Science.gov

Sample records for peaking power plants

  1. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  4. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  5. Computation of full energy peak efficiency for nuclear power plant radioactive plume using remote scintillation gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grozdov, D S; Kolotov, V P; Lavrukhin, Yu E

    2016-04-01

    A method of full energy peak efficiency estimation in the space around scintillation detector, including the presence of a collimator, has been developed. It is based on a mathematical convolution of the experimental results with the following data extrapolation. The efficiency data showed the average uncertainty less than 10%. Software to calculate integral efficiency for nuclear power plant plume was elaborated. The paper also provides results of nuclear power plant plume height estimation by analysis of the spectral data.

  6. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  7. Passive radio frequency peak power multiplier

    DOEpatents

    Farkas, Zoltan D.; Wilson, Perry B.

    1977-01-01

    Peak power multiplication of a radio frequency source by simultaneous charging of two high-Q resonant microwave cavities by applying the source output through a directional coupler to the cavities and then reversing the phase of the source power to the coupler, thereby permitting the power in the cavities to simultaneously discharge through the coupler to the load in combination with power from the source to apply a peak power to the load that is a multiplication of the source peak power.

  8. Reducing Peak Power in Automated Weapon Laying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 AD-E403 737 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-15036 REDUCING PEAK POWER IN AUTOMATED WEAPON...PEAK POWER IN AUTOMATED WEAPON LAYING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS Joshua Stapp and...amount of time while reducing the amount of peak power required and, therefore, minimizing the forces caused by acceleration. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  9. Peak exposures to main components of ash and gaseous diesel exhausts in closed and open ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled power plants.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Juha; Koponen, Hanna; Sippula, Olli; Korpijärvi, Kirsi; Jumpponen, Mika; Laitinen, Sirpa; Aatamila, Marjaleena; Tissari, Jarkko; Karhunen, Tommi; Ojanen, Kari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-10-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analyses, the main respirable crystalline ash compounds were SiO2, CaSO4, CaO, Ca2Al2SiO7, NaCl and Ca3Al2O6 in the fly ashes and SiO2, KAlSi3O8, NaAlSi3O8 and Ca2Al2SiO7 in the bottom ashes. The short-term exposure levels of respirable crystalline silica, inhalable inorganic dust, Cr, Mn, Ni and nitric oxide exceeded their Finnish eight hours occupational exposure limit values in the closed ash loading station. According to our observations, more attention should be paid to the ash-moistening process, the use of tank trucks instead of open cassette flatbed trucks, and the sealing of the loading line from the silo to the truck which would prevent spreading the ash into the air. The idling time of diesel trucks should also be limited, and ash loading stations should be equipped with exhaust gas ventilators. If working conditions make it impossible to keep to the OEL values, workers must use respirators and protect their eyes and skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  11. Problematic issues of air protection during thermal processes related to the energetic uses of sewage sludge and other waste. Case study: Co-combustion in peaking power plant.

    PubMed

    Hroncová, Emília; Ladomerský, Juraj; Musil, Juraj

    2017-08-19

    Currently, it is necessary to deal with issues related to the emissions as there is a constantly increasing interest in combusting sludge from sewage treatment plants in the boilers for wood. An analysis of the energetic importance of the combustion of sewage sludge has already been carried out, but the effects of various treatments of the sludge are not always clear, e.g. composting and subsequent combustion to the air pollution. Investments in other thermal processes of energetic utilisation of sewage sludge and organic waste are not always successfully implemented. The objective of this paper is to point out some problematic cases for acceptance of thermal processes related to energetic use of waste in terms of the air protection. The other aim is to mention the experience with solutions of such issues in Slovakia. There are mentioned first results of the operational validation experiments during the energy generation in circulating fluidized bed boiler in peaking power plant (Power 110MW) with the addition of the so-called alternative fuel based on wood and sewage sludge to the main fuel - black coal (anthracite). And there has already been achieved the highest share of 12.4%w. (dry matter) of sewage sludge in form of compost in blend with black coal, which is technologically viable. Moreover analyzed the problems of the authorization and operation of the co-combustion of sewage sludge and of combustion of products of various kinds of pyrolysis waste - pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis oil are analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  13. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  14. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  15. Caffeine supplementation and peak anaerobic power output.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul; McInnes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine supplementation on peak anaerobic power output (Wmax). Using a counterbalanced, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 14 well-trained men completed three trials of a protocol consisting of a series of 6-s cycle ergometer sprints, separated by 5-min passive recovery periods. Sprints were performed at progressively increasing torque factors to determine the peak power/torque relationship and Wmax. Apart from Trial 1 (familiarisation), participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo, one hour before each trial. The effects of caffeine on blood lactate were investigated using capillary samples taken after each sprint. The torque factor which produced Wmax was not significantly different (p ≥ 0.05) between the caffeine (1.15 ± 0.08 N·m·kg(-1)) and placebo (1.13 ± 0.10 N·m·kg(-1)) trials. There was, however, a significant effect (p < 0.05) of supplementation on Wmax, with caffeine producing a higher value (1885 ± 303 W) than placebo (1835 ± 290 W). Analysis of the blood lactate data revealed a significant (p < 0.05) torque factor × supplement interaction with values being significantly higher from the sixth sprint (torque factor 1.0 N·m·kg(-1)) onwards following caffeine supplementation. The results of this study confirm previous reports that caffeine supplementation significantly increases blood lactate and Wmax. These findings may explain why the majority of previous studies, which have used fixed-torque factors of around 0.75 N·m·kg(-1) and thereby failing to elicit Wmax, have failed to find an effect of caffeine on sprinting performance.

  16. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  17. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  20. Power and limitation of soil properties as predictors of variation in peak plant biomass in a northern mixed-grass prairie

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil properties are thought to affect annual plant productivity in rangelands, and thus soil variables that are consistently correlated with variation in plant biomass may be general indicators of rangeland health. Here we measured several soil properties (e.g. aggregate stability, organic carbon, ...

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  3. Amistad Power Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Worh District AMISTAD POWEI PLANT DEL RIO, TEXAS DTICS LECTE DEC 2 11983 OCTOBER 1063 88 11 281 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved fca public relea...A I I I 1 1 ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT WORTH DISTRICT, TEXAS FINAL FOUNDATION REPORT AMISTAD POWER PLANT NTIS G- xi DTI’. T" Jus! if - Distr ’. Avai...Wayne E. McIntosh. Colonel Donald Palladino and Colonel Theodore Stroup served as District Engineers during construction of the Amistad Power Plant

  4. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  5. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  6. Advanced stellarator power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  7. The peak electromagnetic power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Guo, C.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the peak electromagnetic (EM) power radiated by return strokes have been made by integrating the Poynting vector of measured fields over an imaginary hemispherical surface that is centered on the lightning source, assuming that ground losses are negligible. Values of the peak EM power from first and subsequent strokes have means and standard deviations of 2 + or - 2 x 10 to the 10th and 3 + or - 4 x 10 to the 9th W, respectively. The average EM power that is radiated by subsequent strokes, at the time of the field peak, is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than the optical power that is radiated by these strokes in the wavelength interval from 0.4 to 1.1 micron; hence an upper limit to the radiative efficiency of a subsequent stroke is of the order of 1 percent or less at this time.

  8. The peak electromagnetic power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Guo, C.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the peak electromagnetic (EM) power radiated by return strokes have been made by integrating the Poynting vector of measured fields over an imaginary hemispherical surface that is centered on the lightning source, assuming that ground losses are negligible. Values of the peak EM power from first and subsequent strokes have means and standard deviations of 2 + or - 2 x 10 to the 10th and 3 + or - 4 x 10 to the 9th W, respectively. The average EM power that is radiated by subsequent strokes, at the time of the field peak, is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than the optical power that is radiated by these strokes in the wavelength interval from 0.4 to 1.1 micron; hence an upper limit to the radiative efficiency of a subsequent stroke is of the order of 1 percent or less at this time.

  9. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  10. Peak-Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Aman MOSTAVANNobuyuki KAYA Institut Teknologi Bandung (TF)Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Ganesha 10; Bandung 40132, IndonesiaKobe 657, Japan mostavan@tf.itb.ac.idkaya@kobe-u.ac.jp This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15 000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  11. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  12. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  13. Peak power during repeated wingate trials: implications for testing.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Ryan M; Rundell, Kenneth W; Evans, Tina M; Levine, Alan M

    2010-02-01

    Maximal power production is of primary importance for many sporting events. Therefore, using a test that has been shown to be both valid and reliable will allow for accurate baseline testing, measurement of progress, and evaluation of performance. This study examined peak power (PP) during repeated Wingate trials after no warm-up (NWU), a steady state warm-up, and an interval warm-up. In a randomized placebo-controlled study, 11 subjects (38 +/- 8.2 years) performed two 10-second Wingate trials with 4 minutes of recovery between efforts. Warm-up protocols were completed before each Wingate trial and were immediately followed by trial I. Peak power was measured during each trial. Results indicate that PP is not significantly (p > 0.05) different from trial I to trial II for either of the warm-up protocols. The NWU trial II was significantly greater than the NWU trial I (855 +/- 230 W > 814 +/- 222 W, p < 0.05) when analyzed with a paired samples t-test. Peak power appears to be greatest after a general self-selected warm-up, but not after a previously intense bike warm-up. When testing for maximal power output via the Wingate anaerobic test, one should allow for a familiarization trial and should ensure full recovery between this trial and the baseline evaluation.

  14. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-02-01

    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  17. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  18. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  19. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-05

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  20. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  1. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  2. 78 FR 25486 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Access and Management System (ADAMS) under Accession No. ML13031A041. Need for the Proposed Action Since... Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4,'' dated May 13, 2011. Agencies and Persons Consulted On March 11, 2013, the NRC staff consulted with an official from the Texas Department of State Health...

  3. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-03-10

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  4. Saving Power at Peak Hours (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2016-07-12

    California needs new, responsive, demand-side energy technologies to ensure that periods of tight electricity supply on the grid don't turn into power outages. Led by Berkeley Lab's Mary Ann Piette, the California Energy Commission (through its Public Interest Energy Research Program) has established a Demand Response Research Center that addresses two motivations for adopting demand responsiveness: reducing average electricity prices and preventing future electricity crises. The research seeks to understand factors that influence "what works" in Demand Response. Piette's team is investigating the two types of demand response, load response and price response, that may influence and reduce the use of peak electric power through automated controls, peak pricing, advanced communications, and other strategies.

  5. Bulk power system performance issues affecting utility peaking capacity additions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a discussion of transmission system constraints and problems that affect the siting and rating of peaking capacity additions. Techniques for addressing and modifying these concerns are presented. Particular attention is paid to techniques that have been successfully used by utilities to improve power transfer and system loadability, while avoiding the construction of additional transmission lines. Proven techniques for dealing with thermal, short-circuit level and stability issues are presented.

  6. Fossil power plant rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of fossil power plants management. Some of the topics discussed were: Creep cavitation assessment using field replication; a remnant life assessment technique based on local strain measurements; a new lease on life for turbine rotors subject to low-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature; creep-fatigue crack growth behaviour of a 1CrMoV Rotor steel; data collection and monitoring; detection of high temperature fossil boiler tube degradation; metallographic studies of degenerative mechanism in fossil fuel fired boiler tubes; eddy current inspection of ferromagnetic materials using pulsed magnetic saturation; cause and prevention of fatigue failures in boiler tubing; design/operator feedback; and on-line monitors for creep and fatigue damage in fossil power plants.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  8. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  9. Peak power of muscles injured by lengthening contractions.

    PubMed

    Widrick, Jeffrey J; Barker, Tyler

    2006-10-01

    Excessive or extreme lengthening contractions have a well-characterized depressive effect on skeletal muscle isometric force. In addition to producing force, active muscles must often shorten in order to meet the power requirements of locomotion and other physical activities. However, the impact of lengthening contractions on muscle power is poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of 20 isometric contractions or 20 lengthening contractions (20% strain at 1.5 fiber lengths/s) on the force-velocity-power relationships of mouse soleus muscles in vitro at 35 degrees C. Pre- and posttreatment data were obtained as the muscles shortened through their optimal length (Lo). The isometric treatment did not alter Lo, the curvature of the force-velocity relationship (a/Po), or soleus maximal shortening velocity (Vmax), whereas peak force (Po) displayed a slow, time-dependent decline of 10% across the experiments. Following the lengthening treatment, Lo increased by 6%, a/Po increased by 22%, and Vmax and Po fell by 24% and 26%, respectively. Under optimal conditions for producing power, muscles damaged by lengthening contractions attained 22% less force and shortened 20% more slowly than before damage. Consequently, soleus peak power fell 37% after lengthening, a 2.5-fold greater decline than noted for the isometric treatment. Under the conditions studied here, the excessive power loss following lengthening contractions was due to force and velocity deficits of approximately equal relative magnitude. Because power represents the ability of the muscle to perform work, reductions in both force and shortening velocity should be considered when evaluating and treating lengthening-induced skeletal muscle injuries.

  10. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    PubMed

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001). Therefore, 60% of the variance of CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls.

  11. Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miller, Clay

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from the Silver Peak Innovative Exploration Project, in Esmeralda County, Nevada, encompasses a “deep-circulation (amagmatic)” meteoric-geothermal system circulating beneath basin-fill sediments locally blanketed with travertine in western Clayton Valley (lithium-rich brines from which have been mined for several decades). Spring- and shallow-borehole thermal-water geochemistry and geothermometry suggest that a Silver Peak geothermal reservoir is very likely to attain the temperature range 260- 300oF (~125-150oC), and may reach 300-340oF (~150-170oC) or higher (GeothermEx, Inc., 2006). Results of detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and conceptual modeling of the prospect (1) support the GeothermEx (op. cit.) assertion that the Silver Peak prospect has good potential for geothermal-power production; and (2) provide a theoretical geologic framework for further exploration and development of the resource. The Silver Peak prospect is situated in the transtensional (regional shearing coupled with extension) Walker Lane structural belt, and squarely within the late Miocene to Pliocene (11 Ma to ~5 Ma) Silver Peak-Lone Mountain metamorphic core complex (SPCC), a feature that accommodated initial displacement transfer between major right-lateral strike- slip fault zones on opposite sides of the Walker Lane. The SPCC consists essentially of a ductiley-deformed lower plate, or “core,” of Proterozoic metamorphic tectonites and tectonized Mesozoic granitoids separated by a regionally extensive, low-angle detachment fault from an upper plate of severely stretched and fractured structural slices of brittle, Proterozoic to Miocene-age lithologies. From a geothermal perspective, the detachment fault itself and some of the upper-plate structural sheets could function as important, if secondary, subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in a Silver Peak hydrothermal system.

  12. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  13. Conversion of Random Vibration Power Spectrum Density to Peak Spectrum by Investigation the Peak Probability Distriution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qinzhong; Niwa, Tomoya

    2014-06-01

    Both vibro-acoustic and shock environments from launch vehicle are usually required for payload of spacecraft by the interface control document. Vibro- acoustic for instruments is defined as power spectrum density (PSD) as a random vibration environment. There exists an argument of assessing the damage potential of both random vibration and shock environment among the overlapped frequency range, typically 20 t o 2000Hz from random vibration test. Some organizations describe the threshold of response spectrum from random vibration PSD for shock significance from the assumption of peak distribution of Gaussian process for random vibration.This paper investigates the theoretical assumption of different method to estimate peak values to a non-wide band Gaussian, which is filtered by a single degree of freedom and its confidence by Monte Carlo, the difference of these methods. The time record of random vibration test is validated to the simulation of Monte Carlo. Furthermore, statistics on non-conformance from different test models, hardware assemblies, and test levels from JAXA non-conformance database are shown.

  14. Delano Biomass Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.; Hendershaw, W.K.; Corbin, H.R.; Taylor, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Delano Biomass Power Plant utilizes orchard prunings, urban wood waste, almond shells, and cotton stalks to fuel a boiler for steam generation. The steam is condensed in a steam turbine/generator to produce 31.8 MW of power. The electrical power generated (27 MW net) is then sold to Southern California Edison Co. for distribution. By incorporating a cooling tower, demineralizer, brine concentration tower, and evaporation ponds this system is able to achieve zero discharge. Steam at 97{degrees}F is condensed with cooling water. The cooling water is recirculated through an evaporator tower. Due to the temperature of the water entering the tower (83{degrees}F), evaporation occurs leaving behind concentrated salts. A blowdown is used to remove these salts from the tower. Losses from evaporation or leaks require make up to the tower. Wastewater from various processes in the plant are passed to a brine concentration tower. This concentrate is then taken to the evaporation ponds. Concentrated blowdown of small volumes (approximately 2-4 gpm) from the brine tower is disposed of in evaporation ponds.

  15. The relationship of AIS to peak virtual power.

    PubMed

    Neal-Sturgess, C E; Hassan, A; Cuerden, R

    2001-01-01

    All injuries require an expenditure of energy. Here it is postulated that injury severity is proportional to Peak Virtual Power (PVP). PVP is compared to AIS scores for frontal impact with belted drivers, for all types of injuries and all body regions, from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) and NASS-CDS databases. The excellent correlations obtained show that the AIS score is linearly proportional to Peak Virtual Power, which is proportional to delta V3 for restrained occupants, and delta V2 for unrestrained occupants. Therefore, although phenomenological, AIS appears to measure a physical quantity. It is concluded that there appears to be a "Master Curve" of AIS versus mean delta V for car occupants, implying that the amount of power for a given injury level is a constant, irrespective of injury type. There appear to be significant differences between the AIS scores for abdominal injuries between CCIS and NASS-CDS, and detailed case studies should be conducted to resolve the differences.

  16. Monolithic high peak-power coherent Doppler lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Leonid V.; Töws, Albert; Kurtz, Alfred; Bobkov, Konstantin K.; Aleshkina, Svetlana S.; Bubnov, Mikhail M.; Lipatov, Denis S.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Likhachev, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a monolithic lidar system, based on a newly-developed double-clad large mode area (LMA) polarization-maintaining Er-doped fiber and specially designed LMA passive components. Optimization of the fiber designs resulted in as high as 100 W of SBS limited peak power. The amplifier and its passive components (circulator and collimator) were integrated in an existing lidar system. The enhanced lidar system provides three times increase of scanning range compared to one based on standard telecom-grade amplifiers.

  17. Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, V. K.; Chen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but future widespread commercialization requires a considerable reduction in capital costs. Determining the appropriate battery size for the intended power range can help minimize the amount of materials needed, thereby reducing capital costs. A physics-based model is an essential tool for predicting the power range of large scale VRFB systems to aid in the design optimization process. This paper presents a modeling framework that accounts for the effects of flow rate on the pumping losses, local mass transfer rate, and nonuniform vanadium concentration in the cell. The resulting low-order model captures battery performance accurately even at high power densities and remains computationally practical for stack-level optimization and control purposes. We first use the model to devise an optimal control strategy that maximizes battery life during discharge. Assuming optimal control is implemented, we then determine the upper efficiency limits of a given VRFB system and compare the net power and associated overpotential and pumping losses at different operating points. We also investigate the effects of varying the electrode porosity, stack temperature, and total vanadium concentration on the peak power.

  18. Compact, 17W average power, 100kW peak power, nanosecond fiber laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracco, Matthieu J.; Logan, David; Green, Jared; Balsley, David; Nelson, Mike; Small, Jay; Mettlen, Scott; Lowder, Tyson L.; McComb, Timothy S.; Kutscha, Tim; Burkholder, Gary; Smith, Michael R.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Randall, Matthew; Fanning, Geoff; Bell, Jake

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a robust, compact, low-cost, pulsed, linearly polarized, 1064 nm, Yb:fiber laser system capable of generating ~100 kW peak power pulses and >17 W average power at repetition rates of 80 - 285 kHz. The system employs a configurable microchip seed laser that provides nanosecond (~1.0 - 1.5 ns) pulse durations. The seed pulses are amplified in an all-fiber, polarization maintaining, large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifier optimized for high peak power operation. The LMA Yb:fiber amplifier enables near diffraction limited beam quality at 100 kW peak power. The seed laser, fiber amplifier, and beam delivery optics are packaged into an air-cooled laser head of 152×330×87 mm3 with pump power provided from a separate air-cooled laser controller. Due to the high peak power, high beam quality, spectral purity, and linearly polarized nature of the output beam, the laser is readily frequency doubled to 532 nm. Average 532 nm powers up to 7 W and peak powers exceeding 40 kW have been demonstrated. Potential for scaling to higher peak and average powers in both the green and infrared (IR) will be discussed. This laser system has been field tested and demonstrated in numerous materials processing applications in both the IR and green, including scribing and marking. We discuss recent results that demonstrate success in processing a diverse array of representative industrial samples.

  19. Financing Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Lee

    1980-12-01

    The reservoir companies are risk takers. They will explore. They will test and measure. They will conduct reservoir engineering. They will conduct reservoir modeling. Their managements will commit funds to develop. Reservoir companies tend to be advocates of their product. They should be more candid. We have heard at this conference of hydrogen sulfide gas problems at The Geysers, injection system and injection well plugging at the SDG&E/DOE Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility, inadequate well production at the East Mesa Reservoir, high injection pressures at the Brawley Reservoir and other real reservoir difficulties. These must be addressed factually and solutions sought. The utilities and/or plant constructors and operators are not risk takers. Under current regulatory structure, they have no incentive to take any risk. They are troubled by perceived risks which may be real or imagined. To put these perceived risks into perspective, the utilities or plant constructors and operators should be involved in exploration and development at an early date. They need a better understanding of the downhole environment. Before they make significant investments on any reservoir, they want to see the reservoir work. To accomplish this, as we have heard at this conference, they are building 10 MW facilities and no one is taking the commercial size step without outside help. The utilities on the panel indicated they would buy geothermal heat if the reservoir operator would guarantee the reservoir for the life of the power plant. Some reservoir operators do not want to do this and those who will want the plant's operation guaranteed via fixed payments for heat or a long-term take-or-pay contract.

  20. Assessment of peak power and short-term work capacity.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Brian R; Rishaug, Peter; Svedahl, Krista

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate conditions for conducting a 30 s Wingate test such as load selection, and the method of starting the test (stationary or flying start). Nine male and four female athletes volunteered to be tested on four laboratory visits. Tests were performed on a modified Monark cycle ergometer (Varberg, Sweden) equipped with force transducers on the friction belt and an optical encoder for velocity measurement. Power was calculated with the moment of inertia (I) of the flywheel taken into consideration. One laboratory visit was used to determine individualized optimal resistance conditions. The other three visits were for performance of one of three Wingate tests: a flying start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) [85 g x kg(-1) body weight (BW)] resistance (FLY-0.8); a stationary start with 0.834 N x kg(-1) BW resistance (ST-0.8), or a stationary start with optimal resistance (ST-OPT). FLY-0.8 gave a lower (P<0.05) value for short-term work capacity [19,986 (827) J] than either ST-OPT [23,014 (1,167) J] or ST-0.8 [22,321 (1075) J]. Peak power output per pedal revolution was lower ( P<0.005) for FLY-0.8 [833 (40) W] than for either ST-0.8 [974 (57) W] or ST-OPT [989 (61) W]. The results of this study demonstrate that higher values for peak power and short-term work capacity are obtained with a test from a stationary start. It is apparently not necessary to use an individualized optimal resistance when I is considered in a Wingate test initiated from a standstill.

  1. ATOMIC POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-11-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactor power plants and discloses a design of a reactor utilizing a mixture of discrete units of a fissionable material, such as uranium carbide, a neutron moderator material, such as graphite, to carry out the chain reaction. A liquid metal, such as bismuth, is used as the coolant and is placed in the reactor chamber with the fissionable and moderator material so that it is boiled by the heat of the reaction, the boiling liquid and vapors passing up through the interstices between the discrete units. The vapor and flue gases coming off the top of the chamber are passed through heat exchangers, to produce steam, for example, and thence through condensers, the condensed coolant being returned to the chamber by gravity and the non- condensible gases being carried off through a stack at the top of the structure.

  2. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Photovoltaic Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Elliot

    1986-11-01

    To demonstrate technical viability of photovoltaic modules in central, grid connected energy systems, ARCO Solar, Inc. has designed, installed and is operating two photovoltaic power plants on the megawatt scale. These systems use two-axis tracking. The first generation plant in Lugo (Hesperia), California, with a nominal rating of one MWpk (DC)" was installed in 1982 in the Southern California Edison Company grid. The second system, rated at 6.4 MWDk (DC), is located in the Carrisa Plain in California and connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid. Based on the cost and performance data from these installations, an assessment of the current status and future needs of large scale photovoltaic energy systems is made. With each new system, improved techniques of design, installation and system integration have been developed. Expectations have been confirmed as to the performance and adaptability of solar cells, especially the ease of incremental increases in capacity when needed. Modular photovoltaic systems have been found to be easy to build and operate, and to be highly reliable. Prologue: Technological advancement usually requires good science and logical engineering. In the main, faith, persistence and feel are also required. Rule: The balance-of-system costs for photovoltaic energy systems equal photovoltaic module costs. Photovoltaic systems have progressed to their current stage of high promise because of faith, persistence, feel and belief in this rule.

  7. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  8. Development and application of high peak power ultrafast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai-Wen

    1999-10-01

    A compact, three-stage, multipass Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system has been developed that generates >40 TW pulses, with 24 fs pulse duration, at a repetition rate of 10Hz, and with an average power of 10 W. Output intensities in excess of 1 × 1019 W/cm2 have been produced. The technique of frequency-resolved optical gating was used to fully characterize the output pulses, and to carefully compare theoretical models with experiment. High dynamic range FROG measurements have been performed for the first time to characterize the temporal wings of the output pulses. Ultrafast lasers has been used to generate high-order harmonies. The shortest wavelength we observe, at 2.7 nm, is well within the ``water window'' region of x-ray transmission. In the case of all the noble gases, excellent agreement has been obtained between theoretical predictions for the highest harmonic photon energy generated and our experimental observations. We also observe that the individual harmonic peaks near the cutoff are well resolved for positively chirped pump pulses, but are unresolved in the case of negatively chirped excitation pulses. This behavior is explained by simulations that combine the chirp of the laser with the intrinsic phase shift of the harmonics. We have demonstrated that the intrinsic phase of the harmonic emission can be controlled by adjusting the chirp of the excitation laser pulse. Short wavelength recombinational x-ray lasers using high peak power ultrafast laser interaction with small clusters has also been investigated. A model has been developed to simulate this process. The model predicts that this is a feasible scheme to scale the recombinational x-ray laser to short wavelength. Experimental results have verified the hydrodynamic evolution predicted by this model.

  9. Wave action power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, L.V.

    1982-03-16

    A wave action power plant powered by the action of water waves has a drive shaft rotated by a plurality of drive units, each having a lever pivotally mounted on and extending from said shaft and carrying a weight, in the form of a float, which floats on the waves and rocks the lever up and down on the shaft. A ratchet mechanism causes said shaft to be rotated in one direction by the weight of said float after it has been raised by wave and the wave has passed, leaving said float free to move downwardly by gravity and apply its full weight to pull down on the lever and rotate the drive shaft. There being a large number of said drive units so that there are always some of the weights pulling down on their respective levers while other weights are being lifted by waves and thereby causing continuous rotation of the drive shaft in one direction. The said levers are so mounted that they may be easily raised to bring the weights into a position wherein they are readily accessible for cleaning the bottoms thereof to remove any accumulation of barnacles, mollusks and the like. There is also provided means for preventing the weights from colliding with each other as they independently move up and down on the waves.

  10. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 50% load rejection transient

    SciTech Connect

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G.; Hiltbrand, D.W.; Devore, C.V.

    1994-12-31

    The RETRAN-02 codes is used for the transient and accident analysis. Benchmarks have been performed in order to qualify the Comanche Pear Steam electric station (CPSES) RETRAN-02 model, particularly the protection and control systems , reactivity feedback, noding, and primary-to-secondary heat transfer modeling. The 50% load rejection test was performed as part of the initial start-up test sequence for CPSES-1. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the RETRAN-02 model of CPSES-1 allows for quite good predictions of (1) the primary-to-secondary heat transfer rate; (2) the core power response, including the reactivity feedback effects due to changes in moderator and fuel temperatures and control rod position; and (3) the rod control model, which correctly simulates actual plant response in which the control rods are inserted and withdrawn in response to temperature and power error signals.

  11. Optical Parametric Amplification for High Peak and Average Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, Igor

    2001-11-26

    Optical parametric amplification is an established broadband amplification technology based on a second-order nonlinear process of difference-frequency generation (DFG). When used in chirped pulse amplification (CPA), the technology has been termed optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). OPCPA holds a potential for producing unprecedented levels of peak and average power in optical pulses through its scalable ultrashort pulse amplification capability and the absence of quantum defect, respectively. The theory of three-wave parametric interactions is presented, followed by a description of the numerical model developed for nanosecond pulses. Spectral, temperature and angular characteristics of OPCPA are calculated, with an estimate of pulse contrast. An OPCPA system centered at 1054 nm, based on a commercial tabletop Q-switched pump laser, was developed as the front end for a large Nd-glass petawatt-class short-pulse laser. The system does not utilize electro-optic modulators or multi-pass amplification. The obtained overall 6% efficiency is the highest to date in OPCPA that uses a tabletop commercial pump laser. The first compression of pulses amplified in highly nondegenerate OPCPA is reported, with the obtained pulse width of 60 fs. This represents the shortest pulse to date produced in OPCPA. Optical parametric amplification in {beta}-barium borate was combined with laser amplification in Ti:sapphire to produce the first hybrid CPA system, with an overall conversion efficiency of 15%. Hybrid CPA combines the benefits of high gain in OPCPA with high conversion efficiency in Ti:sapphire to allow significant simplification of future tabletop multi-terawatt sources. Preliminary modeling of average power limits in OPCPA and pump laser design are presented, and an approach based on cascaded DFG is proposed to increase the average power beyond the single-crystal limit. Angular and beam quality effects in optical parametric amplification are modeled

  12. The year 2000 power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies.

  13. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  14. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    SciTech Connect

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  15. Microprocessor control of power sharing and solar array peak power tracking for high power (2. 5 kW) switching power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system of twin power converters for solar array supplement of spacecraft power buses is described. Analog circuits are used for inner control loops and a microprocessor directs power sharing and peak power tracking. 3 refs.

