large linear plasmids of ∼160 kb, or ∼10% of the genome. By a combination of Sanger and next-generation methods, we determined the sequences of large linear plasmids of two New World species: Borrelia hermsii, to completion of its 174-kb length, and B. turicatae, partially to 114 kb of its 150 kb. These sequences were then compared to corresponding sequences of the Old World species B. duttonii and B. recurrentis and to plasmid sequences of LD Borrelia species. The large plasmids were largely colinear, except for their left ends, about 27 kb of which was inverted in New World species. Approximately 60% of the B. hermsii lp174 plasmid sequence was repetitive for 6 types of sequence, and half of its open reading frames encoded hypothetical proteins not discernibly similar to proteins in the database. The central ∼25 kb of all 4 linear plasmids was syntenic for orthologous genes for plasmid maintenance or partitioning in Borrelia species. Of all the sequenced linear and circular plasmids in Borrelia species, the large plasmid's putative partition/replication genes were most similar to those of the 54-kb linear plasmids of LD species. Further evidence for shared ancestry was the observation that two of the hypothetical proteins were predicted to be structurally similar to the LD species' CspA proteins, which are encoded on the 54-kb plasmids. PMID:23749977

  19. Why is entry exclusion an essential feature of conjugative plasmids?

    PubMed

    Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Entry exclusion is a property of plasmids by which the cells that contain them become bad recipients in additional conjugation rounds. This work reviews entry exclusion essential features and analyzes the mechanisms of action of the best studied systems. We searched for homologs of the proteins responsible for experimentally known exclusion systems. Results were used to classify exclusion systems in families of related elements. We arrive to the conclusion that all conjugative plasmids contain at least one entry exclusion gene. Although entry exclusion genes seem to be part of the plasmid conjugative machinery, they are systematically absent in phylogenetically related type IV protein exporting machines involved in virulence for plants and animals. We infer from this fact that entry exclusion is an essential feature of conjugative plasmid biology. Mathematical models suggest that plasmids expressing entry exclusion selectively eliminate plasmids lacking it, reinforcing its essential character and suggesting that entry exclusion plays a direct role in plasmid survival. Other experimental results confirm that entry exclusion is essential for the stability of a conjugative plasmid. We suggest that entry exclusion limits the damage of lethal zygosis (bacterial death produced by excessive rounds of conjugation). Additionally, it avoids competition in a host among identical plasmid backbones. Conversely, the lack of entry exclusion in conjugative transposons can be understood as a means of generating rapid evolutionary change.

  20. Comparative effects of osmotic, sodium nitrite-induced, and pH-induced stress on growth and survival of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying chromosomal or plasmid-borne enterotoxin genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; McClane, Bruce A

    2006-12-01

    About 1 to 2% of Clostridium perfringens isolates carry the enterotoxin gene (cpe) necessary for causing C. perfringens type A food poisoning. While the cpe gene can be either chromosomal or plasmid borne, food poisoning isolates usually carry a chromosomal cpe gene. Previous studies have linked this association between chromosomal cpe isolates (i.e., C-cpe isolates) and food poisoning, at least in part, to both the spores and vegetative cells of C-cpe isolates being particularly resistant to high and low temperatures. The current study now reveals that the resistance phenotype of C-cpe isolates extends beyond temperature resistance to also include, for both vegetative cells and spores, enhanced resistance to osmotic stress (from NaCl) and nitrites. However, by omitting one outlier isolate, no significant differences in pH sensitivity were detected between the spores or vegetative cells of C-cpe isolates versus isolates carrying a plasmid-borne cpe gene. These results indicate that both vegetative cells and spores of C-cpe isolates are unusually resistant to several food preservation approaches in addition to temperature extremes. The broad-spectrum nature of the C-cpe resistance phenotype suggests these bacteria may employ multiple mechanisms to persist and grow in foods prior to their transmission to humans.

  1. Real-time PCR based analysis of metal resistance genes in metal resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain J007.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sangeeta; Sar, Pinaki

    2016-07-01

    A uranium (U)-resistant and -accumulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was characterized to assess the response of toxic metals toward its growth and expression of metal resistance determinants. The bacterium showed MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 6, 3, and 2 mM for Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively; with resistance phenotype conferred by periplasmic Cu sequestering copA and RND type heavy metal efflux czcA genes. Real-time PCR-based expression analysis revealed significant upregulation of both these genes upon exposure to low concentrations of metals for short duration, whereas the global stress response gene sodA encoding superoxide dismutase enzyme was upregulated only at higher metal concentrations or longer exposure time. It could also be inferred that copA and czcA are involved in providing resistance only at low metal concentrations, whereas involvement of "global stress response" phenomenon (expression of sodA) at higher metal concentration or increased exposure was evident. This study provides significant understanding of the adaptive response of bacteria surviving in metal and radionuclide contaminated environments along with the development of real-time PCR-based quantification method of using metal resistance genes as biomarker for monitoring relevant bacteria in such habitats. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    PubMed

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  3. Effect of plasmid pKM101 in ultraviolet irradiated uvr+ and uvr- Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Slezáriková, V; Sedliaková, M; Andreeva, I V; Rusina OYu; Skavronskaya, A G

    1992-11-16

    The effect of plasmid pKM101 on UV irradiated excision proficient and excision deficient cells was investigated. The plasmid increased the survival of excision proficient cells while partially inhibiting thymine dimer excision. The frequency of mutations was almost unchanged. In excision deficient cells the effect of the plasmid on survival was less pronounced while cell mutability was increased. Our data indicate that the mucAB genes (carried by the plasmid) influence the two types of cells in a different way.

  4. blaCTX-M-15 carried by IncF-type plasmids is the dominant ESBL gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at a hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyekum, Alex; Fajardo-Lubián, Alicia; Ansong, Daniel; Partridge, Sally R; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are among the most multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitals and are spreading worldwide. Horizontal gene transfer and spread of high-risk clones are involved in ESBL dissemination. Investigation of the resistance phenotypes of 101 consecutive clinical E. coli (n=58) and K. pneumoniae (n=43) isolated at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana over 3 months revealed 63 (62%) with an ESBL phenotype. All 63 had a blaCTX-M gene, and sequence analysis showed that 62 of these were blaCTX-M-15. blaCTX-M-15 was linked to ISEcp1 and orf477Δ in all isolates, and most isolates also carried blaTEM, aac(3)-II, aacA4cr, and/or blaOXA-30 genes on IncF plasmids. XbaI/pulsed-field electrophoresis showed heterogeneity among isolates of both species, suggesting that blaCTX-M-15 dissemination is caused by horizontal gene transfer rather than clonal spread of these species in Ghana.

  5. Complete Sequence of a Novel IncR-F33:A-:B- Plasmid, pKP1034, Harboring fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, and rmtB from an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 Strain in China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dai-Rong; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Yu, Hai-Ying; Deng, Mei; Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Chen, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Bo; Doi, Yohei; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-12-14

    A high fosfomycin resistance rate was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) in our previous study, but little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we explored the prevalence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among fosfomycin-resistant KPC-KP strains from a Chinese university hospital and determined the complete sequence of a novel fosA3-carrying plasmid isolated from an epidemic K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain. A total of 97 KPC-KP strains were studied, of which 57 (58.8%) were resistant to fosfomycin, including 44 (45.4%) harboring fosA3 and 1 harboring fosA. All fosA3-positive strains belonged to the dominant ST11-pulse type (PT) A clone according to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting clonal dissemination. The fosA-positive isolate belonged to ST11-PTE. The fosA3-carrying plasmid pKP1034 is 136,848 bp in length and is not self-transmissible. It is a multireplicon plasmid belonging to IncR-F33:A-: B-. Besides fosA3, a variety of other resistance determinants, including blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, and blaSHV-12, are identified in pKP1034, which would allow for coselection of fosA3 by most β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and facilitate its dissemination despite limited use of fosfomycin in China. Detailed comparisons with related plasmids revealed that pKP1034 is highly mosaic and might have evolved from alarming recombination of the blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pKPC-LK30 from Taiwan and the epidemic fosA3-carrying plasmid pHN7A8 from mainland China.

  6. Complete Sequence of a Novel IncR-F33:A–:B– Plasmid, pKP1034, Harboring fosA3, blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-65, blaSHV-12, and rmtB from an Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 Strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Dai-Rong; Li, Jun-Jie; Sheng, Zi-Ke; Yu, Hai-Ying; Deng, Mei; Bi, Sheng; Hu, Fei-Shu; Chen, Wei; Xue, Xiao-Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Bo; Doi, Yohei; Li, Lan-Juan

    2015-01-01

    A high fosfomycin resistance rate was observed in Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) in our previous study, but little is known about its mechanisms. In this study, we explored the prevalence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants among fosfomycin-resistant KPC-KP strains from a Chinese university hospital and determined the complete sequence of a novel fosA3-carrying plasmid isolated from an epidemic K. pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain. A total of 97 KPC-KP strains were studied, of which 57 (58.8%) were resistant to fosfomycin, including 44 (45.4%) harboring fosA3 and 1 harboring fosA. All fosA3-positive strains belonged to the dominant ST11-pulse type (PT) A clone according to multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggesting clonal dissemination. The fosA-positive isolate belonged to ST11-PTE. The fosA3-carrying plasmid pKP1034 is 136,848 bp in length and is not self-transmissible. It is a multireplicon plasmid belonging to IncR-F33:A−: B−. Besides fosA3, a variety of other resistance determinants, including blaKPC-2, rmtB, blaCTX-M-65, and blaSHV-12, are identified in pKP1034, which would allow for coselection of fosA3 by most β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and facilitate its dissemination despite limited use of fosfomycin in China. Detailed comparisons with related plasmids revealed that pKP1034 is highly mosaic and might have evolved from alarming recombination of the blaKPC-2-carrying plasmid pKPC-LK30 from Taiwan and the epidemic fosA3-carrying plasmid pHN7A8 from mainland China. PMID:26666939

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED PCR-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTION OF PHYTOPHTHORA CACTORUM IN STRAWBERRY PLANTS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specific and rapid plant pathogen detection methods can aid in strawberry disease management decisions. PCR-based diagnostics for Phytophthora cactorum and other strawberry pathogens are hindered by PCR inhibitors and lack of species-specific PCR primers. We developed a DNA extraction and purificati...

  8. USE OF BACTEROIDES PCR-BASED METHODS TO EXAMINE FECAL CONTAMINATION SOURCES IN TROPICAL COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several library independent Microbial Source Tracking methods have been developed to rapidly determine the source of fecal contamination. Thus far, none of these methods have been tested in tropical marine waters. In this study, we used a Bacteroides 16S rDNA PCR-based...

  9. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  10. Development and evaluation of new primers for PCR-based identification of Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanbin; Liu, Dali; Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Cailian; Liang, Jingping; Shu, Rong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new Prevotella intermedia-specific PCR primers based on the 16S rRNA. The new primer set, Pi-192 and Pi-468, increased the accuracy of PCR-based P. intermedia identification and could be useful in the detection of P. intermedia as well as epidemiological studies on periodontal disease.

  11. Evaluation of Two PCR-based Swine-specific Fecal Source Tracking Assays (Abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several PCR-based methods have been proposed to identify swine fecal pollution in environmental waters. However, the utility of these assays in identifying swine fecal contamination on a broad geographic scale is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the specificity, distr...

  12. Quantitative PCR based expression analysis on a nanoliter scale using polymer nano-well chips.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Andreas; Sultan, Marc; Jung, Alexander; Schwartz, Regine; Lange, Matthias; Steinwand, Michael; Livak, Kenneth J; Lehrach, Hans; Nyarsik, Lajos

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of gene expression is an essential element of functional genomics. Expression analysis is mainly based on DNA microarrays due to highly parallel readout and high throughput. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) based expression profiling is the gold standard for the precise monitoring of selected genes, and therefore used for validation of microarray data. Doing qPCR-based expression analysis in an array-like format can combine the higher sensitivity and accuracy of the qPCR methodology with a high data density at relatively low costs. This paper describes the development of an open-well based miniaturized platform for liquid PCR-based assays on the nanoliter scale using cost-effective polypropylene micro reactors (microPCR Chip). We show the quantification ability and reliability of qPCR in 200 nl with the microPCR chip down to 5 starting target molecules using TaqMan chemistry. An RNA expression analysis of four genes in mouse brain, liver and kidney tissues showed similar results in 200 nl as compared to standard 10 microl assays. The high sensitivity and quantification capability of the microPCR chip platform developed herein makes it a promising technology for performing high-throughput qPCR-based analysis in the nanoliter volume range.

  13. USE OF BACTEROIDES PCR-BASED METHODS TO EXAMINE FECAL CONTAMINATION SOURCES IN TROPICAL COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several library independent Microbial Source Tracking methods have been developed to rapidly determine the source of fecal contamination. Thus far, none of these methods have been tested in tropical marine waters. In this study, we used a Bacteroides 16S rDNA PCR-based...

  14. In silico and in vitro evaluation of PCR-based assays for the detection of Bacillus anthracis chromosomal signature sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ågren, Joakim; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Hansen, Trine; Ruuls, Robin; Thierry, Simon; Vigre, Håkan; Janse, Ingmar; Sundström, Anders; Segerman, Bo; Koene, Miriam; Löfström, Charlotta; Van Rotterdam, Bart; Derzelle, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a zoonotic pathogen that is relatively common throughout the world and may cause life threatening diseases in animals and humans. There are many PCR-based assays in use for the detection of B. anthracis. While most of the developed assays rely on unique markers present on virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, relatively few assays incorporate chromosomal DNA markers due to the close relatedness of B. anthracis to the B. cereus group strains. For the detection of chromosomal DNA, different genes have been used, such as BA813, rpoB, gyrA, plcR, S-layer, and prophage-lambda. Following a review of the literature, an in silico analysis of all signature sequences reported for identification of B. anthracis was conducted. Published primer and probe sequences were compared for specificity against 134 available Bacillus spp. genomes. Although many of the chromosomal targets evaluated are claimed to be specific to B. anthracis, cross-reactions with closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were often observed. Of the 35 investigated PCR assays, only 4 were 100% specific for the B. anthracis chromosome. An interlaboratory ring trial among five European laboratories was then performed to evaluate six assays, including the WHO recommended procedures, using a collection of 90 Bacillus strains. Three assays performed adequately, yielding no false positive or negative results. All three assays target chromosomal markers located within the lambdaBa03 prophage region (PL3, BA5345, and BA5357). Detection limit was further assessed for one of these highly specific assays. PMID:24005110

  15. In silico and in vitro evaluation of PCR-based assays for the detection of Bacillus anthracis chromosomal signature sequences.

    PubMed

    Ågren, Joakim; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Hansen, Trine; Ruuls, Robin; Thierry, Simon; Vigre, Håkan; Janse, Ingmar; Sundström, Anders; Segerman, Bo; Koene, Miriam; Löfström, Charlotta; Van Rotterdam, Bart; Derzelle, Sylviane

    2013-11-15

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a zoonotic pathogen that is relatively common throughout the world and may cause life threatening diseases in animals and humans. There are many PCR-based assays in use for the detection of B. anthracis. While most of the developed assays rely on unique markers present on virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, relatively few assays incorporate chromosomal DNA markers due to the close relatedness of B. anthracis to the B. cereus group strains. For the detection of chromosomal DNA, different genes have been used, such as BA813, rpoB, gyrA, plcR, S-layer, and prophage-lambda. Following a review of the literature, an in silico analysis of all signature sequences reported for identification of B. anthracis was conducted. Published primer and probe sequences were compared for specificity against 134 available Bacillus spp. genomes. Although many of the chromosomal targets evaluated are claimed to be specific to B. anthracis, cross-reactions with closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains were often observed. Of the 35 investigated PCR assays, only 4 were 100% specific for the B. anthracis chromosome. An interlaboratory ring trial among five European laboratories was then performed to evaluate six assays, including the WHO recommended procedures, using a collection of 90 Bacillus strains. Three assays performed adequately, yielding no false positive or negative results. All three assays target chromosomal markers located within the lambdaBa03 prophage region (PL3, BA5345, and BA5357). Detection limit was further assessed for one of these highly specific assays.

  16. Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ∼16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ∼45 kb to ∼140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ∼35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

  17. Topical application of the cornea post-infection with plasmid DNA encoding interferon-alpha1 but not recombinant interferon-alphaA reduces herpes simplex virus type 1-induced mortality in mice.

    PubMed

    Noisakran, S; Carr, D J

    2001-12-03

    A study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of recombinant interferon (rIFN)-alphaA to plasmid DNA encoding IFN-alpha1 against ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. The topical application of rIFN-alphaA (100-300 units/eye) onto the cornea of mice subsequently infected 24 h later with HSV-1 antagonized viral-induced mortality. The enhancement in cumulative survival in the rIFN-alphaA-treated mice correlated with a reduction of viral titers recovered in the eye and trigeminal ganglion (TG) at 3 and 6 days post-infection. The protective effect was site-specific such that when rIFN-alphaA was administered orally or intranasally, no efficacy against HSV-1 was observed. However, the protective effect was time-dependent. Specifically, when the rIFN-alphaA (100-1000 units/eye) was administered at 24 h post-infection, no protective effect was observed against HSV-1 compared to the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, plasmid DNA (100 microg/eye) containing the IFN-alpha1 transgene showed significant protection when topically applied 24 h post-infection. Although the transgene was found to traffic distal from the site of application (eye), including the trigeminal ganglion and the spleen where CD11b(+) and CD11c(+) cells express the transgene, the migration of the transgene did not correlate with efficacy. Collectively, the results suggest that naked DNA encoding type I IFN applied post-infection provides a greater degree of protection against ocular HSV-1 infection in comparison with recombinant protein effectively antagonizing viral replication and spread.

  18. Host range diversification within the IncP-1 plasmid group

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hirokazu; Rogers, Linda M.; Knox, Molly G.; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia; Brown, Celeste J.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids play a critical role in the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits. In spite of increasing information about the genomic diversity of closely related plasmids, the relationship between sequence divergence and host range remains unclear. IncP-1 plasmids are currently classified into six subgroups based on the genetic distance of backbone genes. We investigated whether plasmids from two subgroups exhibit a different host range, using two IncP-1γ plasmids, an IncP-1β plasmid and their minireplicons. Efficiencies of plasmid establishment and maintenance were compared using five species that belong to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The IncP-1β plasmid replicated and persisted in all five hosts in the absence of selection. Of the two IncP-1γ plasmids, both were unable to replicate in alphaproteobacterial host Sphingobium japonicum, and one established itself in Agrobacterium tumefaciens but was very unstable. In contrast, both IncP-1γ minireplicons, which produced higher levels of replication initiation protein than the wild-type plasmids, replicated in all strains, suggesting that poor establishment of the native plasmids is in part due to suboptimal replication initiation gene regulation. The findings suggest that host ranges of distinct IncP-1 plasmids only partially overlap, which may limit plasmid recombination and thus result in further genome divergence. PMID:24002747

  19. Plasmid diversity and phylogenetic consistency in the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Gilcrease, Eddie B; Vujadinovic, Marija; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Luft, Benjamin J; Schutzer, Steven E; Fraser, Claire M; Qiu, Wei-Gang

    2017-02-15

    Bacteria from the genus Borrelia are known to harbor numerous linear and circular plasmids. We report here a comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 236 plasmids present in fourteen independent isolates of the Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi. We have sequenced the genomes of 14 B. burgdorferi sensu stricto isolates that carry a total of 236 plasmids. These individual isolates carry between seven and 23 plasmids. Their chromosomes, the cp26 and cp32 circular plasmids, as well as the lp54 linear plasmid, are quite evolutionarily stable; however, the remaining plasmids have undergone numerous non-homologous and often duplicative recombination events. We identify 32 different putative plasmid compatibility types among the 236 plasmids, of which 15 are (usually) circular and 17 are linear. Because of past rearrangements, any given gene, even though it might be universally present in these isolates, is often found on different linear plasmid compatibility types in different isolates. For example, the arp gene and the vls cassette region are present on plasmids of four and five different compatibility types, respectively, in different isolates. A majority of the plasmid types have more than one organizationally different subtype, and the number of such variants ranges from one to eight among the 18 linear plasmid types. In spite of this substantial organizational diversity, the plasmids are not so variable that every isolate has a novel version of every plasmid (i.e., there appears to be a limited number of extant plasmid subtypes). Although there have been many past recombination events, both homologous and nonhomologous, among the plasmids, particular organizational variants of these plasmids correlate with particular chromosomal genotypes, suggesting that there has not been rapid horizontal transfer of whole linear plasmids among B. burgdorferi lineages. We argue that plasmid rearrangements are essentially non-revertable and are present at a frequency of

  20. Dissemination and Persistence of blaCTX-M-9 Are Linked to Class 1 Integrons Containing CR1 Associated with Defective Transposon Derivatives from Tn402 Located in Early Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids of IncHI2, IncP1-α, and IncFI Groups

    PubMed Central

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Valverde, Aránzazu; Machado, Elisabete; Galán, Juan-Carlos; Peixe, Luísa; Carattoli, Alessandra; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the diversity of In60, a class 1 integron bearing CR1 and containing blaCTX-M-9, and its association with Tn402, Tn21, and classical conjugative plasmids among 45 CTX-M-9-producing clinical strains (41 Escherichia coli strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, 1 Salmonella enterica strain, and 1 Enterobacter cloacae strain). Forty-five patients in a Spanish tertiary care hospital were studied (1996 to 2003). The diversity of In60 and association of In60 with Tn402 or mercury resistance transposons were investigated by overlapping PCR assays and/or hybridization. Plasmid characterization included comparison of restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns and determination of incompatibility group by PCR-based replicon typing, sequencing, and hybridization. CTX-M-9 plasmids belonged to IncHI2 (n = 26), IncP-1α (n = 10), IncFI (n = 4), and IncI (n = 1) groups. Genetic platforms containing blaCTX-M-9 were classified in six types in relation to the In60 backbone and in eight subtypes in relation to Tn402 derivatives. They were associated with Tn21 sequences when located in IncP-1α or IncHI2 plasmids. Our study identified blaCTX-M-9 in a high diversity of CR1-bearing class 1 integrons linked to different Tn402 derivatives, often to Tn21, highlighting the role of recombination events in the evolution of antibiotic resistance plasmids. The presence of blaCTX-M-9 on broad-host-range IncP-1α plasmids might contribute to its dissemination to hosts that were not members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:16870767

  1. The detection of inherent homologous recombination between repeat sequences in H. pylori 26695 by the PCR-based method.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yajuan; Zepeda-Gurrola, Reyna Cristina; Aguilar-Gutiérrez, Germán Rubén; Lara-Ramírez, Edgar E; De Luna-Santillana, Erick J; Rodríguez-Luna, Isabel Cristina; Sánchez-Varela, Alejandro; Carreño-López, Ricardo; Moreno-Medina, Víctor Ricardo; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; López-Vidal, Yolanda; Guo, Xianwu

    2014-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, making it the most widespread infection of bacteria. It has high genetic diversity and has been considered as one of the most variable bacterial species. In the present study, a PCR-based method was used to detect the presence and the relative frequency of homologous recombination between repeat sequences (>500 bp) in H. pylori 26695. All the recombinant structures have been confirmed by sequencing. The inversion generated between inverted repeats showed distinct features from the recombination for duplication or deletion between direct repeats. Meanwhile, we gave the mathematic reasoning of a general formula for the calculation of relative recombination frequency and indicated the conditions for its application. This formula could be extensively applied to detect the frequency of homologous recombination, site-specific recombination, and other types of predictable recombination. Our results should be helpful for better understanding the genome evolution and adaptation of bacteria.

  2. [RT-PCR-based methods for identification and typing of infectious hemopoietic necrosis virus in salmons].

    PubMed

    Popova, A G; Oreshkova, S F; Zhchelkunov, I S; Rudakova, S L; Zhchelkunova, T I; Tikunova, N V; Blinova, N N; Il'ichev, A A

    2008-01-01

    A RT-PCR method has been developed to diagnose infectious hemopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in salmons. The authors show it possible to use the method for viral shedding in both a cell culture and a clinical sample from infected fishes. Genotyping of IHNV strains originating from North America, Europe, and Russia, by using the restriction fragment length polymerase analysis, has revealed that 10 of them belong to 3 existing genogroups (U, M, and L). Three Russian isolates are assigned into a separate subgroup. Phylogenetic analysis of several isolates has confirmed that viral strains from Katchatka belong to the North American U-genogroup whereas 3 Russian isolates from the continental zone of the country make up a separate subgroup within the same genogroup.

  3. Prevalence and Molecular Typing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (tdh+) isolated from seafood using PCR-based methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogen most frequently implicated in foodborne outbreaks linked to the consumption of seafood in the coastal cities of China. The pathogenicity of environmental V. parahaemolyticus is mostly correlated with the production of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH). In orde...