  16. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  17. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  18. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  20. Peak Power Control with an Energy Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Bipolar Transistor I/O Input/Output ISE Integrated Software Environment IPM Integrated Power Module JTAG Joint Test Action Group PC Personal...O) ports, an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power module, power supply, voltage/current sensors, analog/digital (A/D) converters...an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power module, power supply, voltage/current sensors, analog/digital (A/D) converters, transistor

  1. Power plant profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakansi, J.

    1997-03-01

    The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant.

  2. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  4. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  6. High peak power ultrafast Cr:ZnSe oscillator and power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodchikov, Evgeny; Chieffo, Logan R.; Wall, Kevin F.

    2016-03-01

    Q-Peak Inc. has developed a Cr:ZnSe based femtosecond oscillator - power amplifier laser operating in the 2.5-μm region. The system generates 1 mJ per pulse at a 1-kHz repetition rate with a pulse duration of 184 fs, corresponding to a peak power of 5 GW. To the best of our knowledge this represents a record power for this spectral region. The highpeak power source utilizes a hybrid laser architecture, combining efficient fiber-laser pumping with solid state crystals. A Tm:fiber laser pumped, SESAM-initiated, Cr:ZnSe femtosecond oscillator provides a seed for chirped pulse amplification. The oscillator outputs 50-fs pulses that are stretched in a grating pulse stretcher and then amplified in a chain consisting of a regenerative amplifier and two stages of linear amplifiers all based on Cr:ZnSe. The pump power for amplification is provided by a Q-switched, high repetition rate, Ho:YLF laser, which in turn, is pumped by a high power Tm:fiber laser. The amplified pulses are compressed by a grating pulse compressor, resulting in 1 W of average power at a 1-kHz repetition rate. This laser system represents the state-of-the-art in short-pulse duration, pulse energy, and beam quality in this IR spectral range.

  7. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  8. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  9. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  10. Power plant development at Mammoth Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, B.; Campbell, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    The Mammoth Geothermal Project is located within the Long Valley Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) on the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California some 300 miles north of Los Angeles. The plant is owned by Mammoth-Pacific (M-P), a joint venture of Pacific Energy Resources Incorporated and Mammoth Binary Power Company. The plan is to build two identical 3500 kW (net) air-cooled binary cycle geothermal power plants scheduled for completion in mid 1984. Nearly all the residential and commercial space heating in the Mammoth Lakes area is electrical. Electrical usage peaks in the wintertime, unlike the rest of the Edison system. While some power is provided by hydro plants in the area, most of the Edison supply arrives via a transmission line connecting to Edison facilities in the Mojave desert some 200 miles to the south. Peak power consumption in the area is about 40 MWe. The need to augment energy needs in the area by producing electricity from geothermal resources and using geothermal heat to replace electricity for space heating has long been recognized. The feasibility of this project is discussed.

  11. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  12. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kistner, Rainer; Price, Henry W.

    1999-04-14

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier’s perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  13. Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr... Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (From 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2003 for 12 months) Nikolai Konstantinovich Chemeris...International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow. 2 ISTC 2350 Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

  14. The effect of crank rate strategy on peak aerobic power and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul M; Doherty, Mike; Price, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine whether the use of an imposed or freely chosen crank rate would influence submaximal and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. Fifteen physically active men participated in the study. Their mean age, height, and body mass were 25.9 (s = 6.2) years, 1.80 (s = 0.10) m, and 78.4 (s = 6.1) kg, respectively. The participants performed two incremental peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) tests using an electronically braked ergometer. One test was performed using an imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1), whereas in the other the participants used spontaneously chosen crank rates. The order in which the tests were performed was randomized, and they were separated by at least 2 days. Respiratory data were collected using an on-line gas analysis system, and fingertip capillary blood samples ( approximately 20 microl) were collected for the determination of blood lactate concentration. Heart rate was also recorded throughout the tests. Time to exhaustion was measured and peak aerobic power calculated. Submaximal data were analysed using separate two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance, while differences in peak values were analysed using separate paired t-tests. Variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were assessed using a one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Agreement between the crank rate strategies for the assessment of peak values was examined by calculating intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA). While considerable between-participant variations in spontaneously chosen crank rate were observed, the mean value was not different (P > 0.05) from the imposed crank rate of 80 rev x min(-1) at any point. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed for submaximal data between crank strategies. Furthermore, mean peak minute power [158 (s = 20) vs. 158 (s = 18) W], time to exhaustion [739 (s = 118) vs. 727 (s = 111) s], and VO(2peak)[3.09 (s = 0

  15. Fiberglass plastics in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.

    2007-08-15

    Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRPs) are replacing metal in FGDs, stacks, tanks, cooling towers, piping and other plant components. The article documents the use of FRP in power plants since the 1970s. The largest volume of FRP in North American power plants is for stack liners and ductwork. Absorber vessel shells and internal components comprise the third largest use. The most common FRP absorber vessels are known as jet bubbling reactors (JBRs). One of the largest JBRs at a plant on the Ohio River removes 99% of sulphur dioxide from high sulphur coal flue gas. FRPs last twice as long as wood structures when used for cooling towers and require less maintenance. 1 tab., 2 photos.

  16. Replacing baseload power plants with wind plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Baseload nuclear power plants supply about 21 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States today, and as these plants are retired over the next 10 to 25 years, they will not be replicated. This will open a vast market for new generating facilities which should, if possible, be non-fossil fueled. Wind energy baseload systems are able to equal or exceed the technical performance of these nuclear plants at a delivered cost of energy of less than $0.05/kWh in wind class 4 regions. However, unless a new externality (the cost of maintaining the security of fossil fuel supply) is factored in to the extremely low market price of fossil fuels, wind and other renewable energy resources will not be able to compete with these fuels on the basis of simple economics over the next 20 to 30 years.

  17. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  18. State power plant productivity programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  19. Geothermal Power Plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

  20. High Peak Power Ka-Band Gyrotron Oscillator Experiment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-21

    has also demonstrated frequency tuning over the range 28 to 49 GHz by operating in a family of TE.’ modes, with the azimuthal index m ranging from 4 to...10, by Varia- tion of the guide magnetic field. Operation is in general agrement with the predictions of theory. 1% 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABIUTY OF...proved to be highly efficient, exceptionally high average power millimeter-wave sources.1 Operating at moderate currents and voltages (typically, S50

  1. Appropriate Loads for Peak-Power During Resisted Sprinting on a Non-Motorized Treadmill

    PubMed Central

    Andre, Matthew J.; Fry, Andrew C.; Lane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the load which allows the highest peak power for resisted sprinting on a non-motorized treadmill and to determine if other variables are related to individual differences. Thirty college students were tested for vertical jump, vertical jump peak and mean power, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, leg press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM relative to body weight, leg press 1 RM relative to lean body mass, leg press 1 RM power, and leg press power at 80% of 1 RM. Participants performed eight resisted sprints on a non-motorized treadmill, with increasing relative loads expressed as percent of body weight. Sprint peak power was measured for each load. Pearson correlations were used to determine if relationships between the sprint peak power load and the other variables were significant. The sprint peak power load had a mode of 35% with 73% of all participants having a relative sprint peak power load between 25–35%. Significant correlations occurred between sprint peak power load and body weight, lean body mass, vertical jump peak and mean power, leg press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM relative to lean body mass, leg press 1 RM power, and leg press power at 80% of 1 RM (r = 0.44, 0.43, 0.39, 0.37, 0.47, 0.39, 0.46, and 0.47, respectively). Larger, stronger, more powerful athletes produced peak power at a higher relative load during resisted sprinting on a non-motorized treadmill. PMID:24233103

  2. Relationships among peak power output, peak bar velocity, and mechanomyographic amplitude during the free-weight bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M; Dillon, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude, power output, and bar velocity during the free-weight bench press exercise. Twenty-one resistance-trained men [one-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press = 125.4+18.4 kg] performed bench press muscle actions as explosively as possible from 10% to 90% of the 1-RM while peak power output and peak bar velocity were assessed with a TENDO Weightlifting Analyzer. During each muscle action, surface MMG signals were detected from the right and left pectoralis major and triceps brachii, and the concentric portion of the range of motion was selected for analysis. Results indicated that power output increased from 10% to 50% 1-RM, followed by decreases from 50% to 90% 1-RM, but MMG amplitude for each of the muscles increased from 10 to 80% 1-RM. The results of this study indicate that during the free-weight bench press exercise, MMG amplitude was not related to power output, but was inversely related to bar velocity and directly related to the external load being lifted. In future research, coaches and sport scientists may be able to estimate force/torque production from individual muscles during multi-joint, dynamic constant external resistance muscle actions.

  3. Power Plant Model Validation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-12

    The PPMV is used to validate generator model using disturbance recordings. The PPMV tool contains a collection of power plant models and model validation studies, as well as disturbance recordings from a number of historic grid events. The user can import data from a new disturbance into the database, which converts PMU and SCADA data into GE PSLF format, and then run the tool to validate (or invalidate) the model for a specific power plant against its actual performance. The PNNL PPMV tool enables the automation of the process of power plant model validation using disturbance recordings. The tool uses PMU and SCADA measurements as input information. The tool automatically adjusts all required EPCL scripts and interacts with GE PSLF in the batch mode. The main tool features includes: The tool interacts with GE PSLF; The tool uses GE PSLF Play-In Function for generator model validation; Database of projects (model validation studies); Database of the historic events; Database of the power plant; The tool has advanced visualization capabilities; and The tool automatically generates reports

  4. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  5. High peak power gyroklystron with an inverted magnetron injection gun

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Michael E.; Lawson, Wesley; Miram, George; Marsden, David; Borchard, Philipp

    2005-12-01

    Calabazas Creek Research Inc. (CCR) has investigated the feasibility of a 30 GHz gyroklystron amplifier for driving advanced accelerators. Gyroklystrons have been shown to be efficient sources of high power radiation at frequencies above X-Band and are, therefore, well suited for driving high frequency accelerators. CCR's gyroklystron design includes a novel inverted magnetron injection gun (MIG) that allows support and cooling of the coaxial inner conductor of the circuit. This novel gun provides a very high quality electron beam, making it possible to achieve a cavity design with an efficiency of 54%. During Phase I, it was determined that the original frequency of 17 GHz was no longer well matched to the potential market. A survey of accelerator needs identified the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) as requiring 30 GHz sources for testing of accelerator structures. Developers at CLIC are seeking approximately 25 MW per tube. This will result in the same power density as in the original 80 MW, 17 GHz device and will thus have essentially the same risk. CLIC will require initially 3-4 tubes and eventually 12-16 tubes. This quantity represents $5M-$10M in sales. In addition, gyroklystrons are of interest for radar systems and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) instruments. Following discussions with the Department of Energy, it was determined that changing the program goal to the CLIC requirement was in the best interest of CCR and the funding agency. The Phase I program resulted in a successful gyroklystron design with a calculated efficiency of 54% with an output power of 33 MW. Design calculations for all critical components are complete, and no significant technical issues remain.

  6. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p < 0.01, partial η2 = 0.88). Results of the Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that peak power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  7. Optimized versus corrected peak power during friction-braked cycle ergometry in males and females.

    PubMed

    James, David V B; Wood, Dan M; Maberly, Tom C B; De Ste Croix, Mark

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare optimization and correction procedures for the determination of peak power output during friction-loaded cycle ergometry. Ten male and 10 female sports students each performed five 10-s sprints from a stationary start on a Monark 864 basket-loaded ergometer. Resistive loads of 5.0, 6.5, 8.0, 9.5, and 11.0% body weight were administered in a counterbalanced order, with a recovery period of 10 min between sprints. Peak power was greater and occurred earlier, with less work having been done before the attainment of peak power, when the data were corrected to account for the inertial and frictional characteristics of the ergometer. Corrected peak power was independent of resistive load (P > 0.05), whereas uncorrected peak power varied as a quadratic function of load (P < 0.001). For males and females, optimized peak power (971 +/- 122 and 668 +/- 37 W) was lower (P < 0.01) than either the highest (1074 +/- 111 and 754 +/- 56 W respectively) or the mean (1007 +/- 125 and 701 +/- 45 W respectively) of the five values for corrected peak power. Optimized and mean corrected peak power were highly correlated both in males (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and females (r = 0.96, P < 0.001). The difference between optimized and mean corrected peak power was 37 +/- 30 W in males and 33 +/- 14 W in females, of which approximately 15 W was due to the correction for frictional losses. We conclude that corrected peak power is independent of resistive load in males and females.

  8. Today's central receiver power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, D. J.; Kolb, G. J.; Chavez, J. M.

    1991-04-01

    For 15 years, the United States Department of Energy has worked with industry, both utilities and manufacturers, to develop the technology of solar central receiver power plants. In this type of plant, sunlight is concentrated by a field of sun-tracking mirrors, called heliostats, onto a centrally located receiver. The solar energy is collected in the form of a heated fluid, which is used to generate steam to power a conventional turbine generator. For a number of reasons, molten nitrate salt is now the preferred heat transfer fluid. Commercial plants will be sized between 100 and 200 MW. The impetus for developing central receivers comes from their unique advantages: (1) they produce clean, reliable, low-cost electricity; (2) they have practical energy storage that provides a high degree of dispatchability (annually up to 60 percent) - without fossil fuels; and (3) they are environmentally benign. Development efforts around the world have brought the technology to the brink of commercialization: The technical feasibility has been proven, and cost, performance, and reliability can be confidently predicted. Plans are currently being developed for the final steps toward commercial central receiver power plants.

  9. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  10. Variability in Laboratory vs. Field Testing of Peak Power, Torque, and Time of Peak Power Production Among Elite Bicycle Motocross Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variation in elite male bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists' peak power, torque, and time of power production during laboratory and field-based testing. Eight elite male BMX riders volunteered for the study, and each rider completed 3 maximal sprints using both a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) ergometer in the laboratory and a portable SRM power meter on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The results revealed a significantly higher peak power (p ≤ 0.001, 34 ± 9%) and reduced time of power production (p ≤ 0.001, 105 ± 24%) in the field tests when compared with laboratory-derived values. Torque was also reported to be lower in the laboratory tests but not to an accepted level of significance (p = 0.182, 6 ± 8%). These results suggest that field-based testing may be a more effective and accurate measure of a BMX rider's peak power, torque, and time of power production.

  11. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  12. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    1994-09-01

    Toroidal magnetic systems offer the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They have, between them, all the features needed; however, no one system yet meets the ideal requirements. The tokamak is the most advanced system, and the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will build upon the existing program to prepare for an advanced tokamak demonstration plant. Complementary toroidal systems such as the spherical torus, stellarator, reversed-field pinch, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak offer, between them, potential advantages in each area and should be studied in a balanced fusion development program.

  13. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  14. 2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Potomac Power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  15. World electric power plants database

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-15

    This global database provides records for 104,000 generating units in over 220 countries. These units include installed and projected facilities, central stations and distributed plants operated by utilities, independent power companies and commercial and self-generators. Each record includes information on: geographic location and operating company; technology, fuel and boiler; generator manufacturers; steam conditions; unit capacity and age; turbine/engine; architect/engineer and constructor; and pollution control equipment. The database is issued quarterly.

  16. Estimation of cardiac reserve by peak power: validation and initial application of a simplified index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G. P.; Carlier, S. G.; Fukamachi, K.; Thomas, J. D.; Marwick, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate a simplified estimate of peak power (SPP) against true (invasively measured) peak instantaneous power (TPP), to assess the feasibility of measuring SPP during exercise and to correlate this with functional capacity. DESIGN: Development of a simplified method of measurement and observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiothoracic disease. SUBJECTS: For validation of SPP with TPP, seven normal dogs and four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. To assess feasibility and clinical significance in humans, 40 subjects were studied (26 patients; 14 normal controls). METHODS: In the animal validation study, TPP was derived from ascending aortic pressure and flow probe, and from Doppler measurements of flow. SPP, calculated using the different flow measures, was compared with peak instantaneous power under different loading conditions. For the assessment in humans, SPP was measured at rest and during maximum exercise. Peak aortic flow was measured with transthoracic continuous wave Doppler, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were derived from brachial sphygmomanometry. The difference between exercise and rest simplified peak power (Delta SPP) was compared with maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), measured from expired gas analysis. RESULTS: SPP estimates using peak flow measures correlated well with true peak instantaneous power (r = 0.89 to 0.97), despite marked changes in systemic pressure and flow induced by manipulation of loading conditions. In the human study, VO(2)max correlated with Delta SPP (r = 0.78) better than Delta ejection fraction (r = 0.18) and Delta rate-pressure product (r = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: The simple product of mean arterial pressure and peak aortic flow (simplified peak power, SPP) correlates with peak instantaneous power over a range of loading conditions in dogs. In humans, it can be estimated during exercise echocardiography, and correlates with maximum oxygen uptake better than ejection

  17. Estimation of cardiac reserve by peak power: validation and initial application of a simplified index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, G. P.; Carlier, S. G.; Fukamachi, K.; Thomas, J. D.; Marwick, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To validate a simplified estimate of peak power (SPP) against true (invasively measured) peak instantaneous power (TPP), to assess the feasibility of measuring SPP during exercise and to correlate this with functional capacity. DESIGN: Development of a simplified method of measurement and observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiothoracic disease. SUBJECTS: For validation of SPP with TPP, seven normal dogs and four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. To assess feasibility and clinical significance in humans, 40 subjects were studied (26 patients; 14 normal controls). METHODS: In the animal validation study, TPP was derived from ascending aortic pressure and flow probe, and from Doppler measurements of flow. SPP, calculated using the different flow measures, was compared with peak instantaneous power under different loading conditions. For the assessment in humans, SPP was measured at rest and during maximum exercise. Peak aortic flow was measured with transthoracic continuous wave Doppler, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were derived from brachial sphygmomanometry. The difference between exercise and rest simplified peak power (Delta SPP) was compared with maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), measured from expired gas analysis. RESULTS: SPP estimates using peak flow measures correlated well with true peak instantaneous power (r = 0.89 to 0.97), despite marked changes in systemic pressure and flow induced by manipulation of loading conditions. In the human study, VO(2)max correlated with Delta SPP (r = 0.78) better than Delta ejection fraction (r = 0.18) and Delta rate-pressure product (r = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: The simple product of mean arterial pressure and peak aortic flow (simplified peak power, SPP) correlates with peak instantaneous power over a range of loading conditions in dogs. In humans, it can be estimated during exercise echocardiography, and correlates with maximum oxygen uptake better than ejection

  18. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  19. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    DOEpatents

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  20. Development and Production of a 201 MHz, 5.0 MW Peak Power Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, Galen; Eisen, Edward; Stockwell, Brad; Begum, rasheda; Lenci, Steve; Eisner, Rick; Cesca, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Communications & Power Industries LLC has designed and manufactured the VKP-8201A, a high peak power, high gain, VHF band klystron. The klystron operates at 201.25 MHz, with 5.0 MW peak output power, 34 kW average output power, and a gain of 36 dB. The klystron is designed to operate between 1.0 MW and 4.5 MW in the linear range of the transfer curve. The klystron utilizes a unique magnetic field which enables the use of a proven electron gun design with a larger electron beam requirement. Experimental and predicted performance data are compared.

  1. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  2. Peak versus mean propulsive power outputs: which is more closely related to jump squat performance?

    PubMed

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pai, Chi N

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the predictive value of muscle power (peak power, mean power until the peak-velocity or mean propulsive power) in relation to the jump height achieved during the jump squat performed at different loads. One hundred and ninety-four elite athletes performed jump squats against loads corresponding to 40%, 60%, and 80% of their respective body mass. A linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between muscle power expressions and jump squat height. The coefficient of determination (R2) in the different linear regression models between muscle power-related variables and jump squat height, for the different load ranges, varied from 0.50 to 0.57 (for absolute power values) and from 0.72 to 0.78 (for relative power values [W/kg]). The mean propulsive power presented similar capacity to predict the jump squat height as the peak power-related values. For all analyzed variables, this prediction power was increased when the absolute power values were normalized by the individuals' body mass. Selection of the values related to the mean propulsive phase to assess top-level athletes might be considered as an advantageous alternative, due to its adequacy to properly reflect the neuromuscular potential of the subjects in both ballistic and traditional exercises.

  3. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  4. Com Edison hopes to use nuclear plants for peaking power

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.

    1993-10-04

    This article is a review of future plans by Commonwealth Edison to better utilize its large base-loaded nuclear generating capability by utilizing flywheels with superconducting magnetic bearings as energy storage devices. Recent breakthroughs in this technology have prompted the utility to envision 2,000 one megawatt capacity flywheels storing energy by the end of this decade. The utility has also expressed considerable interest in the superconducting magnetic energy storage system, but it is noted that the flywheel system has many advantages. Additionally, the cost per installed kilowatt of the flywheel system is about $500.00.

  5. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  6. Plant data comparisons for Comanche Peak 1/2 main feedwater pump trip transient

    SciTech Connect

    Boatwright, W.J.; Choe, W.G; Hiltbrand, D.W.

    1995-09-01

    A RETRAN-02 MOD5 model of Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station was developed by TU Electric for the purpose of performing core reload safety analyses. In order to qualify this model, comparisons against plant transient data from a partial loss of main feedwater flow were performed. These comparisons demonstrated that good representations of the plant response could be obtained with RETRAN-02 and the user-developed models of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and plant control systems.

  7. Dirty kilowatts: America's most polluting power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-15

    In 2006, the US EPA tracked more than 1,400 fossil-fired power plants of varying sizes through its Acid Rain Program. This report ranks each of the 378 largest plants (generating at least 2 million megawatt-hours in 2006) for which both the most recent EPA emissions data and Energy Information Administration (EIA) electric generation data are available. The report ranks each plant based on emission rates, or pounds of pollutant for each megawatt-hour (or million megawatt-hours, in the case of mercury) the plant produced. It ranks the top fifty power plants polluters for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and mercury. A complete listing of all 378 plants is included as Appendix A. Appendix B contains overheads of an NETL presentation: Tracking new coal-fired power plants - coal's resurgence in electric power generation, 24 January 2007. The 12 states with the heaviest concentrations of the dirtiest power plants, in terms of total tons of carbon dioxide emitted, are: Texas (five, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Pennsylvania (four); Indiana (four, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Alabama (three); Georgia (three, including two of the top three dirtiest plants); North Carolina (three); Ohio (three); West Virginia (three); Wyoming (two); Florida (two); Kentucky (two); and New Mexico (two). Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants are now at roughly 2.5 billion tons per year. Power plants are responsible for about 30%-40% of all man-made CO{sub 2} emissions in the USA. Power plants, especially those that burn coal, are by far the largest single contributor of SO{sub 2} pollution in the United States. Power plant mercury emissions remain steady as compared to previous years. A searchable database ranking 378 U.S. power plants on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury pollution is available online at http://www.dirtykilowatts.org. 22 refs., 8 tabs., 2 apps.

  8. Dynamical behavior and peak power reduction in a pair of energy storage oscillators coupled by delayed power price.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Akira; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates dynamics of a management system for controlling a pair of energy storages. The system involves the following two characteristics: each storage behaves in a manner that reduces the number of charge noncharge cycles and begins to be charged when the price of power is lower than a particular price threshold. The price is proportional to the past total power flow from a power grid to all storages. A peak of the total power flow occurs when these storages are charged simultaneously. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, the energy storages can be considered as relaxation oscillators coupled by a delay connection. Our analytical results suggest that the peak can be reduced by inducing an antiphase synchronization in coupled oscillators. We confirm these analytical results through numerical simulations. In addition, we numerically investigate the dynamical behavior in 10 storages and find that time delay in the connection is important in reducing the peak.

  9. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  10. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D E; Crecelius, E A; Fruchter, J S; Ludwick, J D

    1977-06-03

    Geothermal steam used for power production contains significant quantities of volatile mercury. Much of this mercury escapes to the atmosphere as elemental mercury vapor in cooling tower exhausts. Mercury emissions from geothermal power plants, on a per megawatt (electric) basis, are comparable to releases from coal-fired power plants.

  11. Cost analysis of power plant cooling using aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Drost, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Most utilities in the US experience their peak demand for electric power during periods with high ambient temperature. Unfortunately, the performance of many power plants decreases with high ambient temperature. The use of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for seasonal storage of chill can be an alternative method for heat rejection. Cold water produced during the previous winter is stored in the aquifer and can be used to provide augmented cooling during peak demand periods increasing the output of many Rankine cycle power plants. This report documents an investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage for peak cooling of power plants. 9 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. 14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. 4415, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  13. 15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power copy of drawing, August 21, 1915. POWER PLANT EXTENSION, GENERAL PLANS. Drawing No. PA-A-36692, Facilities Engineering, Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, Massachusetts. - Watertown Arsenal, Building No. 60, Arsenal Street, Watertown, Middlesex County, MA

  14. Peak Power Output Test on a Rowing Ergometer: A Methodological Study.

    PubMed

    Metikos, Boris; Mikulic, Pavle; Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the peak power output test on a rowing ergometer (Concept II Model D Inc.) and to establish the "optimal resistance" at which this peak power output was observed in 87 participants with varying levels of physical activity and rowing expertise: 15 male and 12 female physically inactive students (age: 21 ± 2 years), 16 male and 20 female physically active students (age: 23 ± 2 years), and 15 male and 9 female trained rowers (age: 19 ± 2 years). The participants performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test on a force plate, followed by 3 maximal-effort rowing trials using the lowest, medium, and the highest adjustable resistance settings (i.e., "1", "5," and "10" on the resistance control dial on the ergometer) in randomized order. The test proved to be reliable (coefficients of variation: 2.6-6.5%; intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.87-0.98). The correlation coefficients between CMJ peak power and rowing peak power (both in watts per kilogram) were fairly consistent across all 3 groups of participants and resistance levels, ranging between r = 0.70 and r = 0.78. Finally, the highest power output was observed at the highest resistance setting in 2 nonathletic groups (p < 0.01), whereas rowers seem to produce the highest power output at the moderate-resistance setting. We conclude that the power output test on a Concept II rowing ergometer may serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing whole-body peak power output in untrained individuals and rowing athletes.

  15. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  16. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    PubMed

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  17. VERSE-Guided Numerical RF Pulse Design: A Fast Method for Peak RF Power Control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeho; Grissom, William A.; Lustig, Michael; Kerr, Adam B.; Stang, Pascal P.; Pauly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel excitation, the computational speed of numerical radiofrequency (RF) pulse design methods is critical when subject dependencies and system nonidealities need to be incorporated on-the-fly. One important concern with optimization-based methods is high peak RF power exceeding hardware or safety limits. Hence, online controllability of the peak RF power is essential. Variable-rate selective excitation pulse reshaping is ideally suited to this problem due to its simplicity and low computational cost. In this work, we first improve the fidelity of variable-rate selective excitation implementation for discrete-time waveforms through waveform oversampling such that variable-rate selective excitation can be robustly applied to numerically designed RF pulses. Then, a variable-rate selective excitation-guided numerical RF pulse design is suggested as an online RF pulse design framework, aiming to simultaneously control peak RF power and compensate for off-resonance. PMID:22135085

  18. Neuroscience imaging enabled by new highly tunable and high peak power femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.

    2017-02-01

    Neuroscience applications benefit from recent developments in industrial femtosecond laser technology. New laser sources provide several megawatts of peak power at wavelength of 1040 nm, which enables simultaneous optogenetics photoactivation of tens or even hundreds of neurons using red shifted opsins. Another recent imaging trend is to move towards longer wavelengths, which would enable access to deeper layers of tissue due to lower scattering and lower absorption in the tissue. Femtosecond lasers pumping a non-collinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) enable the access to longer wavelengths with high peak powers. High peak powers of >10 MW at 1300 nm and 1700 nm allow effective 3-photon excitation of green and red shifted calcium indicators respectively and access to deeper, sub-cortex layers of the brain. Early results include in vivo detection of spontaneous activity in hippocampus within an intact mouse brain, where neurons express GCaMP6 activated in a 3-photon process at 1320 nm.

  19. Pulsed laser excitation power dependence of photoluminescence peak energies in bulk ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Giang T.; Kanbe, Hiroshi; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2011-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of hydrothermal bulk ZnO were measured in the temperature range from 5 to 298 K. The sample was excited by means of the 266-nm line of an Nd3+: YAG Q-switched pulsed laser with numerous average excitation powers in the range from 0.33 to 7.50 mW. At constant temperatures, the most intense PL peak red-shifts with average excitation power, whereas positions of other near-band-edge peaks remain unchanged. It was experimentally proven that the red-shift is not due to local heating at the excited spot. Rather, it is due to relaxation of photoexcited carriers to lower energy transitions as the most intense transition is saturated by high excitation photon density. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of energy of the most intense PL peak was fitted with the Varshni equation. The Varshni coefficients α and β decrease with increasing pulsed laser excitation power.

  20. Hydrogen as an activating fuel for a tidal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlov, A. M.

    Tidal projects, offering a clean, inexhaustible, and fairly predictable energy source, require a system for accumulating energy for off-peak periods. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis during off-peak power plant operation can be used as an activating fuel to furnish the plant during peak load demands. Tidal energy is converted into compressed air energy by special chambers on the ocean bed. This compressed air can be heated by combustion of the stored hydrogen and expanded through high speed gas turbine generators. For off-peak periods, the energy of non-heated compressed air is used for the production of hydrogen fuel. The amount of fuel produced at this time is enough for power plant operation during two peak hours, with three times greater plant capacity. The hydrogen fuel storage method does have energy losses and requires extra capital investment for electrolysis and hydrogen storage equipment. It does not, however, require a gas turbine oil fuel, as does the air compressed storage method, nor a low-speed heavy hydro-turbine, as does the hydro-pumped method. Moreover, the gas turbine can be used for both production and consumption of hydrogen fuel.

  1. Effect of individual time to peak power output on the expression of peak power output in the 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test.

    PubMed

    Bell, W; Cobner, D M

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to examine a proposal which stated that individual power values should be aligned according to peak power output (PPO) before calculating the mean value of PPO. This procedure removes the variation in time it takes for individuals to reach PPO. Participants were forty-one University Rugby Union Football players of mean age 21.7 +/- 2.6 years, height 181.4 +/- 6.9 cm and body mass 88.9 +/- 12.7 kg. Data were collected using a friction-belt cycle ergometer (Monark 864, Varberg, Sweden). A significantly larger mean value for PPO was found when results were calculated from time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data (1154 +/- 246 vs. 1121 +/- 254 W, p < 0.0001); the mean difference was approximately 3 %. Additionally, the average profile of the power output curve was more reflective of individual power curves. The negative correlation between PPO and the time taken to reach PPO was - 0.32 (p < 0.05), confirming the view that the earlier the time taken to reach PPO the larger the PPO. It was concluded that the mean value of PPO and the corresponding profile for power output curves are best represented by the analysis of time-aligned rather than cross-sectional data.

  2. Design and analysis of a regulated peak-power tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, P.T.; Cho, B.H.

    1995-12-31

    Solar cells are known to be nonlinear, and there exists one operating point where the solar array produces maximum power. This nonlinear characteristic has resulted in many different power system configurations that make best use of the solar array. A regulated peak-power tracking (RPPT) system for space power application is proposed. Large-signal stability analysis is provided to understand the main four different modes of operations of the system, as well as the mode transitions. A simple and effective control scheme for the system is also proposed. Small-signal analysis is performed thereafter to provide design optimization, and the predictions are verified by computer simulations.

  3. High average and peak power few-cycle laser pulses delivered by fiber pumped OPCPA system.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Seise, E; Krebs, M; Tavella, F; Willner, A; Düsterer, S; Schlarb, H; Feldhaus, J; Limpert, J; Rossbach, J; Tünnermann, A

    2010-06-07

    We report on a high power optical parametric amplifier delivering 8 fs pulses with 6 GW peak power. The system is pumped by a fiber amplifier and operated at 96 kHz repetition rate. The average output power is as high as 6.7 W, which is the highest average power few-cycle pulse laser reported so far. When stabilizing the seed oscillator, the system delivered carrier-envelop phase stable laser pulses. Furthermore, high harmonic generation up to the 33(th) order (21.8 nm) is demonstrated in a Krypton gas jet. In addition, the scalability of the presented laser system is discussed.

  4. Peak power is reduced following lengthening contractions despite a maintenance of shortening velocity.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Dalton, Brian H; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2013-12-01

    Following repetitive lengthening contractions, power (the product of torque and velocity) is impaired during shortening contractions. However, the relative contribution of each component to power loss and the underlying factors are unclear. We investigated neuromuscular properties of the dorsiflexors in 8 males (27 ± 3 years) and 8 females (26 ± 4 years) for a potential sex-related difference before, during, and after 150 unaccustomed maximal lengthening actions. Velocity-dependent power was determined from shortening contractions at 8 levels (1 N · m to 70% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC)) before, after, and throughout recovery assessed at 0-30 min, 24 h, and 48 h. Immediately following task termination, both sexes displayed similar impairments of 30%, 4%, and 10% in MVC torque, shortening velocity, and overall peak power, respectively (P < 0.05). Peak rate of isometric torque development (RTD) was reduced by 10% in males, but females exhibited a 35% reduction (P < 0.05). Rate of torque development for the MVC remained depressed in both sexes throughout the 30 min recovery period; however, the RTD returned to normal by 24 h in males but did not recover by 48 h in females. Power was reduced preferentially at higher loads (i.e., 60% MVC), with a greater loss in females (65%) than males (45%). For lower loads (<20% MVC), power was impaired minimally (4%-8%; P < 0.05) and recovered within 30 min in both groups. The reduction in maximal angular velocity persisted until 30 min of recovery, and peak power did not recover until 24 h for both sexes. Unaccustomed lengthening contractions decreased power preferentially at higher loads, whereas peak power was reduced minimally owing to maintenance of maximal shortening velocity.

  5. Power plant engineering for overseas market

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Korea`s experience in power plant engineering for the overseas market is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: the Asian electric power market, ordering characteristics, country situations, and overseas market requirements.

  6. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  7. Push-pull converter with energy saving circuit for protecting switching transistors from peak power stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In a push-pull converter, switching transistors are protected from peak power stresses by a separate snubber circuit in parallel with each comprising a capacitor and an inductor in series, and a diode in parallel with the inductor. The diode is connected to conduct current of the same polarity as the base-emitter juction of the transistor so that energy stored in the capacitor while the transistor is switched off, to protect it against peak power stress, discharges through the inductor when the transistor is turned on, and after the capacitor is discharges through the diode. To return this energy to the power supply, or to utilize this energy in some external circuit, the inductor may be replaced by a transformer having its secondary winding connected to the power supply or to the external circuit.

  8. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  9. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  10. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  11. Probability problems in seismic risk analysis and load combinations for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    This workshop describes some probability problems in power plant reliability and maintenance analysis. The problems are seismic risk analysis, loss of load probability, load combinations, and load sharing. The seismic risk problem is to compute power plant reliability given an earthquake and the resulting risk. Component survival occurs if its peak random response to the earthquake does not exceed its strength. Power plant survival is a complicated Boolean function of component failures and survivals. The responses and strengths of components are dependent random processes, and the peak responses are maxima of random processes. The resulting risk is the expected cost of power plant failure.

  12. Robust Short-Pulse, High-Peak-Power Laser Transmitter for Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Malcolm W.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a pulsed fiber based master oscillator power amplifier laser at 1550 nm to support moderate data rates with high peak powers in a compact package suitable for interplanetary optical communications. To accommodate pulse position modulation, the polarization maintaining laser transmitter generates pulses from 0.1 to 1 ns with variable duty cycle over a pulse repetition frequency range of 10 to 100 MHz.

  13. Advantages of fieldbus application in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tuetken, T.; Schoch, T.

    1998-07-01

    The fieldbus technology is a technology which will change the way control systems will be implemented in power plants in the future. This paper describes the status of fieldbus technology with a special focus on power plant applications. Two already operational power plant control references with thousands of fieldbus components will serve examples. These are the first reference systems worldwide to make such extensive fieldbus technology in power plants. Obvious changes can be seen in the physical structure of the power plant control system. The intelligence is moving to the process components and the switchgear. The hardware located in the electronic room is reduced drastically compared to a conventional installation. Furthermore, the fieldbus technology also effects maintenance strategies and organizational structures in the plant.

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  15. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia... to provide a reliable, long-term supply of renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost...

  16. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities... of renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost to meet part of the electric energy needs...

  17. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in... renewable and sustainable energy at a reasonable cost to meet part of the electric energy needs...

  18. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  19. Optimal loading for the development of peak power output in professional rugby players.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Huw R; Bunce, Paul J; Owen, Nick J; Bennett, Mark A; Cook, Christian J; Cunningham, Dan J; Newton, Robert U; Kilduff, Liam P

    2010-01-01

    The ability to develop high levels of muscular power is considered an essential component of success in many sporting activities; however, the optimal load for the development of peak power during training remains controversial. Our aim in the present study was to determine the optimal load required to observe peak power output during the ballistic bench throw (BBT) and squat jump (SJ) in professional rugby players. Forty-seven, professional, male, rugby players of (mean +/- SD) mass 101.3 +/- 12.8 kg and height 1.82 +/- 0.08 m volunteered and gave informed consent for this study, which was approved by a university ethics committee. Players performed BBT at loads of 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% of their predetermined 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and SJ at loads of 0, (body mass only), 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% of their predetermined 1RM in a randomized and balanced order. Power output (PO) was determined by measurement of barbell displacement with subsequent calculation of velocity, force, and power. Relative load had a significant effect on PO for both the BBT (effect size eta(2): 0.297, p < 0.001) and SJ (Effect Size eta(2): 0.709, p < 0.001). Peak power output was produced when the athletes worked against an external load equal to 30% 1RM for the upper body and 0% 1RM for the lower body.

  20. RF peak power reduction in CAIPIRINHA excitation by interslice phase optimization.

    PubMed

    Sbrizzi, Alessandro; Poser, Benedikt A; Tse, Desmond H Y; Hoogduin, Hans; Luijten, Peter R; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to show that the overall peak power of RF pulses for CAIPIRINHA excitation can be substantially reduced by applying interslice phase relaxation. The optimal phases are scan dependent and can be quickly calculated by the proposed method. The multi-band RF pulse design is implemented as the minimization of a linear objective function with quadratic constraints. The interslice phase is considered to be a variable for optimization. In the case of a phase cycling scheme (CAIPIRINHA), the peak power is considered over all pulses. The computation time (about 1 s) is compatible with online RF pulse design. It is shown that the optimal interslice phases depend on the CAIPIRINHA scheme used and that RF peak power is reduced when the CAIPIRINHA phase cycling is taken into account in the optimization. The proposed method is extremely fast and results in RF pulses with low peak power for CAIPIRINHA excitation. The MATLAB implementation is given in the appendix; it allows for online determination of scan-dependent phase parameters. Furthermore, the method can be easily extended to pTx shimming systems in the context of multi-slice excitations, and this possibility is included in the software.

  1. Coherent Enhancement of 10 s Burst-Mode Ultraviolet Pulses at Megawatt Peak Power

    SciTech Connect

    Abudureyimu, Reheman; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    A doubly-resonant optical cavity and its locking technique have been developed to achieve coherent enhancement of 402.5-MHz, 50-ps, megawatt peak power ultraviolet (355 nm) laser pulses operating at a 10- s/10-Hz burst mode.

  2. Peaks in the CMBR Power Spectrum II: Physical Interpretation for any Cosmological Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2013-06-01

    In a previous paper (part I), the mathematical properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) power spectrum which presents oscillations were discussed. Here, we discuss the physical interpretation: a power spectrum with oscillations is a rather normal characteristic expected from any fluid with clouds of overdensities that emit/absorb radiation or interact gravitationally with the photons, and with a finite range of sizes and distances for those clouds. The standard cosmological interpretation of "acoustic" peaks is just a particular case; peaks in the power spectrum might be generated in scenarios within some alternative cosmological model that have nothing to do with oscillations due to gravitational compression in a fluid. We also calculate the angular correlation function of the anisotropies from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)-7 yr and ACT data, in an attempt to derive the minimum number of parameters a polynomial function should have to fit it: a set of polynomial functions with a total of ≈ 6 free parameters, apart from the amplitude, is enough to reproduce the first two peaks. However, the standard model with six tunable free parameters also reproduces higher-order peaks, giving the standard model a higher confidence. At present, while no simple function with six free parameters is found to give a fit as good as the one given by the standard cosmological model, we may consider the predictive power of the standard model beyond an instrumentalist approach (such as the Ptolemaic astronomy model of the orbits of the planets).

  3. An adaptive model for vanadium redox flow battery and its application for online peak power estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Tseng, King Jet; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Soong, Boon Hee; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2017-03-01

    An accurate battery model is the prerequisite for reliable state estimate of vanadium redox battery (VRB). As the battery model parameters are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging, the common methods where model parameters are empirical or prescribed offline lacks accuracy and robustness. To address this issue, this paper proposes to use an online adaptive battery model to reproduce the VRB dynamics accurately. The model parameters are online identified with both the recursive least squares (RLS) and the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Performance comparison shows that the RLS is superior with respect to the modeling accuracy, convergence property, and computational complexity. Based on the online identified battery model, an adaptive peak power estimator which incorporates the constraints of voltage limit, SOC limit and design limit of current is proposed to fully exploit the potential of the VRB. Experiments are conducted on a lab-scale VRB system and the proposed peak power estimator is verified with a specifically designed "two-step verification" method. It is shown that different constraints dominate the allowable peak power at different stages of cycling. The influence of prediction time horizon selection on the peak power is also analyzed.

  4. New Tone Reservation Technique for Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilharm, Joachim; Rohling, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) the transmit signals have a highly fluctuating, non-constant envelope which is a technical challenge for the High Power Amplifier (HPA). Without any signal processing procedures the amplitude peaks of the transmit signal will be clipped by the HPA resulting in out-ofband radiation and in bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. The classical Tone Reservation (TR) technique calculates a correction signal in an iterative way to reduce the amplitude peaks. However this step leads to a high computational complexity. Therefore, in this paper an alternative TR technique is proposed. In this case a predefined signal pattern is shifted to any peak position inside the transmit signal and reduces thereby all amplitude peaks. This new procedure is able to outperform the classical TR technique and has a much lower computational complexity.

  5. Aerobic capacity and peak power output of elite quadriplegic games players

    PubMed Central

    Goosey‐Tolfrey, V; Castle, P; Webborn, N

    2006-01-01

    Background Participation in wheelchair sports such as tennis and rugby enables people with quadriplegia to compete both individually and as a team at the highest level. Both sports are dominated by frequent, intermittent, short term power demands superimposed on a background of aerobic activity. Objective To gain physiological profiles of highly trained British quadriplegic athletes, and to examine the relation between aerobic and sprint capacity. Methods Eight male quadriplegic athletes performed an arm crank exercise using an ergometer fitted with a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) powermeter. The sprint test consisted of three maximum‐effort sprints of five seconds duration against a resistance of 2%, 3%, and 4% of body mass. The highest power output obtained was recorded (PPO). Peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak), peak heart rate (HRpeak), and maximal power output (POaer) were determined. Results Mean POaer was 67.7 (16.2) W, mean V̇o2peak was 0.96 (0.17) litres/min, and HRpeak was 134 (19) beats/min for the group. There was high variability among subjects. Peak power over the five second sprint for the group was 220 (62) W. There was a significant correlation between V̇o2peak (litres/min) and POaer (W) (r  =  0.74, p<0.05). Conclusions These British quadriplegic athletes have relatively high aerobic fitness when compared with the available literature. Moreover, the anaerobic capacity of these athletes appeared to be relatively high compared with paraplegic participants. PMID:16611721

  6. Statistical connection of peak counts to power spectrum and moments in weak-lensing field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Masato

    2017-02-01

    The number density of local maxima of weak-lensing field, referred to as weak-lensing peak counts, can be used as a cosmological probe. However, its relevant cosmological information is still unclear. We study the relationship between the peak counts and other statistics in weak-lensing field by using 1000 ray-tracing simulations. We construct a local transformation of lensing field K to a new Gaussian field y, named local-Gaussianized transformation. We calibrate the transformation with numerical simulations so that the one-point distribution and the power spectrum of K can be reproduced from a single Gaussian field y and monotonic relation between y and K. Therefore, the correct information of two-point clustering and any order of moments in weak-lensing field should be preserved under local-Gaussianized transformation. We then examine if local-Gaussianized transformation can predict weak-lensing peak counts in simulations. The local-Gaussianized transformation is insufficient to explain weak-lensing peak counts in the absence of shape noise. The prediction by local-Gaussianized transformation underestimates the simulated peak counts with a level of ∼20-30 per cent over a wide range of peak heights. Local-Gaussianized transformation can predict the weak-lensing peak counts with an ∼10 per cent accuracy in the presence of shape noise. Our analyses suggest that the cosmological information beyond power spectrum and its moments would be necessary to predict the weak-lensing peak counts with a percent-level accuracy, which is an expected statistical uncertainty in upcoming wide-field galaxy surveys.

  7. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  8. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  9. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; ...

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator thatmore » interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8(Ωm/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.« less

  10. Cosmology Constraints from the Weak Lensing Peak Counts and the Power Spectrum in CFHTLenS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jia; May, Morgan; Petri, Andrea; Haiman, Zoltan; Hui, Lam; Kratochvil, Jan M.

    2015-03-04

    Lensing peaks have been proposed as a useful statistic, containing cosmological information from non-Gaussianities that is inaccessible from traditional two-point statistics such as the power spectrum or two-point correlation functions. Here we examine constraints on cosmological parameters from weak lensing peak counts, using the publicly available data from the 154 deg2 CFHTLenS survey. We utilize a new suite of ray-tracing N-body simulations on a grid of 91 cosmological models, covering broad ranges of the three parameters Ωm, σ8, and w, and replicating the galaxy sky positions, redshifts, and shape noise in the CFHTLenS observations. We then build an emulator that interpolates the power spectrum and the peak counts to an accuracy of ≤ 5%, and compute the likelihood in the three-dimensional parameter space (Ωm, σ8, w) from both observables. We find that constraints from peak counts are comparable to those from the power spectrum, and somewhat tighter when different smoothing scales are combined. Neither observable can constrain w without external data. When the power spectrum and peak counts are combined, the area of the error “banana” in the (Ωm, σ8) plane reduces by a factor of ≈ two, compared to using the power spectrum alone. For a flat Λ cold dark matter model, combining both statistics, we obtain the constraint σ8m/0.27)0.63 = 0.85+0.03-0.03.

  11. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  12. Power Transformer Application for Wind Plant Substations

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, M. R.; Bloethe, W.G.; Bradt, M.; Brooks, C.; Camm, E H; Dilling, W.; Goltz, B.; Li, J.; Niemira, J.; Nuckles, K.; Patino, J.; Reza, M; Richardson, B.; Samaan, N.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Snyder, Isabelle B; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.; Zahalka, G.

    2010-01-01

    Wind power plants use power transformers to step plant output from the medium voltage of the collector system to the HV or EHV transmission system voltage. This paper discusses the application of these transformers with regard to the selection of winding configuration, MVA rating, impedance, loss evaluation, on-load tapchanger requirements, and redundancy.

  13. Thulium-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system with 2 GW of peak power.

    PubMed

    Gaida, C; Gebhardt, M; Stutzki, F; Jauregui, C; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Thulium-doped fibers with ultra large mode-field areas offer new opportunities for the power scaling of mid-IR ultrashort-pulse laser sources. Here, we present a laser system delivering a pulse-peak power of 2 GW and a nearly transform-limited pulse duration of 200 fs in combination with 28.7 W of average power. This performance level has been achieved by optimizing the pulse shape, reducing the overlap with atmospheric absorption lines, and incorporating a climate chamber to reduce the humidity of the atmospheric environment.

  14. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  15. High peak power (≥10 mW) quantum cascade superluminescent emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Aung, Nyan L. Yu, Zhouchangwan; Yu, Ye; Liu, Peter Q.; Gmachl, Claire F.; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jen-Yu; Troccoli, Mariano

    2014-12-01

    We report room temperature and milliwatt range mid-infrared superluminescent emission at 5 μm from Quantum Cascade (QC) devices. To achieve high power superluminescence, we utilize an ultrastrong coupling QC laser design, and employ a cavity formed by the combination of a 17° tilted cleaved facet and a wet etched rounded and sloped facet to introduce additional mirror loss. For pulsed mode operation, a 8 mm long and 15 μm wide device achieves ∼1.3 mW peak power at 300 K and a 25 μm wide device with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} anti-reflection coated rounded facet achieves ∼10.2 mW peak optical output power at 250 K.

  16. Narrow linewidth picosecond pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power at UV wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig Edmond

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system to generate 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser is based on a direct electro-optic modulation of a fiber laser output. A very high extinction ratio (45 dB) has been achieved by using an adaptive bias control. The multi-stage Nd:YAG amplifier system allows a uniformly temporal shaping of macropulses with tunable pulse duration. The light output form the amplifier is converted to 355 nm and over 1 MW UV peak power is obtained when the laser is operating in a 5- s/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform limited spectrum bandwidth with a very narrow linewidth of individual laser mode. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  17. Asymptotically one-dimensional dynamics of high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Laser fields with peak powers P well above the critical power of self-focusing P cr are intrinsically unstable with respect to modulation instabilities, breaking up into multiple filaments as a part of a quintessentially three-dimensional nonlinear beam dynamics. Here, however, we show that—even for P \\gg P cr—the spatiotemporal field evolution can stay effectively one-dimensional. In this regime, observed as an asymptotic case of large diffraction lengths, the laser field can undergo a rich diversity of pulse transformation scenarios, including, most notably, pulse self-compression to subcycle field waveforms with very high peak powers, while remaining decoupled, within a limited propagation length, from beam dynamics.

  18. Demonstration of 5MW PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Usami, Yutaka; Takae, Toshio

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association, established in May 1991 by Japanese 10 electric power and 4 gas companies, started a new project in 1991 FY, with the object of PAFC realization and aiming the development of 5MW- class PAFC. power plant for urban energy center and 1 MW- class power plant for onsite use. This project is carried out as 6 years plan jointly with New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. The targets of the project are to evaluate and resolve the development task, such as a high reliability, compactness and cost reduction throughout the engineering, manufacturing and field testing of PAFC power plants. PAC tests and power generating test operations of 5MW plant were completed in 1994. Conducting the 2 years continuous operations and studies since 1995, the plant operational performance, system control characteristics, waste heat recovery and environmental advantage will be demonstrated.

  19. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  1. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  2. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  3. Enrichment of resolving power improves ion-peak quantification on a lipidomics platform.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Ohno, Yasuo; Saito, Yoshiro

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we delineated the importance of MS resolving power on the ion-peak quantification of lipids using an Orbitrap Fusion instrument and established a liquid chromatography-based, high-performance lipidomics platform. The ion-peak recognition of several lipids in human plasma, such as LPC(15:0), LPE(22:5), and PC(35:0), was clearly improved by increasing the MS resolving power. In addition, we evaluated the impact of resolving power on the quantitative detection of lipids by automatic ion-peak recognition with calculation of the coefficient of variance (CV). The extracted ions obtained from human plasma were automatically annotated by Compound Discoverer software with manual confirmation of standards or MS(2)/MS(3) fragments (class- and acyl side chain-specific ions and neutral losses). Quantitative evaluation of 499 lipids in human plasma in terms of their CV values clearly demonstrated an improvement in the quantitative performance by enriching the resolving power. Moreover, we evaluated our new lipidomics platform with enriched MS resolving power (setting of 240,000, full width at half maximum at m/z 200). Because automatic annotation by TraceFinder software overlooks several lipid ions, we further manually annotated additional lipid ions, which were confirmed by standards or MS(2)/MS(3) fragments. Eventually, our platform detected 967 lipids encompassing 34 lipid classes, which were confirmed with standards or MS(2)/MS(3) fragments. Of these lipids, 922 scored <20% of the CV values. Taken together, enriching the resolving power improved ion-peak quantification on our novel lipidomics platform, which enabled us to detect broad-spectrum lipids from human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wind Power Plant SCADA and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Badrzadeh, Babak; Castillo, Nestor; Bradt, M.; Janakiraman, R.; Kennedy, R.; Klein, S.; Smith, Travis M; Vargas, L.

    2011-01-01

    Modern Wind Power Plants (WPPs) contain a variety of intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and communication systems. This paper discusses the issues related to a typical WPP's SCADA and Control. Presentation topics are: (1) Wind Turbine Controls; (2) Wind Plant SCADA, OEM SCADA Solutions, Third-Party SCADA Solutions; (3) Wind Plant Control; and (4) Security and Reliability Compliance.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  6. Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony P; Unholz, Cedric N; Potts, Neill; Coleman, Simon G S

    2012-06-01

    Training at the optimal load for peak power output (PPO) has been proposed as a method for enhancing power output, although others argue that the force, velocity, and PPO are of interest across the full range of loads. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load on PPO, peak barbell velocity (BV), and peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the jump squat (JS) in a group of professional rugby players. Eleven male professional rugby players (age, 26 ± 3 years; height, 1.83 ± 6.12 m; mass, 97.3 ± 11.6 kg) performed loaded JS at loads of 20-100% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) JS. A force plate and linear position transducer, with a mechanical braking unit, were used to measure PPO, VGRF, and BV. Load had very large significant effects on PPO (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.915); peak VGRF (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.854); and peak BV (p < 0.001, partial η² = 0.973). The PPO and peak BV were the highest at 20% 1RM, though PPO was not significantly greater than that at 30% 1RM. The peak VGRF was significantly greater at 1RM than all other loads, with no significant difference between 20 and 60% 1RM. In resistance trained professional rugby players, the optimal load for eliciting PPO during the loaded JS in the range measured occurs at 20% 1RM JS, with decreases in PPO and BV, and increases in VGRF, as the load is increased, although greater PPO likely occurs without any additional load.

  7. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  8. A peak power tracker for small wind turbines in battery charging applications

    SciTech Connect

    De Broe, A.M.; Drouilhet, S.; Gevorgian, V.

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a prototype version of a peak power tracking system for small wind turbines in battery charging applications. The causes for the poor performance of small wind turbines in battery charging applications are explained and previously proposed configurations to increase the power output of the wind turbines are discussed. Through computer modeling of the steady-state operation the potential performance gain of the proposed system in comparison with existing systems is calculated. It is shown that one configuration consisting of reactive compensation by capacitors and a DC/DC converter is able to optimally load the wind turbine and thus obtain maximum energy capture over the whole range of wind speeds. A proof of concept of the peak power tracking system is provided by building and testing a prototype version. The peak power tracking system is tested in combination with a typical small wind turbine generator on a dynamometer. Steady-state operating curves confirming the performance improvement predicted by calculations are presented.

  9. Wingate Anaerobic Test peak power and anaerobic capacity classifications for men and women intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Zupan, Michael F; Arata, Alan W; Dawson, Letitia H; Wile, Alfred L; Payn, Tamara L; Hannon, Megan E

    2009-12-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) has been established as an effective tool in measuring both muscular power and anaerobic capacity in a 30-second time period; however, there are no published normative tables by which to compare WAnT performance in men and women intercollegiate athletics. The purpose of this study was to develop a classification system for anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity for men and women National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college athletes using the WAnT. A total of 1,585 (1,374 men and 211 women) tests were conducted on athletes ranging from the ages of 18 to 25 years using the WAnT. Absolute and relative peak power and anaerobic capacity data were recorded. One-half standard deviations were used to set up a 7-tier classification system (poor to elite) for these assessments. These classifications can be used by athletes, coaches, and practitioners to evaluate anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity in their athletes.

  10. AEC brings new technology to US: Compressed air provides peaking power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The first power plant utilizing compressed air energy storage technology (CAES) in the United States is being built by Alabama Electric Cooperative near McIntosh, Alabama. CAES technology, which stores pressurized air in underground chambers during periods of low power demand for generating power during high demand periods, is capable of producing up to three times more power per BTU of fuel burned than conventional gas turbine generators. A 19 million-cubic foot air storage cavern is being excavated in a salt dome 1,400 feet underground for the 110 MW McIntosh plant. Once finished, the cavern is expected to be 200 feet in diameter and 600 feet deep, storing enough air to operate the generator for 26 consecutive hours.

  11. A torque controlled high speed flywheel energy storage system for peak power transfer in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Schaible, U.; Szabados, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a design outline and implementation procedure for a flywheel energy storage system using a high speed interior permanent magnet synchronous machine, torque-controlled through the use of a vector control algorithm. The proposed flywheel energy storage system can be used to meet the peak energy requirements of an electric vehicle during both acceleration and regenerative braking. By supplying the peak energy requirements from a secondary source, the life cycle of the electric vehicle`s batteries may be extended considerably. A torque control algorithm is presented and preliminary implementation through a commercially available microcontroller is described. Preliminary testing of the proposed system has been very promising and has proven that bidirectional peak power transfer can be rapidly accomplished. 4 refs.

  12. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  13. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  14. M-C Power commercialization program for MCFC power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cámara, E. H.; Schora, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    M-C Power Corporation was established by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop, manufacture, market, sell and service commercial MCFC power plants using IGT's IMHEX® fuel cell stack concept. M-C Power has created an integrated commercialization program to develop a market-responsive, natural gas-fueled MCFC power plant. M-C Power's market entry offering will range from 500 kW to 3 MW and will be designed for on-site and distributed power applications. Future products will include a wider range of sizes for distributed power and power plants for dispersed (30-50 MW) and base load ( > 100 MW) power generation, the latter fueled by coal-derived gases. M-C Power Corporation has established the world's most advanced MCFC components and stack manufacturing facilities at its plant in Burr Ridge, IL, capable of producing 3 MW/year of stacks based on one shift per day, five days per week operation. This capacity can be increased to 12 MW/year by adding one tape casting machine and operating three shifts per day for 330 days/year. An industry group has been formed to guide, support, and stimulate the IMHEX® Commercialization Program. This group is called the Alliance to Commercialize Carbonate Technology (ACCT). ACCT members include electric, gas and combination utilities as well as pipeline companies and potential industrial users. In addition, the program enjoys wide support from government, industry and research institutions.

  15. Effect of cadence selection on peak power and time of power production in elite BMX riders: A laboratory based study.

    PubMed

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T; Bentley, Ian

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the optimal cadence for peak power production and time to peak power in bicycle motocross (BMX) riders. Six male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider completed 3 maximal sprints at a cadence of 80, 100, 120 and 140 revs · min(-1) on a laboratory Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) cycle ergometer in isokinetic mode. The riders' mean values for peak power and time of power production in all 3 tests were recorded. The BMX riders produced peak power (1105 ± 139 W) at 100 revs · min(-1) with lower peak power produced at 80 revs · min(-1) (1060 ± 69 W, (F(2,15) = 3.162; P = .266; η(2) = 0.960), 120 revs · min(-1) (1077 ± 141 W, (F(2,15) = 4.348; P = .203; η(2) = 0.970) and 140 revs · min(-1) (1046 ± 175 W, (F(2,15) = 12.350; P = 0.077; η(2) = 0.989). The shortest time to power production was attained at 120 revs · min(-1) in 2.5 ± 1.07 s. Whilst a cadence of 80 revs · min(-1) (3.5 ± 0.8 s, (F(2,15) = 2.667; P = .284; η(2) = 0.800) 100 revs · min(-1) (3.00 ± 1.13 s, (F(2,15) = 24.832; P = .039; η(2) = 0.974) and 140 revs · min(-1) (3.50 ± 0.88 s, (F(2,15) = 44.167; P = .006; η(2) = 0.967)) all recorded a longer time to peak power production. The results indicate that the optimal cadence for producing peak power output and reducing the time to peak power output are attained at comparatively low cadences for sprint cycling events. These findings could potentially inform strength and conditioning training to maximise dynamic force production and enable coaches to select optimal gear ratios.