  4. Use of plasmid profiles in epidemiologic surveillance of disease outbreaks and in tracing the transmission of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, L W

    1988-01-01

    Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid molecules that exist in bacteria, usually independent of the chromosome. The study of plasmids is important to medical microbiology because plasmids can encode genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. Plasmids can also serve as markers of various bacterial strains when a typing system referred to as plasmid profiling, or plasmid fingerprinting is used. In these methods partially purified plasma deoxyribonucleic acid species are separated according to molecular size by agarose gel electrophoresis. In a second procedure, plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid which has been cleaved by restriction endonucleases can be separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the resulting pattern of fragments can be used to verify the identity of bacterial isolates. Because many species of bacteria contain plasmids, plasmid profile typing has been used to investigate outbreaks of many bacterial diseases and to trace inter- and intra-species spread of antibiotic resistance. Images PMID:2852997

  5. Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae Major Virulence Factors Dly, Plasmid-Encoded HlyA, and Chromosome-Encoded HlyA Are Secreted via the Type II Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Amable J.; Vences, Ana; Husmann, Matthias; Lemos, Manuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae is a marine bacterium that causes septicemia in marine animals and in humans. Previously, we had determined a major role of pPHDD1 plasmid-encoded Dly (damselysin) and HlyA (HlyApl) and the chromosome-encoded HlyA (HlyAch) hemolysins in virulence. However, the mechanisms by which these toxins are secreted remain unknown. In this study, we found that a mini-Tn10 transposon mutant in a plasmidless strain showing an impaired hemolytic phenotype contained an insertion in epsL, a component of a type II secretion system (T2SS). Reconstruction of the mutant by allelic exchange confirmed the specific involvement of epsL in HlyAch secretion. In addition, mutation of epsL in a pPHDD1-harboring strain caused an almost complete abolition of hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes, indicating that epsL plays a major role in secretion of the plasmid-encoded HlyApl and Dly. This was further demonstrated by analysis of different combinations of hemolysin gene mutants and by strain-strain complementation assays. We also found that mutation of the putative prepilin peptidase gene pilD severely affected hemolysis, which dropped at levels inferior to those of epsL mutants. Promoter expression analyses suggested that impairment of hemolysin secretion in epsL and pilD mutants might constitute a signal that affects hemolysin and T2SS gene expression at the transcriptional level. In addition, single epsL and pilD mutations caused a drastic decrease in virulence for mice, demonstrating a major role of T2SS and pilD in P. damselae subsp. damselae virulence. PMID:25583529

  6. Plasmid Rolling-Circle Replication.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Masó, J A; MachóN, C; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, L; Espinosa, M; Coll, M; Del Solar, G

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are DNA entities that undergo controlled replication independent of the chromosomal DNA, a crucial step that guarantees the prevalence of the plasmid in its host. DNA replication has to cope with the incapacity of the DNA polymerases to start de novo DNA synthesis, and different replication mechanisms offer diverse solutions to this problem. Rolling-circle replication (RCR) is a mechanism adopted by certain plasmids, among other genetic elements, that represents one of the simplest initiation strategies, that is, the nicking by a replication initiator protein on one parental strand to generate the primer for leading-strand initiation and a single priming site for lagging-strand synthesis. All RCR plasmid genomes consist of a number of basic elements: leading strand initiation and control, lagging strand origin, phenotypic determinants, and mobilization, generally in that order of frequency. RCR has been mainly characterized in Gram-positive bacterial plasmids, although it has also been described in Gram-negative bacterial or archaeal plasmids. Here we aim to provide an overview of the RCR plasmids' lifestyle, with emphasis on their characteristic traits, promiscuity, stability, utility as vectors, etc. While RCR is one of the best-characterized plasmid replication mechanisms, there are still many questions left unanswered, which will be pointed out along the way in this review.

  7. Mechanisms of Theta Plasmid Replication.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Joshua; Camps, Manel

    2015-02-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating pieces of DNA. This article discusses theta plasmid replication, which is a class of circular plasmid replication that includes ColE1-like origins of replication popular with expression vectors. All modalities of theta plasmid replication initiate synthesis with the leading strand at a predetermined site and complete replication through recruitment of the host's replisome, which extends the leading strand continuously while synthesizing the lagging strand discontinuously. There are clear differences between different modalities of theta plasmid replication in mechanisms of DNA duplex melting and in priming of leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. In some replicons duplex melting depends on transcription, while other replicons rely on plasmid-encoded trans-acting proteins (Reps); primers for leading-strand synthesis can be generated through processing of a transcript or in other replicons by the action of host- or plasmid-encoded primases. None of these processes require DNA breaks. The frequency of replication initiation is tightly regulated to facilitate establishment in permissive hosts and to achieve a steady state. The last section of the article reviews how plasmid copy number is sensed and how this feedback modulates the frequency of replication.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Paul E

    2004-01-01

    Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

  9. Complex nature of enterococcal pheromone-responsive plasmids.

    PubMed

    Wardal, Ewa; Sadowy, Ewa; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2010-01-01

    Pheromone-responsive plasmids constitute a unique group of approximately 20 plasmids identified, as yet, only among enterococcal species. Several of their representatives, e.g. pAD1, pCF10, pPD1 and pAM373 have been extensively studied. These plasmids possess a sophisticated conjugation mechanism based on response to sex pheromones--small peptides produced by plasmid-free recipient cells. Detailed analysis of regulation and function of the pheromone response process revealed its great complexity and dual role--in plasmid conjugation and modulation of enterococcal virulence. Among other functional modules identified in pheromone plasmids, the stabilization/partition systems play a crucial role in stable maintenance of the plasmid molecule in host bacteria. Among them, the par locus of pAD1 is one of the exceptional RNA addiction systems. Pheromone-responsive plasmids contribute also to enterococcal phenotype being an important vehicle of antibiotic resistance in this genus. Both types of acquired vancomycin resistance determinants, vanA and vanB, as well many other resistant phenotypes, were found to be located on these plasmids. They also encode two basic agents of enterococcal virulence, i.e. aggregation substance (AS) and cytolysin. AS participates in mating-pair formation during conjugation but can also facilitate the adherence ofenterococci to human tissues during infection. The second protein, cytolysin, displays hemolytic activity and helps to invade eukaryotic cells. There are still many aspects of the nature of pheromone plasmids that remain unclear and more detailed studies are needed to understand their uniqueness and complexity.

  10. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  11. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  12. Conjugation efficiency depends on intra and intercellular interactions between distinct plasmids: Plasmids promote the immigration of other plasmids but repress co-colonizing plasmids.

    PubMed

    Gama, João Alves; Zilhão, Rita; Dionisio, Francisco

    2017-08-24

    Conjugative plasmids encode the genes responsible for the synthesis of conjugative pili and plasmid transfer. Expression of the conjugative machinery (including conjugative pili) may be costly to bacteria, not only due to the energetic/metabolic cost associated with their expression but also because they serve as receptors for certain viruses. Consequently, the presence of two plasmids in the same cell may be disadvantageous to each plasmid, because they may impose a higher fitness cost on the host. Therefore, plasmids may encode mechanisms to cope with co-resident plasmids. Moreover, it is possible that the transfer rate of a plasmid is affected by the presence of a distinct plasmid in the recipient cell. In this work, we measured transfer rates of twelve natural plasmids belonging to seven incompatibility groups in three situations, namely when: (i) donor cells contain a plasmid and recipient cells are plasmid-free; (ii) donor cells contain two unrelated plasmids and recipient cells are plasmid-free; and (iii) half of the cells contain a given plasmid and the other half contain another, unrelated, plasmid. In the third situation, recipient cells of a plasmid are the donor cells of the other plasmid. We show that there are more negative interactions (reduction of a plasmid's conjugative efficiency) between plasmids if they reside in the same cell than if they reside in different cells. However, if plasmids interacted intercellularly, the transfer rate of one of the plasmids was often higher (when the unrelated conjugative plasmid was present in the recipient cell) than if the recipient cell was plasmid-free - a positive effect. Experimental data retrieved from the study of mutant plasmids not expressing conjugative pili on the cell surface suggest that positive effects result from a higher efficiency of mating pair formation. Overall, our results suggest that negative interactions are significantly more frequent when plasmids occupy the same cell. Such

  13. IncA/C plasmid-mediated spread of CMY-2 in multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli from food animals in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ren, Si-Qi; Yang, Lin; Lü, Dian-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Liu, Ya-Hong; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2014-01-01

    To obtain a broad molecular epidemiological characterization of plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase CMY-2 in Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in China. A total of 1083 E. coli isolates from feces, viscera, blood, drinking water, and sub-surface soil were examined for the presence of CMY-2 β-lactamases. CMY-2-producing isolates were characterized as follows: the blaCMY-2 genotype was determined using PCR and sequencing, characterization of the blaCMY-2 genetic environment, plasmid sizing using S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR-based replicon typing, phylogenetic grouping, XbaI-PFGE, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). All 31 CMY-2 producers were only detected in feces, and presented with multidrug resistant phenotypes. All CMY-2 strains also co-harbored genes conferring resistance to other antimicrobials, including extended spectrum β-lactamases genes (blaCTX-M-14 or blaCTX-M-55), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants (qnr, oqxA, and aac-(6')-Ib-cr), floR and rmtB. The co-transferring of blaCMY-2 with qnrS1 and floR (alone and together) was mainly driven by the Inc A/C type plasmid, with sizes of 160 or 200 kb. Gene cassette arrays inserted in the class 1 or class 2 integron were amplified among 12 CMY-2 producers. CMY-2 producers belonged to avirulent groups B1 (n = 12) and A (n = 11), and virulent group D (n = 8). There was a good correlation between phylogenetic groups and sequence types (ST). Twenty-four STs were identified, of which the ST complexes (STC) 101/B1 (n = 6), STC10/A (n = 5), and STC155/B1 (n = 3) were dominant. CMY-2 is the dominant AmpC β-lactamase in food animals and is associated with a transferable replicon IncA/C plasmid in the STC101, STC10, and STC155 strains.

  14. Functional Subsets of the VirB Type IV Transport Complex Proteins Involved in the Capacity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens To Serve as a Recipient in virB-Mediated Conjugal Transfer of Plasmid RSF1010

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenying; Binns, Andrew N.

    2003-01-01

    The virB-encoded type IV transport complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediates the transfer of DNA and proteins into plant cells, as well as the conjugal transfer of IncQ plasmids, such as RSF1010, between Agrobacterium strains. While several studies have indicated that there are physical interactions among the 11 VirB proteins, the functional significance of the interactions has been difficult to establish since all of the proteins are required for substrate transfer. Our previous studies, however, indicated that although all of the VirB proteins are required for the capacity of a strain to serve as an RSF1010 donor, only a subset of these proteins in the recipient is necessary to increase the conjugal frequency by 3 to 4 logs. The roles of particular groups of VirB proteins in this increased recipient activity were examined in the study reported here. Examination of the expression of subgroups of virB genes revealed that translation of virB6 is necessary for expression of downstream open reading frames. Expression of limited subsets of the VirB proteins in a recipient strain lacking the Ti plasmid revealed that the VirB7 to VirB10 proteins yield a subcomplex that is functional in the recipient assay but that the VirB1 to VirB4 proteins, as a group, dramatically increase this activity in strains expressing VirB7 to VirB10. Finally, the membrane distribution and cross-linking patterns of VirB10, but not of VirB8 or VirB9, in a strain expressing only VirB7 to VirB10 are significantly altered compared to the patterns of the wild type. These characteristics are, however, restored to the wild-type status by coexpression of VirB1 to VirB3. Taken together, these results define subsets of type IV transport complex proteins that are critical in allowing a strain to participate as a recipient in virB-mediated conjugal RSF1010 transfer. PMID:12754223

  15. Plasmid-determined resistance to fosfomycin in Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, C; Garcia, J M; Llaneza, J; Mendez, F J; Hardisson, C; Ortiz, J M

    1980-01-01

    Multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains of Serratia marcescens isolated from hospitalized patients were examined for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance to Escherichia coli by conjugation. Two different patterns of linked transferable resistance were found among the transconjugants. The first comprised resistance to carbenicillin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin; the second, and more common, pattern included resistance to carbenicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamide, and fosfomycin. The two types of transconjugant strains carried a single plasmid of either 57 or 97 megadaltons in size. Both of these plasmids are present in parental S. marcescens strains resistant to fosfomycin. The 57-megadalton plasmid was transformed into E. coli. Images PMID:7004337

  16. ARMS-PCR for detection of BRAF V600E hotspot mutation in comparison with Real-Time PCR-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Machnicki, Marcin M; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Lewandowski, Tomasz; Ploski, Rafał; Wlodarski, Pawel; Stoklosa, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    BRAF mutation testing is one of the best examples how modern genetic testing may help to effectively use targeted therapies in cancer patients. Since many different genetic techniques are employed to assess BRAF mutation status with no available comparison of their sensitivity and usefulness for different types of samples, we decided to evaluate our own PCR-based assay employing the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS-PCR) to detect the most common hotspot mutation c. T1799A (p. V600E) by comparing it with two qPCR based assays: a commercially available test with hybridizing probes (TIB MOLBIOL) and high resolution melting (HRM). Positive results were verified with Sanger sequencing. DNA from two cancer cell lines with known mutation status and from tissue samples from melanoma and gastric cancer was used. ARMS-PCR was the most sensitive method with the level of detection of the mutant allele at 2%. Similar sensitivity was observed for the qPCR-based commercial test employing hybridizing probes; however, this test cannot exclude negative results from poor or low quality samples. Another qPCR-based method, HRM, had lower sensitivity with the detection level of approximately 20%. An additional drawback of HRM methodology was the inability to distinguish between wild type and mutant homozygotes in a straightforward assay, probably due to the character of this particular mutation (T\\>A). Sanger sequencing had the sensitivity of the detection of mutant allele similar to HRM, approx. 20%. In conclusion, simple ARMS-PCR may be considered the method of choice for rapid, cost-effective screening for BRAF p. V600E mutation.

  17. Molecular analysis of plasmid encoded multi-drug resistance (MDR) in Salmonella enterica animal isolates by PFGE, replicon typing, and DNA microarray screening followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The development of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella is of global concern. MDR Salmonella genes can be transmitted in a number of ways including transfer of plasmids. To understand how MDR plasmids develop and are transmitted, their genetics must be thoroughly described. To achieve t...

  18. Endogenous mutagenesis in recombinant sulfolobus plasmids.

    PubMed

    Sakofsky, Cynthia J; Grogan, Dennis W

    2013-06-01

    Low rates of replication errors in chromosomal genes of Sulfolobus spp. demonstrate that these extreme thermoacidophiles can maintain genome integrity in environments with high temperature and low pH. In contrast to this genetic stability, we observed unusually frequent mutation of the β-D-glycosidase gene (lacS) of a shuttle plasmid (pJlacS) propagated in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The resulting Lac(-) mutants also grew faster than the Lac(+) parent, thereby amplifying the impact of the frequent lacS mutations on the population. We developed a mutant accumulation assay and corrections for the effects of copy number and differential growth for this system; the resulting measurements and calculations yielded a corrected rate of 5.1 × 10(-4) mutational events at the lacS gene per plasmid replication. Analysis of independent lacS mutants revealed three types of mutations: (i) G · C-to-A · T transitions, (ii) slipped-strand events, and (iii) deletions. These mutations were frequent in plasmid-borne lacS expressed at a high level but not in single-copy lacS in the chromosome or at lower levels of expression in a plasmid. Substitution mutations arose at only two of 12 potential priming sites of the DNA primase of the pRN1 replicon, but nearly all these mutations created nonsense (chain termination) codons. The spontaneous mutation rate of plasmid-borne lacS was 175-fold higher under high-expression than under low-expression conditions. The results suggest that important DNA repair or replication fidelity functions are impaired or overwhelmed in pJlacS, with results analogous to those of the "transcription-associated mutagenesis" seen in bacteria and eukaryotes.

  19. Genomic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Serotypes and Development of a Multiplex PCR-Based Serotyping Scheme.

    PubMed

    Rochat, Tatiana; Fujiwara-Nagata, Erina; Calvez, Ségolène; Dalsgaard, Inger; Madsen, Lone; Calteau, Alexandra; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Nicolas, Pierre; Wiklund, Tom; Bernardet, Jean-François; Duchaud, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping method proposed by Lorenzen and Olesen (1997) for a set of 34 strains, we identified key molecular determinants of the serotypes. This knowledge allowed us to develop a robust multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme, which was applied to 244 bacterial isolates. The results revealed a striking association between PCR-serotype and fish host species and illustrate the use of this approach as a simple and cost-effective method for the determination of F. psychrophilum serogroups. PCR-based serotyping could be a useful tool in a range of applications such as disease surveillance, selection of salmonids for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation.

  20. PCR-based bioprospecting for homing endonucleases in fungal mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mohamed; Guha, Tuhin Kumar; Shen, Chen; Sethuraman, Jyothi; Hausner, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Fungal mitochondrial genomes act as "reservoirs" for homing endonucleases. These enzymes with their DNA site-specific cleavage activities are attractive tools for genome editing and gene therapy applications. Bioprospecting and characterization of naturally occurring homing endonucleases offers an alternative to synthesizing artificial endonucleases. Here, we describe methods for PCR-based screening of fungal mitochondrial rRNA genes for homing endonuclease encoding sequences, and we also provide protocols for the purification and biochemical characterization of putative native homing endonucleases.

  1. Performance of PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays for mycoplasma detection.

    PubMed

    Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Talíria Silva; Ferreira, Nívea; Balthazar, Nathália; Monteiro, Antônio M; Borojevic, Radovan; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Contaminated eukaryotic cell cultures are frequently responsible for unreliable results. Regulatory entities request that cell cultures must be mycoplasma-free. Mycoplasma contamination remains a significant problem for cell cultures and may have an impact on biological analysis since they affect many cell parameters. The gold standard microbiological assay for mycoplasma detection involves laborious and time-consuming protocols. PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays have been considered for routine cell culture screening in research laboratories since they are fast, easy and sensitive. Thus, the aim of this work is to compare the performance of two popular commercial assays, PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays, by assessing the level of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures from Rio de Janeiro Cell Bank (RJCB) and also from customers' laboratories. The results obtained by both performed assays were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, we evaluated the limit of detection of the PCR kit under our laboratory conditions and the storage effects on mycoplasma detection in frozen cell culture supernatants. The performance of both assays for mycoplasma detection was not significantly different and they showed very good agreement. The Bioluminescent assay for mycoplasma detection was slightly more dependable than PCR-based due to the lack of inconclusive results produced by the first technique, especially considering the ability to detect mycoplasma contamination in frozen cell culture supernatants. However, cell lines should be precultured for four days or more without antibiotics to obtain safe results. On the other hand, a false negative result was obtained by using this biochemical approach. The implementation of fast and reliable mycoplasma testing methods is an important technical and regulatory issue and PCR-based and Bioluminescent assays may be good candidates. However, validation studies are needed.

  2. Conservation of Plasmid-Encoded Traits among Bean-Nodulating Rhizobium Species

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Girard, Lourdes; García-de los Santos, Alejandro; Sanjuan-Pinilla, Julio M.; Olivares, José; Sanjuan, Juan

    2002-01-01

    Rhizobium etli type strain CFN42 contains six plasmids. We analyzed the distribution of genetic markers from some of these plasmids in bean-nodulating strains belonging to different species (Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Sinorhizobium fredii). Our results indicate that independent of geographic origin, R. etli strains usually share not only the pSym plasmid but also other plasmids containing symbiosis-related genes, with a similar organization. In contrast, strains belonging to other bean-nodulating species seem to have acquired only the pSym plasmid from R. etli. PMID:11976134

  3. Conservation of plasmid-encoded traits among bean-nodulating Rhizobium species.

    PubMed

    Brom, Susana; Girard, Lourdes; García-de los Santos, Alejandro; Sanjuan-Pinilla, Julio M; Olivares, José; Sanjuan, Juan

    2002-05-01

    Rhizobium etli type strain CFN42 contains six plasmids. We analyzed the distribution of genetic markers from some of these plasmids in bean-nodulating strains belonging to different species (Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium gallicum, Rhizobium giardinii, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Sinorhizobium fredii). Our results indicate that independent of geographic origin, R. etli strains usually share not only the pSym plasmid but also other plasmids containing symbiosis-related genes, with a similar organization. In contrast, strains belonging to other bean-nodulating species seem to have acquired only the pSym plasmid from R. etli.

  4. Monitoring Babesia bovis infections in cattle by using PCR-based tests.

    PubMed Central

    Calder, J A; Reddy, G R; Chieves, L; Courtney, C H; Littell, R; Livengood, J R; Norval, R A; Smith, C; Dame, J B

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of PCR tests based on the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence of Babesia bovis were compared in a blind study of experimentally infected cattle with the corresponding parameters of the complement fixation (CF) test currently used in the United States to screen for bovine babesiosis. Cattle were experimentally infected with a single inoculum of a cloned laboratory strain of B. bovis. Blood samples were collected and tested over a period covering from the day of infection to 10 months postinfection. The level of parasitemia (percent infected erythrocytes) present in each sample was estimated from test results and was plotted as a function of time postinfection. These data are the first describing the course of infection by methods capable of detecting parasitemias in the range of 10(-7)%, which frequently occur in the carrier state. Parasitemias in the samples tested strongly influenced the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the PCR-based tests which varied with time postinfection. The average sensitivities of the three PCR-based tests for B. bovis ranged from 58 to 70% for a single determination, while the sensitivity of the CF test was only 6%. Both PCR-based and CF tests for B. bovis had high specificity values ranging from 96 to 100%. PMID:8897177

  5. Molecular sexing of birds: A comparative review of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods.

    PubMed

    Morinha, F; Cabral, J A; Bastos, E

    2012-09-01

    Accurate identification of sex in birds is important for the management and conservation of avian wildlife in several ways, namely in the development of population, behavioral and ecological studies, as well as in the improvement of ex situ captive breeding programs. In general, nestlings, juveniles and adult birds of a wide number of sexually monomorphic species cannot be sexed based on phenotypic traits. The development of molecular methodologies for avian sexing overcame these difficulties, allowing a reliable gender differentiation for these species. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been widely applied in molecular sexing of birds, using a large diversity of sex-linked markers. During the last 15 yrs, there was a continuous improvement in the PCR-based protocols for bird sexing, increasing the accuracy, speed and high-throughput applicability of these techniques. The recent advances in real-time PCR platforms and whole genome analysis methods provided new resources for the detection and analysis of novel specific markers and protocols. This review presents a comparative guide of classical and recent advances in PCR-based methods for avian molecular sexing, highlighting its strengths and limitations. Future research opportunities in this field are also addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential genes in the infection model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-PCR-based signature-tagged mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Levesque, Roger C

    2015-01-01

    PCR-based signature tagged mutagenesis is an "en masse" screening technique based upon unique oligonucleotide tags (molecular barcodes) for identification of genes that will diminish or enhance maintenance of an organism in a specific ecological niche or environment. PCR-based STM applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa permitted the identification of genes essential for in vivo maintenance by transposon insertion and negative selection in a mixed population of bacterial mutants. The innovative adaptations and refinement of the technology presented here with P. aeruginosa STM mutants selected in the rat model of chronic lung infection have given critical information about genes essential for causing a chronic infection and a wealth of information about biological processes in vivo. The additional use of competitive index analysis for measurement of the level of virulence in vivo, microarray-based screening of selected prioritized STM mutants coupled to metabolomics analysis can now be attempted systematically on a genomic scale. PCR-based STM and combined whole-genome methods can also be applied to any organism having selectable phenotypes for screening.

  7. Partial and Full PCR-Based Reverse Genetics Strategy for Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongjun; Ye, Jianqiang; Xu, Kemin; Angel, Matthew; Shao, Hongxia; Ferrero, Andrea; Sutton, Troy; Perez, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, plasmid-based reverse genetics (RG) systems have revolutionized the way influenza viruses are studied. However, it is not unusual to encounter cloning difficulties for one or more influenza genes while attempting to recover virus de novo. To overcome some of these shortcomings we sought to develop partial or full plasmid-free RG systems. The influenza gene of choice is assembled into a RG competent unit by virtue of overlapping PCR reactions containing a cDNA copy of the viral gene segment under the control of RNA polymerase I promoter (pol1) and termination (t1) signals – herein referred to as Flu PCR amplicons. Transfection of tissue culture cells with either HA or NA Flu PCR amplicons and 7 plasmids encoding the remaining influenza RG units, resulted in efficient virus rescue. Likewise, transfections including both HA and NA Flu PCR amplicons and 6 RG plasmids also resulted in efficient virus rescue. In addition, influenza viruses were recovered from a full set of Flu PCR amplicons without the use of plasmids. PMID:23029501

  8. Nitrogen fixation (nif) genes and large plasmids of Rhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, R V; Russell, P R; Atherly, A G

    1982-01-01

    The location of structural nitrogen-fixation genes was determined for the slow- and fast-growing types of Rhizobium japonicum. Slow-growing R. japonicum strains do not harbor structural nif genes, homologous to nifD and nifH, on large plasmids (100 to 200 megadaltons). In contrast, all fast-growing R. japonicum strains, except PRC194, contain structural nif genes on large plasmids. Images PMID:7130134

  9. The A to Z of A/C plasmids.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Christopher J; Hall, Ruth M

    2015-07-01

    Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups A and C (now A/C) were among the earliest to be associated with antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. A/C plasmids are large, conjugative plasmids with a broad host range. The prevalence of A/C plasmids in collections of clinical isolates has revealed their importance in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and carbapenemases. They also mobilize SGI1-type resistance islands. Revived interest in the family has yielded many complete A/C plasmid sequences, revealing that RA1, designated A/C1, is different from the remainder, designated A/C2. There are two distinct A/C2 lineages. Backbones of 128-130 kb include over 120 genes or ORFs encoding proteins of at least 100 amino acids, but very few have been characterized. Genes potentially required for replication, stability and transfer have been identified, but only the replication system of RA1 and the regulation of transfer have been studied. There is enormous variety in the antibiotic resistance genes carried by A/C2 plasmids but they are usually clustered in larger regions at various locations in the backbone. The ARI-A and ARI-B resistance islands are always at a specific location but have variable content. ARI-A is only found in type 1 A/C2 plasmids, which disseminate blaCMY-2 and blaNDM-1 genes, whereas ARI-B, carrying the sul2 gene, is found in both type 1 and type 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of A/C plasmids, and highlights areas of research to be considered in the future.

  10. Tubular cationized pullulan hydrogels as local reservoirs for plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Aurélie; Ducrocq, Grégory; Hlawaty, Hanna; Bataille, Isabelle; Guénin, Erwann; Letourneur, Didier; Feldman, Laurent J

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we measured the ability of various cationized pullulan tubular hydrogels to retain plasmid DNA, and tested the ability of retained plasmid DNA to transfect vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Cationized pullulans were obtained by grafting at different charge densities ethylamine (EA) or diethylaminoethylamine (DEAE) on the pullulan backbone. Polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, size exclusion chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The complexation of cationized pullulans in solution with plasmid DNA was evidenced by fluorescence quenching with PicoGreen. Cationized pullulans were then chemically crosslinked with phosphorus oxychloride to obtain tubular cationized pullulan hydrogels. Native pullulan tubes did not retain loaded plasmid DNA. In contrast, the ability of cationized pullulan tubes to retain plasmid DNA was dependent on both the amine content and the type of amine. The functional integrity of plasmid DNA in cationized pullulan tubes was demonstrated by in vitro transfection of VSMCs. Hence, cationized pullulan hydrogels can be designed as tubular structures with high affinity for plasmid DNA, which may provide new biomaterials to enhance the efficiency of local arterial gene transfer strategies.