  16. Stack and dump: Peak-power scaling by coherent pulse addition in passive cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitkopf, S.; Eidam, T.; Klenke, A.; Carstens, H.; Holzberger, S.; Fill, E.; Schreiber, T.; Krausz, F.; Tünnermann, A.; Pupeza, I.; Limpert, J.

    2015-10-01

    During the last decades femtosecond lasers have proven their vast benefit in both scientific and technological tasks. Nevertheless, one laser feature bearing the tremendous potential for high-field applications, delivering extremely high peak and average powers simultaneously, is still not accessible. This is the performance regime several upcoming applications such as laser particle acceleration require, and therefore, challenge laser technology to the fullest. On the one hand, some state-of-the-art canonical bulk amplifier systems provide pulse peak powers in the range of multi-terawatt to petawatt. On the other hand, concepts for advanced solid-state-lasers, specifically thin disk, slab or fiber systems have shown their capability of emitting high average powers in the kilowatt range with a high wall-plug-efficiency while maintaining an excellent spatial and temporal quality of the output beam. In this article, a brief introduction to a concept for a compact laser system capable of simultaneously providing high peak and average powers all along with a high wall-plug efficiency will be given. The concept relies on the stacking of a pulse train emitted from a high-repetitive femtosecond laser system in a passive enhancement cavity, also referred to as temporal coherent combining. In this manner, the repetition rate is decreased in favor of a pulse energy enhancement by the same factor while the average power is almost preserved. The key challenge of this concept is a fast, purely reflective switching element that allows for the dumping of the enhanced pulse out of the cavity. Addressing this challenge could, for the first time, allow for the highly efficient extraction of joule-class pulses at megawatt average power levels and thus lead to a whole new area of applications for ultra-fast laser systems.

  17. Megawatt peak power level sub-100 fs Yb:KGW oscillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haitao; Major, Arkady

    2014-12-15

    We report on the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of sub-100 fs pulses directly from the diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:KGW bulk oscillators operated at a low repetition rate. The 36 MHz oscillator delivered 78 fs pulses with pulse energy of 50 nJ and peak power of 0.65 MW. The cavity was extended by inserting a 1:1 imaging telescope, allowing 85 fs pulses to be generated at a repetition rate of 18 MHz. The pulse energy up to 83 nJ was reached, corresponding to a peak power as high as 1 MW. Sub-100 fs regime was achieved by dual action of the Kerr-lens and saturable absorber (KLAS) mode locking.

  18. Laser-Damage-Resistant Photoalignment Layers for High-Peak-Power Liquid Crystal Device Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, K.L.; Gan, J.; Mitchell, G.; Papernov, S.; Rigatti, A.L.; Schmid, A.W.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-10-23

    Large-aperture liquid crystal (LC) devices have been in continuous use since 1995 as polarization control devices in the 40-TW, 351-nm, 60-beam OMEGA Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochester’s Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The feasibility of using a noncontacting alignment method for high-peak-power LC laser optics by irradiation of a linearly photopolymerizable polymer with polarized UV light was recently investigated. These materials were found to have surprisingly large laser-damage thresholds at 1054 nm, approaching that of bare fused silica (30 to 60 J/cm^2). Their remarkable laser-damage resistance and ease in scalability to large apertures of these photoalignment materials, along with the ability to produce multiple alignment states by photolithographic patterning, opens new doorways for their application in LC devices for optics, photonics, and high-peak-power laser applications.

  19. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; Sanyal, Jibonananda; Starke, Michael R.

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype, we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.

  20. Cost-effective retrofit technology for reducing peak power demand in small and medium commercial buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Nutaro, James J.; Fugate, David L.; Kuruganti, Teja; ...

    2015-05-27

    We describe a cost-effective retrofit technology that uses collective control of multiple rooftop air conditioning units to reduce the peak power consumption of small and medium commercial buildings. The proposed control uses a model of the building and air conditioning units to select an operating schedule for the air conditioning units that maintains a temperature set point subject to a constraint on the number of units that may operate simultaneously. A prototype of this new control system was built and deployed in a large gymnasium to coordinate four rooftop air conditioning units. Based on data collected while operating this prototype,more » we estimate that the cost savings achieved by reducing peak power consumption is sufficient to repay the cost of the prototype within a year.« less

  1. High-peak power extended lifetime sealed TEA CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. L. S.; Sephton, J. P.; Scott, G.

    1984-07-01

    Sustained long life operation (10 to the 6th - 10 to the 7th pulses) has been achieved with a series of high CO2 content (up to 50 percent) high peak power photo-preionized miniature TEA lasers. The loss of CO2 and formation of attaching oxygen is adequately controlled by the homogeneous catalysis of CO in CO2-N2-CO-He mixtures with the CO2 less than 30 percent. But with the highest peak power mixtures with greater CO2 contents and hydrogen replacing the helium, the formation of the attaching species O2 and H2O has been controlled by Hopcalite in a compact slow catalytic recombination loop supplementing the CO homogeneous catalysis.

  2. Design and cold testing of a high peak power x-band gyroklystron

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.; Calame, J.; Granatstein, V.L.; Latham, P.E.; McAdoo, J.; Park, G.S.; Striffler, C.D.; Williams, F.J.; Chu, K.R.; Seftor, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The main goal of the University of Maryland's gyroklystron project is to develop an efficient, high power, high gain, phase controllable amplifier at 10 GHz. While peak powers of several hundred megawatts are ultimately of interest, our initial experimental design values include 30 MW of output power in 1 ..mu..s pulses with a gain in excess of 50 dB. The 30 MW power level represents an enhancement of almost three orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art in gyroklystron amplifiers. This enhancement will be achieved by going to high beam energies (..gamma..approx. =2) and overmoded cavities (TE/sub 01//sup 0/). Outlined in this report are the steps being taken to realize our goal.

  3. Single-mode single-frequency high peak power all-fiber MOPA at 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, L. V.; Likhachev, M. E.; Bubnov, M. M.; Paramonov, V. M.; Belovolov, M. I.; Lipatov, D. S.; Guryanov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    In this Report, we present a record-high-peak-power single-frequency master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system based on a newly developed double-clad large-mode-area Yb-free Er-doped fiber (DC-LMA-EDF). A fiber Bragg grating wavelength-stabilized fiber-coupled diode laser at λ=1551 nm with ~2 MHz spectral width was used as the master oscillator. Its radiation was externally modulated with a 5 kHz repetition rate and 92 ns pulse duration and then amplified in a core-pumped Er-doped fiber amplifier up to an average power of 4 mW. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) generated at the last preamplifier stage was suppressed by a narrow-band (0.7 nm) DWDM filter. The last MOPA stage was based on the recently developed single-mode DC-LMA-EDF with a mode field diameter of 25 microns and pump clad-absorption of 3 dB/m at λ=980 nm. The pump and the signal were launched into this fiber through a commercial pump combiner in a co-propagating amplifier scheme. At first, we used a 3-m long DC-LMAEDF. In such configuration, a peak power of 800 W was achieved at the output of the amplifier together with a ~ 12 % pump conversion slope efficiency. Further power scaling was limited by SBS. After that we shortened the fiber length to 1 m. As a result, owing to large unabsorbed pump power, the efficiency decreased to ~5 %. However, a peak power of more than 3.5 kW was obtained before the SBS threshold. In this case, the pulse shape changed and its duration decreased to ~60 ns owing to inversion depletion after propagation of the forward front of the pulse. To the best of our knowledge, the peak power of more than 3.5 kW reported here is the highest value ever published for a single-frequency single-mode silica-based fiber laser system operating near λ=1550 nm.

  4. Wingate Anaerobic Test Peak Power and Anaerobic Capacity Classification for Men and Women Intercollegiate Athletes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    including football, sprinting, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, and gymnastics - use anaerobic metabolism extensively during competition. This study...1 . 3 62j + 7.7 167.1 + 7 .9 Tennis, track, soccer, and gymnastics urements allow a coach to observe individual improvements; however, it is...require short bursts of peak power and a high anaerobic capacity during competition to include lacrosse, gymnastics , sprint cycling, football, baseball

  5. Attenuated maximal muscle strength and peak power in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Kelly A; Schall, Joan I; Rovner, Alisha J; Stallings, Virginia A; Zemel, Babette S

    2011-03-01

    Dominant hand maximal handgrip strength evaluated with a handgrip dynamometer and peak power evaluated with a force plate, adjusted for body size and composition, were compared in African-American children aged 5 to 13 years, with and without type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). Children with SCD-SS (n = 35; age, 9.0 ± 2.0 y) compared with healthy control children (n = 103; age, 8.6 ± 1.8 y) did not differ by age, sex, or pubertal status, yet had significantly lower Z scores for height, weight, body mass index, upper arm muscle area, upper arm fat area, fat mass-for-height and lean mass-for-height. Children with SCD-SS had significantly lower handgrip strength (12.7 ± 3.3 vs. 15.2 ± 5.1 kg, P < 0.008), peak power (882 ± 298 vs. 1167 ± 384 W, P < 0.001), and growth and body composition adjusted Z scores for handgrip strength (0.6 ± 1.3 standard deviations, P < 0.004) and peak power (male children = 1.0 ± 0.8 standard deviations, P < 0.0002; female children = 1.0 ± 1.7 standard deviations, P < 0.006). Maximal muscle strength and peak power are attenuated in children with SCD-SS compared with healthy control children beyond expectation for growth and body composition deficits suggesting that additional factors contribute to attenuation in anaerobic performance.

  6. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  8. Removing Cool Cores and Central Metallicity Peaks in Galaxy Clusters with Powerful Active Galactic Nucleus Outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy ~1061-1062 erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  9. REMOVING COOL CORES AND CENTRAL METALLICITY PEAKS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS WITH POWERFUL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2010-07-10

    Recent X-ray observations of galaxy clusters suggest that cluster populations are bimodally distributed according to central gas entropy and are separated into two distinct classes: cool core (CC) and non-cool core (NCC) clusters. While it is widely accepted that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback plays a key role in offsetting radiative losses and maintaining many clusters in the CC state, the origin of NCC clusters is much less clear. At the same time, a handful of extremely powerful AGN outbursts have recently been detected in clusters, with a total energy {approx}10{sup 61}-10{sup 62} erg. Using two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we show that if a large fraction of this energy is deposited near the centers of CC clusters, which is likely common due to dense cores, these AGN outbursts can completely remove CCs, transforming them to NCC clusters. Our model also has interesting implications for cluster abundance profiles, which usually show a central peak in CC systems. Our calculations indicate that during the CC to NCC transformation, AGN outbursts efficiently mix metals in cluster central regions and may even remove central abundance peaks if they are not broad enough. For CC clusters with broad central abundance peaks, AGN outbursts decrease peak abundances, but cannot effectively destroy the peaks. Our model may simultaneously explain the contradictory (possibly bimodal) results of abundance profiles in NCC clusters, some of which are nearly flat, while others have strong central peaks similar to those in CC clusters. A statistical analysis of the sizes of central abundance peaks and their redshift evolution may shed interesting insights on the origin of both types of NCC clusters and the evolution history of thermodynamics and AGN activity in clusters.

  10. Photo-aligned liquid crystal devices for high-peak-power laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Dorrer, C.; Vargas, M.; Gnolek, A.; Statt, M.; Chen, S.-H.

    2012-10-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) optical elements have proven themselves as robust and cost-effective components for high-peakpowerlaser systems such as the 60-beam, 40-TW OMEGA Nd:glass laser system at the University of Rochester'sLaboratory for Laser Energetics. Although buffed nylon 6/6 alignment layers are the de facto standard for high-peak-power applications, photoalignment coatings based on coumarin materials have demonstrated exceptionally high near-IR laser-damage resistance. Using conventional photolithographic patterning techniques, high-resolution, photoaligned, nematic LC beam-shaper devices with a contrast ratio of 430:1, a pixel size of 10 μm, an interpixel resolution of 1.7 μm, and laser-damage resistance of 30 J/cm2 (1054-nm, 1-ns pulse) have been demonstrated. Recently, we have extended this photoalignment process to other existing and potential high-peak-power LC optical devices that have previously used buffed alignment coatings. In addition to fabricating photoaligned LC wave-plate prototypes that meet all optical and performance specifications of LC devices currently used on OMEGA, novel LC polarization converters with continuously varying radial or azimuthal polarization states have been fabricated using the same high-damage-threshold materials. These polarization converters have applications not only in high-peak-power lasers but also in microscopy, electron acceleration, and machining.

  11. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    PubMed

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  12. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  13. 76 FR 52356 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... to Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit... ZIRLO\\TM\\ fuel to a peak road average burnup limit of 62 gigawatt-days per metric ton uranium...

  14. Robustness of a Neural Network Model for Power Peak Factor Estimation in Protection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Rose Mary G.P.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2006-07-01

    This work presents results of robustness verification of artificial neural network correlations that improve the real time prediction of the power peak factor for reactor protection systems. The input variables considered in the correlation are those available in the reactor protection systems, namely, the axial power differences obtained from measured ex-core detectors, and the position of control rods. The correlations, based on radial basis function (RBF) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, estimate the power peak factor, without faulty signals, with average errors between 0.13%, 0.19% and 0.15%, and maximum relative error of 2.35%. The robustness verification was performed for three different neural network correlations. The results show that they are robust against signal degradation, producing results with faulty signals with a maximum error of 6.90%. The average error associated to faulty signals for the MLP network is about half of that of the RBF network, and the maximum error is about 1% smaller. These results demonstrate that MLP neural network correlation is more robust than the RBF neural network correlation. The results also show that the input variables present redundant information. The axial power difference signals compensate the faulty signal for the position of a given control rod, and improves the results by about 10%. The results show that the errors in the power peak factor estimation by these neural network correlations, even in faulty conditions, are smaller than the current PWR schemes which may have uncertainties as high as 8%. Considering the maximum relative error of 2.35%, these neural network correlations would allow decreasing the power peak factor safety margin by about 5%. Such a reduction could be used for operating the reactor with a higher power level or with more flexibility. The neural network correlation has to meet requirements of high integrity software that performs safety grade actions. It is shown that the

  15. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    Very little is known about the behavior and effects of fire in the Mojave Desert, because fire was historically uncommon. However, fire has become more frequent since the 1970s with increased dominance of the invasive annual grasses Bromus rubens and Schismus spp., and land managers are concerned about its ecological effect. In this paper, I describe patterns of peak fire temperature and their effect on annual plants in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Temperatures were monitored among microhabitats and distances from the soil surface, and between spring and summer. Microhabitats ranged from high amounts of fuel beneath creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) canopies, to intermediate amounts at the canopy drip line, to low amounts in the interspaces between them. Distances from the soil surface were within the vertical range where most annual plant seeds occur (−2, 0, 5, and 10 cm). I also compare temperature patterns with postfire changes in soil properties and annual plant biomass and species richness to infer potential mechanisms by which fires affect annual plants.Peak fire temperatures were most affected by the microhabitat fuel gradient, and the effects of fire on annual plants varied among microhabitats. Beneath creosote bushes, lethal fire temperatures for annual plant seeds occurred above- and belowground, resulting in four postfire years of reduced annual plant biomass and species richness due most likely to seed mortality, especially of Bromus rubens and native forbs. At the canopy drip line, lethal fire temperatures occurred only aboveground, reducing annual plant biomass for 1 yr and species richness for 2 yr, and increasing biomass of Schismus sp., the alien forb Erodium cicutarium, and native annuals after 3 yr. Negligible changes were caused by fire in interspaces or between spring and summer.Fire effects models for creosote bush scrub vegetation must account for patterns of peak fire temperature along the shrub

  16. GHGRP Power Plants Sector Industrial Profiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles, available for download below, contain detailed analyses for the Power Plants industry.

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) compiled from various EPA programs.

  18. Peak power tunable mid-infrared oscillator pumped by a high power picosecond pulsed fiber amplifier with bunch output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kaihua; Guo, Yan; Lai, Xiaomin; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-07-01

    A high power mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with picosecond pulse bunch output is experimentally demonstrated. The pump source was a high power master oscillation power amplifier (MOPA) picosecond pulsed fiber amplifier. The seed of the MOPA was a gain-switched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diode (LD) with picosecond pulse operation at a high repetition rate. The seed laser was amplified to 50 W by two-stage pre-amplifiers and a large mode area (LMA) Yb fiber based power-amplifier. A fiber-pigtailed acousto-optic modulator with the first order diffraction transmission was inserted into the second pre-amplifier to form a picosecond pulse bunch train and to change the peak power simultaneously. The power-amplified pulse bunches were focused to pump a wavelength-tunable OPO for emitting high power mid-infrared laser. By adjusting the OPO cavity length, the maximum average idler powers obtained at 3.1, 3.3 and 3.5 μm were 7, 6.6 and 6.4 W respectively.

  19. Peak power, ground reaction forces, and velocity during the squat exercise performed at different loads.

    PubMed

    Zink, Attila J; Perry, Arlette C; Robertson, Bobby L; Roach, Kathryn E; Signorile, Joseph F

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the changes in peak power, ground reaction force and velocity with different loads during the performance of the parallel squat movement. Twelve experienced male lifters (26.83 +/- 4.67 years of age) performed the standard parallel squat, using loads equal to 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Each subject performed all parallel squats with as much explosiveness as possible using his own technique. Peak power (PP), peak ground reaction force (PGRF), peak barbell velocity (PV), force at the time of PP (FPP), and velocity at the time of PP (VPP) were determined from force, velocity, and power curves calculated using barbell velocity and ground reaction force data. No significant differences were detected among loads for PP; however, the greatest PP values were associated with loads of 40 and 50% of 1RM. Higher loads produced greater PGRF and FPP values than lower loads (p < 0.05) in all cases except between loads equal to 60-50, 50-40, and 40-30% of 1RM for PGRF, and between loads equal to 70-60 and 60-50% of 1RM for FPP. Higher loads produced lower PV and VPP values than lower loads (p < 0.05) in all cases except between the 20-30, 70-80, and 80-90% of 1RM conditions. These results may be helpful in determining loads when prescribing need-specific training protocols targeting different areas of the load-velocity continuum.

  20. Enhancement of peak and mean power in concentric phase of resistance exercises.

    PubMed

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal N; Kováčiková, Zuzana C; Ollé, Gábor; Vilman, Tomáš S; Hamar, Dušan S

    2014-10-01

    The study compares the differences in peak and mean power of concentric-only and countermovement resistance exercises (ΔP) with different weights. A group of 27 fit men randomly performed 3 repetitions of either barbell bench presses or barbell squats on different days. The initial weight of 20 kg was increased by 10 or 5 kg (at higher loads) up to at least 85% of a previously established 1 repetition maximum (1RM). A computer-based system FiTRO Dyne Premium was used to monitor force and velocity and to calculate power. The peak values and mean values of power during the entire concentric phase of lifting and during the acceleration phase were analyzed. Results showed that maximal ΔP calculated from the peak and mean values in the acceleration phase of bench presses was achieved at lower weights (118.4 ± 19.0 W at 47% of 1RM and 116.2 ± 15.3 W at 48% of 1RM, respectively) than the one calculated from mean values in the entire concentric phase of lifting (114.8 ± 14.8 W at 57% 1RM). Likewise, maximal ΔP calculated from the peak and mean values in the acceleration phase of squats was achieved at lower weights (127.7 ± 20.4 W at 67% of 1RM and 124.3 ± 22.1 W at 69% of 1RM, respectively) than the one calculated from the mean values in the entire concentric phase of lifting (125.0 ± 19.2 W at 77% of 1RM). This fact has to be taken into account when training efficiency is evaluated, namely, in sports requiring the production of maximal force in a short time.

  1. Effect of Load on Peak Power of the Bar, Body and System during the Deadlift.

    PubMed

    Blatnik, Justin A; Goodman, Courtney L; Capps, Christopher R; Awelewa, Olumide O; Triplett, Travis N; Erickson, Travis M; McBride, Jeffery M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine how load would affect peak power (PP) of the bar, body and system (bar + body) during the deadlift. Eight healthy males (age = 22.00 ± 2.38 years; height = 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 88.97 ± 14.88 kg; deadlift one repetition maximum [1RM] = 203.44 ± 21.59 kg, 1RM/BM = 2.32 ± 0.31) with a minimum of 2 years' resistance training experience and a deadlift 1RM over 1.5 times their bodyweight participated in the investigation. During the first session, anthropometric data were recorded and a 1RM deadlift was obtained from the participants. During the second session, participants performed two repetitions at intensities of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% of their 1RM in a randomized order. Three-dimensional videography with a force plate was used for data collection and analysis. Peak force (PF), peak velocity (PV), an d PP were calculated for the bar, body, and system (bar + body) during the deadlift. PP occurred at 50%, 30%, and 70% of 1RM for the bar, body, and system, respectively. The optimal loading for the deadlift exercise may vary depending on the desired stimulus and whether the bar, body, or system variables are of most interest. Key pointsPeak power of the bar, body and system vary depending upon load.Loading should be chosen according to desired training effect, with considerations for sport specificity.Additional exercises should be investigated concerning the effect of various loads on power.

  2. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  3. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  4. 35. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, SHOWING POWER PLANT (BUILDINGS 325 AND 321) AT LEFT, FUEL TOWER AT CENTER AND CHLORINE EVAPORATOR (BUILDING 251) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 34. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH ELECTRICAL POWER PLANT (BUILDING 325) AT LEFT AND CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways.

  7. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirosaka, Kazuma; Yuvamitra, Korakot; Ishikawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by hydrothermal oxidation of wet biomass. Two kinds of power plant are investigated, a direct type and an indirect type. In the direct type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and directly flowed into a turbine. In the indirect type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and the reaction heat is conveyed to the main water, which is flowed into a turbine. The amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency are calculated by using ethanol, glucose and peat solutions as reactants. In both type of power plant, one steam turbine is employed for generating electricity with the maximum turbine inlet temperature of 650 °C. As ethanol concentration increased, the amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency become higher. The maximum efficiency for the direct type power plant using ethanol solution is about 26.4 % for 17.6 wt% at the reactor pressure of 10 MPa. The efficiency of the indirect type power plant is much lower than that of the direct type, but by pressurizing main water up to 4 MPa, the efficiency becomes higher up to 20.9 %. For glucose solution, the maximum efficiency for the direct type is about 25.5 % for 34.5 wt% at the reactor pressure of 5 MPa. The maximum efficiency of the indirect type at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 21.1 % for 40.7 wt%. For peat solution, only the indirect type is investigated. The maximum efficiency at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 20.8 % for 36.8 wt%.

  8. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  9. Lightweight Battery Charge Regulator Used to Track Solar Array Peak Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, James F.; Button, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    A battery charge regulator based on the series-connected boost regulator (SCBR) technology has been developed for high-voltage spacecraft applications. The SCBR regulates the solar array power during insolation to prevent battery overcharge or undercharge conditions. It can also be used to provide regulated battery output voltage to spacecraft loads if necessary. This technology uses industry-standard dc-dc converters and a unique interconnection to provide size, weight, efficiency, fault tolerance, and modularity benefits over existing systems. The high-voltage SCBR shown in the photograph has demonstrated power densities of over 1000 watts per kilogram (W/kg). Using four 150-W dc-dc converter modules, it can process 2500 W of power at 120 Vdc with a minimum input voltage of 90 Vdc. Efficiency of the SCBR was 94 to 98 percent over the entire operational range. Internally, the unit is made of two separate SCBR s, each with its own analog control circuitry, to demonstrate the modularity of the technology. The analog controllers regulate the output current and incorporate the output voltage limit with active current sharing between the two units. They also include voltage and current telemetry, on/off control, and baseplate temperature sensors. For peak power tracking, the SCBR was connected to a LabView-based data acquisition system for telemetry and control. A digital control algorithm for tracking the peak power point of a solar array was developed using the principle of matching the source impedance with the load impedance for maximum energy transfer. The algorithm was successfully demonstrated in a simulated spacecraft electrical system at the Boeing PhantomWorks High Voltage Test Facility in Seattle, Washington. The system consists of a 42-string, high-voltage solar array simulator, a 77-cell, 80-ampere-hour (A-hr) nickel-hydrogen battery, and a constant power-load module. The SCBR and the LabView control algorithm successfully tracked the solar array peak

  10. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  11. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    DOEpatents

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  12. Simulation of hybrid solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid solar power plants have the potential to combine advantages of two different technologies at the cost of increased complexity. The present paper shows the potential of the software greenius for the techno-economic evaluation of hybrid solar power plants and discusses two exemplary scenarios. Depreciated Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants based on trough technology can be retrofitted with solar towers in order to reach higher steam cycle temperatures and hence efficiencies. Compared to a newly built tower plant the hybridization of a depreciated trough plant causes about 30% lower LCOE reaching 104 /MWh. The second hybrid scenario combines cost-efficient photovoltaics with dispatchable CSP technology. This hybrid plant offers very high capacity factors up to 69% based on 100% load from 8am to 11pm. The LCOE of the hybrid plant are only slightly lower (174 vs. 186 /MWh) compared to the pure CSP plant because the capital expenditure for thermal storage and power block remains the same while the electricity output is much lower.

  13. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  14. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  15. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  16. Reducing the peak-power crisis with residential energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, J.F.; Miller, W.H.; Durand, J.

    1986-01-01

    A means of delaying the peak-load crisis is proposed that involves a low capital cost investment, better utilization of the existing electrical system (now with average capacity factor of <50%), and that would be able to compensate for more than half of the next 10-yr peak-load growth at the rate of 3% per annum, without building any new generating capacity. The proposed method involves only the residential sector that uses electric powered heat pumps and proposes to accomplish the above goals through time-of-day metering incentives and central station line signal control of the heat pumps and electric hot water heaters. Heat pump compressors and hot water heater elements would be shut off for periods of up to 3 h, and the storage system would later be recharged during off-peak nighttime hours. Two-way communication is preferred, so that the central station computer could assess the condition of each residence and its storage system before turning off the power. An analysis has been done for the central Missouri climate and general utility system characteristics, which it would appear represents a reasonable average for the nation.

  17. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  18. Course in power plant systems interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Like most nuclear engineering programs, the Pennsylvania State Univ. (Penn State) program includes in-depth studies of reactor theory and thermal hydraulics, heat transfer, and fluid flow. The compartmentalization of these topics results in a distinct lack of understanding of the way that typical systems in a nuclear power plant interact to produce the transients that occur in a plant. To correct the deficiency, attempts have been made to develop a comprehensive systems course, which not only educates the students about power plant systems but also teaches them the way they interact. This paper describes the various approaches used and the problems encountered with each approach.

  19. Discovery of the correlation between peak episodic jet power and X-ray peak luminosity of the soft state in black hole transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Yu, W.

    2015-08-01

    Episodic jets are usually observed in the intermediate state of black hole transients during their X-ray outbursts. Here we report the discovery of a strong positive correlation between the peak radio power of the episodic jet Pjet and the corresponding peak X-ray luminosity Lx of the soft state (in Eddington units) in a complete sample of the outbursts of black hole transients observed during the RXTE era of which data are available, which follows the relation log Pjet = (2.2 ± 0.3) + (1.6 ± 0.2) × log Lx. The transient ultraluminous X-ray source in M31 and HLX-1 in EXO 243-49 fall on the relation if they contain stellar-mass black hole and either stellar-mass black hole or intermediate-mass black hole, respectively. Besides, a significant correlation between the peak power of the episodic jet and the rate of increase of the X-ray luminosity dLx/dt during the rising phase of those outbursts is also found, following log Pjet = (2.0 ± 0.4) + (0.7 ± 0.2) × log dLx/dt. In GX 339-4 and H 1743-322 in which data for two outbursts are available, measurements of the peak radio power of the episodic jet and the X-ray peak luminosity (and its rate of change) shows similar positive correlations between outbursts, which demonstrate the dominant role of accretion over black hole spin in generating episodic jet power. On the other hand, no significant difference is seen among the systems with different measured black hole spin in current sample. This implies that the power of the episodic jet is strongly affected by non-stationary accretion instead of black hole spin characterized primarily by the rate of change of the mass accretion rate.

  20. Peak power minimization in indoor CDMA communications using clusters of antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhassani, Bahman

    "Battery life" and "cost" constraints are presenting new challenges for the design of wireless networks. The major focus of past research on transmit power control, diversity, modulation and coding techniques has been limited to maximizing coverage and/or capacity for cellular telephone systems. However, for battery powered wireless handsets connected through indoor wireless links, the optimization objective is shifting from link efficiency to battery efficiency and cost. In this thesis, the battery life of handsets and the cost of network are both addressed for an indoor code division multiple access (CDMA) communications system using time division duplex (TDD). A wireless handset needs a large dynamic range transmitter amplifier in order to overcome channel path loss and fading. This makes the amplifier inefficient such that its power consumption becomes proportional to the peak transmit power. Therefore, the amplifier needs a large, heavy and expensive battery which lasts for only a few hours. Indoor wireless users, however, need small, light, low cost handsets with batteries that last for days rather than for a few hours. To achieve a long battery life for handsets, a system architecture is proposed in which each cell uses a central base station along with several radioports. The radioports placed at optimal or near-optimal locations in order to minimize the maximum path loss experienced by handsets. Each radioport may use more than one antenna to combat Rayleigh fading. The central base station selects the radioport that provides the strongest maximally ratio combined signal. An infra-structure cost model is developed for the proposed system, which depends on the peak transmit power capability of handsets and of other system parameters and performances. The number of parameters affecting the network infra-structure cost is high, which makes the cost minimization problematic. To avoid large computation time, a new network planning approach is proposed: its

  1. Narrow linewidth picosecond UV pulsed laser with mega-watt peak power.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunning; Deibele, Craig; Liu, Yun

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) burst mode laser system that generates 66 ps/402.5 MHz pulses with mega-watt peak power at 355 nm. The seed laser consists of a single frequency fiber laser (linewidth < 5 KHz), a high bandwidth electro-optic modulator (EOM), a picosecond pulse generator, and a fiber based preamplifier. A very high extinction ratio (45 dB) has been achieved by using an adaptive bias control of the EOM. The multi-stage Nd:YAG amplifier system allows a uniformly temporal shaping of the macropulse with a tunable pulse duration. The light output from the amplifier is converted to 355 nm, and over 1 MW peak power is obtained when the laser is operating in a 5-μs/10-Hz macropulse mode. The laser output has a transform-limited spectrum with a very narrow linewidth of individual longitudinal modes. The immediate application of the laser system is the laser-assisted hydrogen ion beam stripping for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS).

  2. Optical emission and peak electromagnetic power radiated by negative return strokes in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Mason G.; Krider, E. Philip

    2015-12-01

    Calibrated measurements of the optical radiation produced by negative return strokes in rocket-triggered lightning (RTL) have been made in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectral region in correlation with currents measured at the channel base. Using a simple transmission-line model, the currents have been used to estimate the peak electromagnetic (EM) fields and Poynting power that are radiated in the time-domain (i.e. from about 1 kHz to 3 MHz). The results show that the optical power radiated by RTL at the time of the peak current has a mean and standard deviation of 130±120 MW, a value that is only about 5% of the Poynting power that is radiated into the upper half-space at that time. These results are in good agreement with similar measurements made on the subsequent return strokes in natural lightning that remain in a pre-existing channel. Our methods and assumptions are similar to those of (Guo and Krider, 1983; Krider and Guo, 1983; Quick and Krider, 2013).

  3. Sowing seed, planting trees, producing power

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.

    1997-07-01

    With three crops-to-power projects, the US DOE and US DOA have their biomass power for rural development initiative in high gear. Farmers can produce abundant supplies of fast-growing energy crops on marginal or underutilized acreage to feed power plants. This article summarizes the three projects in Minnesota, Iowa, and New York, and discusses the importance of the necessity for cooperation.

  4. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  5. Cellular effects of acute exposure to high peak power microwave systems: Morphology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Ibey, Bennett L; Roth, Caleb C; Ledwig, Patrick B; Payne, Jason A; Amato, Alayna L; Dalzell, Danielle R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Doroski, Michael W; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Seaman, Ronald L; Nelson, Gregory S; Woods, Clifford W

    2016-03-15

    Electric fields produced by advanced pulsed microwave transmitter technology now readily exceed the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) C.95.1 peak E-field limit of 100 kV/m, highlighting a need for scientific validation of such a specific limit. Toward this goal, we exposed Jurkat Clone E-6 human lymphocyte preparations to 20 high peak power microwave (HPPM) pulses (120 ns duration) with a mean peak amplitude of 2.3 MV/m and standard deviation of 0.1 with the electric field at cells predicted to range from 0.46 to 2.7 MV/m, well in excess of current standard limit. We observed that membrane integrity and cell morphology remained unchanged 4 h after exposure and cell survival 24 h after exposure was not statistically different from sham exposure or control samples. Using flow cytometry to analyze membrane disruption and morphological changes per exposed cell, no changes were observed in HPPM-exposed samples. Current IEEE C95.1-2005 standards for pulsed radiofrequency exposure limits peak electric field to 100 kV/m for pulses shorter than 100 ms [IEEE (1995) PC95.1-Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 Hz to 300 GHz, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers: Piscataway, NJ, USA]. This may impose large exclusion zones that limit HPPM technology use. In this study, we offer evidence that maximum permissible exposure of 100 kV/m for peak electric field may be unnecessarily restrictive for HPPM devices. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Peak power and blade loads on stall-regulated rotors as influenced by different airfoil families

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L.; Tu, P.K.C.

    1988-08-01

    At the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), new airfoils have been developed to help improve the performance and economics of horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTS). The objective of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of one of these airfoil families to other commonly used airfoil series for a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated HAWT. The traditional airfoil series chosen for comparison with SERI's new thin airfoil family were the NACA 23XXX, NACA 44XX, and NASA LS(1). The Micon 110 wind turbine was chosen because it is a typical three-bladed, stall-regulated rigid rotor system. The performance characteristics of the different airfoil series were derived analytically using the Eppler airfoil design code in the analysis mode. On a relative basis, this approach to comparing airfoils was considered more accurate than using airfoil performance characteristics based on wind-tunnel test data. After generating the performance characteristics for each airfoil series, the subsequent rotor performance and blade loads were calculated using SERI's PROPSH computer code. Resulting annual energy output, which is dependent on the wind-speed distribution, was calculated using SERI's Systems Engineering and Analysis Computer Code (SEACC). The results of the study show that fixed-wing airfoils generally result in excessive peak power for stall regulated, rigid rotors. By operating the wind turbine at a less desirable blade pitch angle, peak power can be reduced at the expense of higher mean blade loads and lower annual energy output. In contrast, the thin airfoil family was designed to reduce peak power at optimum blade pitch to minimize blade loads and maximize annual energy output. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  8. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  9. Analytical design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage for pulsed power peak

    SciTech Connect

    Netter, D.; Leveque, J.; Rezzoug, A.; Caron, J.P.; Sargos, F.M.

    1996-09-01

    A Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage can be used to produce very high pulsed power peak. A superconducting coil is magnetically coupled with another coil linked to the load. During the storage phase, the current is constant. In order to transfer the energy to the load, the authors cause the quench of the superconducting coil. It is very important to know the efficiency of the transfer and how much energy is discharged in the Helium vessel. In this paper, they propose an analytical method which enables to calculate very quickly the electrical parameters of such a device.

  10. ATF CO{sub 2} laser system upgrade to terawatt peak power

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-05-01

    This document describes the proposed upgrade of the 10-GW peak power 50-ps CO{sub 2} laser presently operational at the ATF to the 1 TW level at a shorter, 3--10 ps, pulse duration. The approach adopted is based on state of the art CO{sub 2} laser technology and an experience gained in the course of the ATF laser design and application for the laser accelerator experiment. The proposed upgrade is an economical way for the ATF to become in a short time among leading users facilities available for next generation ({ge} 100 MeV) laser accelerator studies.

  11. Modified raised cosine waveform shaping with reduced peak to average power ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamee, B.; Ziyadi, M.; Mhajerin-Ariaei, A.; Almaiman, A.; Cao, Y.; Ahmed, N.; Wilkinson, S. R.; Willner, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    The raised cosine waveform is a common efficient waveform to control the bandwidth reduction of a communications signal at the cost of controlled Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) with relatively large Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). Reducing the PAPR has been addressed extensively in the literature using methods such as the clipping and coding the data among others. In this paper, we reduce the PAPR by windowing the raised cosine waveform to minimize contributions to PAPR with minimal spectral growth. We simulate the modified raised cosine to determine the reduction in PAPR for various Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) orders and excess bandwidths.

  12. Pump enhanced monochromatic terahertz-wave parametric oscillator toward megawatt peak power.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kyosuke; Tanabe, Tadao; Oyama, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Pump enhanced optical parametric oscillation under a cavity phase matching configuration is an effective way to obtain monochromatic THz waves with high pulse energy. Numerical simulations are conducted for THz wave generations using a GaP sheet cavity. By optimizing the optical pulse duration and cavity configuration, the estimated peak power of THz waves is 4 MW at 3 THz, which corresponds to the photon conversion efficiency of η≈0.81. Our proposed scheme can generate a THz wave with high pulse energy, which is suitable for the nonlinear optical effects in the THz frequency region.

  13. Rapporteur report: MHD electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    Five US papers from the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are summarized. Results of the initial parametric phase of the US effort on the study of potential early commercial MHD plants are reported and aspects of the smaller commercial prototype plant termed the Engineering Test Facility are discussed. The alternative of using a disk geometry generator rather than a linear generator in baseload MHD plants is examined. Closed-cycle as well as open-cycle MHD plants are considered.

  14. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the

  15. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  16. Temporal and Spatial Power Laws of River Peak Flows and Flood Frequency Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, W. F.; Mantilla, R.; Perez, G.

    2016-12-01

    It is well known that the quantiles of annual peak flows (floods) are related as power law functions of basin drainage areas. These relationships constitute the basis for the current methods of regional flood frequency estimation. It is less well known that flood events obey similar laws but with different and varied (from event to event) parameters. It has also been demonstrated that power law probability distributions offer very good fit to flood data and lead to more conservative estimates of extreme events compared to the standard methods. The authors review some of the previous findings and show additional analyses of temporal flood data from Iowa. They supplement the data-based analyses with simulations from a space-time model. The overall goal of the research is to connect the spatial and temporal aspects of flood genesis and improve our understanding of the physical aspects that control flood frequency.

  17. Multi-point scanning two-photon excitation microscopy by utilizing a high-peak-power 1042-nm laser.

    PubMed

    Otomo, Kohei; Hibi, Terumasa; Murata, Takashi; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Kawakami, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-01-01

    The temporal resolution of a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system is limited by the excitation laser beam's scanning speed. To improve the temporal resolution, the TPLSM system is equipped with a spinning-disk confocal scanning unit. However, the insufficient energy of a conventional Ti:sapphire laser source restricts the field of view (FOV) for TPLSM images to a narrow region. Therefore, we introduced a high-peak-power Yb-based laser in order to enlarge the FOV. This system provided three-dimensional imaging of a sufficiently deep and wide region of fixed mouse brain slices, clear four-dimensional imaging of actin dynamics in live mammalian cells and microtubule dynamics during mitosis and cytokinesis in live plant cells.

  18. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  19. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  20. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  1. Ubiquinol supplementation enhances peak power production in trained athletes: a double-blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation on physical performance measured as maximum power output in young and healthy elite trained athletes. Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 100 young German well trained athletes (53 male, 47 female, age 19.9 ± 2.3 years) received either 300 mg Ubiquinol or placebo for 6 weeks. Athletes had to perform a maximum power output test and the performance in W/kg of bodyweight was measured at the 4 mmol lactate threshold on a cycling ergometer before the supplementation treatment (T1), after 3 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks (T3) of treatment. In these 6 weeks all athletes trained individually in preparation for the Olympic Games in London 2012. The maximum power output was measured in Watt/kilogram body weight (W/kg bw). Results Both groups, placebo and Ubiquinol, significantly increased their physical performance measured as maximum power output over the treatment period from T1 to T3. The placebo group increased from 3.64 ± 0.49 W/kg bw to 3.94 ± 0.47 W/kg bw which is an increase of +0.30 ± 0.18 W/kg bw or +8.5% (±5.7). The Ubiquinol group increased performance levels from 3.70 W/kg bw (±0.56) to 4.08 W/kg bw (±0.48) from time point T1 to T3 which is an increase of +0.38 ± 0.22 W/kg bw or +11.0% (±8.2). The absolute difference in the enhancement of the physical performance between the placebo and the Ubiquinol group of +0.08 W/kg bodyweight was significant (p < 0.03). Conclusions This study demonstrates that daily supplementation of 300 mg Ubiquinol for 6 weeks significantly enhanced physical performance measured as maximum power output by +0.08 W/kg bw (+2.5%) versus placebo in young healthy trained German Olympic athletes. While adherence to a training regimen itself resulted in an improvement in peak power output, as observed by improvement in placebo, the effect of Ubiquinol supplementation significantly enhanced peak power production

  2. Progress in developing tidal electric power plants reported

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blokhnin, A.

    1984-12-01

    The natural energy potential of tides on the shores of the U.S.S.R. is equal to about a third of the world's total. The Achilles heel of tidal power plants is their pulsating operation. One solution to this problem was to build a hydroelectric power plant for use in tandem with the tidal power plant. During lulls in the tidal plant, the hydraulic power plant switches on at full power. Possible sites for dual plants were discussed.

  3. Energy balance associated with the use of a maximum power tracer in a 100-kW-peak power system

    SciTech Connect

    Bucciarelli, L. L.; Grossman, B. L.; Lyon, E. F.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    1980-01-01

    Design of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system which includes batteries for energy storage requires not only sizing the array power output and battery storage capacity to meet the load, but also fixing the number of battery cells placed in series relative to the number of PV cells in series in order to keep the battery voltage in the neighborhood of the array maximum-power-point voltage during operation. When a maximum-power-point tracker (MPPT) is interposed between the array and the battery, the design task is simplified. The decision to use an MPPT depends primarily on the operating efficiency of the device. The recent development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory of low-cost maximum-power-point trackers capable of efficiencies greater than 98% at the 3-kW level broadens the range of applications where an MPPT can be used to advantage. Hourly simulation results for the 100-kW-peak PV stand-alone system under construction at Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah are compared for the cases with and without maximum power tracking to quantify the advantage of MPPT implementation.

  4. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  5. High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutty, François; Grisard, Arnaud; Larat, Christian; Papillon, Dominique; Schwarz, Muriel; Gérard, Bruno; Ostendorf, Ralf; Wagner, Joachim; Lallier, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A high peak-power rapidly tuneable laser system in the long-wave infrared is obtained using an external cavity quantum-cascade laser (EC-QCL) broadly tuneable from 8 to 10 μm and an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) based on quasi phase-matching in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs). To provide an efficient amplification, the nonlinear crystal is pumped by a pulsed fiber laser source. With a pump laser source tuneable around 2 μm, quasi phase-matching remains satisfied with a fixed grating period in the OP-GaAs crystal when the EC-QCL wavelength is swept from 8 to 10 μm. The OPA demonstrates parametric amplification from 8 to 10 μm and achieves output peak powers up to 140 W, with spectral linewidths below 3.5 cm-1 and a beam profile quality (M2) below 3.4 in both horizontal and vertical directions.

  6. Peak power dependence of rovibronic populations below the quasicontinuum during IR multiphoton absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, D.M.

    1981-02-15

    Rovibronic levels of the ground state of thiophosgene, perturbed by IR multiphoton absorption, are observed under collisionless conditions by laser-induced fluorescence. Evidence is presented that at peak powers of the CO/sub 2/ laser>3 MW/cm/sup 2/ an energy distribution is produced in which the vibrational populations of levels v=0--4,6,8 of the mode ..nu../sub 4/ are depleted or not populated, even though the pumped mode is 2..nu../sub 4/. Only at lower peak powers (longer pulse duration) are population increases observed. Under the latter conditions, it appears that 3..nu../sub 4/ is populated to a smaller extent than (..nu../sub 1/+..nu../sub 3/) to which it is coupled by strong Coriolis interaction. At room temperature no evidence for rotational ''hole burning'' effects during IR pumping are observed in the vibrationless level. The data suggest, in fact, that all rotational levels interact with the laser field, even when thiophosgene is rotationally cooled.

  7. Considerations for human exposure standards for fast-rise-time high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J H; Kiel, J L; Hurt, W D

    1995-06-01

    Development of new emitter systems capable of producing high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses with very fast rise times and narrow pulse widths is continuing. Such directed energy weapons systems will be used in the future to defeat electronically vulnerable targets. Human exposures to these pulses can be expected during testing and operations. Development of these technologies for radar and communications purposes has the potential for wider environmental exposure, as well. Current IEEE C95.1-1991 human exposure guidelines do not specifically address these types of pulses, though limits are stated for pulsed emissions. The process for developing standards includes an evaluation of the relevant bioeffects data base. A recommendation has been made that human exposure to ultrashort electromagnetic pulses that engender electromagnetic transients, called precursor waves, should be avoided. Studies that purport to show the potential for tissue damage induced by such pulses were described. The studies cited in support of the recommendation were not relevant to the issues of tissue damage by propagated pulses. A number of investigations are cited in this review that directly address the biological effects of electromagnetic pulses. These studies have not shown evidence of tissue damage as a result of exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves. It is our opinion that the current guidelines are sufficiently protective for human exposure to these pulses.

  8. Baryon Impact on Weak Lensing Peaks and Power Spectrum: Low-bias Statistics and Self-calibration in Future Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvil, Jan M.; Yang, X.; Huffenberger, K.; Haiman, Z.; May, M.

    2013-01-01

    Peaks in two-dimensional weak lensing (WL) maps contain significant cosmological information, complementary to the WL power spectrum. This has recently been demonstrated using N-body simulations which neglect baryonic effects. Here we employ ray-tracing N-body simulations in which we manually steepen the density profile of each dark matter halo, mimicking the cooling and concentration of baryons into dark matter potential wells. We find, in agreement with previous works, that this causes a significant increase in the amplitude of the WL power spectrum on small scales (spherical harmonic index l>1,000). We then study the impact of the halo concentration increase on the peak counts, and find the following. (i) Low peaks (with convergence 0.02 < kappa_{peak} < 0.08), remain nearly unaffected. These peaks are created by a constellation of several halos with low masses 10^{12}-10^{13} solar masses) and large angular offsets from the peak center (> 0.5 R_{vir}); as a result, they are insensitive to the central halo density profiles. These peaks contain most of the cosmological information, and thus provide an unusually sensitive and unbiased probe. (ii) The number of high peaks (with convergence kappa_{peak} > 0.08) is increased. However, when the baryon effects are neglected in cosmological parameter estimation, then the high peaks lead to a modest bias, comparable to that from the power spectrum on relatively large-scales (l<2000), and much smaller than the bias from the power spectrum on smaller scales (l>2,000). (iii) In the 3D parameter space (sigma_8, Omega_m, w), the biases from the high peaks and the power spectra are in different directions. This suggests the possibility of "self-calibration": the combination of peak counts and power spectrum can simultaneously constrain baryonic physics and cosmological parameters.

  9. Scanning thermal plumes. [from power plant condensers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1974-01-01

    In order to study the behavior and effects of thermal plumes associated with the condenser cooling of power plants, thermal line scans are periodically made from aircraft over all power plants along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Michigan. Simultaneous ground truth is also gathered with a radiometer. Some sequential imagery has been obtained for periods up to two hours to study short term variations in the surface temperature of the plume. The article concentrates on the techniques used to analyze thermal scanner data for a single power plant which was studied intensively. The calibration methods, temperature dependence of the thermal scanner, and calculation of the modulation transfer function for the scanner are treated. It is concluded that obtaining quantitative surface-temperature data from thermal scanning is a nontrivial task. Accuracies up to plus or minus 0.1 C are attainable.

  10. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-23

    In this reporting period, a milestone was achieved by commencement of testing and operation of the sub-scale hybrid direct fuel cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant. The operation was initiated subsequent to the completion of the construction of the balance-of-plant (BOP) and implementation of process and control tests of the BOP for the subscale DFC/T hybrid system. The construction efforts consisted of finishing the power plant insulation and completion of the plant instrumentation including the wiring and tubing required for process measurement and control. The preparation work also included the development of procedures for facility shake down, conditioning and load testing of the fuel cell, integration of the microturbine, and fuel cell/gas turbine load tests. At conclusion of the construction, the process and control (PAC) tests of BOP, including the microturbine, were initiated.

  11. Carbonate fuel cell power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    Carbonate fuel cells are an attractive means of developing highly efficient power plants capable of achieving low atmospheric emissions. Because carbonate fuel cells can be used with coal derived fuel gases and their operating temperatures allow the use of turbomachinery bottoming cycles, they are well suited for large installations like central utility stations. Presently, system development activity is directed toward evaluating the readiness of gasifier and fuel processor technology, defining candidate cycle configurations, and calculating projected plant efficiencies.

  12. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  13. Peak Vertical Jump Power as a Marker of Bone Health in Children.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F; Mil-Homens, P; Carita, A I; Janz, K; Sardinha, L B

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of peak vertical jump power (VJP) to identify children with bone mineral density (BMD) below average, defined as BMD measured by DXA and adjusted for body height at the whole body less head≤- 1.0 standard deviation (SD). The sample included 114 boys and girls aged 8.5±0.4 years old. VJP was estimated from a countermovement jump performed on a contact mat using the measured flight time to calculate the height of rise of the center of gravity. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio of having BMD≤1.0 SD decreased 1.2% per watt of power and the probability of BMD below average was 75.6% higher in boys than in girls with the same peak power jump. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity to identify children with BMD<- 1.0 SD was 635 watts in boys (sensitivity=63.3%; specificity=69.2%; AUC=0.816, 95% CI: 0.681-0.95; p<0.001) and 515 watts in girls (sensitivity=75.0%; specificity=77.0%; AUC=0.849, 95% CI: 0.698-0.999; p=0.002). These cut-off values correspond to a vertical jump of 19.9 cm and 20.5 cm in 8-year-old boys and girls, respectively. The VJP showed a reasonable sensitivity and specificity as well good discriminant ability to identify children with BMD below average.

  14. Report on Hawaii geothermal power plant project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project is the first power plant in the State of Hawaii to be powered by geothermal energy. This plant, which is located in the Puna District on the Island of Hawaii, produces three (3) megawatts of electricity utilizing the steam phase from the geothermal well. This project represents the climax of the geophysical research efforts going on for two decades in the Hawaiian Islands which resulted in the discovery of a significant reservoir of geothermal energy which could be put to practical use. In 1978 the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the State of Hawaii, entered into negotiations to design and build a power plant. The purpose and objective of this plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a geothermal power plant located in a remote volcanically active area. A contract was signed in mid 1978 between the Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii (RCUH) and the Department of Energy (DOE). To date, the DOE has provided 8.3 million dollars with the State of Hawaii and others contributing 2.1 million dollars. The cost of the project exceeded its original estimates by approximately 25%. These increases in cost were principally contributed to the higher cost for construction than was originally estimated. Second, the cost of procuring the various pieces of equipment exceed their estimates by 10 to 20 percent, and third, the engineering dollar per man hour rose 20 to 25 percent.

  15. Syngas treating options for IGCC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.; Mohammad-zadeh, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Increased environmental awareness, lower cost of gas turbine based combined cycle power plants, and advances in gasification processes have made the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) a viable technology to convert solid fuel to useful energy. The raw solid fuel derived synthesis gas (syngas) contains contaminants that should be removed before combustion in a gas turbine. Therefore, an important process in a gasification based plant is the cleaning of syngas. This paper provides information about various syngas treating technologies and describes their optimal selections for power generation or cogeneration of steam for industrial applications.

  16. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  17. Slim Holes for Small Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.

    1999-08-06

    Geothermal research study at Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a program in slimhole drilling research since 1992. Although our original interest focused on slim holes as an exploration method, it has also become apparent that they have substantial potential for driving small-scale, off-grid power plants. This paper summarizes Sandia's slim-hole research program, describes technology used in a ''typical'' slimhole drilling project, presents an evaluation of using slim holes for small power plants, and lists some of the research topics that deserve further investigation.

  18. Planting for power in central New York

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.

    1997-12-31

    The Salix consortium has joined forces with the US DOE and USDA to grow dedicated plantations of willows strategically located within a 50 mile radius (or easy hauling distance) of coal-burning power plants. At harvest time, the energy farmers could have as much as 7.5 tonnes of oven dry wood per acre per year. This article describes this project, covering the following areas: biomass power for rural development; energy farming; the Salix plan; New York State`s utilities; commercializing a new crop; the SUNY ESF team; biomass test field station; planting and harvesting; what lies ahead. 2 figs.

  19. 500-WATT FUEL-CELL POWER PLANT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    hydrogen and air, fuel - cell power plant. Two independent units are to be developed - a hydrogen-generator assembly and a fuel - cell assembly. The...hydrogen-generator assembly will convert the hydrocarbon fuel to hydrogen by steam reforming, and the fuel - cell assembly will electrochemically oxidize the...The report presents the technical approach to be used to establish the feasibility of a compact 500-watt, liquid-hydrocarbon and air, fuel - cell power

  20. 1400, +/- 900V PEAK PULSE SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLIES FOR SNS INJECTION KICKERS.

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.ENG,W.SANDBERG,J.DEWAN,S.HOLMES,R.RUST,K.ZENG,J.

    2004-03-10

    This paper describes simulation and experimental results for a 1400A, {+-} 900V peak rated, switch mode power supply for SNS Injection Kicker Magnets. For each magnet (13 m{Omega}, 160{micro}H), the power supply must supply controlled pulses at 60 Hz repetition rate. The pulse current must rise from zero to maximum in less than 1 millisec in a controlled manner, flat top for up to 2 millisec, and should fall in a controlled manner to less than 4A within 500{micro}s. The low current performance during fall time is the biggest challenge in this power supply. The simulation results show that to meet the controlled fall of the current and the current ripple requirements, voltage loop bandwidth of at least 10 kHz and switching frequency of at least 100 kHz are required. To achieve high power high frequency switching with IGBT switches, a series connected topology with three phase shifted (O{sup o}, 60{sup o} & 120{sup o}) converters each with 40 kHz switching frequency (IGBT at 20kHz), has been achieved. In this paper, the circuit topology, relevant system specifications and experimental results that meet the requirements of the power supply are described in detail. A unique six pulse SCR rectifier circuit with capacitor storage has been implemented to achieve minimum pulse width to meet required performance during current fall time below 50A due to the very narrow pulse width and non-linearity from IGBT turn-on/off times.

  1. Plant diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality peak at intermediate levels of woody cover in global drylands

    PubMed Central

    Soliveres, Santiago; Maestre, Fernando T.; Eldridge, David J.; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Quero, José Luis; Bowker, Matthew A.; Gallardo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aim The global spread of woody plants into grasslands is predicted to increase over the coming century. While there is general agreement regarding the anthropogenic causes of this phenomenon, its ecological consequences are less certain. We analyzed how woody vegetation of differing cover affects plant diversity (richness and evenness) and multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality) in global drylands, and how this changes with aridity. Location 224 dryland sites from all continents except Antarctica widely differing in their environmental conditions (from arid to dry-subhumid sites) and woody covers (from 0 to 100%). Methods Using a standardized field survey, we measured the cover, richness and evenness of perennial vegetation. At each site, we measured 14 ecosystem functions related to soil fertility and the build-up of nutrient pools. These functions are critical for maintaining ecosystem function in drylands. Results Species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality were strongly influenced by woody vegetation, with both variables peaking at relative woody covers (RWC) of 41-60%. This relationship shifted with aridity. We observed linear positive effects of RWC in dry-subhumid sites. These positive trends shifted to hump-shaped RWC-diversity and multifunctionality relationships under semiarid environments. Finally, hump-shaped (richness, evenness) or linear negative (multifunctionality) effects of RWC were found under the most arid conditions. Main conclusions Plant diversity and multifunctionality peaked at intermediate levels of woody cover, although this relationship became increasingly positive under wetter environments. This comprehensive study accounts for multiple ecosystem attributes across a range of woody covers and environmental conditions. Our results help us to reconcile contrasting views of woody encroachment found in current literature and can be used to improve predictions of the likely effects of encroachment on biodiversity and ecosystem

  2. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-09-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  3. Diagnosing peak-discharge power laws observed in rainfall runoff events in Goodwin Creek experimental watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, Peter R.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2007-11-01

    Observations from the Goodwin Creek experimental watershed (GCEW), Mississippi show that peak-discharge Q( A) and drainage area A are related, on average, by a power law or scaling relationship, Q( A) = αAθ, during single rainfall-runoff events. Observations also show that α and θ change between events, and, based on a recent analysis of 148 events, observations indicate that α and θ change because of corresponding changes in the depth, duration, and spatial variability of excess-rainfall. To improve our physical understanding of these observations, a 5-step framework for diagnosing observed power laws, or other space-time patterns in a basin, is articulated and applied to GCEW using a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. Diagnostic results indicate how the power laws are connected to physical conditions and processes. Derived expressions for α and θ show that if excess-rainfall depth is fixed then there is a decreasing concave relationship between α and excess-rainfall duration, and an increasing and slightly convex relationship between θ and excess rainfall duration. These trends are consistent with observations only when hillslope velocity vh is given a physically realistic value near 0.1 m/s. If vh ≫ 0.1 m/s, then the predicted trends deviate from observed trends. Results also suggest that trends in α and θ can be impacted by the dependence of vh and link velocity vl on excess-rainfall rate.

  4. Single and dual-chip high peak-power semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Joshua; Kokoczka, Christopher; Cook, Gary; Bedford, Robert

    2017-05-01

    To date high power, high energy pulses in the few ns rage have been unobtainable in semiconductor lasers due to the short carrier lifetime and long cavity buildup times. In this paper we show a wavelength and pulse-width tunable semiconductor laser that is able to achieve pulses in the range of a few ns at power levels above 1 kW leading to several μJ pulse energies. This was done by inserting a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and a λ/4 Pockels Cell (PC) into the cavity of a vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) allowing access to the high energy stored in the VECSEL cavity. The PC is used to electronically control the cavity polarization and with proper tailoring, all the photons built up within the cavity may be completely dumped within a single photon round trip. After this the PC is switched off and the light in the cavity is allowed to build up once again. Once the light has built back up, the VECSEL is ready to be dumped again. This has been demonstrated in both single gain chip and dual gain chip setups. We record a maximum pulse energy of 7.78 μJ and peak power of 1.7 kW at a wavelength of 1019 nm with a tunability of 16 nm.

  5. Closed cycle osmotic power plants for electric power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, M.

    1980-04-01

    The paper deals with closed-cycle osmotic power plants (CCOPPs), which are not meant for the exploitation of natural salinity gradients but, rather, for the exploitation of those abundant heat sources having temperatures slightly higher than ambient temperature, e.g., geothermal fields, ocean temperature gradients, waste heat from power plants, and solar energy. The paper gives a general description of the CCOPP, along with some indications of its potential for energy generation. The concept of the CCOPP lies in producing electric power by means of the osmotic flows of suitable solvents and subsequently in separating them again from their solutes by means of thermal energy obtained from any available heat source. The discussion covers osmotic phenomena and the CCOPP, as well as important features of the CCOPP.

  6. Contribution of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide exposure from power plant emissions on respiratory symptom and disease prevalence.