  11. CRISPR-Cas systems preferentially target the leading regions of MOBF conjugative plasmids.

    PubMed

    Westra, Edze R; Staals, Raymond H J; Gort, Gerrit; Høgh, Søren; Neumann, Sarah; de la Cruz, Fernando; Fineran, Peter C; Brouns, Stan J J

    2013-05-01

    Most prokaryotes contain CRISPR-Cas immune systems that provide protection against mobile genetic elements. We have focused on the ability of CRISPR-Cas to block plasmid conjugation, and analyzed the position of target sequences (protospacers) on conjugative plasmids. The analysis reveals that protospacers are non-uniformly distributed over plasmid regions in a pattern that is determined by the plasmid's mobilization type (MOB). While MOBP plasmids are most frequently targeted in the region entering the recipient cell last (lagging region), MOBF plasmids are mostly targeted in the region entering the recipient cell first (leading region). To explain this protospacer distribution bias, we propose two mutually non-exclusive hypotheses: (1) spacers are acquired more frequently from either the leading or lagging region depending on the MOB type (2) CRISPR-interference is more efficient when spacers target these preferred regions. To test the latter hypothesis, we analyzed Type I-E CRISPR-interference against MOBF prototype plasmid F in Escherichia coli. Our results show that plasmid conjugation is effectively inhibited, but the level of immunity is not affected by targeting the plasmid in the leading or lagging region. Moreover, CRISPR-immunity levels do not depend on whether the incoming single-stranded plasmid DNA, or the DNA strand synthesized in the recipient is targeted. Our findings indicate that single-stranded DNA may not be a target for Type I-E CRISPR-Cas systems, and suggest that the protospacer distribution bias might be due to spacer acquisition preferences.

  12. Previously undescribed plasmids recovered from activated sludge confer tetracycline resistance and phenotypic changes to Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyerim; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2014-02-01

    We used culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to extract previously undescribed plasmids harboring tetracycline (TC) resistance genes from activated sludge. The extracted plasmids were transformed into naturally competent Acinetobacter oleivorans DR1 to recover a non-Escherichia coli-based plasmid. The transformed cells showed 80-100-fold higher TC resistance than the wild-type strain. Restriction length polymorphism performed using 30 transformed cells showed four different types of plasmids. Illumina-based whole sequencing of the four plasmids identified three previously unreported plasmids and one previously reported plasmid. All plasmids carried TC resistance-related genes (tetL, tetH), tetracycline transcriptional regulators (tetR), and mobilization-related genes. As per expression analysis, TC resistance genes were functional in the presence of TC. The recovered plasmids showed mosaic gene acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Membrane fluidity, hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, motility, growth rate, sensitivity to stresses, and quorum sensing signals of the transformed cells were different from those of the wild-type cells. Plasmid-bearing cells seemed to have an energy burden for maintaining and expressing plasmid genes. Our data showed that acquisition of TC resistance through plasmid uptake is related to loss of biological fitness. Thus, cells acquiring antibiotic resistance plasmids can survive in the presence of antibiotics, but must pay ecological costs.

  13. Seamless stitching of biosynthetic gene cluster containing type I polyketide synthases using Red/ET mediated recombination for construction of stably co-existing plasmids.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Wang, Hai-Na; Qiu, Rong-Guo; Tang, Li

    2015-01-10

    Type I polyketides are natural products with diverse functions that are important for medical and agricultural applications. Manipulation of large biosynthetic gene clusters containing type I polyketide synthases (PKS) for heterologous expression is difficult due to the existence of conservative sequences of PKS in multiple modules. Red/ET mediated recombination has permitted rapid manipulation of large fragments; however, it requires insertion of antibiotic selection marker in the cassette, raising the problem of interference of expression by leaving "scar" sequence. Here, we report a method for precise seamless stitching of large polyketide biosynthetic gene cluster using a 48.4kb fragment containing type I PKS involved in fostriecin biosynthesis as an example. rpsL counter-selection was used to assist seamless stitching of large fragments, where we have overcome both the size limitations and the restriction on endonuclease sites during the Red/ET recombination. The compatibility and stability of the co-existing vectors (p184 and pMT) which respectively accommodate 16kb and 32.4kb inserted fragments were demonstrated. The procedure described here is efficient for manipulation of large DNA fragments for heterologous expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Remarkable stability of an instability-prone lentiviral vector plasmid in Escherichia coli Stbl3.

    PubMed

    Al-Allaf, Faisal A; Tolmachov, Oleg E; Zambetti, Lia Paola; Tchetchelnitski, Viktoria; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale production of plasmid DNA to prepare therapeutic gene vectors or DNA-based vaccines requires a suitable bacterial host, which can stably maintain the plasmid DNA during industrial cultivation. Plasmid loss during bacterial cell divisions and structural changes in the plasmid DNA can dramatically reduce the yield of the desired recombinant plasmid DNA. While generating an HIV-based gene vector containing a bicistronic expression cassette 5'-Olig2cDNA-IRES-dsRed2-3', we encountered plasmid DNA instability, which occurred in homologous recombination deficient recA1 Escherichia coli strain Stbl2 specifically during large-scale bacterial cultivation. Unexpectedly, the new recombinant plasmid was structurally changed or completely lost in 0.5 L liquid cultures but not in the preceding 5 mL cultures. Neither the employment of an array of alternative recA1 E. coli plasmid hosts, nor the lowering of the culture incubation temperature prevented the instability. However, after the introduction of this instability-prone plasmid into the recA13E. coli strain Stbl3, the transformed bacteria grew without being overrun by plasmid-free cells, reduction in the plasmid DNA yield or structural changes in plasmid DNA. Thus, E. coli strain Stbl3 conferred structural and maintenance stability to the otherwise instability-prone lentivirus-based recombinant plasmid, suggesting that this strain can be used for the faithful maintenance of similar stability-compromised plasmids in large-scale bacterial cultivations. In contrast to Stbl2, which is derived wholly from the wild type isolate E. coli K12, E. coli Stbl3 is a hybrid strain of mixed E. coli K12 and E. coli B parentage. Therefore, we speculate that genetic determinants for the benevolent properties of E. coli Stbl3 for safe plasmid propagation originate from its E. coli B ancestor.

  15. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-09-01

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour

  16. Characterization of the Lactobacillus plantarum plasmid pCD033 and generation of the plasmid free strain L. plantarum 3NSH.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Silvia; Grabherr, Reingard; Heinl, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum CD033, a strain isolated from grass silage in Austria, harbors a 7.9 kb plasmid designated pCD033. Sequence analysis identified 14 open reading frames and 8 of these were supposed to be putative coding sequences. Gene annotation revealed no putative essential genes being plasmid encoded, but a plasmid addiction system based on a PemI/PemK-like toxin-antitoxin system, able to stabilize plasmid maintenance. Absence of a replication initiation protein, a double strand origin as well as a single strand origin on plasmid pCD033 suggests replication via a new type of theta mechanism, whereby plasmid replication is potentially initiated and regulated by non-coding RNA. Detailed examination of segregational stability of plasmid vectors consisting of pCD033-fragments, combined with a selection marker, resulted in definition of a stably maintained minimal replicon. A gene encoding a RepB/OrfX-like protein was found to be not essential for plasmid replication. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of this protein with related proteins unveiled a highly conserved amino acid motif (LLDQQQ). L. plantarum CD033 was cured of pCD033 resulting in the novel plasmid free strain L. plantarum 3NSH. Plasmid curing demonstrated that no essential features are provided by pCD033 under laboratory conditions.

  17. Plasmid Copy Number Determination by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Anindyajati; Artarini, A Anita; Riani, Catur; Retnoningrum, Debbie S

    2016-01-01

    that both primer pairs were acceptable and were predicted to have good performance. Those predictions were in agreement with the in vitro test that gave a single band in the PCR product's electropherogram and a single peak in DNA amplicon's melting curve with a Tm value of 79.01 ± 0.11°C for the tdk primer and 81.53 ± 0.29°C for the ori primer. The efficiency of each primer was 1.95 and 1.97, respectively. The calculation result of pCAD's copy number was 13.1 ± 0.3 copies/cell, showing that pCAD's low copy number has been determined and confirmed. Meanwhile, it was 576.3 ± 91.9 copies/cell for pJExpress414-sod, in accordance with the hypothesis that pUC ori regulates the high copy number plasmid. In conclusion, the designed primers and qPCR conditions used in this study can be used to determine plasmid copy number for plasmids with pBR322 and pUC ori. The method should be tested further on plasmids harboring other type of ori.

  18. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone.

  19. A putative multi-replicon plasmid co-harboring beta-lactamase genes blaKPC-2, blaCTX-M-14 and blaTEM-1 and trimethoprim resistance gene dfrA25 from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 strain in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu; Shen, Pinghua; Liang, Wei; Jin, Jialin; Jiang, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    The global emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a major public health threat requiring immediate and aggressive action. Some older generation antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, serve as alternatives for treatment of infections. Here, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pHS091147, which co-harbored the carbapenemase (blaKPC-2) and trimethoprim resistance genes (dfrA25) from a Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type (ST) 11 clone recovered in Shanghai, China. pHS091147 had three replication genes, several plasmid-stability genes and an intact type IV secretion system gene cluster. Besides blaKPC-2 and dfrA25, pHS091147 carried several other resistance genes, including β-lactamase genes blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14, sulphonamide resistance gene sul1, a quinolone resistance gene remnant (ΔqnrB2), and virulence associated gene iroN. Notably, the multidrug-resistance region was a chimeric structure composed of three subregions, which shared strong sequence homology with several plasmids previously assigned in Genbank. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the co-localization of blaKPC-2 and dfrA25 on a novel putative multi-replicon plasmid in a Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 clone. PMID:28152085

  20. Activation of a plasmid-situated type III PKS gene cluster by deletion of a wbl gene in deepsea-derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huiming; Hou, Lukuan; Li, Huayue; Qiu, Yanhong; Ju, Jianhua; Li, Wenli

    2016-06-27

    Actinomycete genome sequencing has disclosed a large number of cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters. However, their unavailable or limited expression severely hampered the discovery of bioactive compounds. The whiB-like (wbl) regulatory genes play important roles in morphological differentiation as well as secondary metabolism; and hence the wblA so gene was probed and set as the target to activate cryptic gene clusters in deepsea-derived Streptomyces somaliensis SCSIO ZH66. wblA so from deepsea-derived S. somaliensis SCSIO ZH66 was inactivated, leading to significant changes of secondary metabolites production in the ΔwblA so mutant, from which α-pyrone compound violapyrone B (VLP B) was isolated. Subsequently, the VLP biosynthetic gene cluster was identified and characterized, which consists of a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) gene vioA and a regulatory gene vioB; delightedly, inactivation of vioB led to isolation of another four VLPs analogues, among which one was new and two exhibited improved anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA) activity than VLP B. Moreover, transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression levels of whi genes (whiD, whiG, whiH and whiI) and wbl genes (wblC, wblE, wblH, wblI and wblK) were repressed by different degrees, suggesting an intertwined regulation mechanism of wblA so in morphological differentiation and secondary metabolism of S. somaliensis SCSIO ZH66. wblA orthologues would be effective targets for activation of cryptic gene clusters in marine-derived Streptomyces strains, notwithstanding the regulation mechanisms might be varied in different strains. Moreover, the availability of the vio gene cluster has enriched the diversity of type III PKSs, providing new opportunities to expand the chemical space of polyketides through biosynthetic engineering.

  1. Dynamics of the IncW genetic backbone imply general trends in conjugative plasmid evolution.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Raúl; Garcillán-Barcia, M Pilar; Revilla, Carlos; Lázaro, Miguel; Vielva, Luis; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2006-11-01

    Plasmids cannot be understood as mere tools for genetic exchange: they are themselves subject to the forces of evolution. Their genomic and phylogenetic features have been less studied in this respect. Focusing on the IncW incompatibility group, which includes the smallest known conjugative plasmids, we attempt to unveil some common trends in plasmid evolution. The functional modules of IncW genetic backbone are described, with emphasis on their architecture and relationships to other plasmid groups. Some plasmid regions exhibit strong phylogenetic mosaicism, in striking contrast to others of unusual synteny conservation. The presence of genes of unknown function that are widely distributed in plasmid genomes is also emphasized, exposing the existence of ill-defined yet conserved plasmid functions. Conjugation is an essential hallmark of IncW plasmid biology and special attention is given to the organization and evolution of its transfer modules. Genetic exchange between plasmids and their hosts is analysed by following the evolution of the type IV secretion system. Adaptation of the trw conjugative machinery to pathogenicity functions in Bartonella is discussed as an example of how plasmids can change their host modus vivendi. Starting from the phage paradigm, our analysis articulates novel concepts that apply to plasmid evolution.

  2. Application of a PCR-based approach to identify sex in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Banko, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The application of molecular techniques to conservation genetics issues can provide important guidance criteria for management of endangered species. The results from this study establish that PCR-based approaches for sex determination developed in other bird species (Griffiths and Tiwari 1995; Griffiths et al. 1996, 1998; Ellegren 1996) can be applied with a high degree of confidence to at least four species of Hawaiian honeycreepers. This provides a rapid, reliable method with which population managers can optimize sex ratios within populations of endangered species that are subject to artificial manipulation through captive breeding programmes or geographic translocation.

  3. A PCR-based method to identify Entomophaga spp. infections in North American grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Casique-Valdes, Rebeca; Sanchez-Peña, Sergio; Ivonne Torres-Acosta, R; Bidochka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    A PCR-based method was developed for the detection and identification of two species of grasshopper-specific pathogens belonging to the genus Entomophaga in North America, Entomophaga calopteni and Entomophaga macleodii. Two separate sets of primers specific for amplification of a DNA product from each species of Entomophaga as well as a positive control were utilized. Grasshoppers were collected from two sites in Mexico during an epizootic with grasshoppers found in "summit disease", typical of Entomophaga infections. There was a preponderance of Melanopline grasshoppers infected by E. calopteni. The described method is an accurate tool for identification of North American grasshopper infections by Entomophaga species.

  4. A Phage-Like IncY Plasmid Carrying the mcr-1 Gene in Escherichia coli from a Pig Farm in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunping; Feng, Yuqing; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Hui; Qu, Zhina; Lei, Meng; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Yongfei; Ding, Jiabo; Zhu, Baoli

    2017-03-01

    We report here a new type of plasmid that carries the mcr-1 gene, the pMCR-1-P3 plasmid, harbored in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a pig farm in China. pMCR-1-P3 belongs to the IncY incompatibility group and is a phage-like plasmid that contains a large portion of phage-related sequences. The backbone of this plasmid is different from that of other mcr-1-carrying plasmids reported previously.

  5. Chemical adjuvants for plasmid DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Greenland, John R; Letvin, Norman L

    2007-05-10

    Plasmid DNA vaccines are a promising modality for immunization against a variety of human pathogens. Immunization via multiple routes with plasmid DNA can elicit potent cellular immune responses, and these immunogens can be administered repeatedly without inducing anti-vector immunity. Nonetheless, the immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines has been limited by problems associated with delivery. A number of adjuvants have been designed to improve plasmid DNA immunogenicity, either by directly stimulating the immune system or by enhancing plasmid DNA expression. Chemical adjuvants for enhancing plasmid DNA expression include liposomes, polymers, and microparticles, all of which have shown promise for enhancing the expression and immunogenicity of plasmid DNA vaccines in animal models. Micro- and nanoparticles have not been shown to enhance immune responses to plasmid DNA vaccines. However, formulation of plasmid DNA with some non-particulate polymeric adjuvants has led to a statistically significant enhancement of immune responses. Further development of these technologies will significantly improve the utility of plasmid DNA vaccination.

  6. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15-17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85-90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern.

  7. Plasmid Profiles of Virulent Rhodococcus equi Strains Isolated from Infected Foals in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Marcin; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Jarosz, Łukasz; Kato, Kiyoko; Hieda, Yu; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an important bacterial pathogen in foals up to 6 months old, widespread in horse farms all over the world. It was found that only virulent R. equi strains expressing 15–17 kDa virulence-associated protein (VapA) and having large virulence plasmid of 85–90 kb containing vapA gene are pathogenic for horses. To date, 12 plasmid types have been reported in VapA positive strains from horses. There are no data concerning plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains isolated from horses and horse farm environment. The aim of the study is to determine plasmid profiles of virulent R. equi strains isolated in Poland from dead foals as well as from soil samples taken from horse breeding farms. Plasmid profiles of 10 clinical strains derived from 8 farms and 11 environmental strains from 3 farms, confirmed as virulent by PCR, were compared with 12 reference strains containing the known plasmid size and type. Plasmid DNAs were analysed by digestion with the restriction endonucleases BamHI, EcoRI, EcoT22I, and HindIII for detailed comparison and estimation of plasmid sizes. The results of RFLP analysis revealed that all except one isolates used in the study are classified as VapA 85 kb type I plasmid. One strain harboured VapA 87 kb type I plasmid. This is the first report of plasmid types of Polish field R. equi strains. The results of our preliminary investigations on horse farms located in central and eastern Poland indicate that the virulent R. equi strains thus far isolated from diseased foals and horse farms environment represent a highly uniform plasmid pattern. PMID:27074033

  8. The Alliance for Cellular Signaling Plasmid Collection

    PubMed Central

    Zavzavadjian, Joelle R.; Couture, Sam; Park, Wei Sun; Whalen, James; Lyon, Stephen; Lee, Genie; Fung, Eileen; Mi, Qingli; Liu, Jamie; Wall, Estelle; Santat, Leah; Dhandapani, Kavitha; Kivork, Christine; Driver, Adrienne; Zhu, Xiaocui; Chang, Mi Sook; Randhawa, Baljinder; Gehrig, Elizabeth; Bryan, Heather; Verghese, Mary; Maer, Andreia; Saunders, Brian; Ning, Yuhong; Subramaniam, Shankar; Meyer, Tobias; Simon, Melvin I.; O’Rourke, Nancy; Chandy, Grischa; Fraser, Iain D. C.

    2012-01-01

    Cellular responses to inputs that vary both temporally and spatially are determined by complex relationships between the components of cell signaling networks. Analysis of these relationships requires access to a wide range of experimental reagents and techniques, including the ability to express the protein components of the model cells in a variety of contexts. As part of the Alliance for Cellular Signaling, we developed a robust method for cloning large numbers of signaling ORFs into Gateway® entry vectors, and we created a wide range of compatible expression platforms for proteomics applications. To date, we have generated over 3000 plasmids that are available to the scientific community via the American Type Culture Collection. We have established a website at www.signaling-gateway.org/data/plasmid/ that allows users to browse, search, and blast Alliance for Cellular Signaling plasmids. The collection primarily contains murine signaling ORFs with an emphasis on kinases and G protein signaling genes. Here we describe the cloning, databasing, and application of this proteomics resource for large scale subcellular localization screens in mammalian cell lines. PMID:17192258

  9. Construction of the plasmid, expression by Chinese hamster ovary cell, purification and characterization of the first three short consensus repeat modules of human complement receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Takagawa, Hiroaki; Iwakaji, Hirofumi; Miyagawa, Shuji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Ishii, Noriyuki

    2009-04-01

    Short consensus repeat (SCR1-3), the first three SCR modules from N-terminus of type 1 complement receptor (CR1), is expected to accelerate dissociation of complement components and suppress complement activity by binding the main component of complement C4b. In order to clarify the three-dimensional structure, which triggers the activity of SCR1-3 on complement, we constructed an over-expression system in CHO DG44 cells which facilitated mass production of SCR1-3. The mass production was achieved by a two-stage culture system and optimum culture conditions using ASF104N medium and MTX-, NaBu-containing alpha-MEM/10% FBS medium, respectively. The constructed gene of SCR1-3 was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequence analysis, and the expressed protein by CHO DG44 cells was confirmed by western blotting. The expressed SCR1-3 was proved containing N-linked sugar chain, an important factor to the proper expression of protein, by the cleavage with glycosidase of N-linked oligosaccharide (PNGase F). The suppression effect of the yield protein on complement-mediated inflammation was investigated by haemolytic assay and necrosis assay of stromal cells. Both assays showed that SCR1-3 possessed complement control activity. However, residing sugar chain on SCR1-3 did not show significant difference in the complement control activity.

  10. Performance of PCR-based assays targeting Bacteroidales genetic markers of human fecal pollution in sewage and fecal samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous PCR-based methods available to characterize human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct oligonucleotides and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in method performance. Laboratory comparisons ...

  11. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods suitable for PCR-based detection and genotyping of Clostridium botulinum.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Bruna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Skiby, Jeffrey E; De Medici, Dario

    2013-09-01

    Sufficient quality and quantity of extracted DNA is critical to detecting and performing genotyping of Clostridium botulinum by means of PCR-based methods. An ideal extraction method has to optimize DNA yield, minimize DNA degradation, allow multiple samples to be extracted, and be efficient in terms of cost, time, labor, and supplies. Eleven botulinum toxin-producing clostridia strains and 25 samples (10 food, 13 clinical, and 2 environmental samples) naturally contaminated with botulinum toxin-producing clostridia were used to compare 4 DNA extraction procedures: Chelex(®) 100 matrix, Phenol-Cloroform-Isoamyl alcohol, NucliSENS(®) magnetic extraction kit, and DNeasy(®) Blood & Tissue kit. Integrity, purity, and amount of amplifiable DNA were evaluated. The results show that the DNeasy(®) Blood & Tissue kit is the best extraction method evaluated because it provided the most pure, intact, and amplifiable DNA. However, Chelex(®) 100 matrix seems to be suitable for PCR-based methods intended for laboratory diagnosis of suspected outbreaks of botulism, because it is faster and cheaper compared to DNeasy(®) Blood & Tissue kit, and for samples in which the mean of Ct values obtained are statistically different (P>0.05) with respect to the best method, no lack of PCR amplification was shown. In addition, molecular methods for laboratory diagnosis currently are based on a microbial enrichment step prior to PCR, and so the differences in amplification seem to not influence the analytical results.

  12. A Novel PCR-Based Approach for Accurate Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Chiou, Jiachi; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Chen, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A PCR-based assay was developed for more accurate identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus through targeting the blaCARB-17 like element, an intrinsic β-lactamase gene that may also be regarded as a novel species-specific genetic marker of this organism. Homologous analysis showed that blaCARB-17 like genes were more conservative than the tlh, toxR and atpA genes, the genetic markers commonly used as detection targets in identification of V. parahaemolyticus. Our data showed that this blaCARB-17-specific PCR-based detection approach consistently achieved 100% specificity, whereas PCR targeting the tlh and atpA genes occasionally produced false positive results. Furthermore, a positive result of this test is consistently associated with an intrinsic ampicillin resistance phenotype of the test organism, presumably conferred by the products of blaCARB-17 like genes. We envision that combined analysis of the unique genetic and phenotypic characteristics conferred by blaCARB-17 shall further enhance the detection specificity of this novel yet easy-to-use detection approach to a level superior to the conventional methods used in V. parahaemolyticus detection and identification. PMID:26858713

  13. Identification of probiotic microorganisms in South African products using PCR-based DGGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, J; Britz, T J; Torriani, S; Witthuhn, R C

    2005-01-15

    Probiotic microorganisms in commercial yoghurts and other food products are currently identified by traditional methods such as growth on selective media, morphological and biochemical characteristics. In this study, PCR-based DGGE analysis was used for the rapid and accurate identification of probiotic microorganisms from South African yoghurts and lyophilized preparations in capsule and tablet form. To identify the microorganisms present in these products, the DGGE profiles obtained were compared to two reference markers (A and B) composed of five lactobacilli and seven Bifidobacterium species, respectively. The results obtained were confirmed by species-specific PCR, as well as sequence analyses of unknown bands not present in the reference markers. It was found that only 54.5% of the probiotic yoghurts contained the microorganisms stated on the label compared to only a third (33.3%) of the lyophilized probiotic products. Some Bifidobacterium species were incorrectly identified and various microorganisms were detected that were not listed on the label. Sequence analyses confirmed the presence of Streptococcus spp. other than the yoghurt starter, Streptococcus thermophilus, in some of these products and in some instances label information was vague and non-scientific. PCR-based DGGE analyses proved to be a valuable culture-independent approach for the rapid and specific identification of the microbial species present in South African probiotic products.

  14. Genetic analysis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from people in Northern Australia using PCR-based tools.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Janine; Koehler, Anson V; Robertson, Gemma; Bradbury, Richard S; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Norton, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been limited genetic study of the gastrointestinal pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium in northern parts of Australia. Here, PCR-based methods were used for the genetic characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 695 people with histories of gastrointestinal disorders from the tropical North of Australia. Genomic DNAs from fecal samples were subjected to PCR-based analyses of regions from the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and/or the glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 13 and four of the 695 samples, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B were found in 4 (31%) and 9 (69%) of the 13 samples in persons of <9 years of age. Cryptosporidium hominis (subgenotype IdA18), Cryptosporidium mink genotype (subgenotype IIA16R1) and C. felis were also identified in single patients of 11-21 years of age. Future studies might focus on a comparative study of these and other protists in rural communities in Northern Australia.

  15. Development of PCR-based technique for detection of purity of Pashmina fiber from textile materials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Shakyawar, D B; Pareek, P K; Raja, A S M; Prince, L L L; Kumar, Satish; Naqvi, S M K

    2015-04-01

    Pashmina fiber is one of major specialty animal fiber in India. The quality of Pashmina obtained from Changthangi and Chegu goats in India is very good. Due to restricted availability and high prices, adulteration of natural prized fibers is becoming a common practice by the manufacturers. Sheep wool is a cheap substitute, which is usually used for adulteration and false declaration of Pashmina-based products. Presently, there is lack of cost-effective and readily available methodology to identify the adulteration of Pashmina products from other similar looking substitutes like sheep wool. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection method can be used to identify origin of animal fiber. Extraction of quality DNA from dyed and processed animal fiber and textile materials is a limiting factor in the development of such detection methods. In the present study, quality DNA was extracted from textile materials, and PCR-based technique using mitochondrial gene (12S rRNA) specific primers was developed for detection of the Pashmina in textile blends. This technique has been used for detection of the adulteration of the Pashmina products with sheep wool. The technique can detect adulteration level up to 10 % of sheep/goat fibers in textile blends.

  16. A PCR-based genetic linkage map of human chromosome 16

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Kozman, H.M.; Thompson, A.

    1994-07-01

    A high-resolution cytogenetic-based physical map and a genetic linkage map of human chromosome 16 have been developed based on 79 PCR-typable genetic markers and 2 Southern-based RFLP markers. The PCR-based markers were previously-characterized polymorphic (AC){sub n} repeats. Two approaches have led to the characterization of 47 highly informative genetic markers spread along chromosome 16, some of which are closely linked to disease loci. In addition, 22 markers (D16S401-423) previously genetically mapped were also physically mapped. Ten markers characterized by other laboratories were physically mapped and genotyped on the CEPH families. These 32 markers were incorporated into the PCR-based map. Seventy-two markers have heterozygosities >0.50 and 51 of these markers >0.70. By multipoint linkage analysis a framework genetic map and a comprehensive genetic map were constructed. The length of the sex-averaged framework genetic map if 152.1 cM. The average distance and the median distance between markers on this map are 3.2 and 2.7 cM, respectively, and the largest gap is 15.9 cM. These maps were anchored to the high-resolution cytogenetic map (on average 1.5 Mb per interval). Together these integrated genetic and physical maps of human chromosome 16 provide the basis for the localization and ultimately the isolation of disease genes that map to this chromosome. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Comparison of PCR-based detection of Plasmodium falciparum infections based on single and multicopy genes

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Segun I; Awobode, Henrietta O; Monday, Gamaliel C; Kendjo, Eric; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen F

    2007-01-01

    PCR-based assays are the most sensitive and specific methods to detect malaria parasites. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of three PCR-based assays that do not only differ in their sequence target, but also in the number of copies of their target region, for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in 401 individuals living in a malaria-endemic area in Nigeria. Compared to a composite reference generated from results of all the 3 PCR assays, the stevor gene amplification had a sensitivity of 100% (Kappa = 1; 95% CI = 1.000–1.000), 83% (Kappa = 0.718; 95% CI = 0.648–0.788) by SSUrRNA gene PCR and 71% (Kappa = 0.552; 95% CI = 0.478–0.627) by the msa-2 gene amplification. Results from this study indicate that the stevor gene amplification is the most sensitive technique for the detection of P. falciparum. This assay may be an important reference standard, especially when a confirmatory technique with high sensitivity and specificity is needed for ruling out P. falciparum infection. PMID:17705826

  18. Genetic characterisation of invasive breast cancer: a comparison of CGH and PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Buerger, H; Schmidt, H; Beckmann, A; Zänker, K S; Boecker, W; Brandt, B

    2001-11-01

    Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is a reliable tool to gain an overview of all unbalanced chromosomal alterations within a tumour. Nevertheless, the high numbers of tumour cells required and the comparatively low resolution are drawbacks of this technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based multiplex microsatellite analysis represents a semi-automated, highly reproducible method, which requires small amounts of tumour cells. This is a comparative study of CGH and microsatellite analysis. Eighty one samples of invasive breast cancer were investigated by two sensitive multiplex PCRs containing three microsatellites each of six markers (D6S261, D11S907, D6S300, D11S927, D8S272, and D11S925), and two additional microsatellite markers located within intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (egfr) and p53 (p53CA). At least one example of loss of heterozygosity was detectable in all breast cancer tissues. However, the overall rate of accordance between the two methods tested was only 61%. An increasing rate of the number of genetic alterations in each case was mirrored by a constantly increasing fractional allelic loss index. PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis using this panel of eight microsatellite markers not only enables the characterisation of cells that have malignant potential in a high frequency of patients with breast cancer, but can also give an estimate of the degree of genetic progression.

  19. Genotyping of PCR-based polymorphisms and linkage-disequilibrium analysis at the NF1 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Purandare, S.M.; Viskochil, D.H.; Cawthon, R.

    1996-07-01

    Six polymorphism across the NF1 gene have been adapted for genotyping through application of PCR-based assays. Three exon-based polymorphisms - at positions 702, 2034, and 10647 in the NF1 cDNA - were genotyped by mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR). A fourth polymorphism, DV1.9, is an L1 insertion element in intron 30, and the other two polymorphisms, GXAlu and EVI-20, are short tandem repeats in intron 27b. All the polymorphisms were evaluated in a cohort of 110 CEPH individuals who previously had been analyzed by use of eight RFLPs at the NF1 locus. Pairwise linkage-disequilibrium analyses with the six PCR-based polymorphisms and their flanking markers demonstrated disequilibrium between all tested loci. Genotypes of the four diallelic polymorphisms (702, 2034, 10647, and DV1.9) were also evaluated in cohorts from the CEPH, African, and Japanese populations. The CEPH and Japanese cohorts showed similar heterozygosities and linkage-disequilibrium coefficients. The African cohort showed a higher degree of heterozygosity and lower linkage-disequilibrium values, compared with the CEPH and Japanese cohorts. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. A PCR-Based Molecular Detection of Strongyloides stercoralisin Human Stool Samples from Tabriz City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemikhah, Reza; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Shariatzadeh, Seyed Ali; Shahbazi, Abbas; Hazratian, Teymour

    2017-03-27

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. In chronically infected patients, the low parasitic content as well as the resemblance of the larvae to several other species make diagnosis basedonmorphology difficult. In the present study, a PCR-based method targeting the internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS2) of the rDNA region was examined for the molecular detection of S. stercoralis infection from the stool samples. A total of 1800 patients were included. Three fresh stool samples were collected per patient, and S. stercoralis isolates were identified by the morphological method. A subset of isolates was later used in the PCR-based method as positive controls. Additionally, negative and no-template controls were included. Data analysis was accomplished using an x² test. Ap-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In total, fivestool samples were found to be infected with S. stercoralis using the morphology method. PCR method detected S. stercoralis DNA target from all of the fiveDNA samples extracted from positive fecal samples.

  1. Countrywide dissemination of a DHA-1-type plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11 international high-risk clone in Hungary, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Kis, Zoltán; Tóth, Ákos; Jánvári, Laura; Damjanova, Ivelina

    2016-09-01

    The first plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (pAmpC KP) isolate was detected in December 2009 in Hungary. Hungarian microbiological laboratories were asked to send all KP strains showing cefoxitin resistance and decreased susceptibility or resistance to any third-generation cephalosporins to the Reference Laboratories at the National Center for Epidemiology. Investigation was conducted in order to outline spatio-temporal distribution and genetic characterization of pAmpC-KP isolates in Hungary. Between December 2009 and December 2013, 312 consecutive KP clinical isolates were confirmed as producing pAmpCs. All isolates showed resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, and 77 % were non-susceptible to at least one carbapenem. Analysis of β-lactamase genes showed blaDHA-1 in all and additionally blaCTX-M-15 in 90 % of isolates. PFGE typing revealed 12 pulsotypes; of these, KP053 (262/312) and KP070 (38/312) belonged to sequence type ST11 and comprised 96 % of the isolates. The blaDHA-1 and blaCTX-M-15 co-producing KP053/ST11 clone affected 234 patients and spread to 55 healthcare centres across Hungary during the study period. Three KP053 isolates were also resistant to colistin. In two of these, the mgrB gene was truncated by IS10R, while in the third isolate, insertional inactivation of mgrB by ISKPn14 was identified. Hungary is the first European country showing endemic spread of blaDHA-1 facilitated by the international high-risk clone ST11. The rapid countrywide spread of this multidrug-resistant clone seriously endangers Hungarian healthcare facilities and warrants strengthening of infection control practices and prudent use of carbapenems and colistin.

  2. Instability of multiple drug resistance plasmids in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from poultry.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. J.; Threlfall, E. J.; Rowe, B.

    1991-01-01

    Plasmids in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin/kanamycin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim (ACGKSSuTTm), CGKSSuTTm, ACSSuT or CSSuT which had been isolated from poultry in the first 3 months of 1989 have been characterized and compared with plasmids in two strains of R-types ACGKSSuTTm and ASSuTTm isolated from two patients later in the year. With the exception of the human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm, all strains carried two non-conjugative plasmids, one coding for SSu and belonging to incompatibility group Q, and a second coding for multiple resistance and belonging to the FIme incompatibility group. The human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm did not carry the IncQ SSu plasmid but like the poultry isolates, carried a non-conjugative FIme plasmid. Restriction endonuclease digestion with the enzymes EcoR I, Pst I and Hind III demonstrated that the FIme plasmids from strains of different R-types showed a high degree of homology but exhibited numerous fragment size polymorphisms. The restriction digest fingerprint of plasmids in the human isolate of R-type ACGKSSuTTm was indistinguishable from a poultry isolate of the same R-type. Analysis of segregants of one of the poultry isolates of R-type ACGKSSuTTm demonstrated that resistance determinants could be rapidly lost from the FIme plasmid to give rise to a number of R-types and fingerprint patterns. Loss of tetracycline resistance from this plasmid appeared to be correlated with the integration of other plasmid-mediated resistances into the bacterial chromosome. Evidence is presented for the rapid loss of antimicrobial resistance determinants from a multiple resistance plasmid of the FIme incompatibility group in response to withdrawal of antibiotic selective pressure. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2019296

  3. Instability of multiple drug resistance plasmids in Salmonella typhimurium isolated from poultry.

    PubMed

    Brown, D J; Threlfall, E J; Rowe, B

    1991-04-01

    Plasmids in five strains of Salmonella typhimurium resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin/kanamycin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim (ACGKSSuTTm), CGKSSuTTm, ACSSuT or CSSuT which had been isolated from poultry in the first 3 months of 1989 have been characterized and compared with plasmids in two strains of R-types ACGKSSuTTm and ASSuTTm isolated from two patients later in the year. With the exception of the human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm, all strains carried two non-conjugative plasmids, one coding for SSu and belonging to incompatibility group Q, and a second coding for multiple resistance and belonging to the FIme incompatibility group. The human isolate of R-type ASSuTTm did not carry the IncQ SSu plasmid but like the poultry isolates, carried a non-conjugative FIme plasmid. Restriction endonuclease digestion with the enzymes EcoR I, Pst I and Hind III demonstrated that the FIme plasmids from strains of different R-types showed a high degree of homology but exhibited numerous fragment size polymorphisms. The restriction digest fingerprint of plasmids in the human isolate of R-type ACGKSSuTTm was indistinguishable from a poultry isolate of the same R-type. Analysis of segregants of one of the poultry isolates of R-type ACGKSSuTTm demonstrated that resistance determinants could be rapidly lost from the FIme plasmid to give rise to a number of R-types and fingerprint patterns. Loss of tetracycline resistance from this plasmid appeared to be correlated with the integration of other plasmid-mediated resistances into the bacterial chromosome. Evidence is presented for the rapid loss of antimicrobial resistance determinants from a multiple resistance plasmid of the FIme incompatibility group in response to withdrawal of antibiotic selective pressure.

  4. Comparison of Gen-probe transcription-mediated amplification, Abbott PCR, and Roche PCR assays for detection of wild-type and mutant plasmid strains of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Persson, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The clinical performance of two nucleic acid amplification assays targeting the cryptic plasmid and two assays targeting rRNA molecules in Chlamydia trachomatis was examined. First-catch urine samples from Malmoe, Sweden, were tested for C. trachomatis with the Abbott real-time PCR assay m2000 and an in-house PCR for the new variant strain of C. trachomatis with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid. Aliquots of the urine samples were sent to Aarhus, Denmark, and further examined with the Roche COBAS Amplicor CT (RCA) PCR, the Gen-Probe Aptima Combo 2 assay (AC2) targeting the C. trachomatis 23S rRNA, and the Aptima C. trachomatis assay (ACT) targeting the 16S rRNA molecule. A positive prevalence of 9% (163/1,808 urine samples examined) was detected according to the combined reference standard. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the four assays were as follows: for ACT, 100% (163/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645), respectively; for AC2, 100% (163/163) and 99.6% (1,640/1,645); for m2000, 68.7% (112/163) and 99.9% (1,644/1,645); for RCA, 63.8% (104/163) and 99.9% (1,643/1,645). The two Gen-Probe assays detected all mutant strains characterized by the in-house PCR as having the deletion in the cryptic plasmid, whereas the Roche and the Abbott PCRs targeting the plasmid were both unable to detect the plasmid mutant. The difference in clinical sensitivity between the plasmid PCR assays m2000 and RCA, on the one hand, and the rRNA assays AC2 and ACT, on the other, could be attributed almost exclusively to the presence of the plasmid mutant in about one-quarter of the Chlamydia-positive samples examined.

  5. Development of a high-throughput real time PCR based on a hot-start alternative for Pfu mediated by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sang, Fuming; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Lin; Ren, Jicun; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2015-10-14

    Hot start (HS) PCR is an excellent alternative for high-throughput real time PCR due to its ability to prevent nonspecific amplification at low temperature. Development of a cost-effective and simple HS PCR technique to guarantee high-throughput PCR specificity and consistency still remains a great challenge. In this study, we systematically investigated the HS characteristics of QDs triggered in real time PCR with EvaGreen and SYBR Green I dyes by the analysis of amplification curves, standard curves and melting curves. Two different kinds of DNA polymerases, Pfu and Taq, were employed. Here we showed that high specificity and efficiency of real time PCR were obtained in a plasmid DNA and an error-prone two-round PCR assay using QD-based HS PCR, even after an hour preincubation at 50 °C before real time PCR. Moreover, the results obtained by QD-based HS PCR were comparable to a commercial Taq antibody DNA polymerase. However, no obvious HS effect of QDs was found in real time PCR using Taq DNA polymerase. The findings of this study demonstrated that a cost-effective high-throughput real time PCR based on QD triggered HS PCR could be established with high consistency, sensitivity and accuracy.

  6. Transfer of Plasmids to an Antibiotic-Sensitive Mutant of Zymomonas mobilis†

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Steven E.; Eveleigh, Douglas E.

    1986-01-01

    Wild-type strains of Zymomonas mobilis exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance and thus restrict the use of many broad-host-range plasmids in them as cloning vehicles. Antibiotic-sensitive mutants of Z. mobilis were isolated and used as hosts for the conjugal transfer of broad-host-range plasmids from Escherichia coli. Such antibiotic-sensitive strains can facilitate the application of broad-host-range plasmids to the study of Z. mobilis. Images PMID:16347136

  7. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA: preparation of a plasmid vector with low transformation background.

    PubMed

    Leriche, A; Christophe, D; Brocas, H; Vassart, G

    1983-02-15

    A simple method that allows the rapid preparation of oligo dG-tailed plasmid vectors is presented. The procedure involves purification of the tailed molecules by hybridization to oligo dC-cellulose followed by a stepwise thermal elution. The resulting plasmid is virtually devoid of transformation activity in the absence of oligo dC-tailed DNA fragments. It allows construction of cDNA libraries with as low as 1% of colonies harboring wild-type plasmids.

  8. 8-Methoxypsoralen photoinduced plasmid-chromosome recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a centromeric vector.

    PubMed Central

    Meira, L B; Henriques, J A; Magaña-Schwencke, N

    1995-01-01

    The characterization of a new system to study the induction of plasmid-chromosome recombination is described. Single-stranded and double-stranded centromeric vectors bearing 8-methoxypsoralen photoinduced lesions were used to transform a wild-type yeast strain bearing the leu2-3,112 marker. Using the SSCP methodology and DNA sequencing, it was demonstrated that repair of the lesions in plasmid DNA was mainly due to conversion of the chromosomal allele to the plasmid DNA. Images PMID:7784218

  9. Transfer of plasmids to an antibiotic-sensitive mutant of Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, S.E.; Eveleigh, D.E.

    1986-08-01

    Wild-type strains of Zymomonas mobilis exhibit multiple antibiotic resistance and thus restrict the use of many broad-host-range plasmids in them as cloning vehicles. Antibiotic-sensitive mutants of Z. mobilis were isolated and used as hosts for the conjugal transfer of broad-host-range plasmids from Escherichia coli. Such antibiotic-sensitive strains can facilitate the application of broad-host-range plasmids to the study of Z. mobilis.

  10. Multiple Pathways of Plasmid DNA Transfer in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Stefanie; Holsten, Lea; Weiss, Evelyn; Benghezal, Mohammed; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Many Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains carry cryptic plasmids of different size and gene content, the function of which is not well understood. A subgroup of these plasmids (e.g. pHel4, pHel12), contain a mobilisation region, but no cognate type IV secretion system (T4SS) for conjugative transfer. Instead, certain H. pylori strains (e.g. strain P12 carrying plasmid pHel12) can harbour up to four T4SSs in their genome (cag-T4SS, comB, tfs3, tfs4). Here, we show that such indigenous plasmids can be efficiently transferred between H. pylori strains, even in the presence of extracellular DNaseI eliminating natural transformation. Knockout of a plasmid-encoded mobA relaxase gene significantly reduced plasmid DNA transfer in the presence of DNaseI, suggesting a DNA conjugation or mobilisation process. To identify the T4SS involved in this conjugative DNA transfer, each individual T4SS was consecutively deleted from the bacterial chromosome. Using a marker-free counterselectable gene deletion procedure (rpsL counterselection method), a P12 mutant strain was finally obtained with no single T4SS (P12ΔT4SS). Mating experiments using these mutants identified the comB T4SS in the recipient strain as the major mediator of plasmid DNA transfer between H. pylori strains, both in a DNaseI-sensitive (natural transformation) as well as a DNaseI-resistant manner (conjugative transfer). However, transfer of a pHel12::cat plasmid from a P12ΔT4SS donor strain into a P12ΔT4SS recipient strain provided evidence for the existence of a third, T4SS-independent mechanism of DNA transfer. This novel type of plasmid DNA transfer, designated as alternate DNaseI-Resistant (ADR) mechanism, is observed at a rather low frequency under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our study describes for the first time the existence of three distinct pathways of plasmid DNA transfer between H. pylori underscoring the importance of horizontal gene transfer for this species. PMID:23029142

  11. Revealing constitutively expressed resistance genes in Agrostis species using PCR-based motif-directed RNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Budak, Hikmet; Su, Senem; Ergen, Neslihan

    2006-12-01

    Agrostis species are mainly used in athletic fields and golf courses. Their integrity is maintained by fungicides, which makes the development of disease-resistance varieties a high priority. However, there is a lack of knowledge about resistance (R) genes and their use for genetic improvement in Agrostis species. The objective of this study was to identify and clone constitutively expressed cDNAs encoding R gene-like (RGL) sequences from three Agrostis species (colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris L.), creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.) and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.)) by PCR-based motif-directed RNA fingerprinting towards relatively conserved nucleotide binding site (NBS) domains. Sixty-one constitutively expressed cDNA sequences were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis of ESTs and probable translation products revealed that RGLs are highly conserved among these three Agrostis species. Fifteen of them were shown to share conserved motifs found in other plant disease resistance genes such as MLA13, Xa1, YR6, YR23 and RPP5. The molecular evolutionary forces, analysed using the Ka/Ks ratio, reflected purifying selection both on NBS and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) intervening regions of discovered RGL sequences in these species. This study presents, for the first time, isolation and characterization of constitutively expressed RGL sequences from Agrostis species revealing the presence of TNL (TIR-NBS-LRR) type R genes in monocot plants. The characterized RGLs will further enhance knowledge on the molecular evolution of the R gene family in grasses.

  12. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layton, Blythe A.; Cao, Yiping; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Hanley, Kaitlyn; Ballesté, Elisenda; Brandão, João; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Converse, Reagan; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Gourmelon, Michèle; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung; Lozach, Solen; Madi, Tania; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Peed, Lindsay; Reischer, Georg H.; Rodrigues, Raquel; Rose, Joan B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sinigalliano, Chris; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Stewart, Jill; ,; Laurie, C.; Wang, Dan; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Jay, Jenny; Holden, Patricia A.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Shanks, Orin; Griffith, John F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing in large multi-laboratory studies. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (BtH), BsteriF1, gyrB, HF183 endpoint, HF183 SYBR, HF183 Taqman®, HumM2, and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH (Mnif)) using 64 blind samples prepared in one laboratory. The blind samples contained either one or two fecal sources from human, wastewater or non-human sources. The assay results were assessed for presence/absence of the human markers and also quantitatively while varying the following: 1) classification of samples that were detected but not quantifiable (DNQ) as positive or negative; 2) reference fecal sample concentration unit of measure (such as culturable indicator bacteria, wet mass, total DNA, etc); and 3) human fecal source type (stool, sewage or septage). Assay performance using presence/absence metrics was found to depend on the classification of DNQ samples. The assays that performed best quantitatively varied based on the fecal concentration unit of measure and laboratory protocol. All methods were consistently more sensitive to human stools compared to sewage or septage in both the presence/absence and quantitative analysis. Overall, HF183 Taqman® was found to be the most effective marker of human fecal contamination in this California-based study.

  13. Conservation of plasmids among Escherichia coli K1 isolates of diverse origins.

    PubMed

    Mercer, A A; Morelli, G; Heuzenroeder, M; Kamke, M; Achtman, M

    1984-12-01

    Escherichia coli K1 isolates of various O types were previously assigned to different clonal groups. Members of the two clones defined by membrane pattern 9 (MP9) and serotypes O18:K1 and O1:K1 had been found to be very similar to each other. The plasmid contents of these bacteria confirmed this conclusion. Both groups carried a self-transmissible plasmid of the FI incompatibility group that coded for colicin production and a major outer membrane protein called the plasmid-coded protein (PCP). The size of this plasmid varied from 76 to 96 megadaltons, but restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA heteroduplex analysis revealed that these plasmids were highly related. O18:K1 bacteria of MP6 had previously been determined to represent a subclone, related to but different from O18:K1 MP9 bacteria. These MP6 bacteria carried a different, smaller IncFI plasmid which did not code for colicin production or the PCP protein. This smaller plasmid was primarily related to the larger plasmid within the regions of DNA encoding incompatibility, replication, and conjugation. O1:K1 bacteria of MP5 contained other unrelated plasmids in agreement with the previous conclusion that they are unrelated to O1:K1 bacteria of MP9. The bacteria examined had been isolated from two continents over a time span of 38 years, and the results attest to conservative inheritance of plasmids within bacteria of common descent.

  14. Broad host range plasmids can invade an unexpectedly diverse fraction of a soil bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    Klümper, Uli; Riber, Leise; Dechesne, Arnaud; Sannazzarro, Analia; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Smets, Barth F

    2015-01-01

    Conjugal plasmids can provide microbes with full complements of new genes and constitute potent vehicles for horizontal gene transfer. Conjugal plasmid transfer is deemed responsible for the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among microbes. While broad host range plasmids are known to transfer to diverse hosts in pure culture, the extent of their ability to transfer in the complex bacterial communities present in most habitats has not been comprehensively studied. Here, we isolated and characterized transconjugants with a degree of sensitivity not previously realized to investigate the transfer range of IncP- and IncPromA-type broad host range plasmids from three proteobacterial donors to a soil bacterial community. We identified transfer to many different recipients belonging to 11 different bacterial phyla. The prevalence of transconjugants belonging to diverse Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria suggests that inter-Gram plasmid transfer of IncP-1 and IncPromA-type plasmids is a frequent phenomenon. While the plasmid receiving fractions of the community were both plasmid- and donor- dependent, we identified a core super-permissive fraction that could take up different plasmids from diverse donor strains. This fraction, comprising 80% of the identified transconjugants, thus has the potential to dominate IncP- and IncPromA-type plasmid transfer in soil. Our results demonstrate that these broad host range plasmids have a hitherto unrecognized potential to transfer readily to very diverse bacteria and can, therefore, directly connect large proportions of the soil bacterial gene pool. This finding reinforces the evolutionary and medical significances of these plasmids. PMID:25333461

  15. Rapid detection and identification of Clostridium chauvoei by PCR based on flagellin gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Kojima, A; Uchida, I; Sekizaki, T; Sasaki, Y; Ogikubo, Y; Tamura, Y

    2001-02-26

    We developed a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that specifically detects Clostridium chauvoei. Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 516-bp fragment of the structural flagellin gene. The specificity of the PCR was investigated by analyzing 59 strains of clostridia, and seven strain of other genera. A 516-bp fragment could be amplified from all the C. chauvoei strains tested, and no amplification was observed by using DNAs from the other strains tested, including Clostridium septicum. Similarly, this PCR-based method specifically detected C. chauvoei DNA sequences in samples of muscle and exudate of obtained from mice within 12h of inoculation. In tests using samples of muscle or liver, the limit of detection was about 200 organisms per reaction. These results suggest that the one-step PCR system may be useful for direct detection and identification of C. chauvoei in clinical specimens.

  16. PCR-based assessment of shellfish traceability and sustainability in international Mediterranean seafood markets.

    PubMed

    Galal-Khallaf, Asmaa; Ardura, Alba; Borrell, Yaisel J; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome oxidase COI and 16S rDNA) were employed for species identification of commercial shellfish from two Mediterranean countries. New COI Barcodes were generated for six species: Pleoticus robustus, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Parapenaeus fissuroides, Hymenopenaeus debilis, Metapenaeus affinis and Sepia aculeata. Biodiversity of the seafood species analyzed was greater in Egypt, with nine crustacean and two cephalopod species found compared with only three crustaceans and three cephalopods in Spain. In total, 17.2% and 15.2% products were mislabeled in Egypt and Spain, respectively. Population decline is a problem for some of the substitute species. Others were exotic and/or invasive in exporters' regions. This study offers the first comparable study of shellfish traceability in these Mediterranean markets. The PCR-based method used in this study proved to be reliable, effective and, therefore, could be employed for routine seafood analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PCR-based analysis of mitochondrial DNA copy number, mitochondrial DNA damage, and nuclear DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Hunt, Claudia P.; Rooney, John P.; Ryde, Ian T.; Anbalagan, Charumathi; Joglekar, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Because of the role DNA damage and depletion play in human disease, it is important to develop and improve tools to assess these endpoints. This unit describes PCR-based methods to measure nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage and copy number. Long amplicon quantitative polymerase chain reaction (LA-QPCR) is used to detect DNA damage by measuring the number of polymerase-inhibiting lesions present based on the amount of PCR amplification; real-time PCR (RT-PCR) is used to calculate genome content. In this unit we provide step-by-step instructions to perform these assays in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Fundulus grandis, and Fundulus heteroclitus, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assays. PMID:26828332

  18. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-11-15

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even in low technology laboratories. The amount of tissue required by this method is approximately 50-100 mg. The quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method is high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions and also to be used in other DNA manipulation techniques such as restriction digestion, Southern blot and cloning.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial bacteraemia isolates by PCR-based DNA fingerprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Davin-Regli, A; Bosi, C; Charrel, R N; Bollet, C

    1996-11-01

    Between July 1994 and March 1995, 64 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were implicated in bacteraemia in 25 cancer patients in five wards of two hospitals. These, together with 24 environmental isolates and one isolate from a bacteraemia in a non-cancer patient were examined by three PCR-based DNA fingerprinting methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), enterobacterial-repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR, and 16S-23S spacer region-based RAPD. These methods were reproducible, discriminatory and showed close agreement; all indicated that 47 isolates that had caused bacteraemia in 19 cancer patients were indistinguishable. Seventeen other isolates that had caused bacteraemia in 10 cancer patients were discriminated into eight further groups, and the 24 environmental and non-cancer patient isolates into further distinct groups. No environmental source of the epidemic strain was found, but it was suspected that the outbreak was related to infusion implants.