    PubMed

    Amster, Eric D; Haim, Maayan; Dubnov, Jonathan; Broday, David M

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the association between exposure to ambient NOx and SO2 originating from power plant emissions and prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease and related symptoms. The Orot Rabin coal-fired power plant is the largest power generating facility in the Eastern Mediterranean. Two novel methods assessing exposure to power plant-specific emissions were estimated for 2244 participants who completed the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The "source approach" modeled emissions traced back to the power plant while the "event approach" identified peak exposures from power plant plume events. Respiratory symptoms, but not prevalence of asthma and COPD, were associated with estimates of power plant NOx emissions. The "source approach" yielded a better estimate of exposure to power plant emissions and showed a stronger dose-response relationship with outcomes. Calculating the portion of ambient pollution attributed to power plants emissions can be useful for air quality management purposes and targeted abatement programs. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Modified high-intensity interval training increases peak cardiac power output in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Chun; Wong, Mei-Kuen; Lin, Pyng-Jing; Tsai, Feng-Chun; Fu, Tieh-cheng; Wen, Ming-Shien; Kuo, Chi-Tai; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2014-09-01

    Although high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIT) effectively improves aerobic fitness, the risk of cardiac arrest transiently increases during strenuous physical exertion in patients with cardiovascular disease. For safety and efficacy concerns, this investigation explored the effect of a modified HIT (mHIT) on exertional ventilatory-hemodynamic efficiency in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). HFREF patients were prospectively assigned to two groups: mHIT and usual healthcare (UC). The former comprised supervised continuous aerobic training at ventilatory anaerobic threshold for 50 min/day, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and then 3-min intervals at 40 and 80% VO₂ reserve for 50 min/day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The latter received optimal medical treatment only. Ventilatory and hemodynamic responses during exercise were measured before and after the intervention. Paired-t and repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc tests were adopted. Each group had an N of 33. The mHIT and UC group had matched baseline characteristics including health-promotion concept and behavior score. The mHIT for 12 weeks (1) increased VO₂, cardiac output, and notably, cardiac power output at peak workload (1,151 ± 573 vs. 1,306 ± 596 L/min/mmHg); (2) reduced V E/VO2 (32.4 ± 4.6 vs. 30.0 ± 4.0), breathing frequency, ventilation, and enhanced stroke volume compliance at identical submaximal intensity (50% peak workload at pre-intervention evaluation). No significant changes in ventilatory and hemodynamic responses to exercise were observed following the UC. The mHIT regimen improves peak cardiac pumping capacity with reducing cardiac after-load and simultaneously increases ventilation efficiency during exercise in patients with HFREF. Thereby, aerobic fitness is ameliorated.

  8. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  9. Time reversal seismic source imaging using peak average power ratio (PAPR) parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franczyk, Anna; Leśniak, Andrzej; Gwiżdż, Damian

    2017-04-01

    The time reversal method has become a standard technique for the location of seismic sources. It has been used both for acoustic and elastic numerical modelling and for 2D and 3D propagation models. Although there are many studies concerning its application to point sources, little so far has been done to generalise the time reversal method to the study of sequences of seismic events. The need to describe such processes better motivates the analysis presented in this paper. The synthetic time reversal imaging experiments presented in this work were conducted for sources with the same origin time as well as for the sources with a slight delay in origin time. For efficient visualisation of the seismic wave propagation and interference, a new coefficient—peak average power ratio—was introduced. The paper also presents a comparison of visualisation based on the proposed coefficient against a commonly used visualisation based on a maximum value.

  10. Time reversal seismic source imaging using peak average power ratio (PAPR) parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franczyk, Anna; Leśniak, Andrzej; Gwiżdż, Damian

    2017-03-01

    The time reversal method has become a standard technique for the location of seismic sources. It has been used both for acoustic and elastic numerical modelling and for 2D and 3D propagation models. Although there are many studies concerning its application to point sources, little so far has been done to generalise the time reversal method to the study of sequences of seismic events. The need to describe such processes better motivates the analysis presented in this paper. The synthetic time reversal imaging experiments presented in this work were conducted for sources with the same origin time as well as for the sources with a slight delay in origin time. For efficient visualisation of the seismic wave propagation and interference, a new coefficient—peak average power ratio—was introduced. The paper also presents a comparison of visualisation based on the proposed coefficient against a commonly used visualisation based on a maximum value.

  11. The fuzzy regression approach to peak load estimation in power distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarko, J.; Zalewski, W.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents a new scheme based on the fuzzy regression analysis for the estimation of peak load in distribution systems. In distribution system, bus load estimation is complicated because system load is usually monitored at only a few points. As a rule receiving nodes are not equipped with stationary measuring instruments so measurements of loads are performed sporadically. In general, the only information commonly available regarding loads, other than major distribution substations and equipment installations, is billing cycle customer kWh consumption. In order to model system uncertainty, inexactness, and random nature of customers` demand, a fuzzy system approach is proposed. This paper presents possibilities of application of the fuzzy set theory to power distribution system calculations. Unreliable and inaccurate input data have been modeled by means of fuzzy numbers. Trapezoidal and triangular forms of fuzzy numbers were used for description of input data. A regression model, expressing the correlation between a substation peak load and a set of customer features (explanatory variables), existing in the substation population, is determined. Simulation studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme on the basis of actual data obtained at two distribution system substations. The same data have been used for building standard linear regression models. Comparison of the performance of both methods has been done.

  12. Kerr self-defocusing of multiple filaments in TW peak power UV laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Goncharov, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Ryabchuk, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    An effective suppression of multiple filamentation of the sub-TW peak power supercritical laser beam in xenon gas was demonstrated in direct amplification of subpicosecond UV pulses at Ti:sapphire/KrF laser facility GARPUN-MTW. A large negative nonlinear refractive index due to a two-photon resonance of KrF laser radiation with Xe 6p{{≤ft[1/2\\right]}0} state ensured Kerr self-defocusing of a few hundred filaments with a local peak intensity of ~0.2 TW cm-2, 200-fold higher than the average one over the beam cross section, and thus homogenized the laser beam. UV filaments in Xe produced a narrow-angle monochromatic coherent cone emission at 828 nm wavelength due to stimulated hyper-Raman scattering and amplified spontaneous emission at the transition 6p{{≤ft[1/2\\right]}0}\\to 6s≤ft[3/2\\right]10 .

  13. Baryon impact on weak lensing peaks and power spectrum: Low-bias statistics and self-calibration in future surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuyuan; Kratochvil, Jan M.; Huffenberger, Kevin; Haiman, Zoltán; May, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Peaks in two-dimensional weak lensing (WL) maps contain significant cosmological information, complementary to the WL power spectrum. This has recently been demonstrated using N-body simulations which neglect baryonic effects. Here we employ ray-tracing N-body simulations to source galaxies at redshift zs=2 in which we manually steepen the density profile of each dark matter halo, mimicking the cooling and concentration of baryons into dark matter potential wells. We find, in agreement with previous works, that this causes a significant increase in the amplitude of the WL power spectrum on small scales (spherical harmonic index ℓ≳1,000). We then study the impact of the halo concentration increase on the peak counts, and find the following. (i) Low peaks (with convergence 0.02≲κpeak≲0.08) remain nearly unaffected. These peaks are created by a constellation of several halos with low masses (˜1012-1013M⊙) and large angular offsets from the peak center (≳0.5Rvir); as a result, they are insensitive to the central halo density profiles. These peaks contain most of the cosmological information, and thus provide an unusually sensitive and unbiased probe. (ii) The number of high peaks (with convergence κpeak≳0.08) is increased. However, when the baryon effects are neglected in cosmological parameter estimation, then the high peaks lead to a modest bias, comparable to that from the power spectrum on relatively large scales (ℓ<2000), and much smaller than the bias from the power spectrum on smaller scales (ℓ>2000). (iii) In the three-dimensional parameter space (σ8,Ωm,w), the biases from the high peaks and the power spectra are in different directions. This suggests the possibility of “self-calibration”: the combination of peak counts and power spectrum can simultaneously constrain baryonic physics and cosmological parameters.

  14. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  15. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  16. Utilities expand baseload power plant plans

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the plans being made by electric utilities to expand the number of baseload plants to accommodate increasing power demands. The results of a survey of utility's construction plans is presented. The topics include current construction, construction planning in the Southeast, current baseload technology, nuclear potential, and incorporation of environmental externalities impact in planning.

  17. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  18. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  19. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  20. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  1. Decentralised optimisation of cogeneration in virtual power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Erge, Thomas; Wittwer, Christof

    2010-04-15

    Within several projects we investigated grid structures and management strategies for active grids with high penetration of renewable energy resources and distributed generation (RES and DG). Those ''smart grids'' should be designed and managed by model based methods, which are elaborated within these projects. Cogeneration plants (CHP) can reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by locally producing heat and electricity. The integration of thermal storage devices is suitable to get more flexibility for the cogeneration operation. If several power plants are bound to centrally managed clusters, it is called ''virtual power plant''. To operate smart grids optimally, new optimisation and model reduction techniques are necessary to get rid with the complexity. There is a great potential for the optimised management of CHPs, which is not yet used. Due to the fact that electrical and thermal demands do not occur simultaneously, a thermally driven CHP cannot supply electrical peak loads when needed. With the usage of thermal storage systems it is possible to decouple electric and thermal production. We developed an optimisation method based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) for the management of local heat supply systems with CHPs, heating boilers and thermal storages. The algorithm allows the production of thermal and electric energy with a maximal benefit. In addition to fuel and maintenance costs it is assumed that the produced electricity of the CHP is sold at dynamic prices. This developed optimisation algorithm was used for an existing local heat system with 5 CHP units of the same type. An analysis of the potential showed that about 10% increase in benefit is possible compared to a typical thermally driven CHP system under current German boundary conditions. The quality of the optimisation result depends on an accurate prognosis of the thermal load which is realised with an empiric formula fitted with measured data by a multiple regression method. The key

  2. Impact of Wet-Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  3. Impact of Wet Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  4. Impact of Wet-Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  5. Impact of Wet Weather Peak Flow Blending on Disinfection and Treatment: A Case Study at Three Wastewater Treatment Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    A U.S. EPA study evaluated the impact on disinfection during peak flows (wet-weather flow events) when a portion of the flow to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) bypasses secondary treatment prior to disinfection. The practice of bypassing secondary treatment during peak flo...

  6. Nevada geothermal power plant project approved

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    A proposal to construct and test a 12.5-megawatt geothermal power plant in the Steamboat Hot Springs KGRA in Washoe County, Nevada, has been approved by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The power plant could be completed by October 1987. Several stipulations are included in the BLM approval. The stipulations include a program to monitor ground water, surface water, and hydrothermal features to detect any impacts on the hydrology in the Steamboat Hot Springs area. When plant operations are tested, an emission test will be required to verify that noncondensible gas concentrations are within federal and state standards. No geothermal fluid will be discharged on the land's surface. Other stipulations include the special construction of electrical distribution lines to protect birds of prey; the fencing of hazardous areas; and a minimal disturbance of surface areas.

  7. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  8. Efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser using an intracavity KTP OPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; He, G. Y.; Jiao, Z. X.; Wang, B.

    2015-03-01

    An efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser is demonstrated. We achieved 1.5 W output power of 1.5 μm at 10 kHz repetition rate with the pulse duration of 6 ns. The maximum peak power of 25 kW and the maximum pulse energy of 150 μJ have been obtained. The maximum conversion efficiency of 9.5% is achieved with respect to a laser diode power of 10.5 W.

  9. Local oscillator chain for 1.55 to 1.75 THz with 100-(mu)W peak power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrini, Alain; Ward, John S.; Javadi, Hamid; Tripon-Canseliet, Charlotte; Gill, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran

    2005-01-01

    We report on the design and performance of a fix-tuned x2x 3x 3 frequency multiplier chain that covers 1.55-1.75 THz. The chain is nominally pumped with 100 mW at W-band. At 120 K the measured output power is larger than 4 (mu)W across the band with a peak power of 100 (mu) W at 1.665 THz. A similar chain operated at room temperature produced a peak power of 21 (mu)W. These power levels now make it possible to deploy multipixel heterodyne imaging arrays in this frequency range.

  10. Mammoth geothermal power plant: operation update

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.G.; Holt, B.; Asper, W.

    1987-06-01

    The Mammoth Geothermal Power Plant, the world's first modular, air-cooled binary plant, was designed to produce a year-round average of 7 megawatts of electrical power, net. Firm power was first produced in February 1985. Reservoir performance has been excellent. There is no evidence of a decline in productivity, and injection well pressures have been lower than anticipated. Downhole pumps have been in operation over one year, without servicing. Early problems due to resonant frequencies in the turbine have been solved. Heat exchanger fouling has been as expected. The isobutane pumps and the air coolers have performed in accordance with expectations. Plans are underway to expand the geothermal development at Mammoth, employing the Magmamax process and the same environmentally benign design concepts. Design specification and operation are discussed.

  11. MCFC and microturbine power plant simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchini, F.; Bocci, E.; Di Carlo, A.

    The consistent problem of the CO 2 emissions and the necessity to find new energy sources, are motivating the scientific research to use high efficiency electric energy production's technologies that could exploit renewable energy sources too. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) due to its high efficiencies and low emissions seems a valid alternative to the traditional plant. Moreover, the high operating temperature and pressure give the possibility to use a turbine at the bottom of the cells to produce further energy, increasing therefore the plant's efficiencies. The basic idea using this two kind of technologies (MCFC and microturbine), is to recover, via the microturbine, the necessary power for the compressor, that otherwise would remove a consistent part of the MCFC power generated. The purpose of this work is to develop the necessary models to analyze different plant configurations. In particular, it was studied a plant composed of a MCFC 500 kW Ansaldo at the top of a microturbine 100 kW Turbec. To study this plant it was necessary to develop: (i) MCFC mathematical model, that starting from the geometrical and thermofluidodynamic parameter of the cell, analyze the electrochemical reaction and shift reaction that take part in it; (ii) plate reformer model, a particular compact reformer that exploit the heat obtained by a catalytic combustion of the anode and part of cathode exhausts to reform methane and steam; and (iii) microturbine-compressor model that describe the efficiency and pressure ratio of the two machines as a function of the mass flow and rotational regime. The models developed was developed in Fortran language and interfaced in Chemcad © to analyze the power plant thermodynamic behavior. The results show a possible plant configuration with high electrical and global efficiency (over 50 and 74%).

  12. Optimized Scheduling Technique of Null Subcarriers for Peak Power Control in 3GPP LTE Downlink

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system. PMID:24883376

  13. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  14. Optimized scheduling technique of null subcarriers for peak power control in 3GPP LTE downlink.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soobum; Park, Sang Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system.

  15. DIRECT FUELCELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Shezel-Ayagh

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed for mechanical and piping layouts and for structural drawings. Procurement activities continued with delivery of major equipment items. Fabrication of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been initiated. Details of the process control philosophy were defined and control software programming was initiated.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  18. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    The Ahuachapan geothermal power plant has been the subject of several recent reports and papers (1-7). This article is a condensation of the author's earlier writings (5-7), and incorporates new information on the geothermal activities in El Salvador obtained recently through a telephone conversation with Ing. R. Caceres of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) who has been engaged in the design and engineering of the newest unit at Ahuachapan. El Salvador is the first of the Central American countries to construct and operate a geothermal electric generating station. Exploration began in the mid-1960's at the geothermal field near Ahuachapan in western El Salvador. The first power unit, a separated-steam or so-called ''single-flash'' plant, was started up in June 1975, and was followed a year later by an identical unit. In July 1980, the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) will complete the installation of a third unit, a dual-pressure (or ''double-flash'') unit rated at 35 MW. The full Ahuachapan plant will then constitute about 20% of the total installed electric generating capacity of the country. During 1977, the first two units generated nearly one-third of all the electricity produced in El Salvador. C.E.L. is actively pursuing several other promising sites for additional geothermal plants. There is the possibility that eventually geothermal energy will contribute about 450 MW of electric generating capacity. In any event it appears that by 1985 El Salvador should be able to meet its domestic needs for electricity by means of its indigenous geothermal and hydroelectric power plants, thus eliminating any dependence on imported petroleum for power generation.

  20. Energy comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosel, Urška; Avsec, Jurij

    2017-07-01

    The combined use of renewable energy and alternative energy systems and better efficiency of energy devices is a promising approach to reduce effects due to global warming in the world. On the basis of first and second law of thermodynamics we could optimize the processes in the energy sector. The presented paper shows the comparison between solar thermal power plant and photovoltaic power plant in terms of energy, exergy and life cycle analysis. Solar thermal power plant produces electricity with basic Rankine cycle, using solar tower and solar mirrors to produce high fluid temperature. Heat from the solar system is transferred by using a heat exchanger to Rankine cycle. Both power plants produce hydrogen via electrolysis. The paper shows the global efficiency of the system, regarding production of the energy system.

  1. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  2. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  3. Cascade inertial-confinement-fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Maya, I.

    1985-11-13

    The Cascade reactor is double-cone shaped with a maximum radius of 5 m. It rotates at 50 rpm. The average temperature of a three-material flowing granular blanket leaving the reactor is 1440 K. Heat from the blanket is transferred to helium gas in a shell- and ceramic-tube-type heat exchanger that has a separate region for each blanket material. Diffusion of tritium from the blanket granules through the heat exchanger is only 25 Ci/d, so no intermediate loop is needed for isolation. We selected a simple once-through, regenerative, 5-MPa helium gas-turbine (Brayton) cycle for power conversion because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Fusion power is 1500 MW; this is multiplied to 1670 MW/sub t/ in the blanket. Power conversion efficiency is 55%. Net electric power is 815 MW/sub e/, produced with a net plant efficiency of 49%.

  4. GDA steamboat power plant: a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, G.M. III

    1987-08-01

    Located 10 mi south of Reno, Nevada, Steamboat Springs has long been recognized as a prime geothermal resource for electric power generation potential by the US Geological Survey and numerous energy companies. Extensive leasing and exploration by Phillips and Gulf led to the discovery of a high-temperature (over 400/sup 0/F) reservoir in 1979. Geothermal Development Associates obtained a geothermal resources lease on a 30-acre parcel and a 10-year power sales agreement for 5 MW from the local utility, Sierra Pacific Power Company, in late 1983. Drilling commenced in March 1985, modular power plant construction began in October, and initial plant startup with power to the grid was accomplished in December 1985. Owing to cooling-water access and treatment costs, air-cooled condensers replaced the planned cooling towers, and full-time scale continuous production at rated capacity did not begin until late 1986. Three production wells and two injection wells, completed in highly fractured Cretaceous granodiorite and Tertiary andesite at depths of less than 1000 ft, produce 340/sup 0/F water having a salinity of 2300 ppm. Production well line-shaft pumps deliver in excess of 3000 gpm water to seven 1.2 MW-Rankine cycle binary power plant modules. The heat extracted from the geothermal water vaporizes the low boiling point N-pentane working fluid that expands to drive the turbines. The geothermal water is injected back into the reservoir. Both the pentane and the geothermal water are in separate closed-loop systems, which provides for an environmentally clean operation in this sensitive, highly visible site on the periphery of a metropolitan area.

  5. High peak-power fiber laser based on a non filamented-core fully-aperiodic large pitch fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, A.; Malleville, M. A.; Du Jeu, R.; Dauliat, R.; Darwich, D.; Jamier, R.; Grimm, S.; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, K.; Roy, P.

    2017-02-01

    In this communication, the authors report on the first high peak-power emission obtained using a solid non-filamented core fully-aperiodic large pitch fiber manufactured by the REPUSIL method which is based on the sintering and vitrification of micrometric doped silica powders. Using a simple amplifier stage based on a 75 cm long piece of a fullyaperiodic large pitch fiber with a fiber core of 50 μm, an average output power of 95 W was achieved with an available pump power of 175 W, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 54 %. The peak power reaches about 35 kW for pulse duration of 200 ps at a repetition rate of 13.5 MHz. A recent evolution of our set-up using a seeder delivering an average power of 4 W at 1 MHz with a pulse duration of 50 ps led to the emission of 71.4W in average power corresponding to a peak power of 1.42 MW. These results present the first demonstration of high average and high peak power in pulsed regime for these fibers.

  6. Peak radiated power measurement of the DOE Mark II container tag with integrated ST-676 sensor radio frequency identification device.

    SciTech Connect

    Jursich, Mark

    2010-04-01

    The total peak radiated power of the Department of Energy Mark II container tag was measured in the electromagnetic reverberation chamber facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The tag's radio frequency content was also evaluated for possible emissions outside the intentional transmit frequency band. No spurious emissions of any significance were found, and the radiated power conformed to the manufacturer's specifications.

  7. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  8. The design of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  9. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  10. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  11. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  12. Difference between the maximum empirical and field measured peak Watt values of thermal power system under highly sufficient solar conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhussain, O. A.; Abdel-Magid, T. I. M.

    2016-08-01

    Mono-Crystalline solar cell module is experimentally conducted in Khartoum, Sudan to study the difference between maximum empirical value of peak Watt and maximum value of thermal power produced in field under highly sufficient solar conditions. Field measurements are recorded for incident solar radiation, produced voltage, current and temperature at several time intervals during sun shine period. The thermal power system has been calculated using fundamental principles of heat transfer. The study shows that solar power for considered module could not attain the empirical peak power irrespective to maximum value of direct incident solar radiation and maximum temperature gained. A loss of about 6% of power can be considered as the difference between field measurements and the manufacturer's indicated empirical value. Solar cell exhibits 94% efficiency in comparison with manufacturer's provided data, and is 3'% more efficient in thermal energy production than in electrical power extraction for hot-dry climate conditions.

  13. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  14. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  15. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  16. Biological maturity-associated variance in peak power output and momentum in academy rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sean M A; Cumming, Sean P; Atkinson, Mark; Malina, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the mediating effect of biological maturation on anthropometrical measurements, performance indicators and subsequent selection in a group of academy rugby union players. Fifty-one male players 14-17 years of age were assessed for height, weight and BMI, and percentage of predicted mature status attained at the time of observation was used as an indicator of maturity status. Following this, initial sprint velocity (ISV), Wattbike peak power output (PPO) and initial sprint momentum (ISM) were assessed. A bias towards on-time (n = 44) and early (n = 7) maturers was evident in the total sample and magnified with age cohort. Relative to UK reference values, weight and height were above the 90th and 75th centiles, respectively. Significant (p ≤ .01) correlations were observed between maturity status and BMI (r = .48), weight (r = .63) and height (r = .48). Regression analysis (controlling for age) revealed that maturity status and height explained 68% of ISM variance; however, including BMI in the model attenuated the influence of maturity status below statistical significance (p = .72). Height and BMI explained 51% of PPO variance, while no initial significant predictors were identified for ISV. The sample consisted of players who were on-time and early in maturation with no late maturers represented. This was attributable, in part, to the mediating effect of maturation on body size, which, in turn, predicted performance variables.

  17. Single-shot measurement of >1010 pulse contrast for ultra-high peak-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Jingui; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Peng; Xie, Guoqiang; Ge, Xulei; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia

    2014-01-01

    Real-time pulse-contrast observation with a high dynamic range is a prerequisite to tackle the contrast challenge in ultra-high peak-power lasers. However, the commonly used delay-scanning cross-correlator (DSCC) can only provide the time-consumed measurements for repetitive lasers. Single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) becomes essential in optimizing laser systems and exploring contrast mechanisms. Here we report our progress in developing SSCC towards its practical use. By integrating both the techniques of scattering-noise reduction and sensitive parallel detection into SSCC, we demonstrate a high dynamic range of >1010, which, to our best knowledge, is the first demonstration of an SSCC with a dynamic range comparable to that of commercial DSCCs. The comparison of high-dynamic measurement performances between SSCC and a standard DSCC (Sequoia, Amplitude Technologies) is also carried out on a 200 TW Ti:sapphire laser, and the consistency of results verifies the veracity of our SSCC.

  18. Ultra-high contrast frontend for high peak power fs-lasers at 1030 nm.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Hartmut; Hornung, Marco; Seidel, Andreas; Hellwing, Marco; Kessler, Alexander; Keppler, Sebastian; Schorcht, Frank; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte C

    2014-10-06

    We present the results from a new frontend within a double-chirped pulse amplification architecture (DCPA) utilizing crossed-polarized wave generation (XPW) for generating ultra-high contrast, 150 μJ-level, femtosecond seed pulses at 1030 nm. These pulses are used in the high energy class diode-pumped laser system Polaris at the Helmholtz Institute in Jena. Within this frontend, laser pulses from a 75 MHz oscillator-pulse train are extracted at a repetition rate of 1 Hz, temporally stretched, amplified and then recompressed reaching a pulse energy of 2 mJ, a bandwidth of 12 nm and 112 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm. These pulses are temporally filtered via XPW in a holographic-cut BaF₂ crystal, resulting in 150 μJ pulse energy with an efficiency of 13 %. Due to this non-linear filtering, the relative intensity of the amplified spontaneous emission preceding the main pulse is suppressed to 2×10⁻¹³. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest value achieved in a high peak power laser system operating at 1030 nm center wavelength.

  19. Single-shot measurement of >1010 pulse contrast for ultra-high peak-power lasers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Jingui; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Peng; Xie, Guoqiang; Ge, Xulei; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Zhu, Heyuan; Qian, Liejia

    2014-01-01

    Real-time pulse-contrast observation with a high dynamic range is a prerequisite to tackle the contrast challenge in ultra-high peak-power lasers. However, the commonly used delay-scanning cross-correlator (DSCC) can only provide the time-consumed measurements for repetitive lasers. Single-shot cross-correlator (SSCC) becomes essential in optimizing laser systems and exploring contrast mechanisms. Here we report our progress in developing SSCC towards its practical use. By integrating both the techniques of scattering-noise reduction and sensitive parallel detection into SSCC, we demonstrate a high dynamic range of >1010, which, to our best knowledge, is the first demonstration of an SSCC with a dynamic range comparable to that of commercial DSCCs. The comparison of high-dynamic measurement performances between SSCC and a standard DSCC (Sequoia, Amplitude Technologies) is also carried out on a 200 TW Ti:sapphire laser, and the consistency of results verifies the veracity of our SSCC. PMID:24448655

  20. The placebo and nocebo effects on peak minute power during incremental arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Lindsay; Buscombe, Richard; Nicholettos, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This investigation aimed to explore the effects of inert sugar-free drinks described as either 'performance enhancing' (placebo) or 'fatigue inducing' (nocebo) on peak minute power (PMP;W) during incremental arm crank ergometry (ACE). Twelve healthy, non-specifically trained individuals volunteered to take part. A single-blind randomised controlled trial with repeated measures was used to assess for differences in PMP;W, oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and subjective reports of local ratings of perceived exertion (LRPE) and central ratings of perceived exertion (CRPE), between three separate, but identical ACE tests. Participants were required to drink either 500 ml of a 'sports performance' drink (placebo), a 'fatigue-inducing' drink (nocebo) or water prior to exercise. The placebo caused a significant increase in PMP;W, and a significant decrease in LRPE compared to the nocebo (p=0.01; p=0.001) and water trials (p=0.01). No significant differences in PMP;W between the nocebo and water were found. However, the nocebo drink did cause a significant increase in LRPE (p=0.01). These results suggest that the time has come to broaden our understanding of the placebo and nocebo effects and their potential to impact sports performance.

  1. Widely tunable, high peak power ultrafast laser sources in biological imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julien

    2017-02-01

    Widely tunable ultrafast lasers have enabled a large number of biological imaging techniques including point scanning multiphoton excited fluorescence (MPEF), SHG/THG and stimulated Raman imaging. Tunable ultrafast lasers offer spectral agility, covering the entire relative transparency window in live tissue (700-1300nnm) and flexibility with multi-color, synchronized outputs to support sophisticated label free techniques (e.g. stimulated Raman modalities). More recently newly available high peak power lasers based on Ytterbium technology drive advances in two-photon light-sheet, 3 photon excited fluorescence and holographic patterning for optogenetics photo-stimulation. These laser platforms offer a unique blend of compactness, ease of use and cost efficiency, and ideally complement tunable platforms typically based on Ti:Sapphire and IR optical parametric oscillators (OPO). We present various types of ultrafast laser architectures, link their optical characteristics to key bio-imaging requirements, and present relevant examples and images illustrating their impact in biological science. In particular we review the use of ultrafast lasers in optogenetics and fast in-vivo Calcium imaging deep in mouse brain.

  2. Power plant efficiency and combustion optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.K.; Nema, N.; Jain, A.

    1998-07-01

    Grasim, a leader producer of Rayon grade staple fiber has, with time come up with its own Captive Electric Power Generation Industry with a capacity of generating 113 MW Thermal Power for its in-house use involving state of the art technology and system. In the present paper, it is desired to share the technical development in the global environment and receive expert feedback for its own upgrade. The on site power plants have a variety of steam turbines and boilers of different capacities. At times the plants had to face power crisis due to number of reasons and has always come up with number of solutions for performance enhancement and efficiency improvement. It is desired to present the following cases: (1) Development of spiral coal caps--for atmospheric fluidized bed boilers, it is often experienced that unburned carbon is high in ash. The reason being that coal particles do not get sufficient retention time after being injected into the bed. Attempt has been made to increase the retention time and better mixing by creating a cyclone around the coal cap with help of spiral coal caps. (2) Combustion optimization--in view of the inherent design deficiency, combustion was optimized by controlling the three parameters i.e., time, temperature and turbulence. In pulverized fuel combustion boilers this was done by providing air damper regulation and in atmospheric fluidized bed combustion boilers this was done by creating a vortex and regulating fluidizing air. The details shall be given in paper. (3) Power plant efficiency improvement--by introducing online monitoring system and identifying various areas of losses for various operating reasons and the cost associated with each operating parameter and the impact of each variation.

  3. Advanced power plant training simulator for VVER-440/V230 nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R.; Vaclav, E.; Gieci, A.

    1996-11-01

    An advanced, workstation based, nuclear power plant simulator has been developed for use in training the operational staff of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant. This training simulator uses state-of- the-art computer hardware and software and provides the capability to simultaneously include six members of the power plant operating staff in the training sessions. A detailed reactor model has been developed, representing the Bohunice VVER-44O/V230 plants, for use with the RELAP5 simulation software. In addition, a comprehensive validation program has been completed that compares the simulation results of the advanced simulator with the results from a current VVER-44O/V230 simulator. A summary of the training features and capabilities of the simulator is also provided.

  4. Raft River 5MW Power Plant: a small binary power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Whitbeck, J.F.; DiBello, E.G.; Walrath, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The Raft River 5MW power plant is a binary cycle pilot plant. The system uses isobutane in a dual boiling cycle. This cycle was selected because the well field and temperatures were not well known at the time of cycle selection, and therefore, a boiling cycle was desirable. The dual boiling feature provides about 15 to 20% more power and makes the output less sensitive to changes in geothermal temperature changes than a single boiler system. The plant design was based upon a 290F geothermal fluid temperature at the inlet to the plant and has a gross nominal generator rating of 5MW; however, actual output will vary according to ambient wet bulb temperatures over a range from 4.4MW to 6.2MW with the actual plant inlet temperature of 278F being obtained. The plant is supplied by three production wells. Geothermal fluid boost pumps within the plant inlet provide the pressure necessary to overcome plant pressure drop and return the fluid to the two injection sites. All long runs of the buried geothermal piping external to the plant boundaries use cement-asbestos pipe. The physical size and manpower requirements for the Raft River facility, the economics of small plant operation, and operational experience are discussed.

  5. Central-station solar hydrogen power plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2005-04-01

    Solar power towers can be used to make hydrogen on a large scale. Electrolyzers could be used to convert solar electricity produced by the power tower to hydrogen, but this process is relatively inefficient. Rather, efficiency can be much improved if solar heat is directly converted to hydrogen via a thermochemical process. In the research summarized here, the marriage of a high-temperature ({approx}1000 C) power tower with a sulfuric acid/hybrid thermochemical cycle was studied. The concept combines a solar power tower, a solid-particle receiver, a particle thermal energy storage system, and a hybrid-sulfuric-acid cycle. The cycle is 'hybrid' because it produces hydrogen with a combination of thermal input and an electrolyzer. This solar thermochemical plant is predicted to produce hydrogen at a much lower cost than a solar-electrolyzer plant of similar size. To date, only small lab-scale tests have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of a few of the subsystems and a key immediate issue is demonstration of flow stability within the solid-particle receiver. The paper describes the systems analysis that led to the favorable economic conclusions and discusses the future development path.

  6. Economic analysis of large solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaiss, Helmut; Nitsch, Joachim; Geyer, Michael

    1987-11-01

    The current status and future potential of solar-tower, parabolic-reflector/Stirling-engine, channel-collector, and photovoltaic solar power plants of capacity 10 MWe or more are discussed. Consideration is given to the geographic and technological limitations, initial investment and operating costs, presently operating facilities, market openings, and critical technological challenges controlling future expansion. Numerical data are presented in tables and graphs, and it is concluded that solar power production will soon become economically competitive. It is suggested that the channel collector, at present the most mature and cost-efficient technology, has the least potential for further improvement, and that parabolic/Stirling and photovoltaic systems are probably better suited to smaller applications than to large-scale commercial power production.

  7. The bouillante geothermal power-plant, Guadeloupe

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Lamethe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal exploration work carried out in Guadeloupe until 1977 by EURAFREP revealed the existence of an underground hot water field at a temperature of 240C. Four drillings were made, two of which produced superheated water that flashes to steam, and after several testing programs. Electricite de France (EDF) decided to build a geothermal power station with a net output of 4.2 MWe. This installation is a double flash cycle unit with a condensing turbine and sea water-cooled direct contact condenser equipped with a barometer pipe. The operation of this power-plant will be mainly automatic and the electric output will meet 6% of the Guadeloupe electric power demand at a cost lower than the one obtained with diesel generators.

  8. Power plant IV - Them-Thek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    A 10 MWe solar thermal hybrid central receiver-parabolic concentrator power plant is described. The THEK field of parabolic concentrators is employed to preheat and vaporize the water for heating the primary loop, while the THEM central receiver receives solar flux input from a field of heliostats to superheat fused salt, hitec, for the steam-powered generation of electricity. The preheat system also serves to maintain latent heat in the fused salt reservoir. An extra bypass with separation allows the vaporized portion of salt to return to the superheater as condensed salt descends to the reservoir to gain heat, thereby increasing the system efficiency by 8 percent to 33.8 percent. The power unit is coupled to turbines spinning at 9000 rpm. The central aperture closes during cloudy conditions to avoid heat losses in the primary loop.

  9. Mass-spectra-based peak alignment for automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis for biomarker screening in plant samples.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Yan; Hu, Ou; Zhang, Yue-Ming; Zhang, Li; Song, Jing-Jing; Lu, Peang; Zheng, Qing-Xia; Liu, Ping-Ping; Chen, Qian-Si; Wang, Bing; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Han, Lu; Yu, Yong-Jie

    2017-09-01

    Nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis is a difficult task in a routine investigation because hundreds of chromatographic peaks are eluted within a short time, and the time shift problem is severe across samples. To address these problems, the present work developed an automatic nontargeted metabolic profiling analysis (anTMPA) method. First, peaks from the total ion chromatogram were extracted using modified multiscale Gaussian smoothing method. Then, a novel peak alignment strategy was employed based on the mass spectra and retention times of the peaks in which the maximum mass spectral correlation coefficient path was extracted using a modified dynamic programming method. Moreover, an automatic landmark peak-searching strategy was employed for self-adapting time shift modification. Missing peaks across samples were grouped and registered into the aligned peak list table for final refinement. Finally, the aligned peaks across samples were analyzed using statistical methods to identify potential biomarkers. Mass spectral information on the screened biomarkers could be directly imported into the National Institute of Standards and Technology library to select the candidate compounds. The performance of the anTMPA method was evaluated using a complicated plant gas chromatography-mass spectrometry dataset with the aim of identifying biomarkers between the growth and maturation stages of the tested plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  11. 2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND (HORIZONTAL TEST STAND REMNANTS OF BUILDING-BLANK WHITE WALL ONLY ORIGINAL REMAINS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. Nuclear Power Plants | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created by splitting uranium atoms. In the event of a nuclear power plant emergency, follow instructions from emergency responders and public officials.

  13. 9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, west side of power plant, electrical panels in place in center of photograph, looking northwest - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 7. August, 1971. GV FROM POWER PLANT TO PENSTOCKS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1971. GV FROM POWER PLANT TO PENSTOCKS & PRESSURE HOUSE ON MOUNTAINSIDE. - Telluride Power Company, Olmsted Hydroelectric Plant, mouth of Provo River Canyon West of U.S. Route 189, Orem, Utah County, UT

  15. 6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DRY CANAL BED TO THE LEFT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  16. 1. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. SEVEN TURBINE FLUMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST. SEVEN TURBINE FLUMES VISIBLE IN FRONT OF BUILDING. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  17. 10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. WEST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. 3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH INTO THE REMAINS OF THE TURBINE FLUMES. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  19. 9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DRY CANAL BED IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  20. 8. VIEW OF WESTERN END OF THE POWER PLANT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF WESTERN END OF THE POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTH. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  1. 12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CANAL SLUICE GATE LOCATED 150' WEST OF POWER PLANT. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  2. 11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. EAST WALL OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING WEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  3. 7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR OF POWER PLANT BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST. DETAIL OF TRASH RACK IN FOREGROUND. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  4. 14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICAL PANEL. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  5. 4. NORTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHWEST. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  7. 8. EXTERIOR DETAIL, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EXTERIOR DETAIL, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 18, Power Plant Laboratory Complex, Northeast corner of C & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  8. 7. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST VIEW, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR NORTHWEST VIEW, BUILDING 18 (POWER PLANT RESEARCH LABORATORY) (1991). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 18, Power Plant Laboratory Complex, Northeast corner of C & Fifth Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  9. 15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Power plant elevations and cross sections, sheet 64 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  11. Comparisons of peak ground reaction force and rate of force development during variations of the power clean.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Allen, Mark; Graham-Smith, Phillip

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the differences in vertical ground reaction forces and rate of force development (RFD) during variations of the power clean. Elite rugby league players (n = 11; age 21 ± 1.63 years; height 181.56 ± 2.61 cm; body mass 93.65 ± 6.84 kg) performed 1 set of 3 repetitions of the power clean, hang-power clean, midthigh power clean, or midthigh clean pull, using 60% of 1-repetition maximum power clean, in a randomized order, while standing on a force platform. Differences in peak vertical ground reaction forces (F(z)) and instantaneous RFD between lifts were analyzed via 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p < 0.001) greater peak F(z) during the midthigh power clean (2,801.7 ± 195.4 N) and the midthigh clean pull (2,880.2 ± 236.2 N) compared to both the power clean (2,306.24 ± 240.47 N) and the hang-power clean (2,442.9 ± 293.2 N). The midthigh power clean (14,655.8 ± 4,535.1 N·s⁻¹) and the midthigh clean pull (15,320.6 ± 3,533.3 N·s⁻¹) also demonstrated significantly (p < 0.001) greater instantaneous RFD when compared to both the power clean (8,839.7 ± 2,940.4 N·s⁻¹) and the hang-power clean (9,768.9 ± 4,012.4 N·s⁻¹). From the findings of this study, when training to maximize peak F(z) and RFD the midthigh power clean and midthigh clean pull appear to be the most advantageous variations of the power clean to perform.

  12. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  13. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hocheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    As the size and number of wind power plants (also called wind farms) increases, power system planners will need to study their impact on the power system in more detail. As the level of wind power penetration into the grid increases, the transmission system integration requirements will become more critical [1-2]. A very large wind power plant may contain hundreds of megawatt-size wind turbines. These turbines are interconnected by an intricate collector system. While the impact of individual turbines on the larger power system network is minimal, collectively, wind turbines can have a significant impact on the power systems during a severe disturbance such as a nearby fault. Since it is not practical to represent all individual wind turbines to conduct simulations, a simplified equivalent representation is required. This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies. The layout of the wind power plant, the size and type of conductors used, and the method of delivery (overhead or buried cables) all influence the performance of the collector system inside the wind power plant. Our effort to develop an equivalent representation of the collector system for wind power plants is an attempt to simplify power system modeling for future developments or planned expansions of wind power plants. Although we use a specific large wind power plant as a case study, the concept is applicable for any type of wind power plant.

  14. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Solar powered wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, D.

    1981-11-06

    Enhancement of the ability of a hyacinth pond to provide secondary effluent was studied. Control of flow geometry was addressed, and the hyacinth pond's role as part of an overall treatment system was emphasized. The use of greenhouses over the ponds to protect the plants during the winter was evaluated. The thermal and structural performances of the greenhouses were analyzed. It was concluded that the plants could be kept alive and green with only a tarpaulin-like cover in the winter climate of Texas, but to keep the plants actively growing would require a tightly built greenhouse with good infiltration control. The third area of investigation was the potential of wind power for providing energy for wastewater aeration. Aeration methods amenable to the use of wind power as the prime mover were investigated and found to compare favorably with standard aeration methods. The wind distribution at the site was monitored to determine whether the wind could be relied upon as a source of aeration energy.

  16. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  17. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  18. Pollution on the rise: local trends in power plant pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, Z.; Emily Figdor, E.

    2005-01-15

    More than 1,200 power plants report emissions to US EPA, which compiles the information in its acid rain database. To examine trends in power plant pollution, this report analyzes the data for carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions since 1995, the first year the Acid Rain Program capped SO{sub 2} emissions from the electricity-generating sector. Power plants contribute 39% of the USA's CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2003, power plants released 2.5 billion tons of CO{sub 2}, a 9% increase over 1995 levels. Power plants in Texas, Ohio, Florida, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Kentucky, West Virginia, Alabama, and Georgia released the most CO{sub 2} in 2003. Power plants contribute 67%t of sootforming SO{sub 2} emissions. Although federal law caps SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants, more than half (216 of 400, or 54 percent) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants decreased by 10% nationwide. Power plants in Ohio had highest emissions, releasing 1.2 million tons in 2003, with Pennsylvania a close second. Power plants contribute 22% of smog-forming NOx emissions. NOx also contributes to fine particle pollution. Though regional initiatives limit NOx emissions from power plants, 38% (188 of 500) of the nation's dirtiest power plants increased their annual NOx emissions from 1995 to 2003, even while annual NOx emissions from power plants declined by 29 percent nationwide. Power plants in Ohio also led the nation for the most NOx emissions in 2003. The report recommends that tighter national caps should be accompanied by rigorous enforcement of New Source Review and other Clean Air Act programs that ensure that every plant installs modern pollution controls. 57 refs., 5 apps.

  19. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  20. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    PubMed

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  1. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  2. Assessment of the limits to peak power of 1100nm broad area single emitter diode lasers under short pulse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Crump, P.; Pietrzak, A.; Schultz, C.; Klehr, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liero, A.; Ginolas, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Bugge, F.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2009-02-01

    High power diode lasers are the root source of optical energy in all high performance laser systems. As their performance advances, diode lasers are increasingly taking the place of other sources. Short pulse, sub-microsecond-class, high power lasers are important for many applications but historically, diode lasers have not been able to reach high enough peak pulse powers with adequate reliability, limited by physical effects such as facet failure. By combining robust facet passivation with thick super large optical cavity waveguides, greatly increased optical output power can be achieved. We present here the results of a study using commercial high current short pulse sources (>200A, <500ns) to assess the performance and endurance limits of high power broad area devices. We find that our lasers can be driven with a peak power density of over 110MWcm-2 without failure for more than 3×107 pulses. For example, on testing to 240A, single emitter 200μm stripe 1100nm broad area devices reach 124W (46μJ) without failure, and 60μm stripes reach 88W. In practice, high injection effects such as carrier accumulation in waveguide typically limit peak power. We review these remaining limitations, and discuss how they can be overcome.

  3. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  4. Thermionic topping of electric power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, E. J.; Fitzpatrick, G. O.; Rasor, N. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most likely use of thermionic conversion is in the form of a topping cycle combined with a steam-turbogenerator plant. A specific reference system is chosen in which the thermionic topping cycle occurs in thermionic heat exchangers referred to as large, modular thermionic units to which heat is transferred from a separate heat source and which reject their heat to a conventional steam turboelectric system. Results of analysis show that the performance and cost criteria for practical thermionic topping of large electric power plants are well within the reach of demonstrated and foreseeable converter capabilities. Thermionic topping has many significant advantages over unconventional cycles proposed for topping applications, including level of demonstrated and projected performance and lifetime, development time, and design simplicity.

  5. Construction poses highest power plant fire threat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Power plants are more vulnerable to fire during the construction period than at any other time. Data gathered from fires at plant construction sites show that 65% result from cutting and welding activities and that the Control of combustible materials and work processes is the key factor. Contractors need to cooperate on cleanup and to upgrade the quality of temporary buildings on the site. Among the steps which could reduce fire risks are the early installation of water for fire hydrants and automatic sprinklers, testing of tarpaulins for flame retardency, the use of metal or fire retardant scaffolding and forms, approved temporary heating equipment, flushing turbine oil systems before startup, and the use of non-flammable water pipe tubing. Seven safety rules are outlined for welding and cutting procedures. (DCK)

  6. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  7. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  8. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology.

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-18

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 18 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Power...three zones: an “owner- controlled ” buffer region, a “protected area,” and a “vital area.” Access to the protected area was restricted to a portion of...plant attempts to penetrate the plant’s vital area and damage or destroy key safety components. Participants in the tightly controlled exercises

  10. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  11. Single stage rankine and cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.J.

    1981-10-13

    The specification describes a Rankine cycle power plant of the single stage type energized by gasified freon, the latter being derived from freon in the liquid state in a boiler provided in the form of a radio frequency heating cell adapted at low energy input to effect a rapid change of state from liquid freon at a given temperature and pressure to gaseous freon of relatively large volume, thereby to drive a Rankine cycle type of engine recognized in the prior art as a steam engine type of engine of the piston or turbine type.

  12. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  13. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, W.N.; Davis, A.I.; Gold, R.

    1981-10-16

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions.

  14. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  15. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  16. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  17. Integration of new hybrid flat concentrating solar modules into the experimental photovoltaic power plant TISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camani, M.; Ceppi, P.; Salvade, G.; Spinedi, C.

    The first part of the experimental, utility interactive photovoltaic plant TISO started operation on May 1982 with an array field of flat plate modules (10 kW peak) and a dedicated inverter unit. During the spring of 1983, a new hybrid flat concentrating array, with a peak electrical power of 3.1 kW and a thermal maximum output of 30 kW, was added to the installation. A high efficiency inverter unit with maximum power tracking feeds back the produced power to the utility lines. Heat is recuperated from the hybrid absorbers by forced water circulation. Some experiences and first operation results are presented.

  18. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, R. Z.; Pron’, D. M.

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  19. Peak and submaximal steady-state metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during arm-powered and arm-trunk-powered handbike ergometry in able-bodied participants.

    PubMed

    Verellen, Joeri; Meyer, Christophe; Janssens, Luc; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the peak and submaximal metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during steady-state arm-powered (AP) and arm-trunk-powered (ATP) handbike ergometry. Twelve male able-bodied participants with no prior experience in handcycling completed a maximal progressive incremental test and a series of 6-minute submaximal tests at 130 W with various cadences in a custom-designed handbike ergometer that allowed a realistic simulation of AP and ATP handcycling. Peak power output, peak oxygen uptake, and peak ventilation were significantly lower, whereas peak blood lactate concentration was significantly higher during AP handcycling. Mean gross mechanical efficiency was significantly higher during AP handcycling (range 16.7 to 20.5%) compared with ATP handcycling (range 15.8 to 17.6%). These results suggest that AP handcycling is advantageous during submaximal steady-state handcycling, whereas ATP handcycling allows for a higher peak power output generation. However, it remains unclear which handbike configuration would be favorable during competition.

  20. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  1. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-02-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  3. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H. )

    1989-10-01

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown.

  4. A measurement by BOOMERANG of multiple peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Netterfield, C. B.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Contaldi, C. R.; Crill, B. P.; Bernardis, P. de; Farese, P.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Lange, A. E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Montroy, T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background from l = 75 to l = 1025 (10' to 5 degrees) from a combined analysis of four 150 GHz channels in the BOOMERANG experiment. The spectrum contains multiple peaks and minima, as predicted by standard adiabatic-inflationary models in which the primordial plasma undergoes acoustic oscillations.

  5. Proposed Minor NSR Permit: Deseret Power Electric Cooperative - Bonanza Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed minor NSR permit, technical support document, public notice bulletin, and supporting documentation for the Deseret Power Electric Cooperative Bonanza Power Plant, Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation, Utah.

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  10. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  11. Large CFB power plant design and operating experience: Texas-New Mexico Power Company 150 MWe (net) CFB power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, K.; Cleve, K.; Tanca, M.

    1995-12-31

    The first unit of the TNP One CFB power plant was successfully put on line by Texas-New Mexico Power Company (TNP) in Robertson County, Texas, US in 1990. Unit 2 came on line one year later. This grassroots plant fires Texas lignite. The two identical CFB units were each designed for 150 MWe net electrical generation. The units have operated at 155 MWe net for extended periods of time without modifications. The boilers have additional capacity but are limited by the balance of plant. The TNP One plant was awarded the Power Plant of the Year Award by Power magazine in 1991 advancing CFB technology in large generating facilities. The plant was designed for maximum fuel flexibility with guaranteed full load operation on either Texas lignite, western coal or natural gas. The plant has fired the following fuels, to date: lignite (base fuel), natural gas (0--100% with lignite), delayed petroleum coke (0--100% with lignite), plant generated waste oils (small amounts), oil filter fluff (small amounts) and a waste product of pelletized reflective tape. Future testing is planned to test burn shredded tires. While firing all fuels, the plant could attain full load and meet all environmentally permitted emissions without any boiler modifications or compromises in boiler efficiency. This high flexibility of the plant can be attributed to the two large fluidized bed heat exchangers (FBHEs) for steam temperature and combustor temperature control. The facility is a mine mouth operation burning the local Texas lignite. The delayed petroleum cokes fired originated from various supply sources from the Texas/Louisiana area.

  12. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  13. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  14. Fault-tolerant solar array control using digital signal processing for peak power tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Griesbach, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    The described power system significantly improves energy conversion efficiency under Low Intensity, Low Temperature (LILT) conditions. Elements of the described DSP-based system apply directly to terrestrial solar power processing needs. Use of this system will enable increased efficiency of solar power processing in many applications that demand low power under adverse insolation conditions. Examples are portable solar-recharged communications systems, solar-powered remote telemetry stations, autonomous geological and seismological monitoring stations, portable remote field equipment, remote sight irrigation and area lighting. The feasibility of this system was evaluated by extensive computer simulation and an engineering demonstration model was designed and fabricated to verify the concept.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  16. Analysis on capability of load following for nuclear power plants abroad and its enlightenment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kuan; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Deng, Ting-ting; Zhang, Jin-fang; Hao, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    With the acceleration adjustment of China’s energy structure, the development of nuclear power plants in China has been going back to the fast track. While as the trend of slowing electric power demand is now unmistakable, it enforces the power system to face much greater pressure in some coastal zones where the nuclear power plants are of a comparative big proportion, such as Fujian province and Liaoning province. In this paper, the capability of load following of nuclear power plants of some developed countries with high proportion of nuclear power generation such as France, US and Japan are analysed, also from the aspects including the safety, the economy and their practical operation experience is studied. The feasibility of nuclear power plants to participate in the peak regulation of system is also studied and summarized. The results of this paper could be of good reference value for the China’s nuclear power plants to participate in system load following, and also of great significance for the development of the nuclear power plants in China.

  17. 1.38 MW peak power dual-loss modulated sub-nanosecond green laser with EO and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wenjing; Zhao, Jia; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2016-12-01

    By simultaneously employing electro-optic (EO) modulator and Graphene saturable absorber (SA) in a dual-loss-modulated Q-switched and mode-locking (QML) Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP green laser, the sub-nanosecond single mode-locking green laser is demonstrated with high peak power, low repetition rate and high stability. The monolayer and 3-layer graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method were used as SAs in the experiment. When the pump power reached 10.72 W, the maximum peak power obtained from the doubly QML laser with EO and monolayer graphene-SA was 1.38 MW, corresponding to a pulse duration of 480 ps. The shortest pulse width of 340 ps was obtained with a 3-layer graphene-SA.

  18. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  19. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  20. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  1. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  3. Cascaded Raman shifting of high-peak-power nanosecond pulses in As₂S₃ and As₂Se₃ optical fibers.

    PubMed

    White, Richard T; Monro, Tanya M

    2011-06-15

    We report efficient cascaded Raman scattering of near-IR nanosecond pulses in large-core (65 μm diameter) As₂S₃ and As₂Se₃ optical fibers. Raman scattering dominates other spectral broadening mechanisms, such as four-wave mixing, modulation instability, and soliton dynamics, because the fibers have large normal group-velocity dispersion in the spectral range of interest. With ~2 ns pump pulses at a wavelength of 1.9 μm, four Stokes peaks, all with peak powers greater than 1 kW, have been measured.

  4. Highly Efficient Transmitter for High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) Waveforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-19

    and high peak to average ratios (PAR) modulation topologies like Orthogonal Frequency Division Modulation ( OFDM ) including Wideband Code Division...Collision Avoidance and Traffic Alert 1030 1090 DWTS Digital Wideband Transmission System 1350 1850 EPLRS Enhanced Position Location Reporting System 420...interface protocols that can be customized based on the necessary platform and application while synonymously controlling the frequency selectable components

  5. Genre, Power, and Culture in the Televisual World of "Twin Peaks": A Feminist Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafky, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Examines the economic and cultural contexts of the popular television show "Twin Peaks," reading it as reactionary postmodernism. Argues that the show's clever innovations in production, avant-garde techniques, and postmodern sensibilities obscure in-depth or ongoing discussions about its reactionary politics, regressive and misogynistic…

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  7. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  8. Small power plant reverse trade mission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-06

    This draft report was prepared as required by Task No. 2 of the US Department of Energy, Grant No. FG07-89ID12850 Reverse Trade Mission to Acquaint International Representatives with US Power Plant and Drilling Technology'' (mission). As described in the grant proposal, this report covers the reactions of attendees toward US technology, its possible use in their countries, and an evaluation of the mission by the staff leaders. Note this is the draft report of one of two missions carried out under the same contract number. Because of the diversity of the mission subjects and the different attendees at each, a separate report for each mission has been prepared. This draft report has been sent to all mission attendees, specific persons in the US Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Lab., the California Energy Commission (CEC), and various other governmental agencies.

  9. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage.

  10. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  11. Power plant II - Sodium-water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, M.

    The implementation of a sodium based heat exchange loop is presented as a means of reducing the required size of a solar thermal power plant heat exchanger. Sodium as a heat transfer fluid allows operations near 535 C with electromagnetic pumps. It is noted that sodium must be completely sealed in and surrounded with a neutral gas such as nitrogen or argon. The higher temperatures pave the way for a more efficient thermodynamic cycle, although the Themis receiver would necessarily need a faster loop in addition to more absorbent surfaces to adequately handle the sodium liquid. The steam lines would be helically wound in a chamber through which the sodium flows linearly downward. Storage is concluded to not be feasible under current technology due to the violent reactions possible between sodium and water or hitec salts. An auxiliary heat source would be required.

  12. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  13. Competitiveness of biomass-fueled electrical power plants.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. McCarl; Darius M. Adams; Ralph J. Alig; John T. Chmelik

    2000-01-01

    One way countries like the United States can comply with suggested rollbacks in greenhouse gas emissions is by employing power plants fueled with biomass. We examine the competitiveness of biomass-based fuel for electrical power as opposed to coal using a mathematical programming structure. We consider fueling power plants from milling residues, whole trees, logging...

  14. 9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View southeast corner of perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #214, control room; showing central monitoring station console in foreground. Well and booster control panel in left background and electric power management panel on far right - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  16. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  17. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  18. Short-pulse MOPA fiber laser with kilowatt average power and multi-megawatt peak power, applying advanced XLMA fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, R.; Grundmann, F.-P.; Hapke, C.; Kallage, P.; Rath, W.; Ruppik, S.

    2017-03-01

    High power short pulse fiber lasers are applied in industry for many ablation processes or various surface treatments, and there is a huge demand for such lasers but with higher average power, higher pulse energy and higher peak power. This contribution presents a high peak- and average- power fiber laser with selectable pulse durations between 10 ns and 100 ns, where more than 150 mJ pulse energy has been achieved at a repetition rate of 10 kHz. In addition, for a laser pulse with 30 ns pulse duration a maximum peak power of more than 3.5 MW at more than 1 kW average output power have been demonstrated. These results could be achieved by applying extra-large mode area (XLMA) gain fibers (fiber core <100 μm) in the fiber amplifiers and using pulse shape capabilities of the seed laser, only. Stable and safe operation of the fiber laser have been shown with power densities up to 3 GW/cm² in the gain fiber. In order to protect the fiber laser to be affected by back reflections from the workpiece, a newly designed optical isolator with more than 30 dB isolation has been implemented.

  19. Impact of the Peaking of World Oil Production on the Global Balance of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    as well as structural carbon-based elements, which require oil-based raw materials. The irony of some solar cells is that the energy cost for their...application encompass nuclear, gas, coal, wind power and solar power. Energies for mobile applications include hydrogen and fuel cells, biofuels...

  20. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  1. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental..., 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company (MYAPC) is holder of Facility Operating License DPR-36 for the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant (MY). The...

  2. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  3. The 125 MW Upper Mahiao geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Forte, N.

    1996-12-31

    The 125 MW Upper Mahiao power plant, the first geothermal power project to be financed under a Build-Own-Operate-and-Transfer (BOOT) arrangement in the Philippines, expected to complete its start-up testing in August of this year. This plant uses Ormat`s environmentally benign technology and is both the largest geothermal steam/binary combined cycle plant as well as the largest geothermal power plant utilizing air cooled condensers. The Ormat designed and constructed plant was developed under a fast track program, with some two years from the April 1994 contract signing through design, engineering, construction and startup. The plant is owned and operated by a subsidiary of CalEnergy Co., Inc. and supplies power to PNOC-Energy Development Corporation for the National Power Corporation (Napocor) national power grid in the Philippines.

  4. Gigawatt peak power generation in a relativistic klystron amplifier driven by 1 kW seed-power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Xie, H. Q.; Li, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Ma, Q. S.

    2013-11-01

    An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier driven by kW-level RF power is proposed and studied experimentally. In the device, the RF lossy material is introduced to suppress higher mode excitation. An output power of 1.95 GW with a gain of 62.8 dB is obtained in the simulation. Under conditions of an input RF power of 1.38 kW, a microwave pulse with power of 1.9 GW, frequency of 2.86 GHz, and duration of 105 ns is generated in the experiment, and the corresponding gain is 61.4 dB.

  5. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  6. Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

    2010-06-01

    Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

  7. Communicating with stakeholders about nuclear power plant radiation.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Ann Stouffer

    2011-01-01

    A national public opinion survey in 2008 measured public perceptions about radiation and specifically about radiation from nuclear power plants. The study also revealed effective messages for communicating with stakeholders about radiation from nuclear power plants. A comparison with a 1991 national survey on these topics shows that misperceptions about radiation persist, but fewer people now believe that those living near nuclear power plants are exposed to harmful levels of radiation.