  20. mcr-1.2, a New mcr Variant Carried on a Transferable Plasmid from a Colistin-Resistant KPC Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain of Sequence Type 512

    PubMed Central

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Tascini, Carlo; Cannatelli, Antonio; Henrici De Angelis, Lucia; Fortunato, Simona; Giani, Tommaso; Menichetti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    A novel mcr variant, named mcr-1.2, encoding a Gln3-to-Leu functional variant of MCR-1, was detected in a KPC-3-producing ST512 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate collected in Italy from a surveillance rectal swab from a leukemic child. The mcr-1.2 gene was carried on a transferable IncX4 plasmid whose structure was very similar to that of mcr-1-bearing plasmids previously found in Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae strains from geographically distant sites (Estonia, China, and South Africa). PMID:27401575

  1. mcr-1.2, a New mcr Variant Carried on a Transferable Plasmid from a Colistin-Resistant KPC Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Strain of Sequence Type 512.

    PubMed

    Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Arena, Fabio; Tascini, Carlo; Cannatelli, Antonio; Henrici De Angelis, Lucia; Fortunato, Simona; Giani, Tommaso; Menichetti, Francesco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2016-09-01

    A novel mcr variant, named mcr-1.2, encoding a Gln3-to-Leu functional variant of MCR-1, was detected in a KPC-3-producing ST512 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate collected in Italy from a surveillance rectal swab from a leukemic child. The mcr-1.2 gene was carried on a transferable IncX4 plasmid whose structure was very similar to that of mcr-1-bearing plasmids previously found in Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae strains from geographically distant sites (Estonia, China, and South Africa).

  2. Rapid diagnosis of Argentine hemorrhagic fever by reverse transcriptase PCR-based assay.

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, M E; Enría, D; Maiztegui, J I; Grau, O; Romanowski, V

    1995-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is an endemo-epidemic disease caused by Junín virus. This report demonstrates that a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR-based assay developed in our laboratory to detect Junín virus in whole blood samples is sensitive and specific. The experiments were conducted in a double-blinded manner using 94 clinical samples collected in the area in which AHF is endemic. The RT-PCR-based assay was compared with traditional methodologies, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plaque neutralization tests, and occasionally viral isolation. The calculated parameters for RT-PCR diagnosis, with seroconversion as the "gold standard," were 98% sensitivity and 76% specificity. It is noteworthy that 94% of the patients with putative false-positive results (RT-PCR positive and no seroconversion detected) exhibited febrile syndromes of undefined etiology. These results could be interpreted to mean that most of those patients with febrile syndromes were actually infected with Junín virus but did not develop a detectable immune response. Furthermore, 8 laboratory-fabricated samples and 25 blood samples of patients outside the area in which AHF is endemic tested in a similar way were disclosed correctly (100% match). The RT-PCR assay is the only laboratory test available currently for the early and rapid diagnosis of AHF. It is sensitive enough to detect the low viremia found during the period in which immune plasma therapy can be used effectively, reducing mortality rates from 30% to less than 1%. PMID:7542268

  3. PCR based detection of mycobacteria in paraffin wax embedded material routinely processed for morphological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Frevel, T; Schäfer, K L; Tötsch, M; Böcker, W; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of mycobacterial infections has increased during the past five years. A prompt diagnosis is indispensable for initiating appropriate treatment. Because culturing of mycobacteria takes three to six weeks and sensitivity of microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli is low, amplification methods provide promising possibilities. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been shown to be useful for confirming a mycobacterial infection, especially in cases with unexpected histological findings or lack of suitable material for culturing. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of PCR based techniques in the detection of mycobacterial infections in uncultured routine histological specimens as an alternative to surgical pathology. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty nine formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded samples from 141 patients with clinical or histological suspicion of a mycobacterial infection were investigated using three different PCR assays and Southern blotting. PCR results were compared with histology and culture and the patients' clinical findings. RESULTS: When using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity for the detection of mycobacteria of the tuberculosis complex was 90%, specificity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 81%, and the negative predictive value was 96%. The sensitivity for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria was 100% and specificity was 78%, the positive predictive value was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. The patients' clinical findings supported the PCR positive results, indicating a mycobacterial infection in 11 of 18 initially culture negative cases and in 21 of 35 PCR positive cases without culture results. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that PCR based techniques are sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for the detection of mycobacteria in routinely processed paraffin wax embedded and formalin fixed histological samples. PMID:10748878

  4. Genetic characterisation of invasive breast cancer: a comparison of CGH and PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buerger, H; Schmidt, H; Beckmann, A; Zanker, K; Boecker, W; Brandt, B

    2001-01-01

    Aims—Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) is a reliable tool to gain an overview of all unbalanced chromosomal alterations within a tumour. Nevertheless, the high numbers of tumour cells required and the comparatively low resolution are drawbacks of this technique. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based multiplex microsatellite analysis represents a semi-automated, highly reproducible method, which requires small amounts of tumour cells. This is a comparative study of CGH and microsatellite analysis. Methods—Eighty one samples of invasive breast cancer were investigated by two sensitive multiplex PCRs containing three microsatellites each of six markers (D6S261, D11S907, D6S300, D11S927, D8S272, and D11S925), and two additional microsatellite markers located within intron 1 of the epidermal growth factor recepter gene (egfr) and p53 (p53CA). Results—At least one example of loss of heterozygosity was detectable in all breast cancer tissues. However, the overall rate of accordance between the two methods tested was only 61%. An increasing rate of the number of genetic alterations in each case was mirrored by a constantly increasing fractional allelic loss index. Conclusions—PCR based multiplex microsatellite analysis using this panel of eight microsatellite markers not only enables the characterisation of cells that have malignant potential in a high frequency of patients with breast cancer, but can also give an estimate of the degree of genetic progression. Key Words: breast cancer • comparative genomic hybridisation • microsatellites • epidermal growth factor • p53 PMID:11684716

  5. PCR-based screening for cystic fibrosis carrier mutations in an ethnically diverse pregnant population.

    PubMed Central

    Grody, W W; Dunkel-Schetter, C; Tatsugawa, Z H; Fox, M A; Fang, C Y; Cantor, R M; Novak, J M; Bass, H N; Crandall, B F

    1997-01-01

    As the most common lethal autosomal recessive disorder in North America, cystic fibrosis (CF) is an obvious candidate for general population carrier screening. Although the identification of the causative gene has made detection of asymptomatic carriers possible, the extreme heterogeneity of its mutations has limited the sensitivity of the available DNA screening tests and has called into question their utility when they are applied to patients with no family history of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the technical feasibility, patient acceptance and understanding, and psychosocial impact of large-scale CF carrier screening in an ethnically diverse pregnant population. A total of 4,739 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics located in both an academic medical center and a large HMO were invited in person to participate. Of this group, 3,543 received CF instruction and assessments of knowledge and mood, and 3,192 underwent DNA testing for the six most common CF mutations, by means of a noninvasive PCR-based reverse-dot-blot method. Overall participation rates (ranging from 53% at the HMO to 77% at the academic center) and consent rates for DNA testing after CF instruction (>98%) exceeded those of most other American studies. The PCR-based screening method worked efficiently on large numbers of samples, and 55 carriers and one at-risk couple were identified. Understanding of residual risk, anxiety levels, and overall satisfaction with the program were acceptable across all ethnic groups. Our strategy of approaching a motivated pregnant population in person with a rapid and noninvasive testing method may provide a practical model for developing a larger CF screening program targeting appropriate high-risk groups at the national level, and may also serve as a paradigm for population-based screening of other genetically heterogeneous disorders in the future. Images Figure 1 PMID:9106541

  6. Homology of cryptic plasmid of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with plasmids from Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica.

    PubMed

    Ison, C A; Bellinger, C M; Walker, J

    1986-10-01

    DNA probe hybridisation was used to examine the relation between the cryptic plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and plasmids carried by pharyngeal isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica. The complete gonococcal cryptic plasmid and HinfI derived digestion fragments subcloned into Escherichia coli were used to probe Southern blots of plasmid extracts. Homology was found to a plasmid of approximate molecular weight 4.5 kilobase pairs (Kb) but not to plasmids of less than 3.2 Kb or 6.5 Kb. Eleven of 16 strains of N meningitidis and two of six strains of N lactamica carried plasmids that showed strong hybridisation with the 4.2 Kb gonococcal plasmid. Hybridisation of plasmids from non-gonococcal species of neisseria with the gonococcal cryptic plasmid indicates that caution should be taken when using the cryptic plasmid as a diagnostic probe for gonorrhoea.

  7. Co-resident plasmids travel together.

    PubMed

    Gama, João Alves; Zilhão, Rita; Dionisio, Francisco

    2017-08-24

    Conjugative plasmids encode genes that enable them to transfer, by conjugation, from a given host cell to another cell. Conjugative transfer, despite being an important feature of conjugative plasmids, is not constitutive for most plasmids, the reason being that genes involved in horizontal transfer are mostly repressed. Only upon their transient de-repression are plasmids able to transfer horizontally. If host cells harbour multiple plasmids, their simultaneous transfer depends on simultaneous transient de-repression of all plasmids. If de-repression of different plasmids was random and independent events, simultaneous de-repression should be a rare event because the probability of simultaneous de-repression would be the product of the probabilities of de-repression of each plasmid. Some previous observations support this hypothesis, while others show that co-transfer of plasmids is more frequent than this reasoning indicates. Here, we show that co-transfer of multiple plasmids mainly results from non-independent events: the probability that all plasmids within a cell become de-repressed is much higher than if de-repression of plasmids genes were independent. We found a simple model for the probability of co-transfer: the plasmid having the lowest conjugation rates is the one who limits co-transfer. In this sense, cells receiving the plasmid with the lower transfer rate also receive the other plasmid. If de-repression happens simultaneously on co-resident plasmids, common cues may stimulate de-repression of distinct plasmids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete sequence of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4 environmental isolate and comparison with related plasmids from the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Amadio, Ariel F; Benintende, Graciela B; Zandomeni, Rubén O

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen used worldwide as a bioinsecticide. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group as well as Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus. Plasmids from this group of organisms have been implicated in pathogenicity as they carry the genes responsible for different types of diseases that affect mammals and insects. Some plasmids, like pAW63 and pBT9727, encode a functional conjugation machinery allowing them to be transferred to a recipient cell. They also share extensive homology with the non-functional conjugation apparatus of pXO2 from B. anthracis. In this study we report the complete sequence of three plasmids from an environmental B. thuringiensis isolate from Argentina, obtained by a shotgun sequencing method. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of plasmids pFR12 (12,095bp), pFR12.5 (12,459bp) and pFR55 (55,712bp) from B. thuringiensis INTA-FR7-4. pFR12 and pFR12.5 were classified as cryptic as they do not code for any obvious functions besides replication and mobilization. Both small plasmids were classified as RCR plasmids due to similarities with the replicases they encode. Plasmid pFR55 showed a structural organization similar to that observed for plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. pFR55 also shares a tra region with these plasmids, containing genes related to T4SS and conjugation. A comparison between pFR55 and conjugative plasmids led to the postulation that pFR55 is a conjugative plasmid. Genes related to replication functions in pFR55 are different to those described for plasmids with known complete sequences. pFR55 is the first completely sequenced plasmid with a replication machinery related to that of ori44. The analysis of the complete sequence of plasmids from an environmental isolate of B. thuringiensis permitted the identification of a near complete conjugation apparatus in pFR55, resembling those of plasmids pAW63, pBT9727 and pXO2. The availability of this sequence is a step forward in the study

  9. The Salmonella virulence plasmid enhances Salmonella-induced lysis of macrophages and influences inflammatory responses.

    PubMed Central

    Guilloteau, L A; Wallis, T S; Gautier, A V; MacIntyre, S; Platt, D J; Lax, A J

    1996-01-01

    The Salmonella dublin virulence plasmid mediates systemic infection in mice and cattle. Here, we analyze the interaction between wild-type and plasmid-cured Salmonella strains with phagocytes in vitro and in vivo. The intracellular recovery of S. dublin from murine peritoneal and bovine alveolar macrophages cultured in the presence of gentamicin in vitro was not related to virulence plasmid carriage. However, the virulence plasmid increased the lytic activity of S. dublin, Salmonella typhimurium, and Salmonella choleraesuis for resident or activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Lysis was not mediated by spv genes and was abolished by cytochalasin D treatment. Peritoneal and splenic macrophages were isolated from mice 4 days after intraperitoneal infection with wild-type or plasmid-cured S. dublin strains. The wild-type strain was recovered in significantly higher numbers than the plasmid-cured strain. However, the intracellular killing rates of such cells cultured in vitro for both S. dublin strains were not significantly different. Four days after infection, there was a lower increase of phagocyte numbers in the peritoneal cavities and spleens of mice infected with the wild-type strain compared with the plasmid-cured strain. The virulence plasmid influenced the survival of macrophages in vitro following infection in vivo as assessed by microscopy. Cells from mice infected with the plasmid-cured strain survived better than those from mice infected with the wild-type strain. This is the first report demonstrating an effect of the virulence plasmid on the interaction of Salmonella strains with macrophages. Plasmid-mediated macrophage dysfunction could influence the recruitment and/or the activation of phagocytic cells and consequently the net growth of Salmonella strains during infection. PMID:8757880

  10. Comparative genomics of the IncA/C multidrug resistance plasmid family.

    PubMed

    Fricke, W Florian; Welch, Timothy J; McDermott, Patrick F; Mammel, Mark K; LeClerc, J Eugene; White, David G; Cebula, Thomas A; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids belonging to the IncA/C plasmid family are widely distributed among Salmonella and other enterobacterial isolates from agricultural sources and have, at least once, also been identified in a drug-resistant Yersinia pestis isolate (IP275) from Madagascar. Here, we present the complete plasmid sequences of the IncA/C reference plasmid pRA1 (143,963 bp), isolated in 1971 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, and of the cryptic IncA/C plasmid pRAx (49,763 bp), isolated from Escherichia coli transconjugant D7-3, which was obtained through pRA1 transfer in 1980. Using comparative sequence analysis of pRA1 and pRAx with recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family, we show that both plasmids provide novel insights into the evolution of the IncA/C MDR plasmid family and the minimal machinery necessary for stable IncA/C plasmid maintenance. Our results indicate that recent members of the IncA/C plasmid family evolved from a common ancestor, similar in composition to pRA1, through stepwise integration of horizontally acquired resistance gene arrays into a conserved plasmid backbone. Phylogenetic comparisons predict type IV secretion-like conjugative transfer operons encoded on the shared plasmid backbones to be closely related to a group of integrating conjugative elements, which use conjugative transfer for horizontal propagation but stably integrate into the host chromosome during vegetative growth. A hipAB toxin-antitoxin gene cluster found on pRA1, which in Escherichia coli is involved in the formation of persister cell subpopulations, suggests persistence as an early broad-spectrum antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the evolution of IncA/C resistance plasmids.

  11. A BAC pooling strategy combined with PCR-based screenings in a large, highly repetitive genome enables integration of the maize genetic and physical maps

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Young-Sun; Moak, Patricia; Sanchez-Villeda, Hector; Musket, Theresa A; Close, Pamela; Klein, Patricia E; Mullet, John E; McMullen, Michael D; Fang, Zheiwei; Schaeffer, Mary L; Gardiner, Jack M; Coe, Edward H; Davis, Georgia L

    2007-01-01

    Background Molecular markers serve three important functions in physical map assembly. First, they provide anchor points to genetic maps facilitating functional genomic studies. Second, they reduce the overlap required for BAC contig assembly from 80 to 50 percent. Finally, they validate assemblies based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy in combination with a high-throughput PCR-based screening method to anchor the maize genetic and physical maps. Results A total of 110,592 maize BAC clones (~ 6x haploid genome equivalents) were pooled into six different matrices, each containing 48 pools of BAC DNA. The quality of the BAC DNA pools and their utility for identifying BACs containing target genomic sequences was tested using 254 PCR-based STS markers. Five types of PCR-based STS markers were screened to assess potential uses for the BAC pools. An average of 4.68 BAC clones were identified per marker analyzed. These results were integrated with BAC fingerprint data generated by the Arizona Genomics Institute (AGI) and the Arizona Genomics Computational Laboratory (AGCoL) to assemble the BAC contigs using the FingerPrinted Contigs (FPC) software and contribute to the construction and anchoring of the physical map. A total of 234 markers (92.5%) anchored BAC contigs to their genetic map positions. The results can be viewed on the integrated map of maize [1,2]. Conclusion This BAC pooling strategy is a rapid, cost effective method for genome assembly and anchoring. The requirement for six replicate positive amplifications makes this a robust method for use in large genomes with high amounts of repetitive DNA such as maize. This strategy can be used to physically map duplicate loci, provide order information for loci in a small genetic interval or with no genetic recombination, and loci with conflicting hybridization-based information. PMID:17291341

  12. Microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA coated on cationic PLGA nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Wonganan, Piyanuch; Sandoval, Michael A.; Li, Xinran; Zhu, Saijie; Cui, Zhengrong

    2012-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA can potentially induce a stronger immune response than intramuscular injection of the same plasmid DNA. In the present study, we showed that the immune responses induced by transcutaneous immunization by applying plasmid DNA onto a skin area pretreated with solid microneedles were significantly enhanced by coating the plasmid DNA on the surface of cationic nanoparticles. In addition, the net surface charge of the DNA-coated nanoparticles significantly affected their in vitro skin permeation and their ability to induce immune responses in vivo. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged anoparticles elicited a stronger immune response than with plasmid DNA-coated net negatively charged nanoparticles or by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA alone. Transcutaneous immunization with plasmid DNA-coated net positively charged nanoparticles induced comparable immune responses as intramuscular injection of them, but transcutaneous immunization was able to induce specific mucosal immunity and a more balanced T helper type 1 and type 2 response. The ability of the net positively charged DNA-coated nanoparticles to induce a strong immune response through microneedle-mediated transcutaneous immunization may be attributed to their ability to increase the expression of the antigen gene encoded by the plasmid and to more effectively stimulate the maturation of antigen-presenting cells. PMID:22921518

  13. Persistence of Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids in Biofilms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    useful in the care of patients with combat-related wound infections. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Antibiotic resistance, plasmid, biofilm, coevolution , bacteria...Antibiotic!resistance,!plasmid,!biofilm,! coevolution ,!bacteria,!wound!infections! ! ! ! 3! 3. OVERALL PROJECT SUMMARY: The! successful! persistence

  14. Plasmid stability analysis based on a new theoretical model employing stochastic simulations

    PubMed Central

    Werbowy, Olesia; Werbowy, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a simple theoretical model to study plasmid stability, based on one input parameter which is the copy number of plasmids present in a host cell. The Monte Carlo approach was used to analyze random fluctuations affecting plasmid replication and segregation leading to gradual reduction in the plasmid population within the host cell. This model was employed to investigate maintenance of pEC156 derivatives, a high-copy number ColE1-type Escherichia coli plasmid that carries an EcoVIII restriction-modification system. Plasmid stability was examined in selected Escherichia coli strains (MG1655, wild-type; MG1655 pcnB, and hyper-recombinogenic JC8679 sbcA). We have compared the experimental data concerning plasmid maintenance with the simulations and found that the theoretical stability patterns exhibited an excellent agreement with those empirically tested. In our simulations, we have investigated the influence of replication fails (α parameter) and uneven partition as a consequence of multimer resolution fails (δ parameter), and the post-segregation killing factor (β parameter). All of these factors act at the same time and affect plasmid inheritance at different levels. In case of pEC156-derivatives we concluded that multimerization is a major determinant of plasmid stability. Our data indicate that even small changes in the fidelity of segregation can have serious effects on plasmid stability. Use of the proposed mathematical model can provide a valuable description of plasmid maintenance, as well as enable prediction of the probability of the plasmid loss. PMID:28846713

  15. Production of Plasmid DNA as Pharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Schmeer, Marco; Schleef, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical applications of plasmid DNA require certain quality standards, depending on the intended use of the plasmids. That is, for direct gene transfer into human, GMP Grade is mandatory, however, for GMP production of for example viral vectors (AAV or mRNA etc.), the plasmid DNA used has not to be produced under GMP necessarily. Here we summarize important features of producing plasmid DNA, ensuring the required quality for the intended (pharmaceutical) application.

  16. Telomere-Mediated Plasmid Segregation in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Involves Gene Products Required for Transcriptional Repression at Silencers and Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Longtine, M. S.; Enomoto, S.; Finstad, S. L.; Berman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae TG(1-3) telomere repeat sequences (TRS plasmids) segregate efficiently during mitosis. Mutations in histone H4 reduce the efficiency of TRS-mediated plasmid segregation, suggesting that chromatin structure is involved in this process. Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4 are required for the transcriptional repression of genes located at the silent mating type loci (HML and HMR) and at telomeres (telomere position effect) and are also involved in the segregation of TRS plasmids, indicating that TRS-mediated plasmid segregation involves factors that act at chromosomal telomeres. TRS plasmid segregation differs from the segregation of plasmids carrying the HMR E silencing region: HMR E plasmid segregation function is completely dependent upon Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4, involves Sir1 and is not influenced by mutations in RAP1 that eliminate TRS plasmid segregation. Mutations in SIR1, SIN1, TOP1, TEL1 and TEL2 do not influence TRS plasmid segregation. Unlike transcriptional repression at telomeres, TRS plasmids retain partial segregation function in sir2, sir3, sir4, nat1 and ard1 mutant strains. Thus it is likely that TRS plasmid segregation involves additional factors that are not involved in telomere position effect. PMID:8436267

  17. Characterization of a Large Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Found in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain B171 and Its Relatedness to Plasmids of Diverse E. coli and Shigella Strains.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Tracy H; Michalski, Jane; Nagaraj, Sushma; Okeke, Iruka N; Rasko, David A

    2017-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of severe infantile diarrhea in developing countries. Previous research has focused on the diversity of the EPEC virulence plasmid, whereas less is known regarding the genetic content and distribution of antibiotic resistance plasmids carried by EPEC. A previous study demonstrated that in addition to the virulence plasmid, reference EPEC strain B171 harbors a second, larger plasmid that confers antibiotic resistance. To further understand the genetic diversity and dissemination of antibiotic resistance plasmids among EPEC strains, we describe the complete sequence of an antibiotic resistance plasmid from EPEC strain B171. The resistance plasmid, pB171_90, has a completed sequence length of 90,229 bp, a GC content of 54.55%, and carries protein-encoding genes involved in conjugative transfer, resistance to tetracycline (tetA), sulfonamides (sulI), and mercury, as well as several virulence-associated genes, including the transcriptional regulator hha and the putative calcium sequestration inhibitor (csi). In silico detection of the pB171_90 genes among 4,798 publicly available E. coli genome assemblies indicates that the unique genes of pB171_90 (csi and traI) are primarily restricted to genomes identified as EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli However, conserved regions of the pB171_90 plasmid containing genes involved in replication, stability, and antibiotic resistance were identified among diverse E. coli pathotypes. Interestingly, pB171_90 also exhibited significant similarity with a sequenced plasmid from Shigella dysenteriae type I. Our findings demonstrate the mosaic nature of EPEC antibiotic resistance plasmids and highlight the need for additional sequence-based characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids harbored by pathogenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Building mosaics of therapeutic plasmid gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Tolmachov, Oleg E

    2011-12-01

    Plasmids are circular or linear DNA molecules propagated extra-chromosomally in bacteria. Evolution shaped plasmids are inherently mosaic structures with individual functional units represented by distinct segments in the plasmid genome. The patchwork of plasmid genetic modules is a convenient template and a model for the generation of artificial plasmids used as vehicles for gene delivery into human cells. Plasmid gene vectors are an important tool in gene therapy and in basic biomedical research, where these vectors offer efficient transgene expression in many settings in vitro and in vivo. Plasmid vectors can be attached to nuclear directing ligands or transferred by electroporation as naked DNA to deliver the payload genes to the nuclei of the target cells. Transgene expression silencing by plasmid sequences of bacterial origin and immune stimulation by bacterial unmethylated CpG motifs can be avoided by the generation of plasmid-based minimized DNA vectors, such as minicircles. Systems of efficient site-specific integration into human chromosomes and stable episomal maintenance in human cells are being developed for further reduction of the chances for transgene silencing. The successful generation of plasmid vectors is governed by a number of vector design rules, some of which are common to all gene vectors, while others are specific to plasmid vectors. This review is focused both on the guiding principles and on the technical know-how of plasmid gene vector design.

  19. Prevalence and significance of plasmid maintenance functions in the virulence plasmids of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Manjistha; Austin, Stuart

    2011-07-01

    Virulence functions of pathogenic bacteria are often encoded on large extrachromosomal plasmids. These plasmids are maintained at low copy number to reduce the metabolic burden on their host. Low-copy-number plasmids risk loss during cell division. This is countered by plasmid-encoded systems that ensure that each cell receives at least one plasmid copy. Plasmid replication and recombination can produce plasmid multimers that hinder plasmid segregation. These are removed by multimer resolution systems. Equitable distribution of the resulting monomers to daughter cells is ensured by plasmid partition systems that actively segregate plasmid copies to daughter cells in a process akin to mitosis in higher organisms. Any plasmid-free cells that still arise due to occasional failures of replication, multimer resolution, or partition are eliminated by plasmid-encoded postsegregational killing systems. Here we argue that all of these three systems are essential for the stable maintenance of large low-copy-number plasmids. Thus, they should be found on all large virulence plasmids. Where available, well-annotated sequences of virulence plasmids confirm this. Indeed, virulence plasmids often appear to contain more than one example conforming to each of the three system classes. Since these systems are essential for virulence, they can be regarded as ubiquitous virulence factors. As such, they should be informative in the search for new antibacterial agents and drug targets.

  20. PCR-Based Method To Differentiate the Subspecies of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex on the Basis of Genomic Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Huard, Richard C.; de Oliveira Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio; Butler, W. Ray; van Soolingen, Dick; Ho, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The classical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MtbC) subspecies include Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium africanum (subtypes I and II), Mycobacterium bovis (along with the attenuated M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin [BCG]), and Mycobacterium microti; increasingly recognized MtbC groupings include Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae and “Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. canettii.” Previous investigations have documented each MtbC subspecies as a source of animal and/or human tuberculosis. However, study of these organisms is hindered by the lack of a single protocol that quickly and easily differentiates all of the MtbC groupings. Towards this end we have developed a rapid, simple, and reliable PCR-based MtbC typing method that makes use of MtbC chromosomal region-of-difference deletion loci. Here, seven primer pairs (which amplify within the loci 16S rRNA, Rv0577, IS1561′, Rv1510, Rv1970, Rv3877/8, and Rv3120) were run in separate but simultaneous reactions. Each primer pair either specifically amplified a DNA fragment of a unique size or failed, depending upon the source mycobacterial DNA. The pattern of amplification products from all of the reactions, visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis, allowed immediate identification either as MtbC composed of M. tuberculosis (or M. africanum subtype II), M. africanum subtype I, M. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. caprae, M. microti, or “M. canettii” or as a Mycobacterium other than MtbC (MOTT). This MtbC PCR typing panel provides an advanced approach to determine the subspecies of MtbC isolates and to differentiate them from clinically important MOTT species. It has proven beneficial in the management of Mycobacterium collections and may be applied for practical clinical and epidemiological use. PMID:12682155

  1. Origin and Evolution of Rickettsial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Background Rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. Despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated Rickettsia species have plasmids. In order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and non-microbial genomes. Results Plasmids were differentially present among Rickettsia species. The 11 species had 1 to 4 plasmid (s) with a size ranging from 12 kb to 83 kb. We reconstructed pRICO, the last common ancestor of the current rickettsial plasmids. pRICO was vertically inherited mainly from Rickettsia/Orientia chromosomes and diverged vertically into a single or multiple plasmid(s) in each species. These plasmids also underwent a reductive evolution by progressive gene loss, similar to that observed in rickettsial chromosomes, possibly leading to cryptic plasmids or complete plasmid loss. Moreover, rickettsial plasmids exhibited ORFans, recent gene duplications and evidence of horizontal gene transfer events with rickettsial and non-rickettsial genomes mainly from the α/γ-proteobacteria lineages. Genes related to maintenance and plasticity of plasmids, and to adaptation and resistance to stress mostly evolved under vertical and/or horizontal processes. Those involved in nucleotide/carbohydrate transport and metabolism were under the influence of vertical evolution only, whereas genes involved in cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, cycle control, amino acid/lipid/coenzyme and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and metabolism underwent mainly horizontal transfer events. Conclusion Rickettsial plasmids had a complex evolution, starting with a vertical inheritance followed by a reductive evolution associated with increased complexity via

  2. Origin and Evolution of Rickettsial Plasmids.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia species are strictly intracellular bacteria that have undergone a reductive genomic evolution. Despite their allopatric lifestyle, almost half of the 26 currently validated Rickettsia species have plasmids. In order to study the origin, evolutionary history and putative roles of rickettsial plasmids, we investigated the evolutionary processes that have shaped 20 plasmids belonging to 11 species, using comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis between rickettsial, microbial and non-microbial genomes. Plasmids were differentially present among Rickettsia species. The 11 species had 1 to 4 plasmid (s) with a size ranging from 12 kb to 83 kb. We reconstructed pRICO, the last common ancestor of the current rickettsial plasmids. pRICO was vertically inherited mainly from Rickettsia/Orientia chromosomes and diverged vertically into a single or multiple plasmid(s) in each species. These plasmids also underwent a reductive evolution by progressive gene loss, similar to that observed in rickettsial chromosomes, possibly leading to cryptic plasmids or complete plasmid loss. Moreover, rickettsial plasmids exhibited ORFans, recent gene duplications and evidence of horizontal gene transfer events with rickettsial and non-rickettsial genomes mainly from the α/γ-proteobacteria lineages. Genes related to maintenance and plasticity of plasmids, and to adaptation and resistance to stress mostly evolved under vertical and/or horizontal processes. Those involved in nucleotide/carbohydrate transport and metabolism were under the influence of vertical evolution only, whereas genes involved in cell wall/membrane/envelope biogenesis, cycle control, amino acid/lipid/coenzyme and secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and metabolism underwent mainly horizontal transfer events. Rickettsial plasmids had a complex evolution, starting with a vertical inheritance followed by a reductive evolution associated with increased complexity via horizontal gene transfer as well as

  3. Plasmid diversity in Vibrio vulnificus biotypes.

    PubMed

    Roig, Francisco J; Amaro, Carmen

    2009-02-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is a heterogeneous bacterial species that can be virulent for humans and fish. Virulence in fish seems to rely on a recently described plasmid that can be transmitted between strains, aided by a conjugative plasmid. The main objective of this work was to analyse the plasmid content of a wide collection of strains from the three biotypes of the species, as well as to identify putative conjugative and virulence plasmids by means of Southern hybridization with specific probes and sequence analysis of selected gene markers. We found 28 different plasmid profiles in a total of 112 strains, which were relatively biotype- or serovar-specific. Biotype 1 lacked high-molecular-mass plasmids, with the exception of a putative conjugative plasmid of 48 kb that was present in 42.8% of clinical and environmental strains isolated worldwide. All biotype 2 strains possessed the virulence plasmid, whose molecular mass ranged between 68 and 70 kb, and 89.65% of these strains also had a putative conjugative plasmid with a molecular size of 52-56 kb. Finally, a 48 kb putative conjugative plasmid was present in all biotype 3 strains. Data from partial sequencing of traD, traI and the whole vep07 (a recently described plasmid-borne virulence gene) from a selection of strains suggest that the plasmids of 48-56 kb probably belong to the same family of F-plasmids as pYJ016 and that the gene vep07 is absolutely essential for fish virulence. Additional cryptic plasmids of low molecular mass were present in the three biotypes. In conclusion, plasmids are widespread among V. vulnificus species and could contribute substantially to genetic plasticity of the species.

  4. Evaluation of PCR-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis applied to monogenic diseases: a collaborative ESHRE PGD consortium study.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Jos; Destouni, Aspasia; Kourlaba, Georgia; Degn, Birte; Mette, Wulf Christensen; Carvalho, Filipa; Moutou, Celine; Sengupta, Sioban; Dhanjal, Seema; Renwick, Pamela; Davies, Steven; Kanavakis, Emmanouel; Harton, Gary; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorders currently involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, which must be robust, sensitive and highly accurate, precluding misdiagnosis. Twelve adverse misdiagnoses reported to the ESHRE PGD-Consortium are likely an underestimate. This retrospective study, involving six PGD centres, assessed the validity of PCR-based PGD through reanalysis of untransferred embryos from monogenic-PGD cycles. Data were collected on the genotype concordance at PGD and follow-up from 940 untransferred embryos, including details on the parameters of PGD cycles: category of monogenic disease, embryo morphology, embryo biopsy and genotype assay strategy. To determine the validity of PCR-based PGD, the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Stratified analyses were also conducted to assess the influence of the parameters above on the validity of PCR-based PGD. The analysis of overall data showed that 93.7% of embryos had been correctly classified at the time of PGD, with Se of 99.2% and Sp of 80.9%. The stratified analyses found that diagnostic accuracy is statistically significantly higher when PGD is performed on two cells versus one cell (P=0.001). Se was significantly higher when multiplex protocols versus singleplex protocols were applied (P=0.005), as well as for PGD applied on cells from good compared with poor morphology embryos (P=0.032). Morphology, however, did not affect diagnostic accuracy. Multiplex PCR-based methods on one cell, are as robust as those on two cells regarding false negative rate, which is the most important criteria for clinical PGD applications. Overall, this study demonstrates the validity, robustness and high diagnostic value of PCR-based PGD.

  5. Evaluation of PCR-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis applied to monogenic diseases: a collaborative ESHRE PGD consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Dreesen, Jos; Destouni, Aspasia; Kourlaba, Georgia; Degn, Birte; Mette, Wulf Christensen; Carvalho, Filipa; Moutou, Celine; Sengupta, Sioban; Dhanjal, Seema; Renwick, Pamela; Davies, Steven; Kanavakis, Emmanouel; Harton, Gary; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogenic disorders currently involves polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods, which must be robust, sensitive and highly accurate, precluding misdiagnosis. Twelve adverse misdiagnoses reported to the ESHRE PGD-Consortium are likely an underestimate. This retrospective study, involving six PGD centres, assessed the validity of PCR-based PGD through reanalysis of untransferred embryos from monogenic-PGD cycles. Data were collected on the genotype concordance at PGD and follow-up from 940 untransferred embryos, including details on the parameters of PGD cycles: category of monogenic disease, embryo morphology, embryo biopsy and genotype assay strategy. To determine the validity of PCR-based PGD, the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Stratified analyses were also conducted to assess the influence of the parameters above on the validity of PCR-based PGD. The analysis of overall data showed that 93.7% of embryos had been correctly classified at the time of PGD, with Se of 99.2% and Sp of 80.9%. The stratified analyses found that diagnostic accuracy is statistically significantly higher when PGD is performed on two cells versus one cell (P=0.001). Se was significantly higher when multiplex protocols versus singleplex protocols were applied (P=0.005), as well as for PGD applied on cells from good compared with poor morphology embryos (P=0.032). Morphology, however, did not affect diagnostic accuracy. Multiplex PCR-based methods on one cell, are as robust as those on two cells regarding false negative rate, which is the most important criteria for clinical PGD applications. Overall, this study demonstrates the validity, robustness and high diagnostic value of PCR-based PGD. PMID:24301057

  6. Bacterial plasmid partition machinery: a minimalist approach to survival.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A

    2012-02-01

    The accurate segregation or partition of replicated DNA is essential for ensuring stable genome transmission. Partition of bacterial plasmids requires only three elements: a centromere-like DNA site and two proteins, a partition NTPase, and a centromere-binding protein (CBP). Because of this simplicity, partition systems have served as tractable model systems to study the fundamental molecular mechanisms required for DNA segregation at an atomic level. In the last few years, great progress has been made in this endeavor. Surprisingly, these studies have revealed that although the basic partition components are functionally conserved between three types of plasmid partition systems, these systems employ distinct mechanisms of DNA segregation. This review summarizes the molecular insights into plasmid segregation that have been achieved through these recent structural studies.

  7. Fingerprinting of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling.

    PubMed

    Chakroun, C; Grimont, F; Urdaci, M C; Bernardet, J F

    1998-07-30

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the agent of cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome in salmonid fish worldwide. Ribosomal RNA gene restriction patterns (ribotypes) and plasmid profiles were determined on a collection of 85 strains isolated from different countries and fish species. Several ribotypes were obtained by using the restriction endonucleases Hinc II and Pvu II. Computer analysis of the ribotypes revealed that some of them were clearly associated with the fish species from which the strains were isolated, whereas no correlation with the geographical origin was found. Most of the strains harboured at least one plasmid and several different plasmid profiles were observed, even among strains sharing the same ribotype. These methods, used alone or in combination with other typing techniques, can be considered powerful tools for the epidemiological tracing of F. psychrophilum infections.

  8. Enhancing yields of low and single copy number plasmid DNAs from Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Wood, Whitney N; Smith, Kyle D; Ream, Jennifer A; Kevin Lewis, L

    2017-02-01

    Many plasmids used for gene cloning and heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli cells are low copy number or single copy number plasmids. The extraction of these types of plasmids from small bacterial cell cultures produces low DNA yields. In this study, we have quantitated yields of low copy and single copy number plasmid DNAs after growth of cells in four widely used broths (SB, SOC, TB, and 2xYT) and compared results to those obtained with LB, the most common E. coli cell growth medium. TB (terrific broth) consistently generated the greatest amount of plasmid DNA, in agreement with its ability to produce higher cell titers. The superiority of TB was primarily due to its high levels of yeast extract (24g/L) and was independent of glycerol, a unique component of this broth. Interestingly, simply preparing LB with similarly high levels of yeast extract (LB24 broth) resulted in plasmid yields that were equivalent to those of TB. By contrast, increasing ampicillin concentration to enhance plasmid retention did not improve plasmid DNA recovery. These experiments demonstrate that yields of low and single copy number plasmid DNAs from minipreps can be strongly enhanced using simple and inexpensive media.

  9. Genomics of microbial plasmids: classification and identification based on replication and transfer systems and host taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Shintani, Masaki; Sanchez, Zoe K.; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are important “vehicles” for the communication of genetic information between bacteria. The exchange of plasmids transmits pathogenically and environmentally relevant traits to the host bacteria, promoting their rapid evolution and adaptation to various environments. Over the past six decades, a large number of plasmids have been identified and isolated from different microbes. With the revolution of sequencing technology, more than 4600 complete sequences of plasmids found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes have been determined. The classification of a wide variety of plasmids is not only important to understand their features, host ranges, and microbial evolution but is also necessary to effectively use them as genetic tools for microbial engineering. This review summarizes the current situation of the classification of fully sequenced plasmids based on their host taxonomy and their features of replication and conjugative transfer. The majority of the fully sequenced plasmids are found in bacteria in the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Euryarcheota phyla, and key features of each phylum are included. Recent advances in the identification of novel types of plasmids and plasmid transfer by culture-independent methods using samples from natural environments are also discussed. PMID:25873913

  10. Two novel families of plasmids from hyperthermophilic archaea encoding new families of replication proteins

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Nicolas; Marguet, Evelyne; Cortez, Diego; Desnoues, Nicole; Keller, Jenny; van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Sezonov, Guennadi; Forterre, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Thermococcales (phylum Euryarchaeota) are model organisms for physiological and molecular studies of hyperthermophiles. Here we describe three new plasmids from Thermococcales that could provide new tools and model systems for genetic and molecular studies in Archaea. The plasmids pTN2 from Thermococcus nautilus sp. 30-1 and pP12-1 from Pyrococcus sp. 12-1 belong to the same family. They have similar size (∼12 kb) and share six genes, including homologues of genes encoded by the virus PAV1 from Pyrococcus abyssi. The plasmid pT26-2 from Thermococcus sp. 26-2 (21.5 kb), that corresponds to another plasmid family, encodes many proteins having homologues in virus-like elements integrated in several genomes of Thermococcales and Methanococcales. Our analyses confirm that viruses and plasmids are evolutionary related and co-evolve with their hosts. Whereas all plasmids previously isolated from Thermococcales replicate by the rolling circle mechanism, the three plasmids described here probably replicate by the theta mechanism. The plasmids pTN2 and pP12-1 encode a putative helicase of the SFI superfamily and a new family of DNA polymerase, whose activity was demonstrated in vitro, whereas pT26-2 encodes a putative new type of helicase. This strengthens the idea that plasmids and viruses are a reservoir of novel protein families involved in DNA replication. PMID:20403814

  11. Detection of gastroenteritis viruses among pediatric patients in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan, between 2006 and 2013 using multiplex reverse transcription PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers.

    PubMed

    Shigemoto, Naoki; Hisatsune, Yuri; Toukubo, Yasushi; Tanizawa, Yukie; Shimazu, Yukie; Takao, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2017-05-01

    Multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were modified to detect 10 types of gastroenteritis viruses by adding two further assays to a previously developed assay. Then, these assays were applied to clinical samples, which were collected between January 2006 and December 2013. All 10 types of viruses were effectively detected in the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays. In addition, various viral parameters, such as the detection rates and age distributions of each viral type, were examined. The frequency and types of mixed infections were also investigated. Among the 186 virus-positive samples, genogroup II noroviruses were found to be the most common type of virus (32.7%), followed by group A rotaviruses (10.6%) and parechoviruses (10.3%). Mixed infections were observed in 37 samples, and many of them were detected in patients who were less than 2 years old. These observations showed that the multiplex RT-PCR-based assays involving fluorescent dye-labeled primers were able to effectively detect the viruses circulating among pediatric acute gastroenteritis patients and contributed to the highly specific and sensitive diagnosis of gastroenteritis. J. Med. Virol. 89:791-800, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. PCR based diagnosis of trypanosomiasis exploring invariant surface glycoprotein (ISG) 75 gene.

    PubMed

    Rudramurthy, G R; Sengupta, P P; Balamurugan, V; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H

    2013-03-31

    The invariant surface glycoprotein (ISG-75) gene of Trypanosoma evansi buffalo isolate from Karnataka state in India was sequenced and analyzed to elucidate its relationship with other isolates/species. The sequenced ISG-75 gene was also explored to device a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in carrier animals. The six cloned ISG gene sequences revealed the open reading frame (ORF) of 1572 and 1527 nucleotide (nt) encoding a polypeptide of 523 and 508 amino acids (aa) respectively and belongs ISG-75 gene family. Sequence analysis revealed 91-100% and 65-99% similarity at nt and aa levels, respectively with other isolates/species and belongs to the RoTat 1.2 strain. The diagnostic PCR based on ISG-75 sequence amplifies a 407 bp product specifically from the different T. evansi isolates and could detect 0.04 pg and 1.2 ng of DNA from purified trypanosomes and T. evansi infected rat blood samples respectively. Subsequently the PCR detected 0.02 and 0.27 trypanosomes ml(-1) respectively, from purified trypanosomes and T. evansi (buffalo isolate) infected rat blood. By the developed PCR assay trypanosomal nucleic acid was detected in experimental rats and buffalo on 24 h post infection (p.i.) and 3rd day post infection (d.p.i.), respectively. The developed ISG-75 gene based PCR assay could be useful in detection of carrier status of trypanosomiasis in animals.

  13. Rapid and Robust PCR-Based All-Recombinant Cloning Methodology.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Abhishek Anil; Singh, Manika Indrajit; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based cloning methodology that requires no post-PCR modifications such as restriction digestion and phosphorylation of the amplified DNA. The advantage of the present method is that it yields only recombinant clones thus eliminating the need for screening. Two DNA amplification reactions by PCR are performed wherein the first reaction amplifies the gene of interest from a source template, and the second reaction fuses it with the designed expression vector fragments. These vector fragments carry the essential elements that are required for the fusion product selection. The entire process can be completed in less than 8 hours. Furthermore, ligation of the amplified DNA by a DNA ligase is not required before transformation, although the procedure yields more number of colonies upon transformation if ligation is carried out. As a proof-of-concept, we show the cloning and expression of GFP, adh, and rho genes. Using GFP production as an example, we further demonstrate that the E. coli T7 express strain can directly be used in our methodology for the protein expression immediately after PCR. The expressed protein is without or with 6xHistidine tag at either terminus, depending upon the chosen vector fragments. We believe that our method will find tremendous use in molecular and structural biology.

  14. Rapid and Robust PCR-Based All-Recombinant Cloning Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    We report here a PCR-based cloning methodology that requires no post-PCR modifications such as restriction digestion and phosphorylation of the amplified DNA. The advantage of the present method is that it yields only recombinant clones thus eliminating the need for screening. Two DNA amplification reactions by PCR are performed wherein the first reaction amplifies the gene of interest from a source template, and the second reaction fuses it with the designed expression vector fragments. These vector fragments carry the essential elements that are required for the fusion product selection. The entire process can be completed in less than 8 hours. Furthermore, ligation of the amplified DNA by a DNA ligase is not required before transformation, although the procedure yields more number of colonies upon transformation if ligation is carried out. As a proof-of-concept, we show the cloning and expression of GFP, adh, and rho genes. Using GFP production as an example, we further demonstrate that the E. coli T7 express strain can directly be used in our methodology for the protein expression immediately after PCR. The expressed protein is without or with 6xHistidine tag at either terminus, depending upon the chosen vector fragments. We believe that our method will find tremendous use in molecular and structural biology. PMID:27007922

  15. TipMT: Identification of PCR-based taxon-specific markers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela F; Cardoso, Mariana S; Valdivia, Hugo O; Ayala, Edward V; Gontijo, Célia M F; Rodrigues, Thiago de S; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Lopes, Robson S; Bartholomeu, Daniella C

    2017-02-11

    Molecular genetic markers are one of the most informative and widely used genome features in clinical and environmental diagnostic studies. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular marker is very attractive because it is suitable to high throughput automation and confers high specificity. However, the design of taxon-specific primers may be difficult and time consuming due to the need to identify appropriate genomic regions for annealing primers and to evaluate primer specificity. Here, we report the development of a Tool for Identification of Primers for Multiple Taxa (TipMT), which is a web application to search and design primers for genotyping based on genomic data. The tool identifies and targets single sequence repeats (SSR) or orthologous/taxa-specific genes for genotyping using Multiplex PCR. This pipeline was applied to the genomes of four species of Leishmania (L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. infantum and L. major) and validated by PCR using artificial genomic DNA mixtures of the Leishmania species as templates. This experimental validation demonstrates the reliability of TipMT because amplification profiles showed discrimination of genomic DNA samples from Leishmania species. The TipMT web tool allows for large-scale identification and design of taxon-specific primers and is freely available to the scientific community at http://200.131.37.155/tipMT/ .

  16. Organic Substances Interfere with Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR-Based Virus Detection in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-based virus detection from water samples is occasionally hampered by organic substances that are coconcentrated during virus concentration procedures. To characterize these organic substances, samples containing commercially available humic acid, which is known to inhibit RT-PCR, and river water samples were subjected to adsorption-elution-based virus concentration using an electronegative membrane. In this study, the samples before, during, and after the concentration were analyzed in terms of organic properties and virus detection efficiencies. Two out of the three humic acid solutions resulted in RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR) inhibition that caused >3-log10-unit underestimation of spiked poliovirus. Over 60% of the organics contained in the two solutions were recovered in the concentrate, while over 60% of the organics in the uninhibited solution were lost during the concentration process. River water concentrates also caused inhibition of RT-qPCR. Organic concentrations in the river water samples increased by 2.3 to 3.9 times after the virus concentration procedure. The inhibitory samples contained organic fractions in the 10- to 100-kDa size range, which are suspected to be RT-PCR inhibitors. According to excitation-emission matrices, humic acid-like and protein-like fractions were also recovered from river water concentrates, but these fractions did not seem to affect virus detection. Our findings reveal that detailed organic analyses are effective in characterizing inhibitory substances. PMID:25527552

  17. Adaptive PCR Based on Hybridization Sensing of Mirror-Image l-DNA.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nicholas M; Gabella, William E; Hardcastle, Austin N; Haselton, Frederick R

    2017-01-03

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is dependent on two key hybridization events during each cycle of amplification, primer annealing and product melting. To ensure that these hybridization events occur, current PCR approaches rely on temperature set points and reaction contents that are optimized and maintained using rigid thermal cycling programs and stringent sample preparation procedures. This report describes a fundamentally simpler and more robust PCR design that dynamically controls thermal cycling by more directly monitoring the two key hybridization events during the reaction. This is achieved by optically sensing the annealing and melting of mirror-image l-DNA analogs of the reaction's primers and targets. Because the properties of l-DNA enantiomers parallel those of natural d-DNAs, the l-DNA reagents indicate the cycling conditions required for effective primer annealing and product melting during each cycle without interfering with the reaction. This hybridization-sensing approach adapts in real time to variations in reaction contents and conditions that impact primer annealing and product melting and eliminates the requirement for thermal calibrations and cycling programs. Adaptive PCR is demonstrated to amplify DNA targets with high efficiency and specificity under both controlled conditions and conditions that are known to cause traditional PCR to fail. The advantages of this approach promise to make PCR-based nucleic acid analysis simpler, more robust, and more accessible outside of well-controlled laboratory settings.

  18. Multitarget real-time PCR-based system: monitoring for unauthorized genetically modified events in India.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Sood, Payal; Bhoge, Rajesh K

    2014-07-23

    A multitarget TaqMan real-time PCR (RTi-PCR) based system was developed to monitor unauthorized genetically modified (GM) events in India. Most of the GM events included in this study are either authorized for commercial cultivation or field trials, which were indigenously developed or imported for research purposes. The developed system consists of a 96-well prespotted plate with lyophilized primers and probes, for simultaneous detection of 47 targets in duplicate, including 21 event-specific sequences, 5 construct regions, 15 for transgenic elements, and 6 taxon-specific targets for cotton, eggplant, maize, potato, rice, and soybean. Limit of detection (LOD) of assays ranged from 0.1 to 0.01% GM content for different targets. Applicability, robustness, and practical utility of the developed system were verified with stacked GM cotton event, powdered samples of proficiency testing and two unknown test samples. This user-friendly multitarget approach can be efficiently utilized for monitoring the unauthorized GM events in an Indian context.

  19. False positives in multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing have unique signatures.

    PubMed

    McCall, Chad M; Mosier, Stacy; Thiess, Michele; Debeljak, Marija; Pallavajjala, Aparna; Beierl, Katie; Deak, Kristen L; Datto, Michael B; Gocke, Christopher D; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Eshleman, James R

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing shows great promise by allowing rapid mutational analysis of multiple genes in human cancers. Recently, we implemented the multiplex PCR-based Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel (>200 amplicons in 50 genes) to evaluate EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF in lung and colorectal adenocarcinomas. In 10% of samples, automated analysis identified a novel G873R substitution mutation in EGFR. By examining reads individually, we found this mutation in >5% of reads in 50 of 291 samples and also found similar events in 18 additional amplicons. These apparent mutations are present only in short reads and within 10 bases of either end of the read. We therefore hypothesized that these were from panel primers promiscuously binding to nearly complementary sequences of nontargeted amplicons. Sequences around the mutations matched primer binding sites in the panel in 18 of 19 cases, thus likely corresponding to panel primers. Furthermore, because most primers did not show this effect, we demonstrated that next-generation sequencing may be used to better design multiplex PCR primers through iterative elimination of offending primers to minimize mispriming. Our results indicate the need for careful sequence analysis to avoid false-positive mutations that can arise in multiplex PCR panels. The AmpliSeq Cancer panel is a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics, provided awareness of potential artifacts.

  20. Development of PCR-based codominant markers flanking the Alt3 gene in rye.

    PubMed

    Miftahudin; Scoles, G J; Gustafson, J P

    2004-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is considered to be a major problem for crop growth and production on acid soils. The ability of crops to overcome Al toxicity varies among crop species and cultivars. Rye (Secale cereale L.) is the most Al-tolerant species among the Triticeae. Our previous study showed that Al tolerance in a rye F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was controlled by a single gene designated as the aluminum tolerance (Alt3) gene on chromosome 4RL. Based on the DNA sequence of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) BAC clone suspected to be syntenic to the Alt3 gene region, we developed two PCR-based codominant markers flanking the gene. These two markers, a sequence-tagged site (STS) marker and a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker, each flanked the Alt3 gene at an approximate distance of 0.4 cM and can be used to facilitate high-resolution mapping of the gene. The markers might also be used for marker-assisted selection in rye or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs to obtain Al-tolerant lines and (or) cultivars.

  1. A polyplex qPCR-based binding assay for protein-DNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Morgane J J; Schaeffer, Patrick M

    2012-09-21

    The measurement of protein-DNA interactions is difficult and often involves radioisotope-labelled DNA to obtain the desired assay sensitivity. More recently, high-throughput proteomic approaches were developed but they generally lack sensitivity. For these methods, the level of technical difficulties involved is high due to the need for specialised facilities or equipment and training. The new qPCR-based DNA-binding assay involves immunoprecipitation of a GFP-tagged DNA-binding protein in complex with various DNA targets (Ter sites) followed by qPCR quantification, affording a very sensitive and quantitative method that can be performed in polyplex. Using a single binding reaction, the binding specificity of the DNA replication terminator protein Tus for ten termination sites TerA-J could be obtained for the first time in just a few hours. This new qPCR DNA-binding assay can easily be adapted to determine the binding specificity of virtually any soluble and functional epitope-tagged DNA-binding protein.

  2. PCR-based molecular discrimination between Maritrema eroliae and Probolocoryphe uca (Digenea: Microphallidae) in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, W Y; Al-Bustan, S A; Alnaqeeb, M; Isaac, A M

    2014-06-01

    Microphallid trematodes are common parasites in marine snails and crustacean hosts at Kuwait Bay. The larval stages of two microphallids, Maritrema eroliae and Probolocoryphe uca, are difficult to differentiate morphologically. In this study, two PCR-based techniques were established for quick and accurate discrimination between the larval stages of the two microphallid species, employing restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and species-specific primers. Both techniques utilized nucleotide differences in the second internal transcribed region (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the two species. For the PCR-RFLP technique, restriction enzyme AvaII was selected and it generated different restriction profiles among the two microphallids. In addition, species-specific primers were prepared for each microphallid species that amplified distinctive fragments. Both techniques showed that the larval stages of the two microphallid species can be identified accurately. However, direct PCR amplification using species-specific primers was more advantageous than the PCR-RFLP technique since it allowed rapid and specific discrimination between the two species. This technique provides a useful tool that can be used in future studies for the study of the distribution of microphallid species and their definitive hosts at different localities of Kuwait Bay.

  3. Triplex PCR-based detection of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 in nonfat dry milk.

    PubMed

    Gracias, Kiev S; McKillip, John L

    2011-04-01

    Although many strains of Bacillaceae are considered nonpathogenic, Bacillus cereus is recognized worldwide as a bacterial pathogen in a variety of foods. The ability of B. cereus to cause gastroenteritis following ingestion of contaminated food is due to the production of enterotoxins. The ubiquity of this genus makes it a persistent problem for quality assurance in food processing environments. The primary objective of this study was to develop and apply a multiplex real-time PCR-based assay for rapid and sensitive detection of enterotoxigenic B. cereus. Template DNA was separately extracted from tryptic soy broth (TSB)-grown and 2.5% Nonfat Dry Milk (NFDM)-grown B. cereus using a commercial system. Three enterotoxin gene fragments (hblC, nheA, and hblA) were simultaneously amplified in real-time followed by melting curve analysis to confirm amplicon identity. Resolution of melting curves (characteristic T(m)) was achieved for each amplicon (hblC = 74.5 °C; nheA = 78 °C; and hblA = 85.5 °C in TSB and 84 °C in NFDM) with an assay sensitivities of 10(1) CFU/ml for both TSB and NFDM-grown B. cereus compared to 10(4) CFU/ml in either matrix using gel electrophoresis. The results demonstrate the potential sensitivity of real-time bacterial detection methods in a heterogenous food matrix using real-time PCR.

  4. PCR-based Approaches for the Detection of Clinical Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jiang; Ji, Yinduo

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that can cause a variety of infections, including superficial and systematic infections, in humans and animals. The persistent emergence of multidrug resistant S. aureus, particularly methicillin-resistant S. aureus, has caused dramatically economic burden and concerns in the public health due to limited options of treatment of MRSA infections. In order to make a correct choice of treatment for physicians and understand the prevalence of MRSA, it is extremely critical to precisely and timely diagnose the pathogen that induces a specific infection of patients and to reveal the antibiotic resistant profile of the pathogen. In this review, we outlined different PCR-based approaches that have been successfully utilized for the rapid detection of S. aureus, including MRSA and MSSA, directly from various clinical specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of detections were pointed out. Both advantages and disadvantages of listed approaches were discussed. Importantly, an alternative approach is necessary to further confirm the detection results from the molecular diagnostic assays. PMID:27335617

  5. Determination of allele frequency in pooled DNA: comparison of three PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Stefan; Hemminki, Kari; Thirumaran, Ranjit Kumar; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Bonn, Stefan; Försti, Asta; Kumar, Rajiv

    2005-12-01

    Determination of allele frequency in pooled DNA samples is a powerful and efficient tool for large-scale association studies. In this study, we tested and compared three PCR-based methods for accuracy, reproducibility, cost, and convenience. The methods compared were: (i) real-time PCR with allele-specific primers, (ii) real-time PCR with allele-specific TaqMan probes, and (iii) quantitative sequencing. Allele frequencies of three single nucleotide polymorphisms in three different genes were estimated from pooled DNA. The pools were made of genomic DNA samples from 96 cases with basal cell carcinoma of the skin and 96 healthy controls with known genotypes. In this study, the allele frequency estimation made by real-time PCR with allele-specific primers had the smallest median deviation (MD) from the real allele frequency with 1.12% (absolute percentage points) and was also the cheapest method. However; this method required the most time for optimization and showed the highest variation between replicates (SD = 6.47%). Quantitative sequencing, the simplest method, was found to have intermediate accuracies (MD = 1.44%, SD = 4.2%). Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes, a convenient but very expensive method, had an MD of 1.47% and the lowest variation between replicates (SD = 3.18%).

  6. PCR-based diversity estimates of artificial and environmental 18S rRNA gene libraries.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Marianne; Lovejoy, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental clone libraries constructed using small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) or other gene-specific primers have become the standard molecular approach for identifying microorganisms directly from their environment. This technique includes an initial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification step of a phylogenetically useful marker gene using universal primers. Although it is acknowledged that such primers introduce biases, there have been few studies if any to date systematically examining such bias in eukaryotic microbes. We investigated some implications of such bias by constructing clone libraries using several universal primer pairs targeting rRNA genes. Firstly, we constructed artificial libraries using a known mix of small cultured pelagic arctic algae with representatives from five major lineages and secondly we investigated environmental samples using several primer pairs. No primer pair retrieved all of the original algae in the artificial clone libraries and all showed a favorable bias toward the dinoflagellate Polarella glacialis and a bias against the prasinophyte Micromonas and a pennate diatom. Several other species were retrieved by only one primer pair tested. Despite this, sequences from nine environmental libraries were diverse and contained representatives from all major eukaryotic clades expected in marine samples. Further, libraries from the same sample grouped together using Bray-Curtis clustering, irrespective of primer pairs. We conclude that environmental PCR-based techniques are sufficient to compare samples, but the total diversity will probably always be underestimated and relative abundance estimates should be treated with caution.

  7. Evaluation of a rapid PCR-based method for the detection of animal material.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Haile F; Mohla, Anuja; Farrell, Dorothy E; Myers, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    A rapid PCR-based analytical method for detection of animal-derived materials in complete feed was developed. Using a commercially available DNA forensic kit for the extraction of DNA from animal feed, a sensitive method was developed that was capable of detecting as little as 0.03% bovine meat and bone meal in complete feed in under 8 h of total assay time. The reduction in assay time was accomplished by reducing the DNA extraction time to 2 h and using the simpler cleanup procedure of the kit. Assay sensitivity can be increased to 0.006% by increasing the DNA extraction time to an overnight incubation of approximately 16 h. Examination of dairy feed samples containing either bovine meat and bone meal, porcine meat and bone meal, or lamb meal at a level of 0.1% (wt/wt basis) suggested that this method may be suitable for regulatory uses. The adoption of this commercially available kit for use with animal feeds yields an assay that is quicker and simpler to perform than a previously validated assay for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed.

  8. PCR-based detection of bioluminescent microbial populations in Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Gabriela; De Luca, Massimo; Denaro, Renata; La Cono, Violetta; Smedile, Francesco; Scarfì, Simona; De Domenico, Emilio; De Domenico, Maria; Yakimov, Michail M.

    2009-05-01

    The present study is focused on the development of a cultivation-independent molecular approach for specific detection of bioluminescent bacteria within microbial communities by direct amplification of luxA gene from environmental DNA. A new set of primers, specifically targeting free-living bioluminescent bacteria, was designed on the base of l uxA sequences available from the public database. Meso- and bathypelagic seawater samples were collected from two stations in Tyrrhenian Sea at the depths of 500 and 2750 m. The same seawater samples also were used to isolate bioluminescent bacteria that were further subjected to luxA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PCR products obtained by amplification with designed primers were cloned, and the phylogenetic affiliation of 40 clones was determined. All of them were clustered into three groups, only distantly related to the Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium kishitanii clades. The half of all clones formed a tight monophyletic clade, while the rest of clones were organized in "compartment"-specific, meso- and bathypelagic ecotypes. No matches with luxA gene sequences of four bioluminescent strains, isolated from the same seawater samples, were observed. These findings indicate that the PCR-based approach developed in present manuscript, allowed us to detect the novel, "yet to be cultivated" lineages of bioluminescent bacteria, which are likely specific for distinct warm bathypelagic realms of Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness.

    PubMed

    Engelbrektson, Anna; Kunin, Victor; Wrighton, Kelly C; Zvenigorodsky, Natasha; Chen, Feng; Ochman, Howard; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for microbial community profiling can, for equivalent costs, yield more than two orders of magnitude more sensitivity than traditional PCR cloning and Sanger sequencing. With this increased sensitivity and the ability to analyze multiple samples in parallel, it has become possible to evaluate several technical aspects of PCR-based community structure profiling methods. We tested the effect of amplicon length and primer pair on estimates of species richness (number of species) and evenness (relative abundance of species) by assessing the potentially tractable microbial community residing in the termite hindgut. Two regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced from one of two common priming sites, spanning the V1-V2 or V8 regions, using amplicons ranging in length from 352 to 1443 bp. Our results show that both amplicon length and primer pair markedly influence estimates of richness and evenness. However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities.

  10. A novel plasmid pEA68 of Erwinia amylovora and the description of a new family of plasmids.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Emadeldeen; Blom, Jochen; Bultreys, Alain; Ivanović, Milan; Obradović, Aleksa; van Doorn, Joop; Bergsma-Vlami, Maria; Maes, Martine; Willems, Anne; Duffy, Brion; Stockwell, Virginia O; Smits, Theo H M; Puławska, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Recent genome analysis of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease on Rosaceae, has shown that the chromosome is highly conserved among strains and that plasmids are the principal source of genomic diversity. A new circular plasmid, pEA68, was found in E. amylovora strain 692 (LMG 28361), isolated in Poland from Sorbus (mountain ash) with fire blight symptoms. Annotation of the 68,763-bp IncFIIa-type plasmid revealed that it contains 79 predicted CDS, among which two operons (tra, pil) are associated with mobility. The plasmid is maintained stably in E. amylovora and does not possess genes associated with antibiotic resistance or known virulence genes. Curing E. amylovora strain 692 of pEA68 did not influence its virulence in apple shoots nor amylovoran synthesis. Of 488 strains of E. amylovora from seventeen countries, pEA68 was only found in two additional strains from Belgium. Although the spread of pEA68 is currently limited to Europe, pEA68 comprises, together with pEA72 and pEA78 both found in North America, a new plasmid family that spans two continents.

  11. PCR-based diagnosis of surra-targeting VSG gene: experimental studies in small laboratory rodents and buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, P P; Balumahendiran, M; Suryanaryana, V V S; Raghavendra, A G; Shome, B R; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K

    2010-07-15

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative organism of 'surra' expresses its variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) at early, middle and late stages of infection in animals. The variable antigenic nature of VSG caused by switching its expression type favours evasion from the host immune response and leads to chronic and persistent infection. Developing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tool targeting the VSG gene is expected to be highly specific and sensitive for diagnosis of surra. Hence, in the present study, we have designed EXP3F/4R primer pair and amplified the 1.4 kb of VSG gene of T. evansi and studied the phylogenetic relationship by in silico analysis. The PCR method was standardised using another set of primer, DITRYF/R, and 400 bp was amplified from blood and tissue samples of experimentally infected animals. Applying the PCR method, we were able to detect as low as 0.15 trypanosomeml(-1). Considering the number of parasite-to-DNA concentration, the PCR method has a sensitivity of 0.015 pg ml(-1). The PCR could detect the presence of the parasite as early as 24h post-infection (p.i.) and 72 h p.i., respectively, in experimentally infected rats and buffalo. No amplification was observed with DNA of Babesia bigemina and Theileria annulata, indicating the primers are specific for T. evansi. The PCR method could detect the dog, lion and leopard isolates of T. evansi. Similarly, amplifying the DNA from the experimentally infected tissues was also found to be sensitive. Thus, the findings of this study favour the application of PCR over the parasitological methods for the detection of the early and/or chronic stage of surra in domestic and wild animals.

  12. PCR-based screening and lineage identification of Trypanosoma cruzi directly from faecal samples of triatomine bugs from northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    MARCET, P. L.; DUFFY, T.; CARDINAL, M. V.; BURGOS, J. M.; LAURICELLA, M. A.; LEVIN, M. J.; KITRON, U.; GÜRTLER, R. E.; SCHIJMAN, A. G.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY This study applied improved DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction strategies for screening and identification of Trypanosoma cruzi lineages directly from faeces of triatomines collected in a well-defined rural area in northwestern Argentina. Amplification of the variable regions of the kinetoplastid minicircle genome (kDNA-PCR) was performed in faecal lysates from 33 microscope (MO)-positive and 93 MO-negative Triatoma infestans, 2 MO-positive and 38 MO-negative Triatoma guasayana and 2 MO-positive and 73 MO-negative Triatoma garciabesi. kDNA-PCR detected T. cruzi in 91% MO-positive and 7.5% MO-negative T. infestans, which were confirmed by amplification of the minicircle conserved region. In contrast, kDNA-PCR was negative in all faecal samples from the other triatomine species. A panel of PCR-based genomic markers (intergenic region of spliced-leader DNA, 24Sα and 18S rRNA genes and A10 sequence) was implemented to identify the parasite lineages directly in DNA lysates from faeces and culture isolates from 28 infected specimens. Two were found to be infected with TCI, 24 with TCIIe, 1 with TCIId and 1 revealed a mixed TCI+TCII infection in the faecal sample whose corresponding culture only showed TCII, providing evidence of the advantages of direct typing of biological samples. This study provides an upgrade in the current diagnosis and lineage identification of T. cruzi in field-collected triatomines and shows T. cruzi II strains as predominant in the region. PMID:16393354

  13. The mechanism of plasmid curing in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Gabriella; Molnár, Annamária; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Amaral, Leonard; Sharples, Derek; Molnár, Joseph

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial plasmids have a major impact on metabolic function. Lactose fermentation of E. coli or hemolysin B transporter expressed by the plasmids that carry these respective genes could be readily obviated by heterocyclic compounds that readily bind to plasmid DNA. These compounds could also reverse the resistance to antibiotics of E. coli, Enterobacter, Proteus, Staphylococcus and Yersinia strains by eliminating plasmids. However, the frequency and extent of this effect was significantly less than might have been expected based on a complex interaction with plasmid DNA. The effects of heterocyclic compounds on the plasmids responsible for the virulence of Yersinia and A. tumefaciens, or on nodulation, nitrogen fixation of Rhizobia accounted for the elimination of 0.1 to 1.0 % of plasmids present in the populations studied. Bacterial plasmids can be eliminated from bacterial species grown as pure or mixed bacterial cultures in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of non-mutagenic heterocyclic compounds. The antiplasmid action of the compounds depends on the chemical structure of amphiphillic compounds having a planar ring system with substitution in the L-molecular region. A symmetrical pi-electron conjugation at the highest occupied molecular orbitals favours the antiplasmid effect. The antiplasmid effect of heterocyclic compounds is expressed differentially in accordance with the structural form of the DNA to which they bind. In this manner "extrachromosomal" plasmid DNA that exists in a superhelical state binds more compound than its linear or open-circular form; and least to the chromosomal DNA of the bacterium, that carries the plasmid. It can also be noted that these compounds are not mutagenic and their antiplasmid effects correlate with the energy of HOMO-orbitals. Plasmid elimination is considered also to take place in ecosystems containing numerous bacterial species. This opens up a new perspective in rational drug design against bacterial

  14. Infectivity acts as in vivo selection for maintenance of the chlamydial cryptic plasmid.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marsha; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Smith, Bennett; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis contains a conserved ∼7.5-kb plasmid. Loss of the plasmid results in reduced glycogen accumulation, failure to activate TLR2, and reduced infectivity. We hypothesized that reduced infectivity functions as a means of selection for plasmid maintenance. We directly examined the biological significance of the reduced infectivity associated with plasmid deficiency by determining the relative fitness of plasmid-deficient CM972 versus that of wild-type C. muridarum Nigg in mixed inocula in vitro and in vivo. C. muridarum Nigg rapidly out-competed its plasmid-cured derivative CM972 in vitro but was not competitive with CM3.1, a derivative of CM972 that has reverted to a normal infectivity phenotype. C. muridarum Nigg also effectively competed with CM972 during lower and upper genital tract infection in the mouse, demonstrating that strong selective pressure for plasmid maintenance occurs during infection. The severity of oviduct inflammation and dilatation resulting from these mixed infections correlated directly with the amount of C. muridarum Nigg in the initial inoculum, confirming the role of the plasmid in virulence. Genetic characterization of CM972 and CM3.1 revealed no additional mutations (other than loss of the plasmid) to account for the reduced infectivity of CM972 and detected a single base substitution in TC_0236 in CM3.1 that may be responsible for its restored infectivity. These data demonstrate that a chlamydial strain that differs genetically from its wild-type parent only with respect to the lack of the chlamydial plasmid is unable to compete in vitro and in vivo, likely explaining the rarity of plasmid-deficient isolates in nature.

  15. Molecular and Population Analyses of a Recombination Event in the Catabolic Plasmid pJP4

    PubMed Central

    Larraín-Linton, Juanita; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Melo, Francisco; González, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) harbors a catabolic plasmid, pJP4, which confers the ability to grow on chloroaromatic compounds. Repeated growth on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) results in selection of a recombinant strain, which degrades 3-CB better but no longer grows on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). We have previously proposed that this phenotype is due to a double homologous recombination event between inverted repeats of the multicopies of this plasmid within the cell. One recombinant form of this plasmid (pJP4-F3) explains this phenotype, since it harbors two copies of the chlorocatechol degradation tfd gene clusters, which are essential to grow on 3-CB, but has lost the tfdA gene, encoding the first step in degradation of 2,4-D. The other recombinant plasmid (pJP4-FM) should harbor two copies of the tfdA gene but no copies of the tfd gene clusters. A molecular analysis using a multiplex PCR approach to distinguish the wild-type plasmid pJP4 from its two recombinant forms, was carried out. Expected PCR products confirming this recombination model were found and sequenced. Few recombinant plasmid forms in cultures grown in several carbon sources were detected. Kinetic studies indicated that cells containing the recombinant plasmid pJP4-FM were not selectable by sole carbon source growth pressure, whereas those cells harboring recombinant plasmid pJP4-F3 were selected upon growth on 3-CB. After 12 days of repeated growth on 3-CB, the complete plasmid population in C. necator JMP134 apparently corresponds to this form. However, wild-type plasmid forms could be recovered after growing this culture on 2,4-D, indicating that different plasmid forms can be found in C. necator JMP134 at the population level. PMID:16980481

  16. Molecular and population analyses of a recombination event in the catabolic plasmid pJP4.

    PubMed

    Larraín-Linton, Juanita; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Melo, Francisco; González, Bernardo

    2006-10-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) harbors a catabolic plasmid, pJP4, which confers the ability to grow on chloroaromatic compounds. Repeated growth on 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CB) results in selection of a recombinant strain, which degrades 3-CB better but no longer grows on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D). We have previously proposed that this phenotype is due to a double homologous recombination event between inverted repeats of the multicopies of this plasmid within the cell. One recombinant form of this plasmid (pJP4-F3) explains this phenotype, since it harbors two copies of the chlorocatechol degradation tfd gene clusters, which are essential to grow on 3-CB, but has lost the tfdA gene, encoding the first step in degradation of 2,4-D. The other recombinant plasmid (pJP4-FM) should harbor two copies of the tfdA gene but no copies of the tfd gene clusters. A molecular analysis using a multiplex PCR approach to distinguish the wild-type plasmid pJP4 from its two recombinant forms, was carried out. Expected PCR products confirming this recombination model were found and sequenced. Few recombinant plasmid forms in cultures grown in several carbon sources were detected. Kinetic studies indicated that cells containing the recombinant plasmid pJP4-FM were not selectable by sole carbon source growth pressure, whereas those cells harboring recombinant plasmid pJP4-F3 were selected upon growth on 3-CB. After 12 days of repeated growth on 3-CB, the complete plasmid population in C. necator JMP134 apparently corresponds to this form. However, wild-type plasmid forms could be recovered after growing this culture on 2,4-D, indicating that different plasmid forms can be found in C. necator JMP134 at the population level.

  17. Plasmid Diversity and Adaptation Analyzed by Massive Sequencing of Escherichia coli Plasmids.

    PubMed

    de Toro, María; Garcilláon-Barcia, M Pilar; De La Cruz, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Whole-genome sequencing is revolutionizing the analysis of bacterial genomes. It leads to a massive increase in the amount of available data to be analyzed. Bacterial genomes are usually composed of one main chromosome and a number of accessory chromosomes, called plasmids. A recently developed methodology called PLACNET (for plasmid constellation networks) allows the reconstruction of the plasmids of a given genome. Thus, it opens an avenue for plasmidome analysis on a global scale. This work reviews our knowledge of the genetic determinants for plasmid propagation (conjugation and related functions), their diversity, and their prevalence in the variety of plasmids found by whole-genome sequencing. It focuses on the results obtained from a collection of 255 Escherichia coli plasmids reconstructed by PLACNET. The plasmids found in E. coli represent a nonaleatory subset of the plasmids found in proteobacteria. Potential reasons for the prevalence of some specific plasmid groups will be discussed and, more importantly, additional questions will be posed.

  18. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ability to distinguish between human and animal fecal pollution is important for risk assessment and watershed management, particularly in bodies of water used as sources of drinking water or for recreation. PCR-based methods were used to determine the source of fecal pollution ...

  19. Development of PCR-based assays for detecting and differentiating three species of botrytis infecting broad bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Botrytis cinerea, B. fabae and B. fabiopsis are known to cause chocolate spot on broad bean. This study was conducted to develop PCR-based assays to detect and differentiate this three species. Two sets of primers, Bc-f/Bc-r for B. cinerea and Bfab-f/Bfab-r for B. fabiopsis, were designed based on t...

  20. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture- and PCR-based measurements of fecal pollution were determined and compared to hydrologic and land use indicators. Stream water samples (n = 235) were collected monthly over a two year period from ten streams draining headwatersheds with different land use intensities ra...

  1. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  2. Combining Watershed Variables with PCR-based Methods for Better Characterization and Management of Fecal Pollution in Small Streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture- and PCR-based measurements of fecal pollution were determined and compared to hydrologic and land use indicators. Stream water samples (n = 235) were collected monthly over a two year period from ten streams draining headwatersheds with different land use intensities ra...

  3. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, B. thetaiotaomic...

  4. Evaluation of the repeatability and reproducibility of a suite of qPCR based microbial source tracking methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many PCR-based methods for microbial source tracking (MST) have been developed and validated within individual research laboratories. Inter-laboratory validation of these methods, however, has been minimal, and the effects of protocol standardization regimes have not been thor...

  5. Evaluation of the repeatability and reproducibility of a suite of qPCR based microbial source tracking methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many PCR-based methods for microbial source tracking (MST) have been developed and validated within individual research laboratories. Inter-laboratory validation of these methods, however, has been minimal, and the effects of protocol standardization regimes have not been thor...

  6. Performance of human fecal anaerobe-associated PCR-based assays in a multi-laboratory method evaluation study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of PCR-based methods for detecting human fecal material in environmental waters have been developed over the past decade, but these methods have rarely received independent comparative testing. Here, we evaluated ten of these methods (BacH, BacHum-UCD, B. thetaiotaomic...

  7. Environmentally co-occurring mercury resistance plasmids are genetically and phenotypically diverse and confer variable context-dependent fitness effects.

    PubMed

    Hall, James P J; Harrison, Ellie; Lilley, Andrew K; Paterson, Steve; Spiers, Andrew J; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Plasmids are important mobile elements that can facilitate genetic exchange and local adaptation within microbial communities. We compared the sequences of four co-occurring pQBR family environmental mercury resistance plasmids and measured their effects on competitive fitness of a Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 host, which was isolated at the same field site. Fitness effects of carriage differed between plasmids and were strongly context dependent, varying with medium, plasmid status of competitor and levels of environmental mercury. The plasmids also varied widely in their rates of conjugation and segregational loss. We found that few of the plasmid-borne accessory genes could be ascribed functions, although we identified a putative chemotaxis operon, a type IV pilus-encoding cluster and a region encoding putative arylsulfatase enzymes, which were conserved across geographically distant isolates. One plasmid, pQBR55, conferred the ability to catabolize sucrose. Transposons, including the mercury resistance Tn5042, appeared to have been acquired by different pQBR plasmids by recombination, indicating an important role for horizontal gene transfer in the recent evolution of pQBR plasmids. Our findings demonstrate extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity among co-occurring members of a plasmid community and suggest a role for environmental heterogeneity in the maintenance of plasmid diversity.

  8. Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Li, Jihong; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Moore, Robert J; McClane, Bruce A; Rood, Julian I

    2014-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded virulence factors are important in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria. Unlike many other bacteria, the most common virulence factors encoded by plasmids in Clostridium and Bacillus species are protein toxins. Clostridium perfringens causes several histotoxic and enterotoxin diseases in both humans and animals and produces a broad range of toxins, including many pore-forming toxins such as C. perfringens enterotoxin, epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin, and NetB. Genetic studies have led to the determination of the role of these toxins in disease pathogenesis. The genes for these toxins are generally carried on large conjugative plasmids that have common core replication, maintenance, and conjugation regions. There is considerable functional information available about the unique tcp conjugation locus carried by these plasmids, but less is known about plasmid maintenance. The latter is intriguing because many C. perfringens isolates stably maintain up to four different, but closely related, toxin plasmids. Toxin genes may also be plasmid-encoded in the neurotoxic clostridia. The tetanus toxin gene is located on a plasmid in Clostridium tetani, but the botulinum toxin genes may be chromosomal, plasmid-determined, or located on bacteriophages in Clostridium botulinum. In Bacillus anthracis it is well established that virulence is plasmid determined, with anthrax toxin genes located on pXO1 and capsule genes on a separate plasmid, pXO2. Orthologs of these plasmids are also found in other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In B. thuringiensis these plasmids may carry genes encoding one or more insecticidal toxins.

  9. Strategies to develop strain-specific PCR based assays for probiotics.

    PubMed

    Treven, P

    2015-01-01

    Since health benefits conferred by probiotics are strain-specific, identification to the strain level is mandatory to allow the monitoring of the presence and the abundance of specific probiotic in a product or in a gastrointestinal tract. Compared to standard plate counts, the reduced duration of the assays and higher specificity makes PCR-based methods (standard PCR and quantitative PCR) very appropriate for detection or quantification of probiotics. Development of strain-specific assay consists of 4 main stages: (1) strain-specific marker identification; (2) construction of potential strain-specific primers; (3) validation on DNA from pure cultures of target and related strains; and (4) validation on spiked samples. The most important and also the most challenging step is the identification of strain-specific sequences, which can be subsequently targeted by specific primers or probes. Such regions can be identified on sequences derived from 16S-23S internally transcribed spacers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, representational difference analysis and suppression subtractive hybridisation. Already known phenotypic or genotypic characteristics of the target strain can also be used to develop the strain-specific assay. However, the initial stage of strain-specific assay development can be replaced by comparative genomics analysis of target genome with related genomes in public databases. Advances in whole genome sequencing (WGS) have resulted in a cost reduction for bacterial genome sequencing and consequently have made this approach available to most laboratories. In the present paper I reviewed the available literature on PCR and qPCR assays developed for detection of a specific probiotic strain and discussed future WGS and comparative genomics-based approaches.

  10. quantGenius: implementation of a decision support system for qPCR-based gene quantification.

    PubMed

    Baebler, Špela; Svalina, Miha; Petek, Marko; Stare, Katja; Rotter, Ana; Pompe-Novak, Maruša; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-05-25

    Quantitative molecular biology remains a challenge for researchers due to inconsistent approaches for control of errors in the final results. Due to several factors that can influence the final result, quantitative analysis and interpretation of qPCR data are still not trivial. Together with the development of high-throughput qPCR platforms, there is a need for a tool allowing for robust, reliable and fast nucleic acid quantification. We have developed "quantGenius" ( http://quantgenius.nib.si ), an open-access web application for a reliable qPCR-based quantification of nucleic acids. The quantGenius workflow interactively guides the user through data import, quality control (QC) and calculation steps. The input is machine- and chemistry-independent. Quantification is performed using the standard curve approach, with normalization to one or several reference genes. The special feature of the application is the implementation of user-guided QC-based decision support system, based on qPCR standards, that takes into account pipetting errors, assay amplification efficiencies, limits of detection and quantification of the assays as well as the control of PCR inhibition in individual samples. The intermediate calculations and final results are exportable in a data matrix suitable for further statistical analysis or visualization. We additionally compare the most important features of quantGenius with similar advanced software tools and illustrate the importance of proper QC system in the analysis of qPCR data in two use cases. To our knowledge, quantGenius is the only qPCR data analysis tool that integrates QC-based decision support and will help scientists to obtain reliable results which are the basis for biologically meaningful data interpretation.

  11. PCR based RFLP genotyping of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 in Iranian Holstein population.

    PubMed

    Pashmi, Morteza; Qanbari, Saber; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Salehi, Abdolreza

    2007-02-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II locus DRB3 was investigated by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A total of 262 Holstein cows participating in the national recording system were sampled from 10 herds. A two-step polymerase chain reaction was carried out in order to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonucleas enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Digested fragments were analyzed by polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified. Identified alleles are: BoLA-DRB3.2 *3, *6, *7, *8, *9, *10, *11, *12, *13, *14, *15, *16,20, *21, *22, *23, *24, *25, *26, *27, *28, *32, *36, *37, *40, *51, *iaa and *ibb. The BoLA-DRB3.2*40 allele that was observed in this study has not been reported previously. The calculated frequencies were as follows: 2.29, 1.34, 0.19, 14.5, 0.38, 3.05, 12.21, 1.34, 2.29, 1.34, 2.48, 9.16, 0.95, 0.77, 6.68, 9.16, 17.94, 1.15, 0.57, 1.15, 0.95, 0.57, 0.38, 1.91, 0.38, 5.73, 0.19 and 0.95% respectively. The six most frequently observed alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2 *8, *11, *16, *22, *23 and *24) accounted for 69.65% of the alleles in these 10 herds. The results of this study confirm the allelic distribution of six most frequent alleles in Holstein population's worldwide.

  12. PCR-Based Techniques for Leprosy Diagnosis: From the Laboratory to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alejandra Nóbrega; Talhari, Carolina; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Talhari, Sinésio

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, classic diagnostic tools based on bacillary counts and histopathology have been facing hurdles, especially in distinguishing latent infection from active disease and diagnosing paucibacillary clinical forms. Serological tests and IFN-gamma releasing assays (IGRA) that employ humoral and cellular immune parameters, respectively, are also being used, but recent results indicate that quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a key technique due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. In fact, advances concerning the structure and function of the Mycobacterium leprae genome led to the development of specific PCR-based gene amplification assays for leprosy diagnosis and monitoring of household contacts. Also, based on the validation of point-of-care technologies for M. tuberculosis DNA detection, it is clear that the same advantages of rapid DNA detection could be observed in respect to leprosy. So far, PCR has proven useful in the determination of transmission routes, M. leprae viability, and drug resistance in leprosy. However, PCR has been ascertained to be especially valuable in diagnosing difficult cases like pure neural leprosy (PNL), paucibacillary (PB), and patients with atypical clinical presentation and histopathological features compatible with leprosy. Also, the detection of M. leprae DNA in different samples of the household contacts of leprosy patients is very promising. Although a positive PCR result is not sufficient to establish a causal relationship with disease outcome, quantitation provided by qPCR is clearly capable of indicating increased risk of developing the disease and could alert clinicians to follow these contacts more closely or even define rules for chemoprophylaxis. PMID:24722358

  13. PCR-Based Multiple Species Cell Counting for In Vitro Mixed Culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruijie; Zhang, Junjie; Yang, X Frank; Gregory, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Changes of bacterial profiles in microbial communities are strongly associated with human health. There is an increasing need for multiple species research in vitro. To avoid high cost or measurement of a limited number of species, PCR-based multiple species cell counting (PCR-MSCC) has been conceived. Species-specific sequence is defined as a unique sequence of one species in a multiple species mixed culture. This sequence is identified by comparing a random 1000 bp genomic sequence of one species with the whole genome sequences of the other species in the same artificial mixed culture. If absent in the other genomes, it is the species-specific sequence. Species-specific primers were designed based on the species-specific sequences. In the present study, ten different oral bacterial species were mixed and grown in Brain Heart Infusion Yeast Extract with 1% sucrose for 24 hours. Biofilm was harvested and processed for DNA extraction and q-PCR amplification with the species-specific primers. By comparing the q-PCR data of each species in the unknown culture with reference cultures, in which the cell number of each species was determined by colony forming units on agar plate, the cell number of that strain in the unknown mixed culture was calculated. This technique is reliable to count microorganism numbers that are less than 100,000 fold different from other species within the same culture. Theoretically, it can be used in detecting a species in a mixed culture of over 200 species. Currently PCR-MSCC is one of the most economic methods for quantifying single species cell numbers, especially for the low abundant species, in a multiple artificial mixed culture in vitro.

  14. pA506, a Conjugative Plasmid of the Plant Epiphyte Pseudomonas fluorescens A506

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Virginia O.; Davis, Edward W.; Carey, Alyssa; Shaffer, Brenda T.; Mavrodi, Dmitri V.; Hassan, Karl A.; Hockett, Kevin; Thomashow, Linda S.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids are known to facilitate the acquisition and dispersal of genes contributing to the fitness of Pseudomonas spp. Here, we report the characterization of pA506, the 57-kb conjugative plasmid of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a plant epiphyte used in the United States for the biological control of fire blight disease of pear and apple. Twenty-nine of the 67 open reading frames (ORFs) of pA506 have putative functions in conjugation, including a type IV secretion system related to that of MOBP6 family plasmids and a gene cluster for type IV pili. We demonstrate that pA506 is self-transmissible via conjugation between A506 and strains of Pseudomonas spp. or the Enterobacteriaceae. The origin of vegetative replication (oriV) of pA506 is typical of those in pPT23A family plasmids, which are present in many pathovars of Pseudomonas syringae, but pA506 lacks repA, a defining locus for pPT23A plasmids, and has a novel partitioning region. We selected a plasmid-cured derivative of A506 and compared it to the wild type to identify plasmid-encoded phenotypes. pA506 conferred UV resistance, presumably due to the plasmid-borne rulAB genes, but did not influence epiphytic fitness of A506 on pear or apple blossoms in the field. pA506 does not appear to confer resistance to antibiotics or other toxic elements. Based on the conjugative nature of pA506 and the large number of its genes that are shared with plasmids from diverse groups of environmental bacteria, the plasmid is likely to serve as a vehicle for genetic exchange between A506 and its coinhabitants on plant surfaces. PMID:23811504

  15. Manipulating yeast genome using plasmid vectors.

    PubMed

    Stearns, T; Ma, H; Botstein, D

    1990-01-01

    The vectors and techniques described here enable one to manipulate the yeast genome to meet specific needs. Genes can be cloned, and the clone used to delete the wild-type gene from the chromosome, or replace it with mutant versions. Mutants derived by classical methods, such as mutagenesis of whole cells, or by reversion of a phenotype, can be cloned and analyzed in vitro. Yeast genes and foreign genes can either be inserted into autonomously replicating plasmid vectors that are reasonably stable or integrated into a yeast chromosome where they are maintained at one copy per genome. The combination of these techniques with the characterized promoter systems available in yeast make it possible to express almost any gene in yeast. Once this is achieved, the entire repertoire of yeast genetics is available to probe the function of the gene, or to engineer the expression in useful ways.

  16. Plasmids of Carotenoid-Producing Paracoccus spp. (Alphaproteobacteria) - Structure, Diversity and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Anna; Dziewit, Lukasz; Czarnecki, Jakub; Wlodarczyk, Miroslawa; Baj, Jadwiga; Skrzypczyk, Grazyna; Giersz, Dorota; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Plasmids are components of many bacterial genomes. They enable the spread of a large pool of genetic information via lateral gene transfer. Many bacterial strains contain mega-sized replicons and these are particularly common in Alphaproteobacteria. Considerably less is known about smaller alphaproteobacterial plasmids. We analyzed the genomes of 14 such plasmids residing in 4 multireplicon carotenoid-producing strains of the genus Paracoccus (Alphaproteobacteria): P. aestuarii DSM 19484, P. haeundaensis LG P-21903, P. marcusii DSM 11574 and P. marcusii OS22. Comparative analyses revealed mosaic structures of the plasmids and recombinational shuffling of diverse genetic modules involved in (i) plasmid replication, (ii) stabilization (including toxin-antitoxin systems of the relBE/parDE, tad-ata, higBA, mazEF and toxBA families) and (iii) mobilization for conjugal transfer (encoding relaxases of the MobQ, MobP or MobV families). A common feature of the majority of the plasmids is the presence of AT-rich sequence islets (located downstream of exc1-like genes) containing genes, whose homologs are conserved in the chromosomes of many bacteria (encoding e.g. RelA/SpoT, SMC-like proteins and a retron-type reverse transcriptase). The results of this study have provided insight into the diversity and plasticity of plasmids of Paracoccus spp., and of the entire Alphaproteobacteria. Some of the identified plasmids contain replication systems not described previously in this class of bacteria. The composition of the plasmid genomes revealed frequent transfer of chromosomal genes into plasmids, which significantly enriches the pool of mobile DNA that can participate in lateral transfer. Many strains of Paracoccus spp. have great biotechnological potential, and the plasmid vectors constructed in this study will facilitate genetic studies of these bacteria. PMID:24260361

  17. [Characteristics of the plasmid profile of inositol- and rhamnose- negative strains of Salmonella typhimurium].

    PubMed

    Cízek, A; Mikula, I; Kovaríková, V

    1995-01-01

    S. typhimurium isolates obtained during a large outbreak of human salmonellosis associated with smoked mackerels in the Czech Republic as well as strains of S. typhimurium isolated from black headed gull (Larus ridibundus) were examined following biotyping, phage typing, plasmid profiling and restriction endonuclease analysis (Eco RI, Hind III and Bam HI) of plasmid DNA. The epidemic strain of S. typhimurium and two isolates from environment of nesting colony black-headed gull were meso-inositol and L-rhamnose negative, phage type 141. The isolates from human and environment of nesting colony were found to share the same plasmid profile and REA.

  18. Origin and direction of replication of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13.

    PubMed

    Stuitje, A R; Veltkamp, E; Weijers, P J; Nijkamp, H J

    1979-01-01

    Cairn's type replicative intermediates of both the wildtype Clo DF13 plasmid and the copy mutant CLO DF13 cop3 were isolated by dye-buoyant density centrifugation. Replicative intermediates were linearized at the HpaI or Sa1I cleavage site, and examined with the electron-microscope. The data show that replication of both the Clo DF13 wild type plasmid and the Clo DF13 cop3 plasmid, initiates at about 2.8% on the physical map. Replication proceeds unindirectionally and counterclockwise on this map.

  19. Origin and direction of replication of the bacteriocinogenic plasmid Clo DF13.

    PubMed Central

    Stuitje, A R; Veltkamp, E; Weijers, P J; Nijkamp, H J

    1979-01-01

    Cairn's type replicative intermediates of both the wildtype Clo DF13 plasmid and the copy mutant CLO DF13 cop3 were isolated by dye-buoyant density centrifugation. Replicative intermediates were linearized at the HpaI or Sa1I cleavage site, and examined with the electron-microscope. The data show that replication of both the Clo DF13 wild type plasmid and the Clo DF13 cop3 plasmid, initiates at about 2.8% on the physical map. Replication proceeds unindirectionally and counterclockwise on this map. Images PMID:370788

  20. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA.

    PubMed

    Sagripanti, J L; Swicord, M L; Davis, C C

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  1. A Plasmid in Legionella pneumophila

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    13). which they were isolated and the number of the isolate The Legionnaires disease bacterium, L. pneu. from that city. The following 16... Legionnaires disease bacterium. .1. (un. Micro. biol. 8:320-:t25. appears reasonable that this organism could sup- 1:l. Fraser, D5. W., and J. F. McI~ade. 1979...INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, Sept. 1980, p. 1(92-1095 Vol. 29, No. :1 0I 9-9567/A)/- 1092/14$02.00/0. A Plasmid in Legionella pneumophila_ ( (/’ )GREGORY

  2. Microwave effects on plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sagripanti, J.L.; Swicord, M.L.; Davis, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The exposure of purified plasmid DNA to microwave radiation at nonthermal levels in the frequency range from 2.00 to 8.75 GHz produces single- and double-strand breaks that are detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Microwave-induced damage to DNA depends on the presence of small amounts of copper. This effect is dependent upon both the microwave power and the duration of the exposure. Cuprous, but not cupric, ions were able to mimic the effects produced by microwaves on DNA.

  3. Narrow- and Broad-Host-Range Symbiotic Plasmids of Rhizobium spp. Strains That Nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Susana; Martinez, Esperanza; Dávila, Guillermo; Palacios, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Agrobacterium transconjugants containing symbiotic plasmids from different Rhizobium spp. strains that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained. All transconjugants conserved the parental nodulation host range. Symbiotic (Sym) plasmids of Rhizobium strains isolated originally from P. vulgaris nodules, which had a broad nodulation host range, and single-copy nitrogenase genes conferred a Fix+ phenotype to the Agrobacterium transconjugants. A Fix− phenotype was obtained with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from P. vulgaris nodules that had a narrow host range and reiterated nif genes, as well as with Sym plasmids of strains isolated from other legumes that presented single nif genes and a broad nodulation host range. This indicates that different types of Sym plasmids can confer the ability to establish an effective symbiosis with P. vulgaris. Images PMID:16347637

  4. A One-Step PCR-Based Assay to Evaluate the Efficiency and Precision of Genomic DNA-Editing Tools.

    PubMed

    Germini, Diego; Bou Saada, Yara; Tsfasman, Tatiana; Osina, Kristina; Robin, Chloé; Lomov, Nikolay; Rubtsov, Mikhail; Sjakste, Nikolajs; Lipinski, Mar; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2017-06-16

    Despite rapid progress, many problems and limitations persist and limit the applicability of gene-editing techniques. Making use of meganucleases, TALENs, or CRISPR/Cas9-based tools requires an initial step of pre-screening to determine the efficiency and specificity of the designed tools. This step remains time consuming and material consuming. Here we propose a simple, cheap, reliable, time-saving, and highly sensitive method to evaluate a given gene-editing tool based on its capacity to induce chromosomal translocations when combined with a reference engineered nuclease. In the proposed technique, designated engineered nuclease-induced translocations (ENIT), a plasmid coding for the DNA-editing tool to be tested is co-transfected into carefully chosen target cells along with that for an engineered nuclease of known specificity and efficiency. If the new enzyme efficiently cuts within the desired region, then specific chromosomal translocations will be generated between the two targeted genomic regions and be readily detectable by a one-step PCR or qPCR assay. The PCR product thus obtained can be directly sequenced, thereby determining the exact position of the double-strand breaks induced by the gene-editing tools. As a proof of concept, ENIT was successfully tested in different cell types and with different meganucleases, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9-based editing tools.

  5. Survey of plasmids in various mycoplasmas.

    PubMed Central

    Harasawa, R.; Barile, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-three strains representing 15 distinct Mycoplasma, Acholeplasma, and Spiroplasma species were examined for the presence of plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic patterns of the DNAs of three strains, Mycoplasma sp. strain 747, Spiroplasma mirum strain SMCA, and M. hominis strain 1257, suggested the presence of a plasmid with molecular weights of approximately 70, 10, and 9 megadaltons, respectively. The functions of these plasmids are currently unknown. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6679154

  6. Biofilms and the plasmid maintenance question.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mudassar; Jones, Don; Smith, Hal

    2005-02-01

    Can a conjugative plasmid encoding enhanced biofilm forming abilities for its bacterial host facilitate the persistence of the plasmid in a bacterial population despite conferring diminished growth rate and segregative plasmid loss on its bearers? We construct a mathematical model in a chemostat and in a plug flow environment to answer this question. Explicit conditions for an affirmative answer are derived. Numerical simulations support the conclusion.

  7. Plasmid-encoded trimethoprim resistance in staphylococci.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, G L; Coughter, J P; Johnston, J L

    1986-01-01

    High-level (greater than 1,000 micrograms/ml) resistance to the antimicrobial agent trimethoprim was found in 17 of 101 (17%) coagulase-negative staphylococci and 5 of 51 (10%) Staphylococcus aureus from a number of different hospitals in the United States. Resistance was plasmid encoded and could be transferred by conjugation in 4 of the 17 (24%) Tpr coagulase-negative staphylococci and 3 of the 5 (60%) Tpr S. aureus. A 1.2-kilobase segment of plasmid DNA from one of the plasmids (pG01) was cloned on a high-copy-number vector in Escherichia coli and expressed high-level Tpr (MIC, 1,025 micrograms/ml) in the gram-negative host. In situ filter hybridization demonstrated homology between the cloned Tpr gene probe and plasmid DNA from each conjugative Tpr plasmid, a single nonconjugative plasmid from a United States Staphylococcus epidermidis isolate, a nonconjugative plasmid from an Australian methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolate, and chromosomal DNA from three Tpr S. epidermidis isolates that did not contain any plasmid DNA that was homologous with the probe. No homology was seen between the probe and staphylococcal plasmids not mediating Tpr, plasmid DNA from 12 Tpr S. epidermidis isolates not transferring Tpr by conjugation, or plasmid-encoded Tpr genes derived from gram-negative bacteria. Plasmid-encoded Tpr appears to be a relatively new gene in staphylococci and, because it can be transferred by conjugation, could become more prevalent in nonsocomial isolates. Images PMID:3729338

  8. PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism and haplotype of the most common mutation L176F in the beta-glucuronidase gene.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rafiq; Shah, Gul N; Sly, William S

    2007-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII or Sly syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycosaminoglycan storage leading to variable clinical symptoms, such as hepatosplenomegaly, bone deformities, hearing loss, corneal opacities, mental retardation, and hydrops fetalis in affected individuals. The disease is caused by approximately 40 different mutations in the beta-glucuronidase gene. Detection of the most common mutation L176F by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was not always successful. Although DNA sequencing followed by PCR amplification can easily detect this mutation, accessibility to a DNA sequencer or useful reagents in the sequencing procedure is not readily available in many countries. A PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) developed in this report would allow rapid and easier detection of this mutation for screening new patients or neonates of heterozygous parents. Analysis of intragenic polymorphic sites in the L176F patients identified two distinct alleles; the predominant one probably originated in Spain.

  9. Emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type 410 (ST410) with KPC-2 β-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Mavroidi, Angeliki; Miriagou, Vivi; Malli, Ergina; Stefos, Angelos; Dalekos, George N; Tzouvelekis, Leonidas S; Petinaki, Efthymia

    2012-03-01

    Fifteen carbapenem-non-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates obtained during the period May 2010 to April 2011 in a hospital and a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Larissa (Central Greece) were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to various antimicrobial agents were determined by Etest. Carriage of bla genes, including bla(KPC-2) and bla(CTX-M), was documented by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Production of β-lactamases was confirmed by isoelectric focusing. Transfer of resistance was carried out by conjugation. Plasmid incompatibility groups were determined by PCR-based replicon typing and replicon sequence typing. Isolates were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Ten E. coli isolates with KPC-2 were derived from seven patients in the University Hospital of Larissa. Six patients had previously been treated for prolonged time periods in a LTCF located in the same city. The remaining isolate was from a patient previously treated in an Athens hospital. Screening of faecal samples from 20 randomly selected LTCF patients yielded eight enterobacteria with KPC-2, of which five were E. coli, showing the wide spread of KPC-2-producers in this institution and confirming that it was the focus of the outbreak. Fourteen of the isolates were classified as sequence type 410 (ST410); the remaining isolate belonged to a novel ST (ST2281). All 15 isolates carried a KPC-2-encoding plasmid of the Inc group FIIK. Additional plasmids encoding enzymes of the CTX-M-1 family were identified in 11 isolates. The bla(KPC-2)-carrying plasmid IncFIIK, widespread amongst Klebsiella pneumoniae in Greece, has probably been acquired by E. coli ST410 known to be associated with CTX-M production. Diffusion of bla(KPC-2) in common pathogens such as E. coli is of concern.

  10. Experimental and Mathematical Models of Escherichia coli Plasmid Transfer In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Freter, Rolf; Freter, Rolf R.; Brickner, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that govern plasmid transfers in natural ecosystems such as the gut. The consistent finding by earlier workers that plasmid transfer in the normal gut can be detected only at very low rates, if at all, has given rise to numerous speculations concerning the presence in vivo of various inhibitors of plasmid transfer. Plasmids R1, R1drd-19, and pBR322 were studied in Escherichia coli K-12 and wild-type E. coli hosts in two experimental systems: (i) gnotobiotic mice carrying a synthetic indigenous microflora (F-strains) which resemble in their function the normal indigenous microflora of the mouse large intestine, and (ii) anaerobic continuous-flow cultures of indigenous large intestinal microflora of the mouse, which can simulate bacterial interactions observed in the mouse gut. Mathematical models were developed to estimate plasmid transfer rates as a measure of the “fertility,” i.e., of the intrinsic ability to transfer the plasmid under the environmental conditions of the gut. The models also evaluate the effects of plasmid segregation, reduction of the growth rates of plasmid-bearing bacterial hosts, repression of transfer functions, competition for nutrients, and bacterial attachment to the wall of the gut or culture vessel. Some confidence in the validity of these mathematical models was gained because they were able to reproduce a number of known phenomena such as the repression of fertility of the R1 plasmid, as well as known differences in the transmission and mobilization of the plasmids studied. Interpretation of the data obtained permitted a number of conclusions, some of which were rather unexpected. (i) Fertility of plasmid-bearing E. coli in the normal intestine was not impaired. The observed low rates of plasmid transfer in the normal gut can be explained on quantitative grounds alone and do not require hypothetical inhibitory mechanisms. (ii) Conditions for long-term spread and maintenance throughout human or

  11. pLS101 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.; Balganesh, T.S.

    1985-02-19

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb ma1M gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb Tcr DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. pLS010 plasmid vector

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.; Balganesh, Tanjore S.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is recombinant plasmid pLS101, consisting essentially of a 2.0 Kb malM gene fragment ligated to a 4.4 Kb T.sub.c r DNA fragment, which is particularly useful for transforming Gram-positive bacteria. This plasmid contains at least four restriction sites suitable for inserting exogeneous gene sequences. Also disclosed is a method for plasmid isolation by penicillin selection, as well as processes for enrichment of recombinant plasmids in Gram-positive bacterial systems.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms That Contribute to Horizontal Transfer of Plasmids by the Bacteriophage SPP1.

    PubMed

    Valero-Rello, Ana; López-Sanz, María; Quevedo-Olmos, Alvaro; Sorokin, Alexei; Ayora, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Natural transformation and viral-mediated transduction are the main avenues of horizontal gene transfer in Firmicutes. Bacillus subtilis SPP1 is a generalized transducing bacteriophage. Using this lytic phage as a model, we have analyzed how viral replication and recombination systems contribute to the transfer of plasmid-borne antibiotic resistances. Phage SPP1 DNA replication relies on essential phage-encoded replisome organizer (G38P), helicase loader (G39P), hexameric replicative helicase (G40P), recombinase (G35P) and in less extent on the partially dispensable 5'→3' exonuclease (G34.1P), the single-stranded DNA binding protein (G36P) and the Holliday junction resolvase (G44P). Correspondingly, the accumulation of linear concatemeric plasmid DNA, and the formation of transducing particles were blocked in the absence of G35P, G38P, G39P, and G40P, greatly reduced in the G34.1P, G36P mutants, and slightly reduced in G44P mutants. In contrast, establishmen