  8. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in the latent heat of molten salts as a means of conserving fossil fuels and lowering the cost of electric power was evaluated. Public utility systems provided electric power on demand. This demand is generally maximum during late weekday afternoons, with considerably lower overnight and weekend loads. Typically, the average demand is only 60% to 80% of peak load. As peak load increases, the present practice is to purchase power from other grid facilities or to bring older less efficient fossil-fuel plants on line which increase the cost of electric power. The widespread use of oil-fired boilers, gas turbine and diesel equipment to meet peaking loads depletes our oil-based energy resources. Heat exchangers utilizing molten salts can be used to level the energy consumption curve. The study begins with a demand analysis and the consideration of several existing modern fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants for use as models. Salts are evaluated for thermodynamic, economic, corrosive, and safety characteristics. Heat exchanger concepts are explored and heat exchanger designs are conceived. Finally, the economics of TES conversions in existing plants and new construction is analyzed. The study concluded that TES is feasible in electric power generation. Substantial data are presented for TES design, and reference material for further investigation of techniques is included.

  9. High peak-power mid-infrared ZnGeP₂ optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Tm:fiber master oscillator power amplifier system.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Martin; Gaida, Christian; Kadwani, Pankaj; Sincore, Alex; Gehlich, Nils; Jeon, Cheonha; Shah, Lawrence; Richardson, Martin

    2014-03-01

    We report on the utilization of a novel Tm:fiber laser source for mid-IR ZnGeP2 (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumping. The pump laser is built in a master oscillator power-amplifier configuration delivering up to 3.36 W of polarized, diffraction limited output power with 7 ns pulse duration and 4 kHz repetition rate. This corresponds to a peak power of ∼121  kW and a pulse energy of ∼0.84  mJ. With this source, we generated 27.9 kW of total mid-IR peak power in a doubly resonant oscillator (DRO) configuration. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest ever demonstrated mid-IR peak power from a directly Tm:fiber laser pumped ZGP OPO. Moreover, a DRO output with about 284 μJ of total mid-IR pulse energy was demonstrated using 100 ns pump pulses. The wavelength tuning of the idler was extended to 6 μm with lower output power in another OPO experiment.

  10. High-peak-power tunable laser operation of Yb:SrF2.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Mathias; Hein, Joachim; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Uecker, Reinhard

    2007-07-01

    Growth, spectroscopic properties, and laser performance of Yb:SrF(2) crystals have been investigated. In spatial multimode operation of a diode-pumped Yb:SrF(2) laser a slope efficiency of 46% was measured. 180W output power with high beam quality at a pulse duration of 1.5ms was achieved by installing a mode cleaning aperture. A maximum average output power of 270mW and a tuning range of 73nm was observed.

  11. Yb3+-doped rod-type amplifiers with local adiabatic tapers for peak power scaling and beam quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuan; Eschrich, Tina; Leich, Martin; Grimm, Stephan; Kobelke, Jens; Lorenz, Martin; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    The use of short local tapers in large mode area fiber amplifiers is proposed for peak power scaling while maintaining good beam quality. To avoid modal distortions, the powder-sintering (REPUSIL) method was employed to obtain core materials with excellent refractive index homogeneity. First experiments with Yb3+-doped rod-type amplifiers delivered 2 ns pulses with peak powers of 540 kW and energies of 1.4 mJ for the untapered rod and 230 kW for the tapered rod (limited by facet damage). The beam quality improved from an M 2 value of approximately 10 to 3.5. The investigation of the taper structure indicates room for further improvement.

  12. A novel FFT/IFFT based peak-to-average power reduction method for OFDM communication systems using tone reservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besong, Samuel Oru; Yu, Xiaoyou; Li, Bin; Hou, Weibing; Wang, Xiaochun

    2011-10-01

    One of the main drawbacks of OFDM systems is the high Peak-to-Average Power ratio, which could limit transmission efficiency and efficient use of HPA. In this paper we present a modified tone reservation scheme for PAPR reduction using FFT iterations to generate the tones. In this Scheme, the reserve tones are designed to both cancel peaks and slightly increase the average power to induce a better PAPR reduction..The tones are generated by means of 2 FFT operations and the process is sometimes iterated to achieve better PAPR reductions. This scheme achieves a significant PAPR reduction of at least 4.6dB when about 4% of the carriers are used as reserve tones and with even lesser iterations when simulated in an OFDM system.

  13. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  14. Designing geothermal power plants to avoid reinventing the corrosion wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, Marshall F.

    1982-10-08

    This paper addresses how designers can take into account, the necessary chemical and materials precautions that other geothermal power plants have learned. Current worldwide geothermal power plant capacity is presented as well as a comparison of steam composition from seven different geothermal resources throughout the world. The similarities of corrosion impacts to areas of the power plants are discussed and include the turbines, gas extraction system, heat rejection system, electrical/electronic systems, and structures. Materials problems and solutions in these corrosion impact areas are identified and discussed. A geothermal power plant design team organization is identified and the efficacy of a new corrosion/materials engineering position is proposed.

  15. Microexternal cavity tapered lasers at 670 nm with 5 W peak power and nearly diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Tien, Tran Quoc; Maiwald, Martin; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2008-11-15

    Wavelength-stabilized compact laser systems at 670 nm on a micro-optical bench are presented. The resonator concept consists of a tapered semiconductor gain medium and a reflection Bragg grating as a wavelength selective resonator mirror. In pulse operation mode with 100 ns pulses, an optical peak power of 5 W with a spectral width below 150 pm was achieved. Nearly diffraction-limited beam quality at optical output powers up to 1 W is obtained. Such laser systems can be used, e.g., for Raman spectroscopy and as pumping sources for frequency conversion toward UV spectral range.

  16. Scaling of dissipative soliton fiber lasers to megawatt peak powers by use of large-area photonic crystal fiber

    PubMed Central

    Lefrançois, Simon; Kieu, Khanh; Deng, Yujun; Kafka, James D.; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    We report an all-normal dispersion femtosecond laser based on large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber. Self-starting mode-locked pulses are obtained with an average power of 12 W at 84 MHz repetition rate, corresponding to 140 nJ of chirped pulse energy. These are dechirped to a near transform-limited duration of 115 fs. Experimental results are consistent with numerical simulations of dissipative soliton intracavity pulse evolution, and demonstrate scaling of 100 fs pulses to megawatt peak powers. PMID:20479811

  17. High peak power miniature Yb:CNGG disordered crystal laser end-pumped by a 935-nm diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qibiao; Yi, Hongying; Chen, Xiaowen; Han, Wenjuan; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Shiwu; Liu, Junhai

    2014-04-01

    We report on an efficient miniature Yb:CNGG disordered crystal laser, which is passively Q-switched with a Cr4+:YAG crystal plate acting as saturable absorber. An average output power of 1.35 W is generated at a pulse repetition rate of 5.55 kHz with a slope efficiency of 42%; the resulting laser pulse energy and duration are respectively 243 μJ and 3.0 ns, while the peak power is as high as 81 kW.

  18. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  19. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOEpatents

    Perez, Richard

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  20. Treating waste water from heat and electrical power plants and state regional power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beigel`drud, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    Water is often contaminated with oil and other petroleum products when used by local and regional power plants. This article outlines the various methods of treating oil contaminated water and removing emulsions. Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used methods of treatment, but there are other means including flotation and electrochemical methods. Ammonium nitrite was used to accelerates the oil removal with an electrochemical method, which was chosen as the most efficient path towards removal.

  1. 24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CATENARY ANCHOR BRIDGE 310, COS COB POWER PLANT, NORTH TRUSS FOR POWER LEAD-IN WIRES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Broadband supercontinuum generation in lead silicate photonic crystal fibers employing optical pulses of 50 W peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mohit; Konar, S.

    2016-12-01

    A unique solid core lead silicate photonic crystal fiber has been designed which promises to simultaneously exhibit large optical nonlinearity and almost uniform low dispersion. At 1064 and 1550 nm wavelengths, the fiber is expected to exhibit nonlinear coefficient ~ 1420 W-1 km-1 and ~ 923 W-1 km-1, respectively, and dispersion ~ 7 ps/km/nm and ~ 40 ps/km/nm, respectively. Employing numerical simulation, we have investigated supercontinuum (SC) generation in this fiber by pumping 1 ps and 50 fs pulses. An octave-spanning SC from 680 to 1500 nm is achievable at the end of 15 cm long fiber by pumping 50 fs pulses of 50 W peak power at 1064 nm. SC spectra from 1200 to 2600 nm are also achievable by pumping 50 fs pulses of 100 W peak power at 1550 nm. The simulated SC spectra due to 50 fs pulses are attributed to self-phase modulation. A flat spectrum from 650 to 980 nm is predicted due to pumping in the normal dispersion regime at 800 nm using 1 ps pulses of 300 W peak power in a 75 cm long fiber.

  3. Solid-state repetitive generator with a gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line operating as a peak power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Timoshenkov, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, experiments were made in which gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) operates as a peak power amplifier of the input pulse. At such an operating regime, the duration of the input pulse is close to the period of generated oscillations, and the main part of the input pulse energy is transmitted only to the first peak of the oscillations. Power amplification is achieved due to the voltage amplitude of the first peak across the NLTL output exceeding the voltage amplitude of the input pulse. In the experiments, the input pulse with an amplitude of 500 kV and a half-height pulse duration of 7 ns is applied to the NLTL with a natural oscillation frequency of ˜300 MHz. At the output of the NLTL in 40 Ω coaxial transmission line, the pulse amplitude is increased to 740 kV and the pulse duration is reduced to ˜2 ns, which correspond to power amplification of the input pulse from ˜6 to ˜13 GW. As a source of input pulses, a solid-state semiconductor opening switch generator was used, which allowed carrying out experiments at pulse repetition frequency up to 1 kHz in the burst mode of operation.

  4. CMB lensing beyond the power spectrum: Cosmological constraints from the one-point probability distribution function and peak counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.; Petri, Andrea; Böhm, Vanessa; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-11-01

    Unprecedentedly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) data are expected from ongoing and near-future CMB stage III and IV surveys, which will yield reconstructed CMB lensing maps with effective resolution approaching several arcminutes. The small-scale CMB lensing fluctuations receive non-negligible contributions from nonlinear structure in the late-time density field. These fluctuations are not fully characterized by traditional two-point statistics, such as the power spectrum. Here, we use N -body ray-tracing simulations of CMB lensing maps to examine two higher-order statistics: the lensing convergence one-point probability distribution function (PDF) and peak counts. We show that these statistics contain significant information not captured by the two-point function and provide specific forecasts for the ongoing stage III Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) experiment. Considering only the temperature-based reconstruction estimator, we forecast 9 σ (PDF) and 6 σ (peaks) detections of these statistics with AdvACT. Our simulation pipeline fully accounts for the non-Gaussianity of the lensing reconstruction noise, which is significant and cannot be neglected. Combining the power spectrum, PDF, and peak counts for AdvACT will tighten cosmological constraints in the Ωm-σ8 plane by ≈30 %, compared to using the power spectrum alone.

  5. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF A POWER-PLANT PLUME.

    SciTech Connect

    SPRINGSTON,S.R.; KLEINMAN,L.I.; BRECHTEL,F.; DAUM,P.H.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements made from the DOE G-1 aircraft were used to calculate the rate and efficiency of O{sub 3} production downwind of an isolated, coal-fired power plant. The plume was transected 12 times at distances ranging to 65 km from its source (corresponding to an age of {approx}4 h assuming constant wind velocity). For NO{sub x}, a loss rate of 0.5 h{sup -1} was calculated. If reaction with OH was the sole loss mechanism, then an [OH] = 1.6 x 10{sup 7}molec/cm{sup 3} is inferred, which is {approx}2-3X values calculated using a box model constrained by observations. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed. O{sub 3} production per molecule of NO{sub x} approached 6-8 after the plume had aged >3h. Peak O{sub 3} concentrations were 15 ppbv above background. Dilution appears to limit the peak O{sub 3} concentration despite the high production efficiency. Hydrocarbon samples indicate high levels of VOC reactivity ({approx}8 s{sup -1}) in the plume. The number concentration of accumulation mode particles increases significantly with plume age indicating a rapid formation of aerosol mass.

  6. Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H.; Hassani, V.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

  7. High-peak-irradiance microwave-powered UV lamps for processing of coatings, inks, and adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The number and variety of applications for UV curable inks, coatings, and adhesives continue to expand at a rapid pace, and pose new design challenges to increase cure efficiency, speed, and the physical properties of the cured polymer film. The latest developments in microwave powered lamps for industrial processing are presented. Among these are: (1) the selection and control of the lamp emission spectra to match the optical properties of the film and its photoinitiator, (2) sustained high power lamp operation at 6 kilowatts, and (3) the use of absorptive dichroic reflectors to mange the relative components of UV and infrared energy in the highly focused radiation delivered to surfaces being processed. The design considerations of high powered UV lamps and dichroic reflectors for them are presented.

  8. Dual-wavelength tunable fibre laser with a 15-dBm peak power

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, A A; Awang, N A; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W; Ghani, Z A; Ahmad, H

    2011-08-31

    A high-power dual-wavelength tunable fibre laser (HP-DWTFL) operating in the C-band at wavelengths from 1536.7 nm to 1548.6 nm is proposed and demonstrated. The HP-DWTFL utilises an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) (1 x 16 channels) and is capable of generating eight different dual-wavelength pairs with eight possible wavelength spacings ranging from 0.8 nm (the narrowest spacing) to 12.0 nm (the widest spacing). The average output power and side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of the HP-DWTFL are measured to be 15 dBm and 52.55 dB, respectively. The proposed HP-DWTFL is highly stable with no variations in the chosen output wavelengths and has minimal changes in the output power. Such a laser has good potential for use in measurements, communications, spectroscopy and terahertz applications. (control of radiation parameters)

  9. Superradiant Ka-band Cherenkov oscillator with 2-GW peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Ul'masculov, M. R.; Yalandin, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    The generation of a 2-GW microwave superradiance (SR) pulses has been demonstrated at 29-GHz using a single-mode relativistic backward-wave oscillator possessing the beam-to-wave power conversion factor no worse than 100%. A record-breaking radiation power density in the slow-wave structure (SWS) of ˜1.5 GW/cm2 required the use of high guiding magnetic field (7 T) decreasing the beam losses to the SWS in strong rf fields. Despite the field strength at the SWS wall of 2 MV/cm, a single-pass transmission mode of a short SR pulse in the SWS allows one to obtain extremely high power density in subnanosecond time scale due to time delay in the development of the breakdown phenomena.

  10. Superradiant Ka-band Cherenkov oscillator with 2-GW peak power

    SciTech Connect

    Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Ul'masculov, M. R.; Yalandin, M. I.

    2016-09-15

    The generation of a 2-GW microwave superradiance (SR) pulses has been demonstrated at 29-GHz using a single-mode relativistic backward-wave oscillator possessing the beam-to-wave power conversion factor no worse than 100%. A record-breaking radiation power density in the slow-wave structure (SWS) of ∼1.5 GW/cm{sup 2} required the use of high guiding magnetic field (7 T) decreasing the beam losses to the SWS in strong rf fields. Despite the field strength at the SWS wall of 2 MV/cm, a single-pass transmission mode of a short SR pulse in the SWS allows one to obtain extremely high power density in subnanosecond time scale due to time delay in the development of the breakdown phenomena.

  11. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  13. Monitoring of the solar power plants and performance ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredenšek, Klemen; Šlamberger, Jan; Štumberger, Bojan; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Seme, Sebastijan

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with monitoring of solar power plants. We can observe solar power plants with energy yield, monitoring or performance ratio. All these approaches of monitoring solar power plants have their advantages and disadvantages. The procedures of monitoring different solar power plants in Slovenia will be presented and evaluated in the paper. It turns out that energy yield and monitoring of solar power plants don't give enough necessary information concerning proper operation. Energy yield is the ratio between the energy produced and the nominal power of the solar power plant. Energy yield is dependent on the intensity of solar radiation and temperature. It appears that proper operation of solar power plants is best described with the performance ratio, which is the ration between the energy produced and the energy that would be produced at nominal yield. Performance ratio considers the intensity of solar radiation and/or temperature. The results show that the proper operation of the solar power plants is mostly affected by appropriate installation and orientation of solar modules.

  14. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  15. 975nm high-peak power ns-diode laser based MOPA system suitable for water vapor DIAL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, Bernd; Klehr, Andreas; Vu, Thi Nghiem; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-03-01

    Micro-DIAL (differential absorption LIDAR) systems require light sources with peak powers in the range of several 10 W together with a spectral line width smaller than the width of absorption lines under study. For water vapor at atmospheric pressure this width should be smaller than 10 pm at 975 nm. In this paper, an all semiconductor master oscillator power amplifier system at an emission wavelength of 975 nm will be presented. This spectral range was selected with respect to a targeted absorption path length of 5000 m and H2O line strengths. A distributed feedback (DFB) ridge waveguide diode laser operated in continuous wave is used as master oscillator whereas a tapered amplifier consisting of a RW section and a flared section is implemented as power amplifier. The RW section acts as optical gate. The current pulses injected into the RW part have a length of 8 ns and the tapered part is driven with 15 ns long pulses. The delay between the pulses is adjusted for optimal pulse shape. The repetition rate is in both cases 25 kHz. A maximal pulse output power of about 16 W limited by the available current supply is achieved. The spectral line width of the system determined by the properties of the DFB laser is smaller than 10 pm. The tuning range amounts 0.9 nm and a SMSR of 40 dB is observed. From the dependence of the peak power on the power injected into the tapered amplifier, the saturation power is determined to 5.3 mW.

  16. Evaluation of the ECAS open cycle MHD power plant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Staiger, P. J.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) MHD/steam power plant is described. The NASA critical evaluation of the design is summarized. Performance of the MHD plant is compared to that of the other type ECAS plant designs on the basis of efficiency and the 30-year levelized cost of electricity. Techniques to improve the plant design and the potential performance of lower technology plants requiring shorter development time and lower development cost are then discussed.

  17. A simple algorithm to compute the peak power output of GaAs/Ge solar cells on the Martian surface

    SciTech Connect

    Glueck, P.R.; Bahrami, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory`s (JPL`s) Mars Pathfinder Project will deploy a robotic ``microrover`` on the surface of Mars in the summer of 1997. This vehicle will derive primary power from a GaAs/Ge solar array during the day and will ``sleep`` at night. This strategy requires that the rover be able to (1) determine when it is necessary to save the contents of volatile memory late in the afternoon and (2) determine when sufficient power is available to resume operations in the morning. An algorithm was developed that estimates the peak power point of the solar array from the solar array short-circuit current and temperature telemetry, and provides functional redundancy for both measurements using the open-circuit voltage telemetry. The algorithm minimizes vehicle processing and memory utilization by using linear equations instead of look-up tables to estimate peak power with very little loss in accuracy. This paper describes the method used to obtain the algorithm and presents the detailed algorithm design.

  18. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  19. Film fill for power plant cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsky, G.R. ); Monjoie, M. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on film fill, which is the use of flat or formed sheets to provide a surface upon which liquid and air come in contact with each other to affect the exchange of heat. The only other fill options available to a cooling tower designer is the use of splash fill or combinations whereby heat exchange occurs on the surface of water droplets, or both. As film fill allows the designer the opportunity to build a more compact, cost effective, energy efficient cooling tower; this type of fill material is receiving ever increasing acceptance and finding it way into more and more cooling tower applications. film fill is used to both counterflow and crossflow cooling towers, from small air conditioning applications to large natural draft towers serving 1300 to 1500 M.W. power plants around the world. It is being used in applications using unfiltered water high in suspended solids, high concentrations of dissolved salts, water carrying fibers, silt, mud, treated and untreated waste effluent, scale etc. These situations are caused by users who are: trying to reduce water make-up, using untreated or unfiltered water, or trying to save on the cost of chemical treatment.

  20. Analysis on energy consumption index system of thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, J. B.; Zhang, N.; Li, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the increasingly tense situation in the context of resources, energy conservation is a realistic choice to ease the energy constraint contradictions, reduce energy consumption thermal power plants has become an inevitable development direction. And combined with computer network technology to build thermal power “small index” to monitor and optimize the management system, the power plant is the application of information technology and to meet the power requirements of the product market competition. This paper, first described the research status of thermal power saving theory, then attempted to establish the small index system and build “small index” monitoring and optimization management system in thermal power plant. Finally elaborated key issues in the field of small thermal power plant technical and economic indicators to be further studied and resolved.

  1. Oxygen-enriched air for MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, R. W., Jr.; Cutting, J. C.; Burkhart, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Cryogenic air-separation process cycle variations and compression schemes are examined. They are designed to minimize net system power required to supply pressurized, oxygen-enriched air to the combustor of an MHD power plant with a coal input of 2000 MWt. Power requirements and capital costs for oxygen production and enriched air compression for enrichment levels from 13 to 50% are determined. The results are presented as curves from which total compression power requirements can be estimated for any desired enrichment level at any delivery pressure. It is found that oxygen enrichment and recuperative heating of MHD combustor air to 1400 F yields near-term power plant efficiencies in excess of 45%. A minimum power compression system requires 167 MW to supply 330 lb of oxygen per second and costs roughly 100 million dollars. Preliminary studies show MHD/steam power plants to be competitive with plants using high-temperature air preheaters burning gas.

  2. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  3. Development of robust multilayer optics for use in high-peak power radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.J.; Mrowka, S.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Da Silva, L.B.; Eder, D.C.; Koch, J.A.; Turner, J.A.; Underwood, J.H.

    1993-07-27

    In many applications, x-ray multilayer mirrors are exposed to high peak fluxes of x-rays with subsequent damage to the mirror. Mirror damage is a particularly severe problem with the use of multilayers as cavity optics for short wavelength x-ray lasers. Intense optical and x-ray radiation, from the x-ray laser plasma amplifier, often damage the multilayer mirror on time scales of hundreds of picoseconds. The phenomenon of multilayer mirror damage by pulsed x-ray emission has been studied using short duration (500 psec) bursts of soft x-rays 1 from a laser produced gold plasma. The results of the experiments will be compared with some simple models and the possibility of increasing the damage thresholds of short wavelength multilayer mirrors will be discussed.

  4. The ARIES Advanced And Conservative Tokamak (ACT) Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; El-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Radar, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2014-03-05

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies in order to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding, and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared to older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium (SCLL) blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q95 of 4.5, a {beta}N{sup total} of 5.75, H{sub 98} of 1.65, n/nGr of 1.0, and peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m{sup 2}. The conservative configuration assumes a dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket concept with ferritic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma major radius is 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q95 of 8.0, a {beta}N{sup total} of 2.5, H{sub 98} of 1.25, n/n{sub Gr} of 1.3, and peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m{sup 2}. The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape-off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range of 10-15 MW/m{sup 2}. Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  5. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E; Tillak, M. S; Najmabadi, F.; ...

    2015-12-22

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q₉₅ of 4.5, aᵦtotal N of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, anmore » n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m² . The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q₉₅ of 8.0, aᵦtotalN of 2.5, an H₉₈ of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m² . The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m² . Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.« less

  6. The ARIES Advanced and Conservative Tokamak Power Plant Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E; Tillak, M. S; Najmabadi, F.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Wang, X. R.; Navaei, D.; Toudeshki, H. H.; Koehly, C.; EL-Guebaly, L.; Blanchard, J. P.; Martin, C. J.; Mynsburge, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S. I.; Hageman, M. D.; Mills, B. H.; Rader, J. D.; Sadowski, D. L.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waganer, L. M.; Malang, S.; Rowcliffe, A. F.

    2015-12-22

    Tokamak power plants are studied with advanced and conservative design philosophies to identify the impacts on the resulting designs and to provide guidance to critical research needs. Incorporating updated physics understanding and using more sophisticated engineering and physics analysis, the tokamak configurations have developed a more credible basis compared with older studies. The advanced configuration assumes a self-cooled lead lithium blanket concept with SiC composite structural material with 58% thermal conversion efficiency. This plasma has a major radius of 6.25 m, a toroidal field of 6.0 T, a q₉₅ of 4.5, aᵦtotal N of 5.75, an H98 of 1.65, an n/nGr of 1.0, and a peak divertor heat flux of 13.7 MW/m² . The conservative configuration assumes a dual-coolant lead lithium blanket concept with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel structural material and helium coolant, achieving a thermal conversion efficiency of 45%. The plasma has a major radius of 9.75 m, a toroidal field of 8.75 T, a q₉₅ of 8.0, aᵦtotalN of 2.5, an H₉₈ of 1.25, an n/nGr of 1.3, and a peak divertor heat flux of 10 MW/m² . The divertor heat flux treatment with a narrow power scrape off width has driven the plasmas to larger major radius. Edge and divertor plasma simulations are targeting a basis for high radiated power fraction in the divertor, which is necessary for solutions to keep the peak heat flux in the range 10 to 15 MW/m² . Combinations of the advanced and conservative approaches show intermediate sizes. A new systems code using a database approach has been used and shows that the operating point is really an operating zone with some range of plasma and engineering parameters and very similar costs of electricity. Other papers in this issue provide more detailed discussion of the work summarized here.

  7. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  8. 4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Keith G; Tropper, Anne C; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Kunert, Bernardette; Heinen, Bernd; Stolz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-28

    We report a passively mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) producing 400 fs pulses with 4.35 kW peak power. The average output power was 3.3 W and the VECSEL had a repetition rate of 1.67 GHz at a center wavelength of 1013 nm. A near-antiresonant, substrate-removed, 10 quantum well (QW) gain structure designed to enable femtosecond pulse operation is used. A SESAM which uses fast carrier recombination at the semiconductor surface and the optical Stark effect enables passive mode-locking. When 1 W of the VECSEL output is launched into a 2 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a 2.2 µm core, a supercontinuum spanning 175 nm, with average power 0.5 W is produced.

  9. MW peak power Er/Yb-doped fiber femtosecond laser amplifier at 1.5 µm center wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seongheum; Jang, Heesuk; Kim, Seungman; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2017-08-01

    An erbium (Er)/ytterbium (Yb) co-doped double-clad fiber is configured to amplify single-mode pulses with a high average power of 10 W at a 1.5 µm center wavelength. The pulse duration at the exit of the Er/Yb fiber amplifier is measured to be ~440 fs after grating-based compression. The whole single-mode operation of the amplifier system permits the M 2-value of the output beam quality to be evaluated better than 1.05. By tuning the repetition rate from 100 MHz down to 600 kHz, the pulse peak power is scaled up to 19.1 MW to be the highest ever reported using an Er/Yb single-mode fiber. The proposed amplifier system is well suited for strong-power applications such as free-space LIDAR, non-thermal machining and medical surgery.

  10. Diode-pumped gigahertz femtosecond Yb:KGW laser with a peak power of 3.9 kW.

    PubMed

    Pekarek, Selina; Fiebig, Christian; Stumpf, Max Christoph; Oehler, Andreas Ernst Heinz; Paschke, Katrin; Erbert, Götz; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula

    2010-08-02

    We present a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser with a repetition rate of 1 GHz and a pulse duration of 281 fs at a wavelength of 1041 nm. A high brightness distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode laser is used as a pump source. Stable soliton modelocking is achieved with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The obtained average output power is 1.1 W and corresponds to a peak power of 3.9 kW and a pulse energy of 1.1 nJ. With harmonic modelocking we could increase the pulse repetition rate up to 4 GHz with an average power of 900 mW and a pulse duration of 290 fs. This Yb:KGW laser has a high potential for stable frequency comb generation.

  11. Quantitative analysis of peak torque and power-velocity characteristics of shoulder rotator muscles after arthroscopic labral repair.

    PubMed

    Szuba, Łukasz; Markowska, Iga; Czamara, Andrzej; Noga, Henryk

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to use biomechanical testing to assess differences in the power and strength of patients who participated in a short-term, home-based rehabilitation program following arthroscopic labral repair compared with a healthy control group. The functional outcomes of patients who underwent arthroscopic labral repair followed by self-directed short-term rehabilitation at home were compared with age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Group I included 20 male patients who had undergone arthroscopic labral repair after being diagnosed with recurrent anterior glenohumeral joint instability without bony lesions of the humeral head or glenoid. Postoperatively, they participated in physical therapy for 17±4 appointments, followed by self-guided home-based exercises. Group II included 25 males without injuries. The two groups were matched for age and BMI. The orthopaedic examination, functional tests, and biomechanical measurements were performed under isokinetic conditions at an average of 16±3 months postoperatively. Significant differences were observed in range of shoulder rotation on the operative shoulder compared with the unaffected side and in the dominant arms of the control group. The patients were also found to have significant deficits in biomechanical parameters such as power and peak torque angle. Significant deficits in peak torque, power, and peak torque angle during external and internal shoulder rotation remained up to 16 months after arthroscopic labral repair. Further research is needed to understand the changes in shoulder power assessment after labral repair. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

  13. JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

  14. 3. View from doorway of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View from doorway of perimeter acquisition radar power plant, generator M1 (lower level), room #115 - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. Geoproducts hybrid geothermal/wood fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  16. Session 7: Geoproducts Hybrid Geothermal / Wood Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, Tom

    1983-12-01

    This presentation describes the 15 MW(e) hybrid combined cycle power plant being constructed at Honey Lake, near Susanville, California. The power plant will use a wood fired system topping cycle, an organic Ranking (binary) bottoming cycle, and geothermal heating of combustion air and organic working fluid. In addition to a technical description, project economics, project merits, and project status are presented.

  17. 5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH ELEVATION OF POWER PLANT BUILDING. GRATE COVERED 'TRASH RACK' VISIBLE IN CENTER. THE STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE SUPPORTS MACHINES TO CLEAR DEBRIS CAUGHT ON THE TRASH RACK. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  18. Visual sensitivity of river recreation to power plants

    Treesearch

    David H. Blau; Michael C. Bowie

    1979-01-01

    The consultants were asked by the Power Plant Siting Staff of the Minnesota Environmental Quality Council to develop a methodology for evaluating the sensitivity of river-related recreational activities to visual intrusion by large coal-fired power plants. The methodology, which is applicable to any major stream in the state, was developed and tested on a case study...

  19. 13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  20. 8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE POWER PLANT TEST STAND DURING AN ENGINE FIRING. DATE UNKNOWN, FRED ORDWAY COLLECTION, U.S. SPACE AND ROCKET CENTER, HUNTSVILLE, AL. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL