Science.gov

Sample records for pears

  1. Fragrant pear sexuality recognition with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Benxue; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    In this research, a method to identify Kuler fragrant pear's sexuality with machine vision was developed. Kuler fragrant pear has male pear and female pear. They have an obvious difference in favor. To detect the sexuality of Kuler fragrant pear, images of fragrant pear were acquired by CCD color camera. Before feature extraction, some preprocessing is conducted on the acquired images to remove noise and unnecessary contents. Color feature, perimeter feature and area feature of fragrant pear bottom image were extracted by digital image processing technique. And the fragrant pear sexuality was determined by complexity obtained from perimeter and area. In this research, using 128 Kurle fragrant pears as samples, good recognition rate between the male pear and the female pear was obtained for Kurle pear's sexuality detection (82.8%). Result shows this method could detect male pear and female pear with a good accuracy.

  2. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order....

  3. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; Cohen, Seth; Belini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allOW8 us to detect the presence of multiple emission line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. 1162 [OII], [OIII] and/or H-alpha emission lines have been identified in the PEARS sample of approx 906 galaxies down to a limiting flux of approx 10 - 18 erg/s/sq cm . The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis we find three key results: 1) The computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; 2) The star forming systems show evidence of disturbed morphologies, with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass; and 3) The number density of star forming galaxies with M(*) >= 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  4. 76 FR 53811 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... processed pears handled. The assessment rate for ``winter'' and ``other'' pears for processing would remain... varieties or subvarieties of pears for processing classified as ``winter''; and (c) $0.00 per ton for any or... recommended assessment rate for processed pears on the 2011-2012 summer/fall processed pear crop estimate,...

  5. 77 FR 72197 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... processed pears handled. The assessment rate for ``winter'' and ``other'' pears for processing would remain... varieties or subvarieties of pears for processing classified as ``winter''; and (c) $0.00 per ton for any or... rate for processed pears on the 2012-2013 summer/fall processed pear crop estimate, the...

  6. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  7. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  8. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  9. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  10. 7 CFR 927.4 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears. 927.4 Section 927.4 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.4 Pears. (a) Pears means and includes any and all varieties...

  11. Systematic Review of Pears and Health

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Holly; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Fruit consumption is universally promoted, yet consumption of fruit remains low in the United States. We conducted a systematic review on pear consumption and health outcomes searching both PubMed and Agricola from 1970 to present. The genus Pyrus L. consists of species of pears cultivated in Europe, parts of Asia, South America, and North America. Like most fruit, pears are concentrated in water and sugar. Pears are high in dietary fiber, containing 6 g per serving. Pears, similar to apples, are concentrated in fructose, and the high fiber and fructose in pears probably explain the laxative properties. Pears contain antioxidants and provide between 27 and 41 mg of phenolics per 100 g. Animal studies with pears suggest that pears may regulate alcohol metabolism, protect against ulcers, and lower plasma lipids. Human feeding studies with pears have not been conducted. In epidemiological studies, pears are combined with all fresh fruits or with apples, because they are most similar in composition. The high content of dietary fiber in pears and their effects on gut health set pears apart from other fruit and deserves study. PMID:26663955

  12. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp.).

    PubMed

    Reed, Barbara M; Denoma, Jeanine; Wada, Sugae; Postman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Elements of micropropagation include establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets. The wide genetic variation in Pyrus makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced dormant shoots or from scions grafted onto seedling rootstocks to impose juvenility. Clean shoots are recovered after testing for contaminants at the initiation stage on ½ strength Murashige and Skoog 1962 medium (MS), at pH 6.9 for 1 week or by streaking on nutrient agar. Although pear species and cultivars are cultured on several well-known media, MS is the most commonly used. Our studies showed that multiplication and growth of shoots are best on Pear Medium with higher concentrations of calcium chloride, potassium phosphate, and magnesium sulfate than MS medium and 4.4 μM N(6) benzyladenine. Pear shoots are often recalcitrant to rooting; however, a 5 s dip in 10 mM indole-3-butyric acid or naphthalene acetic acid before planting on basal medium without plant growth regulators is effective for many genotypes. Pear shoots store well at 1-4°C, and can hold for as long as 4 years without reculture. Cryopreservation protocols are available for long-term storage of pear shoot tips. Acclimation of in vitro-rooted or micrografted shoots in a mist bed follows standard procedures.

  13. Micropropagation of pear (Pyrus sp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of shoot tip cultures, proliferation, rooting, and acclimatization of the resulting plantlets are all elements of micropropagation. The great genetic variation in Pyrus (pear)makes micropropagation challenging for many genotypes. Initiation of shoots is most successful from forced do...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long stems (commonly termed “rat...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1356 - Pears grown from late blooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears grown from late blooms. 51.1356 Section 51.1356... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Pears for Canning Definitions § 51.1356 Pears grown from late blooms. Pears grown from late blooms. Such pears often have excessively long...

  19. 76 FR 54075 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... on the 2011-2012 fresh winter pear crop estimate, the 2011-2012 program expenditure needs, and the... assessment rate to the Committee's 15,500,000 standard box or equivalent fresh winter pear crop estimate... equivalent of fresh winter pears handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order ]...

  20. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations. For Federal Register citations affecting these regulations, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  2. Oligosaccharide formation during commercial pear juice processing.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2016-08-01

    The effect of enzyme treatment and processing on the oligosaccharide profile of commercial pear juice samples was examined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Industrial samples representing the major stages of processing produced with various commercial enzyme preparations were studied. Through the use of commercially available standards and laboratory scale enzymatic hydrolysis of pectin, starch and xyloglucan; galacturonic acid oligomers, glucose oligomers (e.g., maltose and cellotriose) and isoprimeverose were identified as being formed during pear juice production. It was found that the majority of polysaccharide hydrolysis and oligosaccharide formation occurred during enzymatic treatment at the pear mashing stage and that the remaining processing steps had minimal impact on the carbohydrate-based chromatographic profile of pear juice. Also, all commercial enzyme preparations and conditions (time and temperature) studied produced similar carbohydrate-based chromatographic profiles. PMID:26988479

  3. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 917.176 - Pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN...

  6. 77 FR 21623 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.501 to $0.471 per standard box or equivalent of fresh winter pears handled... winter pear promotion budget for the 2011-2012 fiscal period was reduced. DATES: Effective April 12, 2012... the Federal Register on August 31, 2011, and effective on September 1, 2011, (76 FR 54075, Doc....

  7. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Federal Register on December 5, 2012 (77 FR 72245). The Committee made copies of the proposed rule... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule....

  8. Characterization of cold hardiness in quince: potential pear rootstock candidates for northern pear production regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US pear industry lacks a size-controlling, precocious rootstock for pear production. Commercially available selections of quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) have been reported to possess insufficient cold tolerance for northern latitude sites. Fifty in-situ clonal quince accessions with diverse orig...

  9. Polyphenolic Profile of Pear Leaves with Different Resistance to Pear Psylla (Cacopsylla pyri).

    PubMed

    Fotirić Akšić, Milica M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Gašić, Uroš M; Zec, Gordan N; Vulić, Todor B; Tešić, Živoslav Lj; Natić, Maja M

    2015-09-01

    The European pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most serious arthropod pests of pear. Since proper control of this pest is essential, better understanding of the complex plant-pest relationship is mandatory. This research deals with constitutive polyphenolic profiles in leaves of 22 pear cultivars of diverse origin (P. communis, P. pyrifolia, and P. pyrifolia × P. communis) and different resistance to psylla. The study was designed to show which differences in the polyphenolic profile of leaves from resistant and susceptible pear cultivars could be utilized as information in subsequent breeding programs. The results demonstrated that the leaves of Oriental pear cultivars contained much higher amounts of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, aesculin, and naringin, that, together with detected 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-hexoside, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, and hispidulin, indicated a clear difference between the species and might represent phenolics responsible for psylla resistance.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... Nagano, the cause of black spot of sand pear; Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-57 - Sand pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... future infestations are taken. (4) The pears must be treated in accordance with 7 CFR part 305 and the... Nagano, the cause of black spot of sand pear; Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider...

  12. Pear quality characteristics by Vis / NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Nicácia P; Fachinello, José C; Galarça, Simone P; Betemps, Débora L; Pasa, Mateus S; Schmitz, Juliano D

    2012-09-01

    Recently, non-destructive techniques such as the Vis / NIR spectroscopy have been used to evaluate the characteristics of maturation and quality of pears. The study aims to validate the readings by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy as a non-destructive way to assess the qualitative characteristics of pear cultivars 'Williams', 'Packams' and 'Carrick', produced according to Brazilian conditions. The experiment was conducted at the Pelotas Federal University, UFPel, in Pelotas / RS, and the instrument used to measure the fruit quality in a non-destructive way was the NIR- Case spectrophotometer (SACMI, Imola, Italy). To determine pears' soluble solids (SS) and pulp firmness (PF), it was established calibration equations for each variety studied, done from the evaluations obtained by a non-destructive method (NIR-Case) and a destructive method. Further on, it was tested the performance of these readings by linear regressions. The results were significant for the soluble solids parameter obtained by the Vis / NIR spectroscopy; however, it did not achieve satisfactory results for the pear pulp firmness of these cultivars. It is concluded that the Vis / NIR spectroscopy, using linear regression, allows providing reliable estimates of pears' quality levels, especially for soluble solids.

  13. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduous-calyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and tex...

  14. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  15. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  16. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  17. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  18. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  19. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  20. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  1. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  2. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  3. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  4. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  5. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  6. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  7. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  8. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  9. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  10. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  11. 7 CFR 927.121 - Pears for gift purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for gift purposes. 927.121 Section 927.121... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.121 Pears for gift purposes. There...

  12. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  13. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  14. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  15. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  16. 7 CFR 927.237 - Processed pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processed pear assessment rate. 927.237 Section 927... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.237 Processed pear...

  17. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  18. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  19. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  20. 7 CFR 927.122 - Consumer direct pear sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer direct pear sales. 927.122 Section 927.122... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.122 Consumer direct pear...

  1. 7 CFR 927.103 - Organically produced pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Organically produced pears. 927.103 Section 927.103... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Definitions § 927.103 Organically produced pears. Organically produced...

  2. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  3. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  4. 7 CFR 927.126 - Processed pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processed pear reports. 927.126 Section 927.126... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.126 Processed pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  5. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  6. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  7. Current status of pear rootstock research: progress and priorities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As of 2010, there were 57,000 acres of commercially-grown pears in the United States with a total crop value of $382 million. The industry has been stagnating due to a declining consumption of processed pears and competition from imported pears and other fruits, as reflected in the loss of 10,000 a...

  8. 78 FR 24033 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... winter pear crop will be nine percent lower than 2011-2012. Consequently, the Committee recommended lower promotion and paid advertising expenditures for marketing the reduced fresh winter pear crop, resulting in a... and winter pear crop estimates, the 2012- 2013 program expenditure needs, and the current...

  9. 78 FR 34 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Modification of the Assessment Rate for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... winter pear crop will be nine percent lower than 2011-2012. Consequently, the Committee recommended lower promotion and paid advertising expenditures for marketing the reduced fresh winter pear crop, resulting in a... and winter pear crop estimates, the 2012- 2013 program expenditure needs, and the current...

  10. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pear skin stains on ‘Niitaka’ pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of ‘Niitaka’ pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea. PMID:25289008

  11. Pear Skin Stain Caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola on Niitaka Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Woong; Oh, Soh-Young; Yoon, Deok-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Pear skin stains on 'Niitaka' pears, which occur from the growing stage to the cold storage stage, reportedly negatively influence the marketing of pears. These stains on fruit skin are likely due to a pathogenic fungus that resides on the skin and is characterized by dark stains; however, the mycelium of this fungus does not penetrate into the sarcocarp and is only present on the cuticle layer of fruit skin. A pathogenic fungus was isolated from the skin lesions of infected fruits, and its pathogenicity was subsequently tested. According to the pathogenicity test, Mycosphaerella sp. was strongly pathogenic, while Penicillium spp. and Alternaria spp. showed modest pathogenicity. In this present study, we isolated the pathogenic fungus responsible for the symptoms of pears (i.e., dark brown-colored specks) and identified it as Mycosphaerella graminicola based on its morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequence of the beta-tubulin gene. M. graminicola was pathogenic to the skin of 'Niitaka' pears, which are one of the most widely growing varieties of pears in South Korea.

  12. Classification of Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Ying, Yibin; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin

    2012-05-01

    Korla fragrant pears are small oval pears characterized by light green skin, crisp texture, and a pleasant perfume for which they are named. Anatomically, the calyx of a fragrant pear may be either persistent or deciduous; the deciduouscalyx fruits are considered more desirable due to taste and texture attributes. Chinese packaging standards require that packed cases of fragrant pears contain 5% or less of the persistent-calyx type. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential means for automated sorting of pears according to calyx type. Hyperspectral images spanning the 992-1681 nm region were acquired using an EMCCD-based laboratory line-scan imaging system. Analysis of the hyperspectral images was performed to select wavebands useful for identifying persistent-calyx fruits and for identifying deciduous-calyx fruits. Based on the selected wavebands, an image-processing algorithm was developed that targets automated classification of Korla fragrant pears into the two categories for packaging purposes.

  13. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... grower to the field or area in which the pears are grown for 12 months prior to the appearance of...

  14. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  15. First report of European pear rust (pear trellis rust) caused by Gymnosporangium sabinae in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In November 2014, leaves of ornamental pear (Pyrus calleryana, cultivar unknown) with bright orange to reddish spots typical of infection by a rust fungus were submitted to the Virginia Tech Plant Disease Clinic from a landscape in Frederick County, VA, for diagnosis. Brown aecia with bulbous bases ...

  16. Constituents of twig bark of pear cultivars (Pyrus species).

    PubMed

    Tomosaka, Hideyuki; Tamimoto, Hideaki; Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Ooka, Hisako; Ota, Michiya

    2012-08-01

    Organic solvent extracts from fresh twig bark of Japanese pear cultivars (Pyrus serotina) Shinko and Nijisseiki, and European pear cultivar (P. communis) Le Lectier were obtained by maceration with n-hexane and EtOAc, and analyzed in GC-EIMS experiments. In these two Japanese cultivars, the lupeol, betulin, epifriedelinol, friedelin and arbutin contents of Nijisseiki were higher than those of Shinko. In the case of the lupane-type triterpenes, lupeol and betulin, the lupeol content of Japanese pears Shinko and Nijisseiki was higher than that of European pear Le Lectier. The betulin content of Le Lectier was higher than those of Shinko and Nijisseiki. Friedelane-type triterpenes, epifriedelinol and friedelin, were not detected in twig bark of Le Lectier. Quantitative and qualitative differences in the constituents of these three pear cultivars were observed.

  17. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.

    PubMed

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F

    2007-05-01

    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  18. Needs assessment for future US pear rootstock directions based on the current state of pear production and rootstock research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear acreage in the United States (U.S.) is declining due to lack of precocity and high cost of production. The U.S. pear industry currently lacks “modern” orchard systems characterized by compact trees that produce early, high yields of large, high quality fruit. Tall, shaded canopies are not eco...

  19. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  20. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  1. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  2. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  3. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  4. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. 917.21... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the Pear Commodity Committee shall...

  5. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  6. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  7. 7 CFR 927.120 - Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. 927.120... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Exemptions and Safeguards § 927.120 Pears for charitable or byproduct purposes. Pears which do not meet the requirements of the then effective grade,...

  8. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan's history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars 'Chojuro' and 'Nijisseiki' around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars 'Niitaka' and 'Shinko' were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including 'Kosui', 'Hosui', and 'Akizuki', which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, 'Gold Nijisseiki' has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, 'Nansui' from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  9. Arthropod community organization and development in pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Larry J.; Liss, W. J.; Westigard, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Arthropod communities in pear are conceptualized as hierarchically organized systems in which several levels of organization or subsystems can be recognized between the population level and the community as a whole. An individual pear tree is taken to be the community habitat with arthropod subcommunities developing on leaf, fruit, and wood subcommunity habitats. Each subcommunity is composed of trophically organized systems of populations. Each system of populations is comprised of a functional group or guild of phytophagous arthropods that use the habitat primarily for feeding but also for overwintering or egg deposition, and associated groups of specialized predators, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. Several species move from one subcommunity to another during the course of community development and thus integrate community subsystems. Community development or change in organization through time is conceptualized as being jointly determined by the development of the habitat and the organization of the species pool. The influence of habitat development on community development within a species pool is emphasized in this research. Seasonal habitat development is expressed as change in the kinds and biomasses of developmental states of wood, leaf, and fruit subcommunity habitats. These changes are accompanied by changes in the kinds, biomasses, and distributions of associated community subsystems.

  10. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  11. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  12. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry. PMID:27069399

  13. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  14. Advances in Japanese pear breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is one of the most widely grown fruit trees in Japan, and it has been used throughout Japan’s history. The commercial production of pears increased rapidly with the successive discoveries of the chance seedling cultivars ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Nijisseiki’ around 1890, and the development of new cultivars has continued since 1915. The late-maturing, leading cultivars ‘Niitaka’ and ‘Shinko’ were released during the initial breeding stage. Furthermore, systematic breeding by the Horticultural Research Station (currently, NARO Institute of Fruit Tree Science, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NIFTS)) began in 1935, which mainly aimed to improve fruit quality by focusing on flesh texture and black spot disease resistance. To date, 22 cultivars have been released, including ‘Kosui’, ‘Hosui’, and ‘Akizuki’, which are current leading cultivars from the breeding program. Four induced mutant cultivars induced by gamma irradiation, which exhibit some resistance to black spot disease, were released from the Institute of Radiation Breeding. Among these cultivars, ‘Gold Nijisseiki’ has become a leading cultivar. Moreover, ‘Nansui’ from the Nagano prefectural institute breeding program was released, and it has also become a leading cultivar. Current breeding objectives at NIFTS mainly combine superior fruit quality with traits related to labor and cost reduction, multiple disease resistance, or self-compatibility. Regarding future breeding, marker-assisted selection for each trait, QTL analyses, genome-wide association studies, and genomic selection analyses are currently in progress. PMID:27069390

  15. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses. PMID:25145248

  16. Control of sawflies in apple and pear in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Belien, T

    2013-01-01

    In the Belgian fruit growing area, sawflies are generally common but minor pests in pome fruit. Though, intensity and frequency of sawfly damage in apple and pear is increasing the last years in IPM and especially in organic orchards. The main species are apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea Klug) and pear sawfly (Hoplocaompa brevis Klug) and recently also pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius). Here we report efficacy results on all three sawfly species fromtrial of three consecutive years (2011, 2012, and 2013). Flights and embryonic development were monitored and small plot efficacy trials were executed. Control of apple sawfly was complete (97.6% Abbott -trial 2011) when thiacloprid at 120 g/ha LWA was applied at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs. In 2012, a trial was executed on pear sawfly. Applications with thiacloprid were executed when the embryo was visible in the pear sawfly eggs and earlier at the start of egg laying. At both application timings, 100% Abbott efficacy was reached. A number of other active ingredients were tested at the moment embryos are visible in the sawfly eggs and very interesting efficacy results were reached for thiofanate-methyl, indoxacarb, spinosad, pyrethrins + piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and acetamiprid. In 2013, a preflowering application with pyrethrins + PBO reached the highest control against this pest. The most effective active ingredients of the pear sawfly trial were applied also in a trial on pear shoot sawfly. Efficacies were low or lacking, except for thiacloprid. Thiacloprid is in pear growing in Belgium only registered before flowering and after harvest. Therefore further research is needed to test the effect of earlier applications against this pest. This is a valuable efficacy study on occasionally occurring pests that are able to cause considerable economic losses.

  17. The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Zebin; Zhang, Shu; Ming, Ray; Zhu, Shilin; Khan, M Awais; Tao, Shutian; Korban, Schuyler S; Wang, Hao; Chen, Nancy J; Nishio, Takeshi; Xu, Xun; Cong, Lin; Qi, Kaijie; Huang, Xiaosan; Wang, Yingtao; Zhao, Xiang; Wu, Juyou; Deng, Cao; Gou, Caiyun; Zhou, Weili; Yin, Hao; Qin, Gaihua; Sha, Yuhui; Tao, Ye; Chen, Hui; Yang, Yanan; Song, Yue; Zhan, Dongliang; Wang, Juan; Li, Leiting; Dai, Meisong; Gu, Chao; Wang, Yuezhi; Shi, Daihu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huping; Zeng, Liang; Zheng, Danman; Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Maoshan; Wang, Guangbiao; Xie, Lin; Sovero, Valpuri; Sha, Shoufeng; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhang, Shujun; Zhang, Mingyue; Sun, Jiangmei; Xu, Linlin; Li, Yuan; Liu, Xing; Li, Qingsong; Shen, Jiahui; Wang, Junyi; Paull, Robert E; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-02-01

    The draft genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) using a combination of BAC-by-BAC and next-generation sequencing is reported. A 512.0-Mb sequence corresponding to 97.1% of the estimated genome size of this highly heterozygous species is assembled with 194× coverage. High-density genetic maps comprising 2005 SNP markers anchored 75.5% of the sequence to all 17 chromosomes. The pear genome encodes 42,812 protein-coding genes, and of these, ~28.5% encode multiple isoforms. Repetitive sequences of 271.9 Mb in length, accounting for 53.1% of the pear genome, are identified. Simulation of eudicots to the ancestor of Rosaceae has reconstructed nine ancestral chromosomes. Pear and apple diverged from each other ~5.4-21.5 million years ago, and a recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) event must have occurred 30-45 MYA prior to their divergence, but following divergence from strawberry. When compared with the apple genome sequence, size differences between the apple and pear genomes are confirmed mainly due to the presence of repetitive sequences predominantly contributed by transposable elements (TEs), while genic regions are similar in both species. Genes critical for self-incompatibility, lignified stone cells (a unique feature of pear fruit), sorbitol metabolism, and volatile compounds of fruit have also been identified. Multiple candidate SFB genes appear as tandem repeats in the S-locus region of pear; while lignin synthesis-related gene family expansion and highly expressed gene families of HCT, C3'H, and CCOMT contribute to high accumulation of both G-lignin and S-lignin. Moreover, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism is a key pathway for aroma in pear fruit.

  18. Jonker pear analysis of oxide superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Su, M.Y.; Eisbernd, C.E.; Mason, T.O. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-02-01

    Data for the normal state of the superconducting oxide systems YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}} and EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6 + {ital y}}, and the nonsuperconducting system La{sub 3}Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 6}O{sub 12.5 + {ital y}}, when plotted as thermoelectric coefficient versus logarithm of conductivity, exhibit Jonker pear behavior, confirming the semiconducting character of these materials. The symmetry of the plots indicates similar conduction parameters (density-of-states (DOS), transport constants, and mobilities) for {ital p}- and {ital n}-type mechanisms. Band gaps on the order of 0.5 eV are obtained. DOS-mobility products for the above-mentioned systems and La{sub 2 {minus} {ital x}}Ba{sub {ital x}}CuO{sub 4} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} scale roughly according to the density of copper ions in these materials and fall in the range 10{sup 20} to 10{sup 21} (cm {center dot} V {center dot} s){sup {minus} 1}. Assuming DOS equal to copper content results in mobilities on the order of 0.15 cm{sup 2} {center dot} V{sup {minus} 1} {center dot} s{sup 1}. These results are discussed in terms of possible semiconduction mechanisms.

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  5. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  6. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  7. 7 CFR 927.150 - Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. 927... PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 927.150 Reapportionment of the Processed Pear Committee. Pursuant to § 927.20(c), on and after July 1, 2013, the...

  8. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  9. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  10. 7 CFR 917.121 - Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee... AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations Administrative Bodies § 917.121 Changes in nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members. Nominations for membership on the...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-29 - Ya variety pears from China.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ya variety pears from China. 319.56-29 Section 319.56... variety pears from China. Ya variety pears may be imported into the United States from China only in... organization (NPPO) of China in an APHIS-approved export growing area in the Hebei or Shandong Provinces....

  15. Antioxidant components and physico-chemical characteristics of jamun powder supplemented pear juice.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Swati; Ranote, Pushpinder Singh

    2016-05-01

    Studies were conducted to develop jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Two drying methods (Hot air cabinet drying and freeze drying) were used to prepare jamun pulp powder. Jamun powder was then blended with pear juice at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % levels for preparation of jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Among the drying methods used, freeze dried powder retained better bioactive compounds and possessed higher antioxidant activity as compared to hot air dried jamun powder. Analysis of color properties (L*, a*, b*) revealed lower L*, b* values and higher a* values with progression of supplementation levels indicating decreased brightness of product. Pear juice supplemented with 4 % jamun powder received highest overall acceptability scores and was chosen for development of final product. Physico-chemical characteristics of control pear juice did not vary much from when compared to jamun powder supplemented pear juice. Bioactive components mainly total phenols enhanced (9.24 % higher) with addition of jamun powder in pear juice. Addition of anthocyanins from jamun powder to pear juice upon blending improved antioxidant activity of the final product. Supplemented pear juice had 18.13 % higher antioxidant activity than pear juice without supplementation. Storage period of 6 months resulted in significant (p < 0.05) decrease of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in jamun powder supplemented pear juice. PMID:27407197

  16. Mineral nutrition influences physiological responses of pear in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders such as callus, shoot tip necrosis and hyperhydricity are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation and their causes are not well understood. A comprehensive medium optimization study to improve the growth of pear shoot cultures was also designed to determine ...

  17. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis.

  18. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... otherwise marked, in plain sight and in plain letters, on one outside end with the name of the variety; (4... outside end in plain sight and plain letters the varietal name and size description of the contents;...

  19. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... otherwise marked, in plain sight and in plain letters, on one outside end with the name of the variety; (4... outside end in plain sight and plain letters the varietal name and size description of the contents;...

  20. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... otherwise marked, in plain sight and in plain letters, on one outside end with the name of the variety; (4... outside end in plain sight and plain letters the varietal name and size description of the contents;...

  1. 7 CFR 917.461 - Pear Regulation 12.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in the United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears (7 CFR 51.1260 to 51.1280). (4) Approved... otherwise marked, in plain sight and in plain letters, on one outside end with the name of the variety; (4... outside end in plain sight and plain letters the varietal name and size description of the contents;...

  2. Authenticity analysis of pear juice employing chromatographic fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2014-12-01

    Pear juice is predominately composed of carbohydrates/polyols (>95% of the total soluble solids), making it susceptible to adulteration by the addition of less expensive commercial sweeteners. In this research, the major carbohydrate and polyol (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and sorbitol) content of 32 pure pear juices representing five world producing regions and three years of production was determined. Additionally, methods employing oligosaccharide profiling to detect the debasing of these samples with four commercial sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, TIS, and HIS) were developed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). Detection limits for the four commercial sweeteners ranged from 0.5 to 5.0% (v/v). In addition, the developed CGC-FID method could be used to (a) detect the addition of pear to apple juice via arbutin detection and (b) determine if a pear juice was produced using enzymatic liquefaction via the presence of O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose (cellobiose), all within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:25384245

  3. "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story." Standards of Learning Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    Virginia Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through fifth grade are listed in this paper with student activities related to observation of live theatre performances of "Pear Blossom's Magic: A Cinderella Story" written by George Wead. This play toured in Virginia in 1999-2000 and was performed by the high school theater touring company,…

  4. X-ray resonator with pear-shaped reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Churikov, V A

    2003-11-30

    An X-ray resonator design is proposed in which peculiar pear-shaped reflectors, which are grazing-incidence X-ray mirrors, serve as optical elements. Special features of this resonator are relatively high reflector efficiencies and the axial symmetry of the output radiation. (resonators)

  5. 76 FR 78168 - Importation of Chinese Sand Pears From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    .... 319.56-55. As described in a notice we published on May 10, 2006, in the Federal Register (71 FR 27221... Japanese pear. Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite. Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida... (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an ] aphid; Bactrocera...

  6. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... insure against damage or loss of production due to: (1) Disease or insect infestation, unless adverse... measures to be ineffective; or (ii) Causes disease or insect infestation for which no effective control... pears under the Catastrophic Risk Protection (CAT) Endorsement; (3) You elected it on your...

  7. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... insure against damage or loss of production due to: (1) Disease or insect infestation, unless adverse... measures to be ineffective; or (ii) Causes disease or insect infestation for which no effective control... pears under the Catastrophic Risk Protection (CAT) Endorsement; (3) You elected it on your...

  8. 7 CFR 457.111 - Pear crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... insure against damage or loss of production due to: (1) Disease or insect infestation, unless adverse... measures to be ineffective; or (ii) Causes disease or insect infestation for which no effective control... pears under the Catastrophic Risk Protection (CAT) Endorsement; (3) You elected it on your...

  9. An exciting new European pear cultivar is coming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant, European pear selection selected at the USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, WV. The tentative name is ‘Gem’. It has been extensively tested at the Oregon State University’s Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research and Extension Center in...

  10. Allele-specific DNA methylation reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    Izzi, Benedetta; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Cludts, Katrien; Akkor, Pinar; Lambrechts, Diether; Verfaillie, Catherine; Verhamme, Peter; Freson, Kathleen; Hoylaerts, Marc F

    2016-08-18

    Genetic variation in the PEAR1 locus is linked to platelet reactivity and cardiovascular disease. The major G allele of rs12041331, an intronic cytosine guanine dinucleotide-single-nucleotide polymorphism (CpG-SNP), is associated with higher PEAR1 expression in platelets and endothelial cells than the minor A allele. The molecular mechanism underlying this difference remains elusive. We have characterized the histone modification profiles of the intronic region surrounding rs12041331 and identified H3K4Me1 enhancer-specific enrichment for the region that covers the CpG-SNP. Interestingly, methylation studies revealed that the CpG site is fully methylated in leukocytes of GG carriers. Nuclear protein extracts from megakaryocytes, endothelial cells, vs control HEK-293 cells show a 3-fold higher affinity for the methylated G allele compared with nonmethylated G or A alleles in a gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. To understand the positive relationship between methylation and gene expression, we studied DNA methylation at 4 different loci of PEAR1 during in vitro megakaryopoiesis. During differentiation, the CpG-SNP remained fully methylated, while we observed rapid methylation increases at the CpG-island overlapping the first 5'-untranslated region exon, paralleling the increased PEAR1 expression. In the same region, A-allele carriers of rs12041331 showed significantly lower DNA methylation at CGI1 compared with GG homozygote. This CpG-island contains binding sites for the methylation-sensitive transcription factor CTCF, whose binding is known to play a role in enhancer activation and/or repression. In conclusion, we report the molecular characterization of the first platelet function-related CpG-SNP, a genetic predisposition that reinforces PEAR1 enhancer activity through allele-specific DNA methylation. PMID:27313330

  11. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear.

  12. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) buds during the dormancy by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bud dormancy is a critical developmental process that allows perennial plants to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms regulating bud dormancy in this species are unknown. Because genomic information for pear is currently unavailable, transcriptome and digital gene expression data for this species would be valuable resources to better understand the molecular and biological mechanisms regulating its bud dormancy. Results We performed de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analyses of ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) using the Illumina RNA-seq system. RNA-Seq generated approximately 100 M high-quality reads that were assembled into 69,393 unigenes (mean length = 853 bp), including 14,531 clusters and 34,194 singletons. A total of 51,448 (74.1%) unigenes were annotated using public protein databases with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. We mainly compared gene expression levels at four time-points during bud dormancy. Between Nov. 15 and Dec. 15, Dec. 15 and Jan. 15, and Jan. 15 and Feb. 15, 1,978, 1,024, and 3,468 genes were differentially expressed, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis arranged 190 significantly differentially-expressed genes into seven groups. Seven genes were randomly selected to confirm their expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusions The new transcriptomes offer comprehensive sequence and DGE profiling data for a dynamic view of transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in pear. These data provided a basis for future studies of metabolism during bud dormancy in non-model but economically-important perennial species. PMID:23234335

  14. Program for energy analysis of residences (PEAR) (for microcomputers). Software

    SciTech Connect

    Corin, N.

    1989-01-01

    PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 data base for residential buildings. The extensive data base is used by PEAR to estimate the annual energy use of houses with typical conservation measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation, different window types and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to include the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night setback. Software Description: The software is written in the Turbo Pascal programming language for implementation on an IBM PC microcomputer using MS-DOS operating system. Software requires 128K of memory and a hard disk or two floppy disk drives with either a monochrome or color monitor. A graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart option.

  15. [Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear in China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing-guang; Cao, Yu-fen; Tian, Lu-ming; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The wild Ussurian pear was the most important wild pear resource in northern China, belonging to the most hardiness species. Taking 48 accessions of wild Ussurian pear and 2 accessions of cultivated Ussurian pear as test materials, this paper studied the morphology of leaves, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic characteristics. We compared the difference between the wild and cultivated Ussurian pear, analyzed the photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear, clarified the interrelationships between the indices, and established significant linear equations of photosynthesis and water-related physiological indices. The results showed that the leaf morphological index, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic indices for cultivated Ussurian pear were significantly lower than their average values for wild Ussurian pear. The specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content ( LDMC) , and intercellular CO2 concentration had low coefficients of variation, and the other 8 indices had variation coefficient indices between 0.12-0.41. So, the level of diversity was high, indicating obvious difference in photosynthetic characteristic of wild pear resources in China. The photosynthetic indices were significantly correlated with chlorophyll composition (Chl a/b) and LDMC. The photosynthetic rate had significant exponential correlation with the intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic rate was mainly affected by stomatal limitation. The wild variety 'Jinzhoushanli' was selected as high photosynthetic genetic resource.

  16. [Leaf morphology and photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear in China].

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing-guang; Cao, Yu-fen; Tian, Lu-ming; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Qi, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The wild Ussurian pear was the most important wild pear resource in northern China, belonging to the most hardiness species. Taking 48 accessions of wild Ussurian pear and 2 accessions of cultivated Ussurian pear as test materials, this paper studied the morphology of leaves, chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic characteristics. We compared the difference between the wild and cultivated Ussurian pear, analyzed the photosynthetic characteristics of wild Ussurian pear, clarified the interrelationships between the indices, and established significant linear equations of photosynthesis and water-related physiological indices. The results showed that the leaf morphological index, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic indices for cultivated Ussurian pear were significantly lower than their average values for wild Ussurian pear. The specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content ( LDMC) , and intercellular CO2 concentration had low coefficients of variation, and the other 8 indices had variation coefficient indices between 0.12-0.41. So, the level of diversity was high, indicating obvious difference in photosynthetic characteristic of wild pear resources in China. The photosynthetic indices were significantly correlated with chlorophyll composition (Chl a/b) and LDMC. The photosynthetic rate had significant exponential correlation with the intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance. The photosynthetic rate was mainly affected by stomatal limitation. The wild variety 'Jinzhoushanli' was selected as high photosynthetic genetic resource. PMID:26571648

  17. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  18. Orbital varix with a pearly phlebolith. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kubota, T; Kuroda, E; Fujii, T; Kawano, H; Kabuto, M; Hayashi, M

    1990-08-01

    A patient is described with an orbital varix arising from the right superior ophthalmic vein, associated with ophthalmoplegia and severe pain, and without proptosis. The varix was detected using computerized tomography and orbital phlebography, and at surgery was verified as a venous aneurysm. During the operation, a pearly phlebolith was found. Histological examination of the varix revealed multiple ectatic venous channels. The etiology of this unusual clinical manifestation and the treatment of the patient are briefly discussed. PMID:2366087

  19. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

  20. PEAR2.1. Residential Building Energy Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.

    1992-01-16

    PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) provides an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy and cost savings associated with various energy conservation measures in site-built single-family homes. Measures such as ceiling, wall, and floor insulation; different window type and glazing layers; infiltration levels; and equipment efficiency can be considered. PEAR also allows the user to consider the effects of roof and wall color, movable night insulation on the windows, reflective and heat absorbing glass, an attached sunspace, and use of a night temperature setback. Regression techniques permit adjustments for different building geometries, window areas and orientations, wall construction, and extension of the data to 880 U.S. locations determined by climate parameters. Based on annual energy savings, user-specified costs of conservation measures, fuel, lifetime of measure, loan period, and fuel escalation and interest rates, PEAR calculates two economic indicators; the Simple Payback Period (SPP) and the Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR). Energy and cost savings of different sets of conservation measures can be compared in a single run. The program can be used both as a research tool by energy policy analysts and as a method for nontechnical energy calculation by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  1. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  2. Identification of Pyrus single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluation for genetic mapping in European pear and interspecific Pyrus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Saeed, Munazza; Knäbel, Mareike; Kim, YoonKyeong; Troggio, Michela; Malnoy, Mickael; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo; Won, KyungHo; Durel, Charles-Eric; Perchepied, Laure; Schaffer, Robert; Wiedow, Claudia; Bus, Vincent; Brewer, Lester; Gardiner, Susan E; Crowhurst, Ross N; Chagné, David

    2013-01-01

    We have used new generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from three European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars and subsequently developed a subset of 1096 pear SNPs into high throughput markers by combining them with the set of 7692 apple SNPs on the IRSC apple Infinium® II 8K array. We then evaluated this apple and pear Infinium® II 9K SNP array for large-scale genotyping in pear across several species, using both pear and apple SNPs. The segregating populations employed for array validation included a segregating population of European pear ('Old Home'×'Louise Bon Jersey') and four interspecific breeding families derived from Asian (P. pyrifolia Nakai and P. bretschneideri Rehd.) and European pear pedigrees. In total, we mapped 857 polymorphic pear markers to construct the first SNP-based genetic maps for pear, comprising 78% of the total pear SNPs included in the array. In addition, 1031 SNP markers derived from apple (13% of the total apple SNPs included in the array) were polymorphic and were mapped in one or more of the pear populations. These results are the first to demonstrate SNP transferability across the genera Malus and Pyrus. Our construction of high density SNP-based and gene-based genetic maps in pear represents an important step towards the identification of chromosomal regions associated with a range of horticultural characters, such as pest and disease resistance, orchard yield and fruit quality.

  3. 76 FR 4202 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... sale of pears within the local market, and reduce overall compliance expenses. The Committee emphasized... on small entities to help them remain viable while enhancing the vibrancy of the local produce market... order regulates the handling of pears grown in Oregon and Washington. Local administration of...

  4. 76 FR 27848 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Amendment To Allow Additional Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... facilitating the sale of pears in local markets. Section Sec. 927.65(b) of the order authorizes the... home use only, made directly at orchards, packing facilities, roadside stands, or farmers' markets... the sale of fresh, local pears directly to consumers. DATES: Effective May 16, 2011. FOR...

  5. Nomenclature and Genetic Relationships of Apples and Pears from Terceira Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heritage apple (Malus domestica Borkh. hybrids) and pear (Pyrus communis L. hybrid) trees grow in villages throughout Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal. Some of these pears have different names but similar morphology. The objective of this study was to determine synonymy, homology, and phylogeny of ...

  6. Stable expression of a bacterial GUS gene in vegetatively propagated transgenic pear lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of a transgene in the genomes of in vitro propagated transgenic pear lines was assessed. A bacterial GUS reporter gene under the control of an Arabidopsis sucrose transporter gene promoter was introduced into pear cultivar ‘Old Home’ through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transfo...

  7. Combined morphological and molecular approach for identification of Stemphylium vesicarium inoculum in pear orchards.

    PubMed

    Puig, Mireia; Ruz, Lídia; Montesinos, Emilio; Moragrega, Concepció; Llorente, Isidre

    2015-03-01

    Stemphylium vesicarium is the causal agent of brown spot of pear, an important disease reported in pear-growing areas of Europe. The pathogen is able to colonize pear leaf debris and dead tissues of herbaceous plants and produce abundant ascospores and conidia that are capable of infecting pear trees. Inoculum monitoring in pear orchards is mainly achieved through spore traps and species identification is based on conidial morphology, but the similarities on conidial traits among species of Stemphylium make correct identification difficult. In this work a total of thirty-seven Stemphylium isolates from pear orchards were characterized at the morphological, pathogenic, and molecular level. Correspondence among ITS and gpd sequences and morphological traits were evaluated. Species identification based exclusively on morphological data was not feasible. Combined morphological and molecular data were necessary for unambiguous identification of isolates in the S. vesicarium species group. Only isolates identified as S. vesicarium were pathogenic on pear. The study revealed that several species of Stemphylium coexist in pear orchards with S. vesicarium, the causal agent of BSP, and that combined morphological and molecular data are needed to differentiate them. Consequently, direct measurements of the airborne inoculum using volumetric spore traps may overestimate the actual pathogen population.

  8. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Japanese erwinia strain ejp617, a bacterial shoot blight pathogen of pear.

    PubMed

    Park, Duck Hwan; Thapa, Shree Prasad; Choi, Beom-Soon; Kim, Won-Sik; Hur, Jang Hyun; Cho, Jun Mo; Lim, Jong-Sung; Choi, Ik-Young; Lim, Chun Keun

    2011-01-01

    The Japanese Erwinia strain Ejp617 is a plant pathogen that causes bacterial shoot blight of pear in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Ejp617 isolated from Nashi pears in Japan to provide further valuable insight among related Erwinia species.

  10. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  11. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2.

  12. Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit: Changes during Ripening and Senescence.

    PubMed

    Drouet, A; Hartmann, C

    1979-12-01

    Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage.

  13. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  14. Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted.

  15. PEAR: a microcomputer program for residential energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.; Huang, Y.J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Bull, J.

    1985-11-01

    We have designed a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), which is written with user-friendly input and output and runs on the IBM PC. PEAR provides an easy-to-use and very fast compilation and extrapolation of a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. The current version, which covers five residential building prototypes in over 800 locations, estimates energy and cost savings resulting from typical conversion measures such as ceiling, wall and floor insulation, window type and glazing layers, infiltration levels, and equipment efficiency. It also allows the user to adjust for optional measures including roof or wall color, movable insulation, whole-house fans, night temperature setback, reflective or heat absorbing glass, thermal mass in exterior walls, and two attached sunspace options. The program is designed to be used as a research tool by energy and policy analysts, and as a non-technical energy calculation method by architects, home builders, home owners, and others in the building industry.

  16. A Continuum Model for Metabolic Gas Exchange in Pear Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Q. Tri; Verboven, Pieter; Verlinden, Bert E.; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Vandewalle, Stefan; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-01-01

    Exchange of O2 and CO2 of plants with their environment is essential for metabolic processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. In some fruits such as pears, which are typically stored under a controlled atmosphere with reduced O2 and increased CO2 levels to extend their commercial storage life, anoxia may occur, eventually leading to physiological disorders. In this manuscript we have developed a mathematical model to predict the internal gas concentrations, including permeation, diffusion, and respiration and fermentation kinetics. Pear fruit has been selected as a case study. The model has been used to perform in silico experiments to evaluate the effect of, for example, fruit size or ambient gas concentration on internal O2 and CO2 levels. The model incorporates the actual shape of the fruit and was solved using fluid dynamics software. Environmental conditions such as temperature and gas composition have a large effect on the internal distribution of oxygen and carbon dioxide in fruit. Also, the fruit size has a considerable effect on local metabolic gas concentrations; hence, depending on the size, local anaerobic conditions may result, which eventually may lead to physiological disorders. The model developed in this manuscript is to our knowledge the most comprehensive model to date to simulate gas exchange in plant tissue. It can be used to evaluate the effect of environmental stresses on fruit via in silico experiments and may lead to commercial applications involving long-term storage of fruit under controlled atmospheres. PMID:18369422

  17. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  18. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of the Less-Dormant Taiwanese Pear and the Dormant Japanese Pear during Winter Season

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yoshihiro; Kuroki, Katsuou; Shida, Yoji; Araki, Shungo; Takeuchi, Yukari; Tanaka, Keisuke; Ishige, Taichiro; Yajima, Shunsuke; Tamura, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    The flower bud transcriptome in the less dormant Taiwanese pear ‘Hengshanli’ and high-chilling requiring Japanese pear strain TH3 subjected to the same chilling exposure time were analyzed during winter using next-generation sequencing. In buds sampled on January 10th and on February 7th in 2014, 6,978 and 7,096 genes, respectively, were significantly differentially expressed in the TH3 and ‘Hengshanli’ libraries. A comparative GO analysis revealed that oxidation-reduction process (biological process) and ATP binding (molecular function), were overrepresented during the ecodormancy period (EP) when compared to the endodormancy deepest period (DP), indicating that ATP synthesis was activated during the transition between these dormancy stages. Among the 11 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable dehydrins or LEA protein-related genes, 9 DEGs showed higher transcript levels in the DP than in the EP. In order to focus on transcription factors induced by low temperature or drought, 7 differently expressed genes (DEGs) annotated as probable ICE1 or DREB proteins were analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression levels of 3 genes were higher in TH3 than in ‘Hengshanli’ on all sampling days. Their expression increased during the endodormancy deepest period (DP) and then decreased before endodormancy breaking in TH3 buds. Taken together, these results suggest that these genes annotated as ICE1, DREB and ERF are involved in endodormancy maintenance and in the transition from endodormancy to ecodormancy. PMID:26451604

  20. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90 days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA.

  1. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  2. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected. PMID:26991288

  3. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Prickly Pear's Spines and Glochids: A qualitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, T.; Ponce, L.; Bilmes, G.; Arronte, A.; Alvira, F.

    2008-04-15

    A qualitative LIBS analysis of Prickly Pear is presented. The spectra for Q:Switch regime from cladode and spine are similar, while shows an intense electronic noise due the high absorption in spines for free-running regime.

  4. Internal browning disorder of eight pear cultivars affected by bioactive constituents and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Koushesh Saba, Mahmoud; Moradi, Samira

    2016-08-15

    Internal browning (IB) is a disorder in pears that is frequently observed in some cultivars. The present research was carried out to study biochemical changes and IB disorder of pear fruit during storage and ripening. Eight pear cultivars harvested and stored at 1°C up to 90 days. IB incidence, some bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities were measured during storage. IB increased during storage time but the susceptibility of cultivars was different. The ascorbic acid (AA), antioxidant capacity (AC) and SOD activity decreased while POX activity increased during storage but the rate of changes were different in studied cultivars. Total phenol (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) average content varied among pear cultivars and the highest TP and TF were observed in 'Bakhi' cultivars during storage. Fruit IB had positive correlation with the PPO activity, but negative correlation with TP, AC and AA. PMID:27006238

  5. Pollen factors controlling self-incompatibility strength in Japanese pear.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Fujimura, Makoto; Hayashida, Taishi; Nishikawa, Yutaka; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Japanese pear has a genetically controlled self-incompatibility system, but both the pollen-tube growth in a semi in vivo assay and fruit set after self-pollination differ considerably among cultivars. The percentage of styles in which pollen tubes have reached the base ranges from 0 to 36 %, a value determined by culture of styles in vitro, and fruit set ranges from 0.6 to 15.2 %. Based on these data, we have assigned a value for the self-incompatibility weakness to each cultivar. Here, we showed that pollen factors control the degree of self-incompatibility. When the pollen-tube growth of 13 cultivars was compared in a completely compatible 'Hougetsu' (S (1) S (7)) style, it differed a fair amount among cultivars and showed a significantly positive relation to self-incompatibility weakness (r = 0.707). The degree of self-incompatibility of pear is, therefore, determined by pollen factor(s) unrelated to the S-locus. Although the fruit set and fruit growth of 'Hougetsu' were not affected by the pollen donor, a positive relationship was also observed between seed number and self-incompatibility weakness (r = 0.972). However, in a style with no S-RNase production (genotype: S (4) (sm) S (4) (sm) ), the relationship disappeared (r = 0.341) and pollen-tube growth was promoted by 12-36 % except in one cultivar. These results suggest that S-RNase functions as a cytotoxin on compatible pollen in a cultivar-dependent manner, and that the degree of inhibition is determined by pollen factor(s) unrelated to the S-locus. The pollen factor also functions on S-RNase in incompatible styles, resulting in a different degree of self-incompatibility.

  6. Adulteration of apple with pear juice: emphasis on major carbohydrates, proline, and arbutin.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Low, Nicholas H

    2006-06-28

    Detection of juice-to-juice adulteration based on chemical composition studies is a common method used by government regulatory agencies and food companies. This study investigated the use of major carbohydrate (fructose, glucose and sucrose), polyol (sorbitol), proline, and phenolic profiles as indicators of pear adulteration of apple juice (PAAJ). For this work, a total of 105 authentic apple juice samples from 13 countries and 27 authentic pear juice samples from 5 countries were analyzed. Because the major carbohydrate ranges for these juices showed significant overlap their use as markers for PAAJ detection would be very limited. It was found that sorbitol and proline means for apple and pear were significantly different; however, their broad natural ranges would afford PAAJ at levels up to 30% without detection. In addition, careful selection of the pear juice used as the adulterant would further limit the usefulness of these markers for PAAJ detection. Arbutin was conclusively identified as a marker for pear juice on the basis of its presence in all 27 authentic pear samples and its absence (<0.5 microg/mL) in all 105 apple juice samples analyzed in this study. The application of the developed HPLC-PDA method for arbutin analysis to detect PAAJ at levels as low as 2% (v/v) was demonstrated. A confirmation method for the presence of arbutin in pure pear juice and apple adulterated with pear juice was introduced on the basis of the hydrolysis of arbutin to hydroquinone employing beta-glucosidase, with reactant and product monitoring by HPLC-PDA.

  7. Compositional changes in 'Bartlett' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) cell wall polysaccharides as affected by sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Raffo, María D; Ponce, Nora M A; Sozzi, Gabriel O; Vicente, Ariel R; Stortz, Carlos A

    2011-11-23

    Preharvest conditions can have a great impact on fruit quality attributes and postharvest responses. Firmness is an important quality attribute in pear, and excessive softening increases susceptibility to bruising and decay, thus limiting fruit postharvest life. Textural characteristics of fruits are determined at least in part by cell wall structure and disassembly. Few studies have analyzed the influence of fruit preharvest environment in softening, cell wall composition, and degradation. In the current work 'Bartlett' pears grown either facing the sun (S) or in the shade (H) were harvested and stored for 13 days at 20 °C. An evaluation of fruit soluble solids, acidity, color, starch degradation, firmness, cell wall yield, pectin and matrix glycan solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition was carried out. Sun-exposed pears showed more advanced color development and similar levels of starch degradation, sugars, and acids than shaded fruit. Sunlight-grown pears were at harvest firmer than shade-grown pears. Both fruit groups softened during storage at 20 °C, but even after ripening, sun-exposed pears remained firmer. Sunlight exposure did not have a great impact on pectin molecular weight. Instead, at harvest a higher proportion of water-solubilized uronic acids and alkali-solubilized neutral sugars and a larger mean molecular size of tightly bound glycans was found in sun-exposed pears. During ripening cell wall catabolism took place in both sun- and shade-grown pears, but pectin solubilization was clearly delayed in sun-exposed fruit. This was associated with decreased removal of RG I-arabinan side chains rather than with reduced depolymerization.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Xylella fastidiosa Pear Leaf Scorch Strain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, C-C; Deng, W-L; Jan, F-J; Chang, C-J; Huang, H; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Xylella fastidiosa pear leaf scorch strain PLS229, isolated from the pear cultivar Hengshan (Pyrus pyrifolia) in Taiwan, is reported here. The bacterium has a genome size of 2,733,013 bp, with a G+C content of 53.1%. The PLS229 genome was annotated and has 3,259 open reading frames and 50 RNA genes. PMID:24652975

  9. Proteomic analysis of 'Zaosu' pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its early-maturing bud sport.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Zhai, Rui; Feng, Wenting; Zhang, Shiwei; Wang, Zhigang; Qiu, Zonghao; Zhang, Junke; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2014-07-01

    Maturation of fruits involves a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that eventually make fleshy fruits attractive, palatable, and nutritional. In order to understand the mature mechanism of the early-maturing bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear, we analyzed the differences of proteome expression between the both pears in different mature stages by the methods of a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis. Seventy-five differential expressed protein spots (p<0.05) were obtained between 'Zaosu' pear and its early-maturing bud sport, but only sixty-eight were demonstratively identified in the database of NCBI and uniprot. The majority of proteins were linked to metabolism, energy, stress response/defense and cell structure. Additionally, our data confirmed an increase of proteins related to cell-wall modification, oxidative stress and pentose phosphate metabolism and a decrease of proteins related to photosynthesis and glycolysis during the development process of both pears, but all these proteins increased or decreased faster in the early-maturing bud sport. This comparative analysis between both pears showed that these proteins were closely associated with maturation and could provide more detailed characteristics of the maturation process of both pears.

  10. Application of infrared lock-in thermography for the quantitative evaluation of bruises on pears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ghiseok; Kim, Geon-Hee; Park, Jongmin; Kim, Dae-Yong; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-03-01

    An infrared lock-in thermography technique was adjusted for the detection of early bruises on pears. This mechanical damage is usually difficult to detect in the early stage after harvested using conventional visual sorting or CCD sensor-based imaging processing methods. We measured the thermal emission signals from pears using a highly sensitive mid-infrared thermal camera. These images were post-processed using a lock-in method that utilized the periodic thermal energy input to the pear. By applying the lock-in method to infrared thermography, the detection sensitivity and signal to noise ratio were enhanced because of the phase-sensitive narrow-band filtering effect. It was also found that the phase information of thermal emission from pears provides good metrics with which to identify quantitative information about both damage size and damage depth for pears. Additionally, a photothermal model was implemented to investigate the behavior of thermal waves on pears under convective conditions. Theoretical results were compared to experimental results. These results suggested that the proposed lock-in thermography technique and resultant phase information can be used to detect mechanical damage to fruit, especially in the early stage of bruising.

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of modified oligonucleotides by PEAR using Phusion and KOD DNA polymerases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuxiang; Zhang, Jianye; Li, Yingjia; Chen, Gang; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-02-01

    Antisense synthetic oligonucleotides have been developed as potential gene-targeted therapeutics. We previously reported polymerase-endonuclease amplification reaction (PEAR) for amplification of natural and 5'-O-(1-thiotriphosphate) (S)-modified oligonucleotides. Here, we extended the PEAR technique for enzymatic preparation of 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-(2'-F) and 2'-F/S double-modified oligonucleotides. The result showed that KOD and Phusion DNA polymerase could synthesize oligonucleotides with one or two modified nucleotides, and KOD DNA polymerase is more suitable than Phusion DNA polymerase for PEAR amplification of 2'-F and 2'-F/S double modified oligonucleotides. The composition of PEAR products were analyzed by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (ESI/LC/MS) detection and showed that the sequence of the PEAR products are maintained at an extremely high accuracy (>99.9%), and after digestion the area percent of full-length modified oligonucleotides reaches 89.24%. PEAR is suitable for synthesis of modified oligonucleotides efficiently and with high purity. PMID:25517220

  12. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  13. Russeting in apple and pear: a plastic periderm replaces a stiff cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Bishnu P.; Grimm, Eckhard; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Russeting in apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and pears (Pyrus communis L.) is a disorder of the fruit skin that results from microscopic cracks in the cuticle and the subsequent formation of a periderm. To better understand russeting, rheological properties of cuticular membranes (CM) and periderm membranes (PM) were studied from the russet-sensitive apple ‘Karmijn de Sonnaville’ and from ‘Conference’ pear. Methodology The CM and PM were isolated enzymatically, investigated by microscopy and subjected to tensile tests, creep/relaxation tests and to stepwise creep tests using a material testing machine. Principal results The isolated CM formed a continuous polymer, whereas the PM represented a cellular structure of stacked cork cells. Tensile tests revealed higher plasticity of the hydrated PM compared with the CM, as indicated by a higher strain at the maximum force (ɛmax) and a lower modulus of elasticity (E). In apple, the maximum force (Fmax) was higher in the CM than in the PM but in pear the higher Fmax value was found for the PM. In specimens obtained from the CM : PM transition zone, the weak point in apple was found to be at the CM : PM borderline but in pear it was within the CM. In both apple and pear, creep/relaxation tests revealed elastic strain, creep strain, viscoelastic strain and viscous strain components in both the PM and CM. For any particular force, strains were always greater in the PM than in the CM and were also greater in pear than in apple. The ɛmax and Fmax values of the CM and PM were lower than those of non-russeted and russeted whole-fruit skin segments, which included adhering tissue. Conclusions In russeting, stiff CM are replaced by more plastic PM. Further, the cell layers underlying the CM and PM represent the load-bearing structure in the fruit skin in apple and pear. PMID:23350024

  14. Metabolomics-Based Analysis of Banana and Pear Ingestion on Exercise Performance and Recovery.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Sha, Wei; Meaney, Mary Pat; John, Casey; Pappan, Kirk L; Kinchen, Jason M

    2015-12-01

    Bananas and pears vary in sugar and phenolic profiles, and metabolomics was utilized to measure their influence on exercise performance and recovery. Male athletes (N = 20) cycled for 75 km while consuming water (WATER), bananas (BAN), or pears (PEAR) (0.6 g carbohydrate/kg each hour) in randomized order. UPLC-MS/MS and the library of purified standards maintained by Metabolon (Durham, NC) were used to analyze metabolite shifts in pre- and postexercise (0-h, 1.5-h, 21-h) blood samples. Performance times were 5.0% and 3.3% faster during BAN and PEAR versus WATER (P = 0.018 and P = 0.091, respectively), with reductions in cortisol, IL-10, and total leukocytes, and increases in blood glucose, insulin, and FRAP. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) showed a distinct separation between trials immediately (R(2)Y = 0.877, Q(2)Y = 0.457) and 1.5-h postexercise (R(2)Y = 0.773, Q(2)Y = 0.441). A total of 107 metabolites (primarily lipid-related) increased more than 2-fold during WATER, with a 48% and 52% reduction in magnitude during BAN and PEAR recovery (P < 0.001). Increases in metabolites unique to BAN and PEAR included fructose and fruit constituents, and sulfated phenolics that were related to elevated FRAP. These data indicate that BAN and PEAR ingestion improves 75-km cycling performance, attenuates fatty acid utilization and oxidation, and contributes unique phenolics that augment antioxidant capacity.

  15. A genome-wide identification and characterization of mircoRNAs and their targets in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group).

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Qian, Minjie; Liu, Guoqin; Yang, Fengxia; Teng, Yuanwen

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that are endogenous regulators of gene expression. miRNAs play a crucial role in cells via degradation of target mRNAs or by inhibition of target protein translation. In the present study, 186 new potentially conserved pear miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified. The length of mature miRNAs ranged from 19 to 24 nt, and most of the miRNAs (154 out of 186) were 21 nt in length. The length of pre-miRNAs in pear was also found to vary from 62 to 282 nt with an average of 105 ± 43 nt. The potential miRNAs belonged to 29 clusters involving 20 different miRNA families. Using these potential miRNAs, we further scoured of the pear genome and found 326 potential target genes, which included transcription factors, stress responsive genes, and the genes involved in transmembrane transport and signal transduction. Gene ontology analysis of these potential targets suggested that 47 biological processes were potentially regulated by miRNAs, including oxidation-reduction, stress response, transport, etc. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the identified miRNAs were found in 15 metabolism networks which were related to starch and sucrose metabolism, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, among others. Our study will help in the further understanding of the essential role of miRNAs in growth and development and stress response of pear.

  16. Evaluation of Likelihood of Co-Occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with Mature Fruit of Winter Pear.

    PubMed

    Temple, Todd N; Stockwell, Virginia O; Pusey, P Lawrence; Johnson, Kenneth B

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT Phytosanitary concerns about fire blight prohibit export of U.S.-grown pears to some countries without this disease. To examine these concerns, we evaluated the potential for co-occurrence of Erwinia amylovora with mature, symptomless winter pear fruit by inoculation experiments and by survey of commercial orchards. Immature pear and apple fruit were inoculated in orchards with E. amylovora strain 153N as resuspended lyophilized cells or as ooze from diseased tissues. Regardless of inoculum source, population size of Ea153N on fruit declined by an order of magnitude every 3 to 4 days during the first 2 weeks after inoculation; at 56 days after inoculation, Ea153N was not detected, except on 1 of 450 fruit with 4 colony forming units (CFU). After inoculation of flowers, calyx-end survival of Ea153N on pear and apple fruit declined from high populations at petal fall to a few cells at harvest, with no detection of the pathogen after a 7-week cold storage. Migration of Ea153N into symptomless pear fruit from diseased branches was evaluated by enrichment assay and nested polymerase chain reaction of internal fruit core tissues; these assays failed to detect the pathogen in healthy fruit from diseased trees. At harvest, E. amylovora could not be detected on 5,599 of 5,600 fruit of d'Anjou pear sampled from commercial orchards in major production areas of the Pacific Northwest; one fruit yielded 32 CFU of the pathogen. Postharvest, mature pear fruit contaminated with Ea153N and subsequently wounded required a dose of >10,000 cells at the wound site to allow for persistence of the pathogen through a 7-week-cold storage. We conclude that epiphytic E. amylovora shows similar survival characteristics on both pear and apple fruit, this pathogen is not an endophyte within mature symptomless pear fruit, its presence is exceptionally rare on commercially produced fruit, and that epiphytic survival of E. amylovora through a postharvest chilling period is unlikely given

  17. Baseline predictors of central aortic blood pressure: a PEAR substudy.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Rebecca F; Shah, Niren K; Smith, Steven M; Wen, Xuerong; Gong, Yan; Gums, John G; Nichols, Wilmer W; Chapman, Arlene B; Boerwinkle, Eric; Johnson, Julie; Epstein, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Elevated central systolic blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular events and appears superior to peripheral BP for long term risk prediction. The objective of this study was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with central pressures in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. We prospectively examined peripheral BP, central aortic BP, and arterial wall properties and wave reflection in 57 subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) Study. Significant predictors of central SBP included height, smoking status, heart rate (HR), and peripheral systolic BP (SBP), while central diastolic BP (DBP) was explained by peripheral DBP and HR. These variables accounted for nearly all of the variability in central SBP and central DBP (R(2) = 0.94 and R(2) = 0.98, respectively). Central pulse pressure variability was largely explained by gender, ex-smoking status, HR, peripheral SBP, and peripheral DBP (R(2) = 0.94). Central augmented pressure had a direct relationship with smoking status, peripheral SBP, and duration of hypertension, whereas it was indirectly related to height, HR, and peripheral DBP. Easily obtainable demographic and clinical factors are associated with central pressures in essential hypertensive persons. These relationships should be considered in future studies to improve assessment of BP to reduce cardiovascular risk and mortality.

  18. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  19. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and ‘Moonglow’ (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of ‘Moonglow’, while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from ‘Moonglow’. PMID:26770810

  20. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2016-07-15

    Sugar, organic acid, triterpenoid and phenolic composition as well as antioxidant capacity of different anatomical parts of pear were studied. Fruits and leaves of 'Radana' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were used. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the pear pulp, peel, leaves and seeds. Fructose was the major sugar in pulp, seeds and peel (227.46, 45.36 and 67.49 g/kg dry mass [DM], respectively), while sorbitol was predominant in leaves (40.66 g/kg DM). Malic acid was the major organic acid, followed by citric and shikimic acids. The highest concentration of triterpenoids (3460.5 μg/g DM) was determined in pear peel, and ursolic acid was predominant. Leaves were characterized by the highest amount of phenolics (5326.7 mg/100 g DM) and the highest DPPH and FRAP values (2027.9 and 3539.6 μmol TE/100 g DM, respectively). Pear leaves and seeds may be selected as potential sources of phytochemicals.

  1. Use of cyclodextrins as secondary antioxidants to improve the color of fresh pear juice.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolas, José M; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2007-07-25

    In this paper, the color of fresh pear juice was evaluated for the first time in the presence of some natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) and the effect of these compounds as browning inhibitors was determined using the color space CIELAB system. Furthermore, because contradictory claims have been published concerning the mechanism by which enzymatic browning is inhibited by CDs, a kinetic model in the presence of CDs is proposed and the corresponding apparent complexation constants between the mixtures of diphenols present in pear juice and alpha-, beta-, and maltosyl-beta-CD have been calculated. Moreover, pear juice color was studied in the presence of different polyphenoloxidase inhibitors. Finally, we show that maltosyl-beta-CD enhances the ability of ascorbic acid to prevent enzymatic browning because of the protection that maltosyl-beta-CD offers against ascorbic acid oxidation. In this respect, maltosyl-beta-CD seems to act as a "secondary antioxidant", reducing pear juice browning and enhancing the naturally occurring antioxidant capacity of pear juice. PMID:17608499

  2. Application of vibration response technique for the firmness evaluation of pear fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Oveisi, Z; Minaei, S; Rafiee, S; Eyvani, A; Borghei, A

    2014-11-01

    Storage conditions of pear affect its subsequent softening process and shelf life. Measurements of firmness have traditionally been carried out according to the Magness Taylor (MT) procedure; using a texture analyzer or penetrometer in reference texture tests. In this study, a non-destructive method using Laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) technology was used to estimate texture firmness of pears. This technique was employed to detect responses to imposed vibration of intact fruit using a shaker. Vibration transmitted through the fruit to the upper surface was measured by LDV. A fast Fourier transform algorithm was used to process response signals and the desired results were extracted. Multiple Linear Regression models using fruit density and four parameters obtained from modal tests showed better correlation (R(2) = 0.803) with maximum force in Magness Taylor test compared to the models that used only modal parameters (R(2) = 0.798). The best polynomial regression models for pear firmness were based on elasticity index (EI) and damping ratio (η) with R(2) = 0.71 and R(2) = 0.64, respectively. This study shows the capability of the LDV technique and the vibration response data for predicting ripeness and modeling pear firmness and the significant advantage for commercially classifying of pears based on consumer demands.

  3. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and 'Moonglow' (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of 'Moonglow', while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from 'Moonglow'. PMID:26770810

  4. 40 CFR 180.1323 - Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1323 Ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (Pear Ester); exemption... for residues of the biochemical pesticide, ethyl-2E,4Z-decadienoate (pear ester), in or on all...

  5. A transcriptome approach towards understanding the development of ripening capacity in European pears (Pyrus communis L. cv Bartlett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of European pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) to ripen after harvest develops during the final stages of growth on the tree. The objective of this study was to characterize changes in ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit physico-chemical properties and transcription profiles during fruit maturation leadi...

  6. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  7. Comparison of accessions from the UK and US national pear germplasm collections with a standardized set of microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized set of 12 microsatellite markers, previously agreed upon following an ECP/GR workshop in 2006, was used to screen accessions from the UK National Pear Collection at Brogdale and from the US National Pear Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis. Eight standard varieties were chosen from...

  8. Chemical composition and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of peels and flesh from 10 different pear varieties (Pyrus spp.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Wang, Tingting; Zhou, Bin; Gao, Wenyuan; Cao, Jingguo; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total triterpenes between peel and flesh of ten different pear cultivars. The monomeric compounds were analyzed by HPLC, their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were also measured. Peel and flesh from Yaguang, Hongpi, Qingpi and Guifei varieties contained relatively more total phenolic, total flavonoids and total triterpene, and showed stronger antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, while Lvbaoshi and Youran appeared to be weakest among them. All the chemical components found in the pear peel were approximately 6-20 times higher than those in the flesh of pear. For the monomeric compounds, arbutin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and rutin were the dominant components contained in the ten pear cultivars both in peel and in flesh. All of the analyses suggested that the peel of pear might be an excellent polyphenol and triterpenes source.

  9. A 'compare and contrast' exercise: wrapping versus personalised external aortic root support (PEARS).

    PubMed

    Treasure, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Wrapping of the aorta and personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) both have the purpose of preventing further expansion of the ascending aorta in order to reduce the risk of aortic dissection and to spare the patient the disastrous consequences of aortic rupture. For the first time, Plonek and colleagues have reported systematically the CT appearances of a series of cases of wrapping. They illustrate the important finding that there are residual spaces between the aorta and the wrap. PEARS by contrast is intimately in contact with the aorta due to its personalised design and is fully incorporated due it construction from a porous mesh. A limitation of PEARS is that it is, of its nature, a planned and elective operation while wrapping can be undertaken during an emergency operation and can be used without prior planning as an intraoperative decision. PMID:27406033

  10. Ripening and in vitro retention of respiratory control by avocado and pear mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ozelkök, S I; Romani, R J

    1975-08-01

    The retention of respiratory control ("survival") by mitochondria held at 25 C was studied in relation to the ripening of two varieties of avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. ;Fuerte' and ;Hass') and one variety of pear (Pyrus communis. L. var. ;Bartlett') fruit. The survival of avocado mitochondria increased from 8 to 10 hours when isolated from unripe, preclimacteric fruit, to 48 hours when isolated from fully ripe, postclimacteric fruits. Although rates of alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation, respiratory control, and ADP/O decreased somewhat in the postclimacteric phase, survival per se was not affected. Pear mitochondria survived for more than 30 hours regardless of the physiological age of the source.Exposure of postclimacteric avocado mitochondria to a preclimacteric supernatant fraction curtailed their survival. The harmful effect of some unknown substance(s) in the preclimacteric avocado supernatant fraction was confirmed by utilizing pear mitochondria as an independent test system.

  11. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKCC-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in ‘Suli’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy. PMID:26466664

  12. Dormancy-associated MADS-box genes and microRNAs jointly control dormancy transition in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group) flower bud.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfeng; Li, Jianzhao; Cai, Danying; Qian, Minjie; Jia, Huimin; Bai, Songling; Hussain, Sayed; Liu, Guoqin; Teng, Yuanwen; Zheng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Bud dormancy in perennial plants is indispensable to survival over winter and to regrowth and development in the following year. However, the molecular pathways of endo-dormancy induction, maintenance, and release are still unclear, especially in fruit crops. To identify genes with roles in regulating endo-dormancy, 30 MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes were identified in the pear genome and characterized. The 30 genes were analysed to determine their phylogenetic relationships with homologous genes, genome locations, gene structure, tissue-specific transcript profiles, and transcriptional patterns during flower bud dormancy in 'Suli' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia white pear group). The roles in regulating bud dormancy varied among the MIKC gene family members. Yeast one-hybrid and transient assays showed that PpCBF enhanced PpDAM1 and PpDAM3 transcriptional activity during the induction of dormancy, probably by binding to the C-repeat/DRE binding site, while DAM proteins inhibited the transcriptional activity of PpFT2 during dormancy release. In the small RNA-seq analysis, 185 conserved, 24 less-conserved, and 32 pear-specific miRNAs with distinct expression patterns during bud dormancy were identified. Joint analyses of miRNAs and MIKC genes together with degradome data showed that miR6390 targeted PpDAM transcripts and degraded them to release PpFT2. Our data show that cross-talk among PpCBF, PpDAM, PpFT2, and miR6390 played important roles in regulating endo-dormancy. A model for the molecular mechanism of dormancy transition is proposed: short-term chilling in autumn activates the accumulation of CBF, which directly promotes DAM expression; DAM subsequently inhibits FT expression to induce endo-dormancy, and miR6390 degrades DAM genes to release endo-dormancy.

  13. Differentiation of deciduous-calyx Korla fragrant pears using NIR hyperspectral imaging analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging was investigated as a potential method for automatic sorting of pears according to their calyx type. The hyperspectral images were analyzed and wavebands at 1190 nm and 1199 nm were selected for differentiating deciduous-calyx fruits from persistent-calyx ones. A ...

  14. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  15. Biofilm production and resistance to disinfectants in Salmonella strains isolated from prickly pear, water, and soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to: i) determine the capacity of Salmonella isolated from prickly pear (10 strains), water samples (2 strains), and soil (3 strains) to form biofilms, and ii) evaluate the bactericidal effect of citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium hypochlorite on biofilm-forming st...

  16. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera leucotricha on Callery pear in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Podosphaera leucotricha (Ellis & Everh.) E.S. Salmon (Ascomycetes, Erysiphales) is the etiological agent of a powdery mildew disease that occurs on rosaceous plants, primarily Malus and Pyrus. This fungus is nearly circumglobal. In May 2009, leaves of Bradford pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.), some di...

  17. Xylella taiwanensis sp. nov. cause of pear leaf scorch disease in Taiwan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa is a group of xylem-limited and nutritionally fastidious plant pathogenic bacteria. While mostly found in the Americas, new X. fastidiosa strains have been reported from other continents such as Asia, including a pear leaf scorch (PLS) strain from Taiwan. Current taxonomy of X. fa...

  18. Fall and summer pruning to control vigor in d'Anjou pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling vigor in d’Anjou trees is an ongoing challenge in Washington pear orchards. Vigor depends on: nitrogen fertilization, cultivar, rootstock, and pruning/training system. Cultivar d’Anjou is inherently more vigorous than other cultivars, like Bartlett, which induces a more manageable tree...

  19. Genetic Relationships within Heritage Apple and Pear Cultivars in the Azores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Açores cooperative initiative program (ACIP) scientists from the US Department of Agriculture and Serviço de Desenvolvimento Agario da Terceira are collaborating to identify heritage apples and pears collected from locations throughout Terceira, Açores, Portugal. Nine apple microsatel...

  20. Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, R; De Giorgi, A; Storari, A; Fabbian, F

    2016-01-01

    Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills. PMID:26914114

  1. Transgene expression in pear (Pyrus communis L.) driven by a phloem-specific promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gene expression cassette carrying ß-glucuronidase (uidA) reporter gene under the control of the promoter of the Arabidopsis sucrose-H+ symporter gene (AtSUC2) was introduced to pear plants via an Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transformation procedure. Transgenic shoots were regenerated from...

  2. Effect of the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest decay and patulin accumulation in apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruiyu; Yu, Ting; Guo, Shuanghuan; Hu, Hao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a strain of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest blue mold and patulin accumulation in apples and pears stored at 23°C was evaluated. The occurrence and severity of apple and pear decay caused by Penicillium expansum were significantly inhibited by R. paludigenum. However, the application of the yeast at a high concentration (10(8) cells per ml) enhanced patulin accumulation after 7 days of storage; the amount of patulin increased 24.2 times and 12.6 times compared to the controls in infected apples and pears, respectively. However, R. paludigenum reduced the patulin concentration in the growth medium by both biological degradation and physical adsorption. Optimal in vitro patulin reduction was observed at 30°C and at pH 6.0. R. paludigenum incubated at 28°C was tolerant to patulin at concentrations up to 100 mg/liter. In conclusion, R. paludigenum was able to control postharvest decay in apples and pears and to remove patulin in vitro effectively. However, because the yeast induced patulin accumulation in fruit, the assessment of mycotoxin content after biological treatments in postharvest decay control is important. R. paludigenum may also be a promising source of gene(s) and enzyme(s) for patulin degradation and may be a tool to decrease patulin contamination in commercial fruit-derived products.

  3. Evaluation of potential alternative varieties for U.S. west coast pear growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California, Oregon, and Washington produced 97% of the commercial U.S. pear crop from 2003-2005, consisting of 50% of 'Bartlett' ('Williams'), 36% of 'Anjou', 11% of 'Bosc', and 2% of others, mainly 'Comice', 'Red Clapp's Favorite', 'Seckel', and 'Concorde'. Declining processing demand has heighte...

  4. Evaluation of potential alternative European pear cultivars for U.S. West Coast growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California, Oregon, and Washington produced 98% of the commercial U.S. pear crop from 2003 to 2005, consisting of 'Williams Bartlett' (51%), 'Beurre Anjou' (36%), 'Beurre Bosc' (11%), and 2% others, mainly 'Doyenne du Comice', 'Red Clapp's Favorite', 'Seckel', and 'Concorde'. Declining processing d...

  5. Stability of pear-shaped configurations bifurcated from a pressurized spherical balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. B.; Xie, Y. X.

    2014-08-01

    It is well-known that for most spherical rubber balloons the pressure versus volume curve associated with uniform inflation is N-shaped (the pressure increases rapidly to a maximum, falls to a minimum, and subsequently increases monotonically), and that somewhere along the descending branch of this curve the spherical shape may bifurcate into a pear shape through localized thinning near one of the poles. The bifurcation is associated with the (uniform) surface tension reaching a maximum. It is previously known that whenever a pear-shaped configuration becomes possible, it has lower energy than the co-existing spherical configuration, but the stability of the pear-shaped configuration itself is unknown. With the use of the energy stability criterion, it is shown in this paper that the pear-shaped configuration is unstable under pressure control, but stable under mass control. Our calculations are carried out using the Ogden material model as an example, but it is expected that the qualitative stability results should also be valid for other material models that predict a similar N-shaped behavior for uniform inflation.

  6. Two MYB transcription factors regulate flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Shiwei; Meng, Geng; Song, Linyan; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Pengmin; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoid compounds play important roles in the modern diet, and pear fruits are an excellent dietary source of these metabolites. However, information on the regulatory network of flavonoid biosynthesis in pear fruits is rare. In this work, 18 putative flavonoid-related MYB transcription factors (TFs) were screened by phylogenetic analysis and four of them were correlated with flavonoid biosynthesis patterns in pear fruits. Among these MYB-like genes, the specific functions of two novel MYB TFs, designated as PbMYB10b and PbMYB9, were further verified by both overexpression and RNAi transient assays. PbMYB10b, a PAP-type MYB TF with atypical motifs in its conserved region, regulated the anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin pathways by inducing the expression of PbDFR, but its function could be complemented by other MYB TFs. PbMYB9, a TT2-type MYB, not only acted as the specific activator of the proanthocyanidin pathway by activating the PbANR promoter, but also induced the synthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols by binding the PbUFGT1 promoter in pear fruits. The MYBCORE-like element has been identified in both the PbUFGT1 promoter and ANR promoters in most species, but it was not found in UFGT promoters isolated from other species. This finding was also supported by a yeast one-hybrid assay and thus enhanced the likelihood of the interaction between PbMYB9 and the PbUFGT1 promoter.

  7. 76 FR 8917 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referendum order. SUMMARY: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible Oregon and Washington pear growers to... Oregon and Washington. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from February 26 through March 11,...

  8. 7 CFR 917.21 - Nomination of Pear Commodity Committee members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 917.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS... four nominees. (c) Placer-Colfax District one nominee. (d) Lake District four nominees. (e)...

  9. Evaluation of fruit quality and susceptibility to blue mold of nine Asian pear cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine Asian pear cultivars (Atago, Hosui, Isiiwase, Kosui, Olympic, Shinko, Shinsui, Ya Li, and Yoinashi) were evaluated for quality (firmness, titratable acidity, and soluble solids) and susceptibility to the blue mold pathogen Penicillium expansum. Fruit were grown at the University of Maryland Ext...

  10. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, unreplicated trial in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual producti...

  11. Performance of US 71655-014, a fire blight resistant pear selection from the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station in Kearneysville, West Virginia. In an earlier, un-replicated trail in Oregon, it was determined that US 71655-014 had several positive attributes including precocity, annual production, ...

  12. A new attractive, precocious, productive, fire blight resistant pear selection. What more could you ask for?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear scion selection developed by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Preliminary trials indicated several positive attributes including precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit, long storage life, and good consumer acceptance. In 2005, a rep...

  13. Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, R; De Giorgi, A; Storari, A; Fabbian, F

    2016-01-01

    Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills.

  14. S-genotype identification based on allele-specific PCR in Japanese pear

    PubMed Central

    Nashima, Kenji; Terakami, Shingo; Nishio, Sogo; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) is controlled by the single, multi-allelic S-locus. Information about the S-genotypes is important for breeding and the selection of pollen donors for fruit production. Rapid and reliable S-genotype identification system is necessary for efficient breeding of new cultivars in Japanese pear. We designed S allele-specific PCR primer pairs for ten previously reported S-RNase alleles (S1–S9 and Sk) as simple and reliable method. Specific nucleotide sequences were chosen to design the primers to amplify fragments of only the corresponding S alleles. The developed primer pairs were evaluated by using homozygous S-genotypes (S1/S1–S9/S9 and S4sm/S4sm) and 14 major Japanese pear cultivars, and found that S allele-specific primer pairs can identify S-genotypes effectively. The S allele-specific primer pairs developed in this study will be useful for efficient S-genotyping and for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:26175617

  15. Genetic and biochemical bases of superficial scald storage disorder in apple and pear fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superficial scald is a physiological storage disorder affecting apple and pear fruits. The disorder develops during cold storage and intensifies after removal to market temperatures. Scald symptoms result from necrosis of a few hypodermal cell layers and manifest as brown or black patches on the fru...

  16. Genetics of biosynthesis and structure of the capsular exopolysaccharide from the Asian pear pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Sik; Schollmeyer, Martin; Nimtz, Manfred; Wray, Victor; Geider, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    Erwinia pyrifoliae is a novel bacterial pathogen, which causes Asian pear blight and is related to Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight. E. pyrifoliae produces exopolysaccharide (EPS) related to amylovoran in its sugar composition and sugar linkages. This was shown by degradation of the EPS with a viral depolymerase, and by methylation analysis and ESI/MS. The structure of the repeating units was confirmed by (1)H-NMR spectra. The EPS of E. pyrifoliae carried side chains, which were mainly terminated by acetyl and pyruvyl residues as found previously for amylovoran. On the other hand, a second side chain with glucose found for up to 65% of the repeating units of amylovoran was completely absent. The nucleotide sequences of five genes of the cps cluster of E. pyrifoliae encoding proteins for EPS synthesis were characterized and displayed a high homology with the corresponding ams genes. Similar functions of the gene products are assumed. As for ams mutants of E. amylovora, a cpsB mutant of E. pyrifoliae did not synthesize EPS and did not produce ooze on slices of immature pears or symptoms on pear seedlings. The cps mutant was complemented for EPS synthesis and virulence on pear slices with a gene cluster of E. amylovora that included amsB.

  17. Identification of Erwinia amylovora Genes Induced during Infection of Immature Pear Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Youfu; Blumer, Sara E.; Sundin, George W.

    2005-01-01

    The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora is a devastating plant pathogen causing necrotrophic fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other rosaceous plants. In this study, we used a modified in vivo expression technology system to identify E. amylovora genes that are activated during infection of immature pear tissue, a process that requires the major pathogenicity factors of this organism. We identified 394 unique pear fruit-induced (pfi) genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes and separated them into nine putative function groups including host-microbe interactions (3.8%), stress response (5.3%), regulation (11.9%), cell surface (8.9%), transport (13.5%), mobile elements (1.0%), metabolism (20.3%), nutrient acquisition and synthesis (15.5%), and unknown or hypothetical proteins (19.8%). Known virulence genes, including hrp/hrc components of the type III secretion system, the major effector gene dspE, type II secretion, levansucrase (lsc), and regulators of levansucrase and amylovoran biosynthesis, were upregulated during pear tissue infection. Known virulence factors previously identified in E. (Pectobacterium) carotovora and Pseudomonas syringae were identified for the first time in E. amylovora and included HecA hemagglutinin family adhesion, Peh polygalacturonase, new effector HopPtoCEA, and membrane-bound lytic murein transglycosylase MltEEA. An insertional mutation within hopPtoCEA did not result in reduced virulence; however, an mltEEA knockout mutant was reduced in virulence and growth in immature pears. This study suggests that E. amylovora utilizes a variety of strategies during plant infection and to overcome the stressful and poor nutritional environment of its plant hosts. PMID:16291682

  18. The draft genome sequence of European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Bartlett').

    PubMed

    Chagné, David; Crowhurst, Ross N; Pindo, Massimo; Thrimawithana, Amali; Deng, Cecilia; Ireland, Hilary; Fiers, Mark; Dzierzon, Helge; Cestaro, Alessandro; Fontana, Paolo; Bianco, Luca; Lu, Ashley; Storey, Roy; Knäbel, Mareike; Saeed, Munazza; Montanari, Sara; Kim, Yoon Kyeong; Nicolini, Daniela; Larger, Simone; Stefani, Erika; Allan, Andrew C; Bowen, Judith; Harvey, Isaac; Johnston, Jason; Malnoy, Mickael; Troggio, Michela; Perchepied, Laure; Sawyer, Greg; Wiedow, Claudia; Won, Kyungho; Viola, Roberto; Hellens, Roger P; Brewer, Lester; Bus, Vincent G M; Schaffer, Robert J; Gardiner, Susan E; Velasco, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    We present a draft assembly of the genome of European pear (Pyrus communis) 'Bartlett'. Our assembly was developed employing second generation sequencing technology (Roche 454), from single-end, 2 kb, and 7 kb insert paired-end reads using Newbler (version 2.7). It contains 142,083 scaffolds greater than 499 bases (maximum scaffold length of 1.2 Mb) and covers a total of 577.3 Mb, representing most of the expected 600 Mb Pyrus genome. A total of 829,823 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected using re-sequencing of 'Louise Bonne de Jersey' and 'Old Home'. A total of 2,279 genetically mapped SNP markers anchor 171 Mb of the assembled genome. Ab initio gene prediction combined with prediction based on homology searching detected 43,419 putative gene models. Of these, 1219 proteins (556 clusters) are unique to European pear compared to 12 other sequenced plant genomes. Analysis of the expansin gene family provided an example of the quality of the gene prediction and an insight into the relationships among one class of cell wall related genes that control fruit softening in both European pear and apple (Malus × domestica). The 'Bartlett' genome assembly v1.0 (http://www.rosaceae.org/species/pyrus/pyrus_communis/genome_v1.0) is an invaluable tool for identifying the genetic control of key horticultural traits in pear and will enable the wide application of marker-assisted and genomic selection that will enhance the speed and efficiency of pear cultivar development.

  19. Calcium content and its correlated distribution with skin browning spot in bagged Huangguan pear.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Guan, Jun-Feng; Ma, Shi-Jin; Liu, Ling-Ling; Feng, Yun-Xiao; Cheng, Yu-Dou

    2015-01-01

    Skin browning spot (SBS) is an important physiology disorder that often occurs in bagged fruit at the mature stage in the Huangguan (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus pyrifolia) pear. Using atomic absorption spectrometry, X-ray microanalysis, and the potassium-pyroantimonate precipitation method, the water-soluble and total Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contents, their microdistribution, and the Ca(2+) localization were investigated in bagged Huangguan pear fruit in the presence and absence of SBS. Our results show that the water-soluble and total Ca(2+) contents in both the skin and flesh tissue and the total Ca(2+) content only in the skin tissue of the fruits with SBS were significantly lower compared to those of the fruits without SBS. However, a higher K(+) content in the skin tissue was found in the fruits with SBS. There were no significant differences in the water-soluble and total Mg(2+) contents in the skin and flesh tissue between the fruits with and without SBS. In addition, the results of the X-ray microanalysis were consistent with changes in the total Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and K(+) contents in the skin and flesh tissue of the pear fruit that were affected by SBS. Compared to the skin tissue of pear fruit without SBS and the healthy part near the lesion zone of SBS, the lesion zone of SBS exhibited a high accumulation of Ca(2+) grains in the cell membrane of the epidermis cells, while fewer Ca(2+) grains were found in the vacuoles and cell walls. Altogether, these results indicate that Ca(2+) deficiency and the cellular Ca(2+) distribution in skin tissue contributed to the occurrence of SBS in bagged Huangguan pear fruit.

  20. Change in chemical constituents and free radical-scavenging activity during Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivar fruit development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Eun Hee; Yun, Hae Rim; Jeong, Hang Yeon; Lee, Yu Geon; Kim, Wol-Soo; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2015-01-01

    Changes in chemical constituent contents and DPPH radical-scavenging activity in fruits of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cultivars during the development were investigated. The fruits of seven cultivars (cv. Niitaka, Chuhwangbae, Wonhwang, Hwangkeumbae, Hwasan, Manpungbae, and Imamuraaki) were collected at 15-day intervals after day 20 of florescence. Vitamins (ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol), arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, total caffeic acid, total flavonoids, and total phenolics were the highest in immature pear fruit on day 20 after florescence among samples at different growth stages. All of these compounds decreased gradually in the fruit during the development. Immature pear fruit on day 35 or 50 after florescence exhibited higher free radical-scavenging activity than that at other times, although activities were slightly different among cultivars. The chemical constituent contents and free radical-scavenging activity were largely different among immature fruits of the pear cultivars, but small differences were observed when they matured.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, "Cuiguan" and "Cuiyu". Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in "Cuiguan" than in "Cuiyu", accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition.

  3. Effect of maturity and cold storage on ethylene biosynthesis and ripening in ‘Bartlett’ pears treated after harvest with 1-MCP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To further our understanding of the response of ‘Bartlett’ pear fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and their ability to recover the capacity to ripen, ‘Bartlett’ pears were treated with 0.3 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h at 20 °C immediately after harvest in two seasons and to pear fruit of four maturitie...

  4. Genetic diversity of selected Iranian quinces using SSRs from apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Khoramdel Azad, Mahsa; Nasiri, Jaber; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-06-01

    An Iranian National Quince collection containing 40 quince genotypes, originating from six distinct geographic areas, was screened using 15 SSR markers developed originally for apple and pear genomes. Overall, 13 markers exhibited polymorphism, with an average of 5.36 putative alleles per locus and a mean PIC value of 0.76. An UPGMA analysis divided the quince genotypes into five major clusters. The same results were obtained when the principal coordinates were plotted. The assignment test successfully allocated 83% of individuals into their place of origin. These results agree somewhat with the geographic origin of the quince accessions, and we conclude that geographic isolation leads to considerable genetic differentiation among Iranian quince collections. A significant ratio of transferability with a mean of 87.86% was measured, and we deduced that STMS markers derived from pear and apple have enough potential to detect polymorphism and differentiation in quince.

  5. The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase with antifungal activity from 'Baozhu' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Yang, Chengcheng; Liang, Xiaobo; Li, Lirong

    2016-04-01

    A novel chitinase from the 'Baozhu' pear was found, purified, and characterized in this report. This chitinase was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28.9 kDa. Results of the internal peptide sequence analyses classify this chitinase as a class III chitinase. In the enzymatic hydrolytic assay, this chitinase could hydrolyze chitin derivatives into di-N-acetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) as a major product in the initial phase, as well as hydrolyze GlcNAc2 into N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which represents both chitobiosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminase activity. Biological analyses showed that this chitinase exhibits strong antifungal activity toward agricultural pathogenic fungi. In total, chitinase from 'Baozhu' pear is a novel bifunctional chitinase that could be a potential fungicide in the biological control of plant diseases.

  7. Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Red Turnip and Purple Wild Sicilian Prickly Pear Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Di Marco, Gaetano; Cazzanti, Silvia; Caramori, Stefano; Argazzi, Roberto; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bignozzi, Carlo Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were assembled by using the bougainvillea flowers, red turnip and the purple wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit juice extracts as natural sensitizers of TiO2 films. The yellow orange indicaxanthin and the red purple betacyanins are the main components in the cocktail of natural dyes obtained from these natural products. The best overall solar energy conversion efficiency of 1.7% was obtained, under AM 1.5 irradiation, with the red turnip extract, that showed a remarkable current density (Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm2) and a high IPCE value (65% at λ = 470 nm). Also the purple extract of the wild Sicilian prickly pear fruit showed interesting performances, with a Jsc of 9.4 mA/cm2, corresponding to a solar to electrical power conversion of 1.26%. PMID:20162014

  8. Identification and characterization of a novel chitinase with antifungal activity from 'Baozhu' pear (Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim.).

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Yang, Chengcheng; Liang, Xiaobo; Li, Lirong

    2016-04-01

    A novel chitinase from the 'Baozhu' pear was found, purified, and characterized in this report. This chitinase was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28.9 kDa. Results of the internal peptide sequence analyses classify this chitinase as a class III chitinase. In the enzymatic hydrolytic assay, this chitinase could hydrolyze chitin derivatives into di-N-acetylchitobiose (GlcNAc2) as a major product in the initial phase, as well as hydrolyze GlcNAc2 into N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), which represents both chitobiosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminase activity. Biological analyses showed that this chitinase exhibits strong antifungal activity toward agricultural pathogenic fungi. In total, chitinase from 'Baozhu' pear is a novel bifunctional chitinase that could be a potential fungicide in the biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26593558

  9. Combination of 1-Methylcyclopropene and ethoxyquin to control superficial scald of 'Anjou' pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 25 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application at 20 °C for 24 hours on the day of harvest plus an ethoxyquin drench at 1000 µL L-1 after 1, 7, 30 and 60 days (d) of cold storage controlled superficial scald of ‘d’Anjou’ pears stored in air at -1 °C for 5 months. 1-MCP alone, or ethoxyquin alo...

  10. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors.

  11. Intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of pulp and seeds of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Moreno, E; Hervert-Hernández, D; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Díez-Marqués, C; Goñi, I

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of cactus pear using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The amount of polyphenols released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes was about 69-83% in pulp and 0-14% in seeds. The rest of polyphenols was associated with indigestible compounds conferring antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that these compounds could reach the colon and induce healthy effects.

  12. Seasonal variability in Prickly Pear Creek water quality and macroinvertebrate communities

    SciTech Connect

    Baldigo, B.P.; Baker, J.R.; Kinney, W.L.; Fillinger, M.

    1986-12-01

    Prickly Pear Creek, Montana, was sampled during four seasons in 1982 and 1983 to attempt to relate biological responses to fluctuations in discharge, in-stream toxicity, and metal concentration in the water column. The biota (macroinvertebrate) were definitely impacted directly downstream from a metal source during all seasons, but no definite relationships among discharge, metal concentration, and biological response could be established on a seasonal basis.

  13. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of three viruses in pear plants by a multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingyu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xiaofang; Liu, Wenbin; Tang, Huihui; Zhu, Hui; Hong, Ni

    2014-02-01

    A multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for detection and differentiation of the Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), which are viruses frequently occurring in pear trees. Different combinations of mixed primer pairs were tested for their specificity and sensitivity for the simultaneous detection of the three viruses. Three primer pairs were used to amplify their fragments of 247bp, 358bp and 500bp, respectively. The primer pair for ASPV was designed in this work, while the primer pairs for ACLSV and ASGV were from previous reports. The sensitivity and specificity of the mRT-PCR assay for the three viruses were comparable to that of each uniplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR was applied successfully for the detection of three viruses in leaves of pear and apple plants, but was unreliable in the detection of ASGV in dormant barks. In conclusion, this mRT-PCR provides a useful tool for the routine and rapid detection and the differentiation of three pear viruses.

  14. Genetic structure and diversity of the wild Ussurian pear in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Hironori; Amo, Hitomi; Wuyun, Tana; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ussurian pear is the most important cultivated pear in the northern part of China. Cultivated Ussurian pears are considered to have derived from Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. which is native to the northeast of China. In Japan, two varieties of P. ussuriensis, P. ussuriensis var. aromatica and var. hondoensis are native to the northern area and the central area of the main island respectively. In order to reveal the origin of Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica distributed in the northern area of main island of Japan, more than 40 explorations have been performed in Japan and in China, and more than 30 natural habitats were recognized. These natural habitats are at risk of extinction because of human development and forest degradation caused by climate change. Population structure and genetic diversity of P. ussuriensis in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan have been investigated using both morphological and molecular markers in order to define appropriate conservation units, and to provide a good focus for conservation management. Distant evolutionary relationships between P. ussuriensis Maxim. in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan inferred from population genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:27069394

  15. Effect of chitin on the antagonistic activity of Cryptococcus laurentii against Penicillium expansum in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Wang, Lianping; Yin, Yun; Wang, Yixi; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2008-02-29

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of chitin on the antagonistic activity of Cryptococcus laurentii against the postharvest blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. The results showed that the antagonistic activity of C. laurentii obtained from the culture media of nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB) amended with chitin at 0.5-1.0% was improved greatly compared with the case that without chitin. The addition of chitin to NYDB did not influence the growth of C. laurentii, however, its population was found to increase rapidly thereafter in pear fruit wounds compared to that harvested from NYDB without chitin. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of the chitin-supplement culture media in which the yeast was incubated for 24 h emerged a direct antifungal activity against P. expansum in pear fruit wounds, with the associated high level of chitinase activity. These results suggested that the use of chitin may be an effective method to induce the antagonistic activity of C. laurentii. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the chitin could enhance the efficacy of postharvest biocontrol yeasts.

  16. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora.

  17. Development of genic SSR markers from transcriptome sequencing of pear buds.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao-yan; Liu, Guo-qin; Zong, Yu; Teng, Yuan-wen; Cai, Dan-ying

    2014-04-01

    A total of 8375 genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were discovered from a unigene set assembled from 116282 transcriptomic unigenes in this study. Dinucleotide repeat motifs were the most common with a frequency of 65.11%, followed by trinucleotide (32.81%). A total of 4100 primer pairs were designed from the SSR loci. Of these, 343 primer pairs (repeat length ≥15 bp) were synthesized with an M13 tail and tested for stable amplification and polymorphism in four Pyrus accessions. After the preliminary test, 104 polymorphic genic SSR markers were developed; dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats represented 97.11% (101) of these. Twenty-eight polymorphic genic SSR markers were selected randomly to further validate genetic diversity among 28 Pyrus accessions. These markers displayed a high level of polymorphism. The number of alleles at these SSR loci ranged from 2 to 17, with a mean of 9.43 alleles per locus, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.26 to 0.91. The UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average) cluster analysis grouped the 28 Pyrus accessions into two groups: Oriental pears and Occidental pears, which are congruent to the traditional taxonomy, demonstrating their effectiveness in analyzing Pyrus phylogenetic relationships, enriching rare Pyrus EST-SSR resources, and confirming the potential value of a pear transcriptome database for the development of new SSR markers.

  18. Genetic structure and diversity of the wild Ussurian pear in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hironori; Amo, Hitomi; Wuyun, Tana; Uematsu, Chiyomi; Iketani, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Ussurian pear is the most important cultivated pear in the northern part of China. Cultivated Ussurian pears are considered to have derived from Pyrus ussuriensis Maxim. which is native to the northeast of China. In Japan, two varieties of P. ussuriensis, P. ussuriensis var. aromatica and var. hondoensis are native to the northern area and the central area of the main island respectively. In order to reveal the origin of Pyrus ussuriensis var. aromatica distributed in the northern area of main island of Japan, more than 40 explorations have been performed in Japan and in China, and more than 30 natural habitats were recognized. These natural habitats are at risk of extinction because of human development and forest degradation caused by climate change. Population structure and genetic diversity of P. ussuriensis in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan have been investigated using both morphological and molecular markers in order to define appropriate conservation units, and to provide a good focus for conservation management. Distant evolutionary relationships between P. ussuriensis Maxim. in China and P. ussuriensis var. aromatica in Japan inferred from population genetic structure and phylogenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:27069394

  19. Pear fruit extract-assisted room-temperature biosynthesis of gold nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Ghodake, G S; Deshpande, N G; Lee, Y P; Jin, E S

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a single-step room-temperature biosynthetic route for producing gold nanostructures using pear fruit is reported. The alkaline conditions of the pear fruit extract induced gold nanoparticles with plate-like morphologies. Successfully biosynthesized triangular and hexagonal nanoplates were observed, elegantly assembled with hexagonal gold nanoparticles. Nanostructure size, crystal nature, purity and morphologies were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The edge lengths of the nanostructures ranged from 200 to 500 nm. Using AFM analysis, the nanohexagons were observed to have a thickness ranging from 12 to 20 nm. The XRD patterns showed a (1 1 1) preferential orientation of the nanostructures. The XPS and EDAX analysis also confirmed the presence of pure-phase Au without any substantial impurities. The preparation of nanostructured gold particles using pear fruit provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods.

  20. Mapping of an anthocyanin-regulating MYB transcription factor and its expression in red and green pear, Pyrus communis.

    PubMed

    Pierantoni, Luca; Dondini, Luca; De Franceschi, Paolo; Musacchi, Stefano; Winkel, Brenda S J; Sansavini, Silviero

    2010-12-01

    'Max Red Bartlett' is a red bud mutation of the yellow pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Williams' (known as 'Bartlett' in North America). Anthocyanins are the most important pigments for red colour in fruits. Synthesis of anthocyanins is mediated by a number of well-characterized enzymes that include chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT). Expression of the genes encoding these five enzymes was examined in pear fruit skin in order to elucidate the molecular mechanism for red coloration. In addition, the gene PcMYB10, encoding an R2R3 MYB transcription factor involved in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway regulation, was isolated from both 'Williams' and 'Max Red Bartlett'. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this gene is an ortholog of anthocyanin regulators known in other plant species. Its expression level was significantly higher in 'Max Red Bartlett' (red pear) compared with the original yellow variety 'Williams'. Although the map position of PcMYB10 corresponds to that of MdMYBa and MdMYB10, which control pigmentation of apple fruit skin, PcMYB10 is not directly responsible for red versus yellow colour in the two pear varieties, as the mutation underlying this difference maps to a different region of the pear genome.

  1. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar ‘Kinchaku’ (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in ‘Osa Nijisseiki’ and Ana in ‘Nansui’. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of ‘Kinchaku’ and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a ‘Housui’ × ‘Kinchaku’ cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the ‘Golden Delicious’ apple genome and 107 Kb in the ‘Dangshansuli’ Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  2. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear.

  3. Longitudinal NMR parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit during the growing process using a mobile magnetic resonance imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geya, Yuto; Kimura, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Hirotaka; Terada, Yasuhiko; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki; Gemma, Hiroshi; Sekozawa, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameter measurements of Japanese pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, Kosui) were performed using an electrically mobile magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system with a 0.2 T and 16 cm gap permanent magnet. To measure the relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficients of the pear fruit in relation to their weight, seven pear fruits were harvested almost every week during the cell enlargement period and measured in a research orchard. To evaluate the in situ relaxation times, six pear fruits were longitudinally measured for about two months during the same period. The measurements for the harvested samples showed good agreement with the in situ measurements. From the measurements of the harvested samples, it is clear that the relaxation rates of the pear fruits linearly change with the inverse of the linear dimension of the fruits, demonstrating that the relaxation mechanism is a surface relaxation. We therefore conclude that the mobile MRI system is a useful device for measuring the NMR parameters of outdoor living plants.

  4. Fine mapping of the gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Terakami, Shingo; Moriya, Shigeki; Adachi, Yoshihiko; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Saito, Toshihiro; Abe, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Black spot disease, which is caused by the Japanese pear pathotype of the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. We mapped a gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Kinchaku' (Aki gene) at the top of linkage group 11, similar to the positions of the susceptibility genes Ani in 'Osa Nijisseiki' and Ana in 'Nansui'. Using synteny-based marker enrichment, we developed novel apple SSR markers in the target region. We constructed a fine map of linkage group 11 of 'Kinchaku' and localized the Aki locus within a 1.5-cM genome region between SSR markers Mdo.chr11.28 and Mdo.chr11.34. Marker Mdo.chr11.30 co-segregated with Aki in all 621 F1 plantlets of a 'Housui' × 'Kinchaku' cross. The physical size of the Aki region, which includes three markers (Mdo.chr11.28, Mdo.chr11.30, and Mdo.chr11.34), was estimated to be 250 Kb in the 'Golden Delicious' apple genome and 107 Kb in the 'Dangshansuli' Chinese pear genome. Our results will help to identify the candidate gene for susceptibility to black spot disease in Japanese pear. PMID:27162498

  5. Composition of phenolic compounds in a Portuguese pear (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) and changes after sun-drying.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dulcineia; Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Renard, Catherine M G C; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2002-07-31

    The composition of phenolic compounds of a Portuguese pear cultivar (Pyrus communis L. var. S. Bartolomeu) was determined by HPLC after thioacidolysis. The average concentration of phenolic compounds in pear harvested at commercial maturity stage was 3.7 g per kg of fresh pulp. Procyanidins were the predominant phenolics (96%), with a mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 13-44; hydroxycinnamic acids (2%), arbutin (0.8%), and catechins (0.7%) were also present. The most abundant monomer in the procyanidin structures was (-)-epicatechin (99%), which was found as extension and terminal units; (+)-catechin (1%) was found only as a terminal unit. Sun-drying of these pears caused a decrease of 64% (on a dry pulp basis) in the total amount of native phenolic compounds. Hydroxycinnamic acids and procyanidins showed the largest decrease; the B2 procyanidin was not found at all in the sun-dried pear. Less affected were arbutin and catechins. In the sun-dried pear, the procyanidins with high mDP became unextractable in the solvents used.

  6. RE-INITIATING SOFTENING ABILITY OF 1-METHYLCYCLOPROPENE-TREATED 'BARLETT' AND 'D'ANJOU' PEARS AFTER REGULAR AIR OR CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ and ‘d’Anjou’ pears treated with 300 nL L-1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), did not soften to eating quality within 7 d, a desirable ripening period. In this research, a preconditioning method was evaluated as a means to regenerate ripening ability of pears prior to marketing. Fruit treat...

  7. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear. PMID:27200050

  8. Genome-Wide Function, Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analysis of Sugar Transporter Family Genes in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ming; Zheng, Dan-man; Li, Lei-ting; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Shu-wei; Bai, Bin; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The sugar transporter (ST) plays an important role in plant growth, development and fruit quality. In this study, a total of 75 ST genes were identified in the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) genome based on systematic analysis. Furthermore, all ST genes identified were grouped into eight subfamilies according to conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of cis-regulatory element sequences of all ST genes identified the MYBCOREATCYCB1 promoter in sucrose transporter (SUT) and monosaccharide transporter (MST) genes of pear, while in grape it is exclusively found in SUT subfamily members, indicating divergent transcriptional regulation in different species. Gene duplication event analysis indicated that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play key roles in ST gene amplification, followed by tandem duplication. Estimation of positive selection at codon sites of ST paralog pairs indicated that all plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT) subfamily members have evolved under positive selection. In addition, the evolutionary history of ST gene duplications indicated that the ST genes have experienced significant expansion in the whole ST gene family after the second WGD, especially after apple and pear divergence. According to the global RNA sequencing results of pear fruit development, gene expression profiling showed the expression of 53 STs. Combined with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, two polyol/monosaccharide transporter (PLT) and three tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (tMT) members were identified as candidate genes, which may play important roles in sugar accumulation during pear fruit development and ripening. Identification of highly expressed STs in fruit is important for finding novel genes contributing to enhanced levels of sugar content in pear fruit. PMID:26079674

  9. Genome-Wide Function, Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analysis of Sugar Transporter Family Genes in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd).

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Ming; Zheng, Dan-man; Li, Lei-ting; Qiao, Xin; Wei, Shu-wei; Bai, Bin; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The sugar transporter (ST) plays an important role in plant growth, development and fruit quality. In this study, a total of 75 ST genes were identified in the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) genome based on systematic analysis. Furthermore, all ST genes identified were grouped into eight subfamilies according to conserved domains and phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of cis-regulatory element sequences of all ST genes identified the MYBCOREATCYCB1 promoter in sucrose transporter (SUT) and monosaccharide transporter (MST) genes of pear, while in grape it is exclusively found in SUT subfamily members, indicating divergent transcriptional regulation in different species. Gene duplication event analysis indicated that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication play key roles in ST gene amplification, followed by tandem duplication. Estimation of positive selection at codon sites of ST paralog pairs indicated that all plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT) subfamily members have evolved under positive selection. In addition, the evolutionary history of ST gene duplications indicated that the ST genes have experienced significant expansion in the whole ST gene family after the second WGD, especially after apple and pear divergence. According to the global RNA sequencing results of pear fruit development, gene expression profiling showed the expression of 53 STs. Combined with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, two polyol/monosaccharide transporter (PLT) and three tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (tMT) members were identified as candidate genes, which may play important roles in sugar accumulation during pear fruit development and ripening. Identification of highly expressed STs in fruit is important for finding novel genes contributing to enhanced levels of sugar content in pear fruit.

  10. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  11. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although, some MYBs were reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations, and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes). The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the 20 genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear. PMID:27200050

  12. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  13. Effect of available nutrients on yield and quality of pear fruit Bartlett in Kashmir Valley India.

    PubMed

    Dar, M A; Wani, J A; Raina, S K; Bhat, M Y; Dar, M A

    2012-11-01

    Pear is one of the most important commercial crops grown in the Kashmir valley of India. A study was conducted during 2008 to find out the effect of available nutrients on yield and quality parameters of pear cultivar "Bartlett" which revealed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.882, 0.856, and 0.482 mm, respectively), diameter (0.869, 0.794 and 0.458 mm, respectively), weight (0.876, 0.825 and 0.439 g, respectively), volume (0.908, 0.806 and 0.404, Cm3 respectively) and yield (0.908, 0.764 and 0.702 kg tree(-1), respectively) however, only nitrogen and phosphorus showed similar relationship with total sugars (0.833 and 0.838% respectively). The calcium indicated significant and negative relationship with fruit diameter (-0.433) and yield (-0.589), while as it showed significant and positive correlation with fruit firmness (0.442) only. The sulphur revealed significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.440), diameter (0.434), TSS (0.482) and yield (0.729) whereas zinc, copper, iron and manganese exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.889, 793, 0.671 and 0.619, respectively), diameter (0.875, 0.807, 0.653 and 0.576, respectively) weight (0.881, 0.784, 0.669 and 0.615, respectively), volume (0.885, 0.832, 0.692 and 0.572, respectively) TSS (0.858, 0.761, 0.735 and 0.609, respectively), total sugars (0.853, 0.890, 0.705 and 0.517, respectively) and yield (0.777, 0.618, 0.789 and 0.701, respectively). It is therefore suggested that nutrients have effect on quality and yield of pear fruits.

  14. [Hyperspectral technology combined with CARS algorithm to quantitatively determine the SSC in Korla fragrant pear].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Bai-Shao; Ni, Jun-Hui; Li, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has large data volume and high dimensionality, and original spectra data includes a lot of noises and severe scattering. And, quality of acquired hyperspectral data can be influenced by non-monochromatic light, external stray light and temperature, which resulted in having some non-linear relationship between the acquired hyperspectral data and the predicted quality index. Therefore, the present study proposed that competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) algorithm is used to select the key variables from visible and near infrared hyperspectral data. The performance of CARS was compared with full spectra, successive projections algorithm (SPA), Monte Carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and GA-SPA (genetic algorithm-successive projections algorithm). Two hundred Korla fragrant pears were used as research object. SPXY algorithm was used to divided sample set to correction set with 150 samples and prediction set with 50 samples, respectively. Based on variables selected by different methods, linear PLS and nonlinear LS-SVM models were developed, respectively, and the performance of models was assessed using parameters r2, RMSEP and RPD. A comprehensive comparison found that GA, GA-SPA and CARS can effectively select the variables with strong and useful information. These methods can be used for selection of Vis-NIR hyperspectral data variables, particularly for CARS. LS-SVM model can obtain the best results for SSC prediction of Korla fragrant pear based on variables obtained from CARS method. r2, RMSEP and RPD were 0.851 2, 0.291 3 and 2.592 4, respectively. The study showed that CARS is an effectively hyperspectral variable selection method, and nonlinear LS-SVM model is more suitable than linear PLS model for quantitatively determining the quality of fra- grant pear based on hyperspectral information. PMID:25739220

  15. [Evaluation of Sugar Content of Huanghua Pear on Trees by Visible/Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Ying, Yi-bin

    2015-11-01

    A method of ambient light correction was proposed to evaluate the sugar content of Huanghua pears on tree by visible/near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS). Due to strong interference of ambient light, it was difficult to collect the efficient spectral of pears on tree. In the field, covering the fruits with a bag blocking ambient light can get better results, but the efficiency is fairly low, the instrument corrections of dark and reference spectra may help to reduce the error of the model, however, the interference of the ambient light cannot be eliminated effectively. In order to reduce the effect of ambient light, a shutter was attached to the front of probe. When opening shutter, the spot spectrum were obtained, on which instrument light and ambient light acted at the same time. While closing shutter, background spectra were obtained, on which only ambient light acted, then the ambient light spectra was subtracted from spot spectra. Prediction models were built using data on tree (before and after ambient light correction) and after harvesting by partial least square (PLS). The results of the correlation coefficient (R) are 0.1, 0.69, 0.924; the root mean square error of prediction (SEP) are 0. 89°Brix, 0.42°Brix, 0.27°Brix; ratio of standard deviation (SD) to SEP (RPD) are 0.79, 1.69, 2.58, respectively. The results indicate that, method of background correction used in the experiment can reduce the effect of ambient lighting on spectral acquisition of Huanghua pears in field, efficiently. This method can be used to collect the visible/near infrared spectrum of fruits in field, and may give full play to visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in preharvest management and maturity testing of fruits in the field.

  16. The effects of the J3-harmonic (pear shape) on the orbits of a satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broucke, R. A.

    The object of the present article is a detailed numerical investigation of the perturbation on the orbit of a satellite, caused by the pear-shape or J3-harmonic of the central body. The author uses in this study concepts from the general theory of periodic orbits, such as Poincaré surfaces of section, stability theory, characteristic exponents and bifurcations. He finds several new families of periodic orbits in the J3-problem. The orbital characteristics of five principal families are decribed in detail. The orbits of these families are periodic only in the rotating meridian plane which contains the satellite. They are not symmetric with respect to the equator.

  17. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  18. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars ‘Akiakari’ and ‘Taihaku’, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of ‘Akiakari’ consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of ‘Taihaku’ consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  19. Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lerma, G K; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Cárdenas-Manríquez, M; Botello-Álvarez, E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R; Navarrete-Bolaños, J L

    2011-08-01

    A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, β-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of Saccharomyces strains and non-Saccharomyces strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice. PMID:22417507

  20. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs. PMID:25914590

  1. Identification of QTLs controlling harvest time and fruit skin color in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Nishio, Sogo; Onoue, Noriyuki; Nishitani, Chikako; Kunihisa, Miyuki; Inoue, Eiichi; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Itai, Akihiro; Saito, Toshihiro

    2014-12-01

    Using an F1 population from a cross between Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivars 'Akiakari' and 'Taihaku', we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of seven fruit traits (harvest time, fruit skin color, flesh firmness, fruit weight, acid content, total soluble solids content, and preharvest fruit drop). The constructed simple sequence repeat-based genetic linkage map of 'Akiakari' consisted of 208 loci and spanned 799 cM; that of 'Taihaku' consisted of 275 loci and spanned 1039 cM. Out of significant QTLs, two QTLs for harvest time, one for fruit skin color, and one for flesh firmness were stably detected in two successive years. The QTLs for harvest time were located at the bottom of linkage group (LG) Tai3 (nearest marker: BGA35) and at the top of LG Tai15 (nearest markers: PPACS2 and MEST050), in good accordance with results of genome-wide association study. The PPACS2 gene, a member of the ACC synthase gene family, may control harvest time, preharvest fruit drop, and fruit storage potential. One major QTL associated with fruit skin color was identified at the top of LG 8. QTLs identified in this study would be useful for marker-assisted selection in Japanese pear breeding programs.

  2. Cloning, characterization and promoter analysis of S-RNase gene promoter from Chinese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-ying; Wuyun, Ta-na; Zeng, Hong-yan

    2012-09-01

    The 5'-flanking region of the S(12)-, S(13)-, S(21)-RNase with a length of 854 bp, 1448 bp and 1137 bp were successfully isolated by TAIL-PCR from genomic DNA from 'Jinhua', 'Maogong' (Pyrus pyrifolia) and 'Yali' (Pyrus bretschneideri) genomic DNA. Sequence alignment and analysis of S(13)-, S(12)-, S(21)-RNase gene promoter sequences with S(2)-, S(3)-, S(4)-, S(5)-RNase 5'-flanking sequences indicated that a homology region of about 240 bp exists in the regions just upstream of the putative TATA boxes of the seven Chinese/Japanese pear S-RNase genes. Phylogenetic tree suggests that the homology region between the Chinese/Japanese pear and apple S-RNase gene promoter regions reflects the divergence of S-RNase gene was formed before the differentiation of subfamilies. Full length and a series of 5'-deletion fragments-GUS fusions were constructed and introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants. GUS activity were detected in S(12)-pro-(1 to 5)-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistils and progressively decreased from S(12)-pro-1-GUS-pBI l01.2 to S(12)-pro-5-GUS-pBll01.2. No GUS activity was detected in S(12)-pro-6-GUS-pBll01.2 transgenic pistil and other tissues of non-transformants and all transgenic plants. The result suggested S(12)-RNase promoter is pistil specific expression promoter.

  3. Population structure of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in China identified using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinjun; Li, Jie; Niu, Jianqun; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qingwen

    2012-04-01

    The spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola Patch) is a primary pest of fruit trees, particularly pear trees in China. Despite the economic importance of this pest, little is known about its genetic structure or its patterns of dispersal at local and regional scales; however, knowledge of these characteristics is important for establishing effective control strategies for this pest. The genetic variability of 431 individuals from 21 populations on pear trees in China was investigated using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. The high polymorphism of these markers was evident from the expected heterozygosity value (He = 0.824) and the Polymorphism Information Content (PIC = 0.805), indicating that the spiraea aphid maintains a high level of genetic diversity. The analysis of molecular variance revealed a middle level of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.1478) among A. spiraecola populations. This result is consistent with the results of the STRUCTURE analysis (K = 3), the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average tree and the Mantel test (r = 0.6392; P < 0.05). Our results indicate high levels of genetic exchange in the spiraea aphid, possibly facilitated by geography and climate. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering regional differences in studies of population structure, even when strong isolation-by-distance influences the genetic population structure of species. PMID:22606830

  4. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-01

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus.

  5. Erwinia tasmaniensis sp. nov., a non-phytopathogenic bacterium from apple and pear trees.

    PubMed

    Geider, Klaus; Auling, Georg; Du, Zhiqiang; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Völksch, Beate

    2006-12-01

    Bacteria were isolated from flowers and bark of apple and pear trees at three places in Australia. In Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland, strains with white colonies on nutrient agar were screened for dome-shaped colony morphology on agar with sucrose and were found to be closely related by several criteria. The isolates were not pathogenic on apples or pears. They were characterized by a polyphasic approach including microbiological and API assays as well as fatty acid methyl ester analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA sequencing. For molecular classification, the 16S rRNA cistron and the conserved genes gpd and recA of these bacteria were investigated. Together with other taxonomic criteria, the results of these studies indicate that the bacteria belong to a novel separate species, which we propose to name Erwinia tasmaniensis sp. nov., with the type strain Et1/99(T) (=DSM 17950(T)=NCPPB 4357(T)). From DNA-DNA hybridization kinetics, microbiological characteristics and nucleotide sequence analyses, this species is related to pathogenic Erwinia species, but also to the epiphytic species Erwinia billingiae.

  6. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere.

  7. A novel, highly divergent ssDNA virus identified in Brazil infecting apple, pear and grapevine.

    PubMed

    Basso, Marcos Fernando; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira; Fajardo, Thor Vinícius Martins; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2015-12-01

    Fruit trees of temperate and tropical climates are of great economical importance worldwide and several viruses have been reported affecting their productivity and longevity. Fruit trees of different Brazilian regions displaying virus-like symptoms were evaluated for infection by circular DNA viruses. Seventy-four fruit trees were sampled and a novel, highly divergent, monopartite circular ssDNA virus was cloned from apple, pear and grapevine trees. Forty-five complete viral genomes were sequenced, with a size of approx. 3.4 kb and organized into five ORFs. Deduced amino acid sequences showed identities in the range of 38% with unclassified circular ssDNA viruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites (putative Replication-associated protein, Rep), and begomo-, curto- and mastreviruses (putative coat protein, CP, and movement protein, MP). A large intergenic region contains a short palindromic sequence capable of forming a hairpin-like structure with the loop sequence TAGTATTAC, identical to the conserved nonanucleotide of circoviruses, nanoviruses and alphasatellites. Recombination events were not detected and phylogenetic analysis showed a relationship with circo-, nano- and geminiviruses. PCR confirmed the presence of this novel ssDNA virus in field plants. Infectivity tests using the cloned viral genome confirmed its ability to infect apple and pear tree seedlings, but not Nicotiana benthamiana. The name "Temperate fruit decay-associated virus" (TFDaV) is proposed for this novel virus. PMID:26186890

  8. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-05-18

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products.

  9. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth.

  10. Systematic Analysis of the 4-Coumarate:Coenzyme A Ligase (4CL) Related Genes and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development in the Chinese Pear

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Li, Dahui; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    In plants, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligases (4CLs), comprising some of the adenylate-forming enzymes, are key enzymes involved in regulating lignin metabolism and the biosynthesis of flavonoids and other secondary metabolites. Although several 4CL-related proteins were shown to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study on 4CL-related genes in the pear and other Rosaceae species has been reported. In this study, we identified 4CL-related genes in the apple, peach, yangmei, and pear genomes using DNATOOLS software and inferred their evolutionary relationships using phylogenetic analysis, collinearity analysis, conserved motif analysis, and structure analysis. A total of 149 4CL-related genes in four Rosaceous species (pear, apple, peach, and yangmei) were identified, with 30 members in the pear. We explored the functions of several 4CL and acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS) genes during the development of pear fruit by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We found that duplication events had occurred in the 30 4CL-related genes in the pear. These duplicated 4CL-related genes are distributed unevenly across all pear chromosomes except chromosomes 4, 8, 11, and 12. The results of this study provide a basis for further investigation of both the functions and evolutionary history of 4CL-related genes. PMID:27775579

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Developing Pear Fruits Reveals Dynamic Variation in Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Including Plant Hormones.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Akira; Otsuka, Takao; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Murayama, Hideki; Saito, Kazuki; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Metabolites in the fruits of edible plants include sweet sugars, visually appealing pigments, various products with human nutritional value, and biologically active plant hormones. Although quantities of these metabolites vary during fruit development and ripening because of cell division and enlargement, there are few reports describing the actual dynamics of these changes. Therefore, we applied multiple metabolomic techniques to identify the changes in metabolite levels during the development and ripening of pear fruits (Pyrus communis L. 'La France'). We quantified and classified over 250 metabolites into six groups depending on their specific patterns of variation during development and ripening. Approximately half the total number of metabolites, including histidine and malate, accumulated transiently around the blooming period, during which cells are actively dividing, and then decreased either rapidly or slowly. Furthermore, the amounts of sulfur-containing amino acids also increased in pear fruits around 3-4 months after the blooming period, when fruit cells are enlarging, but virtually disappeared from ripened fruits. Some metabolites, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, accumulated particularly in the receptacle prior to blooming and/or fruit ripening. Our results show several patterns of variation in metabolite levels in developing and ripening pear fruits, and provide fundamental metabolomic data that is useful for understanding pear fruit physiology and enhancing the nutritional traits of new cultivars.

  12. [Characteristic wavelengths selection of soluble solids content of pear based on NIR spectral and LS-SVM].

    PubMed

    Fan, Shu-xiang; Huang, Wen-qian; Li, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Chun-jiang; Zhang, Bao-hua

    2014-08-01

    To improve the precision and robustness of the NIR model of the soluble solid content (SSC) on pear. The total number of 160 pears was for the calibration (n=120) and prediction (n=40). Different spectral pretreatment methods, including standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were used before further analysis. A combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) was proposed to select most effective wavelengths after uninformative variable elimination (UVE) from original spectra, SNV pretreated spectra and MSC pretreated spectra respectively. The selected variables were used as the inputs of least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) model to build models for de- termining the SSC of pear. The results indicated that LS-SVM model built using SNVE-UVE-GA-SPA on 30 characteristic wavelengths selected from full-spectrum which had 3112 wavelengths achieved the optimal performance. The correlation coefficient (Rp) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for prediction sets were 0.956, 0.271 for SSC. The model is reliable and the predicted result is effective. The method can meet the requirement of quick measuring SSC of pear and might be important for the development of portable instruments and online monitoring.

  13. Effect of polyvinyl alcohol on in vitro rooting capacity of shoots in pear clones (Pyrus communis L.) of different ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor adventitious root formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation. In this study, intense efforts have been made for improvement of rooting procedures for triploid, tetraploid, and mixploid clones of the pear cultivar, 'Fertility', obtained by in vitro colchicine treatment. An efficient roo...

  14. Mesos components (CaC12, MgSO4, KH2P04) are critical for improving pear micropropagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository in vitro collection contains over 200 pear accessions in 18 species. Due to the wide genetic diversity of this collection there is also a diverse response to growth on standard tissue culture media. An initial study of mineral nutrition using a syste...

  15. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  16. UV-C light inactivation kinetics of Penicillium expansum on pear surfaces: Influence on physicochemical and sensory quality during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest quality and storage life of fresh pear are often limited by fungal growth caused by Penicillium expansum. Ultraviolet-C light (UV-C 254 nm) is a promising alternative disinfestation method to reduce fruit spoilage by fungi. In this study, UV-C inactivation kinetic data of Penicillium exp...

  17. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  18. Biocontrol of blue and gray mold diseases of pear fruit by integration of antagonistic yeast with salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Chen, Rongle; Huang, Bin; Liu, Donghong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2007-05-30

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the biocontrol yeast Cryptococcus laurentii and salicylic acid (SA) in suppressing the blue and gray mould rots in pear fruit and to explore possible mode of action involved. Our results showed that the combined treatment of pear fruit with C. laurentii with SA at 100 microg ml(-1) resulted in a remarkably improved control of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea infections, including the pre-inoculated P. expansum, in comparison with the application of C. laurentii or SA alone. The biocontrol yeast C. laurentii proliferated rapidly within the first 24 h of incubation in pear fruit wounds. Although SA at 100 microg ml(-1) neither affected the population growth of C. laurentii nor directly inhibited the blue mold when the inoculation concentrations of P. expansum were above 5 x 10(2) spore per ml in vivo, it induced the fruit resistance to the blue and gray mold rots when the time interval between SA treatment and pathogens inoculation was more than 48 h, being associated with a rapid and strong activation of the peroxidase activity in pear fruit. Thus we assume that SA may be regarded as a secondary defense line in a combination of C. laurentii and SA, which could reinforce the biocontrol efficacy of C. laurentii by induction of the fruit natural resistance.

  19. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  20. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected.

  1. Extraction of arbutin and its comparative content in branches, leaves, stems, and fruits of Japanese pear Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Ichitani, Masaki; Kunimoto, Ko-Ki; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor and is extensively used as a human skin-whitening agent. This study investigated the optimum conditions for extracting arbutin by ultrasonic homogenization from discarded branches pruned from Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Kousui) trees. The arbutin content was measured in the branches and also in the leaves, stems, fruit peel, and fruit flesh.

  2. Response of the pearly eye melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae) mutant to host-associated visual cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on a pearly eye mutant (PEM) line generated from a single male Bactrocera cucurbitae collected in Kapoho, Hawaii. Crossing experiments with colony wild-type flies indicate that the locus controlling this trait is autosomal and the mutant allele is recessive. Experiments with females to ass...

  3. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  4. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  5. Superficial scald susceptibility and a-farnesene metabolism in ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in California and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bartlett’ pears grown in northern California (CA) consistently show development of the physiological storage disorder superficial scald, particularly after prolonged storage of 4–5 months in air. In contrast, fruit of this cultivar grown in central Washington (WA) are typically less susceptible to ...

  6. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  7. Effect of pyrimethanil on Cryptococcus laurentii, Rhodosporidium paludigenum, and Rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of Penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zhou, Tao; Sheng, Kuang; Zeng, Lizhen; Ye, Changzhou; Yu, Ting; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2013-06-17

    The effect of biocontrol yeasts and pyrimethanil at low concentration on inhibition of blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit was investigated. Pyrimethanil at low concentration (40μg/mL) alone had little inhibitory activity against the P. expansum infection in pear fruit wounds although it was effective in inhibiting the survival of P. expansum on Asp-agar medium. Pyrimethanil at this low concentration significantly enhanced the efficacy of Cryptococcus laurentii at 1×10(7)CFU/mL in reducing blue mold rot in vivo compared with C. laurentii at 1×10(7)CFU/mL alone. However, there was no additive inhibitory activity when pyrimethanil was combined for application with biocontrol yeasts Rhodosporidium paludigenum or Rhodotorula glutinis. Combination of pyrimethanil and C. laurentii at low concentration also inhibited blue mold rot when P. expansum was inoculated into fruit wounds 12h before treatment and fruit was stored at low temperature (4°C). Pyrimethanil at 0.04 to 400μg/mL did not influence the survival of C. laurentii in vitro, and it only slightly reduced the population growth of C. laurentii after 48h of incubation in the pear fruit wounds. There was no significant difference in quality parameters including total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of pear fruit wounds among all treatments after 5days of treatment at 25°C. Integration of C. laurentii and pyrimethanil at low concentration might be an effective and safe strategy to control P. expansum infection in pear fruit, especially in an integrated postharvest disease management strategy.

  8. Studies of the shapes of heavy pear-shaped nuclei at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    For certain combinations of protons and neutrons there is a theoretical expectation that the shape of nuclei can assume octupole deformation, which would give rise to reflection asymmetry or a "pear-shape" in the intrinsic frame, either dynamically (octupole vibrations) or statically (permanent octupole deformation). I will briefly review the historic evidence for reflection asymmetry in nuclei and describe how recent experiments carried out at REX-ISOLDE have constrained nuclear theory and how they contribute to tests of extensions of the Standard Model. I will also discuss future prospects for measuring nuclear shapes from Coulomb Excitation: experiments are being planned that will exploit beams from HIE-ISOLDE that are cooled in the TSR storage ring and injected into a solenoidal spectrometer similar to the HELIOS device developed at the Argonne National Laboratory.

  9. Malabsorption of apple juice and pear nectar in infants and children: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ament, M E

    1996-10-01

    Ingestion of fruit juices in which there is an imbalance between glucose and fructose (apple, pear nectar) and the presence of sorbitol is one of the major causes of the syndrome of chronic, nonspecific diarrhea of infancy and childhood. Stools in the condition at time of symptoms are acidic with a pH < 5.5, Clinitest positive, but free of blood and white cells. Lactose and sucrose breath hydrogen tests are normal but breath hydrogen is elevated if measured between 60-120 minutes after the offending juice is taken in sufficient quantity to elicit symptoms. Elimination of the offending juices immediately stopped the diarrhea in all of the cases. Three cases are presented documenting the variability of symptoms including one adolescent who became symptomatic while on a fruit and juice diet.

  10. Improving the quality of fresh-cut apples, pears, and melons using natural additives.

    PubMed

    Alandes, L; Quiles, A; Pérez-Munuera, I; Hernando, I

    2009-03-01

    Improving the quality of different fresh-cut fruits by adding natural substances was studied. "Fuji" apples, "Flor de Invierno" pears, and "Piel de Sapo" melons were treated with calcium lactate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and malic acid and stored for 4 wk at 4 degrees C. Instrumental texture (penetration), microstructure (light microscopy), acidity, soluble solids, color, pectinmethylesterase activity, and microflora were studied. The results showed that the combined treatment reinforced the cell walls strengthening the structure and texture of these fruits and maintained the L* and a* values throughout 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C. The combination of additives provided low microbial counts in apples until the 4th week and in melons until the 2nd week. So, this combined treatment could be used to extend the shelf life of some fresh-cut fruits while preserving their quality.

  11. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    PubMed

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  13. Effect of cations on the permeability of pear leaf cuticle to protons

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, S.; Berg, V. )

    1989-04-01

    Direct damage to leaves by acid precipitation must involve penetration of the cuticle by the acid. We investigated how the permeability of isolated pear leaf cuticles was affected by the presence of different cations on the morphological inner side. Isolated cuticles were mounted in apparatus with the morphological outer side of the cuticle exposed to pH 3 acid and the inner side exposed to approximately pH 7 solution. Changes in the pH of the inside solution were monitored to determine cuticle permeability to protons. Permeabilities from trials with and without solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl and KCl were compared. The presence of calcium, cadmium or magnesium ions greatly reduced the permeability of the cuticles to protons. Potassium and sodium ions had no significant effect on permeability. These effects will be used to propose a modified model of proton movement through leaf cuticle.

  14. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of three prickly pear species with different ripening behavior.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Talia; Carrillo-López, Armando; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2005-12-01

    Biochemical and nutritional changes were studied during the ripening process of three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behavior: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Esmeralda (Opuntia sp.) of early, early-intermediate, and intermediate-late ripening, respectively. In loss of fresh weight, Naranjona showed the highest values, while in Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda, a discrete weight loss was found. No significant differences were found among morphospecies in soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH during the postharvest days. Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda showed an increase in the content of carotenoids, while these diminished in Naranjona. The cell wall enzymes evaluated showed particular behaviors during the ripening of each morphospecies suggesting a fine biochemical control and not a clear relationship between fruit softening and enzyme activity. This study provides basic information on prickly pear ripening, in order to understand this process for its control and for improving shelf life.

  15. Expression of viral EPS-depolymerase reduces fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear.

    PubMed

    Malnoy, Mickaël; Faize, Mohamed; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Geider, Klaus; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2005-02-01

    Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight of Maloideae. One of the main pathogenicity factors of this bacterium is the exopolysaccharide (EPS) of its capsule. In this paper, we used genetic transformation tools to constitutively express an EPS-depolymerase transgene in the pear (Pyrus communis L.) cv. Passe Crassane with the aim of decreasing its high susceptibility to fire blight. Expression of the depolymerase gene in 15 independent transgenic clones led, on average, to low depolymerase activity, although relatively high expression was observed at the transcriptional and translational levels. Only two of the transgenic clones (9X and 10M) consistently showed a decrease in fire blight susceptibility in vitro and in the greenhouse. These clones were also among the highest expressers of depolymerase at the RNA and enzyme activity levels. The correlation observed among all transgenic clones between depolymerase expression and fire blight resistance suggested the potential of this strategy.

  16. 'Gem' pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Gem’ is a new cultivar which combines excellent appearance, fruit quality and long storage potential with precocious and high yields. It can be eaten without ripening due to a crisp, juicy texture, as well as ripened to a soft texture. ‘Gem’ was jointly released by the U. S. Department of Agricul...

  17. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) flower buds transitioning through endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Ito, Akiko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-07-01

    The transcriptomes of endodormant and ecodormant Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') flower buds were analyzed using RNA-seq technology and compared. Among de novo assembly of 114,191 unigenes, 76,995 unigenes were successfully annotated by BLAST searches against various databases. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that oxidoreductases were enriched in the molecular function category, a result consistent with previous observations of notable changes in hydrogen peroxide concentration during endodormancy release. In the GO categories related to biological process, the abundance of DNA methylation-related gene transcripts also significantly changed during endodormancy release, indicating the involvement of epigenetic regulation. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis also showed the changes in transcript abundance of genes involved in the metabolism of various phytohormones. Genes for both ABA and gibberellin biosynthesis were down-regulated, whereas the genes encoding their degradation enzymes were up-regulated during endodormancy release. In the ethylene pathway, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), a gene encoding the rate-limiting enzyme for ethylene biosynthesis, was induced towards endodormancy release. All of these results indicated the involvement of phytohormones in endodormancy release. Furthermore, the expression of dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes was down-regulated concomitant with endodormancy release, although changes in the abundance of these gene transcripts were not as significant as those identified by transcriptome analysis. Consequently, characterization of the Japanese pear transcriptome during the transition from endormancy to ecodormancy will provide researchers with useful information for data mining and will facilitate further experiments on endodormancy especially in rosaceae fruit trees.

  19. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. PMID:24032574

  20. Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. nov., a novel pathogen that causes necrosis of pear blossoms.

    PubMed

    López, María M; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; Ferrer, Sergi; Christen, Richard; Gardan, Louis

    2011-03-01

    Eight Erwinia strains, isolated from necrotic pear blossoms in València, Spain, were compared with reference strains of Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae, both of which are pathogenic to species of pear tree, and to other species of the family Enterobacteriaceae using a polyphasic approach. Phenotypic analyses clustered the novel isolates into one phenon, distinct from other species of the genus Erwinia, showing that the novel isolates constituted a homogeneous phenotypic group. Rep-PCR profiles, PCR products obtained with different pairs of primers and plasmid contents determined by restriction analysis showed differences between the novel strains and reference strains of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA, gpd and recA gene sequences showed that the eight novel strains could not be assigned to any recognized species. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization studies, the novel isolates constituted a single group with relatedness values of 87-100  % to the designated type strain of the group, CFBP 5888(T). Depending on the method used, strain CFBP 5888(T) showed DNA-DNA relatedness values of between 22.7 and 50  % to strains of the closely related species E. amylovora and E. tasmaniensis. The DNA G+C contents of two of the novel strains, CFBP 5888(T) and CFBP 5883, were 51.1 and 50.5 mol%, respectively. On the basis of these and previous results, the novel isolates represent a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia piriflorinigrans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CFBP 5888(T) (=CECT 7348(T)).

  1. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced hyperuricaemia in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study

    PubMed Central

    Vandell, Alexander G.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Gong, Yan; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Lucas, Anne M.; Chapman, Arlene B.; Gums, John G.; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bailey, Kent R.; Johnson, Richard J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Turner, Stephen T.; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Johnson, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Elevations in uric acid (UA) and the associated hyperuricaemia are commonly observed secondary to treatment with thiazide diuretics. We sought to identify novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-induced elevations in UA and hyperuricaemia. Methods A genome-wide association study of HCTZ-induced changes in UA was performed in Caucasian and African American participants from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Response (PEAR) study who were treated with HCTZ monotherapy. Suggestive SNPs were replicated in Caucasians and African Americans from the PEAR study who were treated with HCTZ add-on therapy. Replicated regions were followed up through expression and pathway analysis. Results Five unique gene regions were identified in African Americans (LUC7L2, ANKRD17/COX18, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was identified in Caucasians (GRIN3A). Increases in UA of up to 1.8 mg/dL were observed following HCTZ therapy in individuals homozygous for risk alleles, with heterozygotes displaying an intermediate phenotype. Several risk alleles were also associated with an increased risk of HCTZ-induced clinical hyperuricaemia. A composite risk score, constructed in African Americans using the ‘top’ SNP from each gene region, was strongly associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations (P = 1.79×10−7) and explained 11% of the variability in UA response. Expression studies in RNA from whole blood revealed significant differences in expression of FTO by rs4784333 genotype. Pathway analysis showed putative connections between many of the genes identified through common microRNAs. Conclusion Several novel gene regions were associated with HCTZ-induced UA elevations in African Americans (LUC7L2, COX18/ANKRD17, FTO, PADI4 and PARD3B) and one region was associated with these elevations in Caucasians (GRIN3A). PMID:24612202

  2. Primitive Genepools of Asian Pears and Their Complex Hybrid Origins Inferred from Fluorescent Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism (SSAP) Markers Based on LTR Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuang; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yu, Peiyuan; Yue, Xiaoyan; Ahmed, Maqsood; Cai, Danying; Teng, Yuanwen

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that interspecific hybridization was the major mode of evolution in Pyrus. The genetic relationships and origins of the Asian pear are still unclear because of frequent hybrid events, fast radial evolution, and lack of informative data. Here, we developed fluorescent sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP) markers with lots of informative sites and high polymorphism to analyze the population structure among 93 pear accessions, including nearly all species native to Asia. Results of a population structure analysis indicated that nearly all Asian pear species experienced hybridization, and originated from five primitive genepools. Four genepools corresponded to four primary Asian species: P. betulaefolia, P. pashia, P. pyrifolia, and P. ussuriensis. However, cultivars of P. ussuriensis were not monophyletic and introgression occurred from P. pyrifolia. The specific genepool detected in putative hybrids between occidental and oriental pears might be from occidental pears. The remaining species, including P. calleryana, P. xerophila, P. sinkiangensis, P. phaeocarpa, P. hondoensis, and P. hopeiensis in Asia, were inferred to be of hybrid origins and their possible genepools were identified. This study will be of great help for understanding the origin and evolution of Asian pears. PMID:26871452

  3. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition.

  4. γ-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-15

    The results from this study showed that treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 μg/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen.

  5. Caffeoyl triterpenes from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) fruit peels and their antioxidative activities against oxidation of rat blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Chan Mi; Lee, Hyoung Jae; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Cho, Jeong-An; Kim, Wol-Soo; Park, Keun-Hyung; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-05-15

    Six triterpenes, including three caffeoyl triterpenes, were purified and isolated from pear fruit ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Chuwhangbae) peel extracts using various column chromatography techniques with a guided 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. The isolated compounds were identified as betulinic aldehyde (1), lupeol (2), betulinic acid (3), 3-O-cis-caffeoylbetulinic acid (4), 3-O-trans-caffeoylbetulinic acid (5), and 3-O-trans-caffeoyloleanolic acid (6) on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Four compounds (1, 4-6) were identified from Asian pear fruit for the first time. In addition, compounds 4-6, containing a caffeic acid moiety, showed higher DPPH radical-scavenging and suppression effects against copper ion-induced oxidation of rat blood plasma than other compounds without a caffeic acid moiety.

  6. Analysis of six organophosphorus pesticide residues in apples and pears using cloud-point extraction coupled with HPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wenhuan; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method with Triton X-114 has been developed for analysis of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apples and pears. In this CPE procedure, the effects of the surfactant volume, mass of sodium chloride, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the optimal CPE conditions, the analytes were enriched 20-fold and the LODs dropped to 0.44-5.20 microg/kg. Furthermore, the proposed extraction method was validated by the correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve, repeatability (RSD, n = 6), and fortified recoveries, which were 0.9967-0.9993, 2.7-6.5, and 74.7-104.5%, respectively. Based on these results, it could be concluded that the proposed CPE method with Triton X-114 was suitable for the effective extraction and enrichment of OPP residues in the apple and pear samples.

  7. Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

    2015-04-15

    In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

  8. Relationship between shelf-life and optical properties of Yuanhuang pear in the region of 400-1150 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xueming; Fu, Xiaping; Rao, Xiuqin; Fang, Zhenhuan

    2016-05-01

    The main goals of this study are to investigate the potential of absorption coefficient for the prediction of water contents in `Yuanhuang' pear and analyze the relationship between the shelf-life and bulk optical properties in the range of 900-1050 nm. An automated integrating sphere (AIS) system was used to measure the total reflectance, total transmittance of pear flesh tissues in visible-Near infrared (Vis-NIR) range. These two measurements were used to estimate the absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μ's of pear samples by using an inverse adding doubling (IAD) light propagation model. The detection accuracy of the AIS system was verified by using both liquid (Intralipid-20% as scatterer) and solid phantom (TiO2 as scatterer, carbon black as absorber). The relative error of measurement of μ's of liquid phantom with four different concentration (0.5%,1%,1.5%,2%) at 632.8 nm, 751 nm, 833 nm are less than 10% except for 2% concentration at 833 nm, and the relative error of measurement μa and μ's of solid phantom at 525.4 nm, 632.1 nm, 710.3 nm and 780.1 nm are less than 5% except for the μa at 525.4 nm. A total of 140 samples were used to conduct the moisture measurement, and drying method was used. Predictive models for moisture content from μa data were constructed using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The coefficient of correlation of calibration set (Rc) and validation set (Rp) were 0.50 and 0.45 respectively. The relationship between the shelf-life and optical properties was analyzed by dividing pear samples into three categories according to the actual shelf-life, and calculating classification accuracy by using actual and calculated shelf-life grade.

  9. Analysis of patulin in pear- and apple-based foodstuffs by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurelien; Mujahid, Claudia; Racault, Lucie; Perring, Loic; Lancova, Katerina

    2011-07-27

    A liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of patulin in apple- and pear-based foodstuffs was developed. The sample preparation is based on the QuEChERS procedure involving an initial extraction step with water and acetonitrile, followed by a partitioning step after the addition of magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The cleanup was performed by using dispersive solid-phase extraction with a mixture of magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine sorbent, and n-octadecylsiloxane sorbent added together to the extract. The cleaned extract was finally evaporated and reconstituted in water prior to injection. Quantitation was performed by isotope dilution using ((13)C(7))-patulin as internal standard. The method was first fully validated in three different baby food products including apple-pear juice, apple-pear puree, and infant cereals. Then the scope of application of the method was extended to pear concentrate, raw apples, apple flakes (naturally contaminated), dried apples, and yogurt. The sensitivity achieved by the method in all matrices gave limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of ≤0.5 and ≤10 μg/kg, respectively, which was compliant with maximum levels settled in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006. Method performances for all matrices also fulfilled the criteria established in the CEN/TR 16059:2010 document. Indeed, recoveries were within the 94-104% range; relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSD(r)) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(IR)) were ≤7.5 and ≤13.0%, respectively, and trueness in an infant apple drink (FAPAS 1642) was measured at 99%.

  10. Analysis of patulin in pear- and apple-based foodstuffs by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Aurelien; Mujahid, Claudia; Racault, Lucie; Perring, Loic; Lancova, Katerina

    2011-07-27

    A liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of patulin in apple- and pear-based foodstuffs was developed. The sample preparation is based on the QuEChERS procedure involving an initial extraction step with water and acetonitrile, followed by a partitioning step after the addition of magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride. The cleanup was performed by using dispersive solid-phase extraction with a mixture of magnesium sulfate, primary secondary amine sorbent, and n-octadecylsiloxane sorbent added together to the extract. The cleaned extract was finally evaporated and reconstituted in water prior to injection. Quantitation was performed by isotope dilution using ((13)C(7))-patulin as internal standard. The method was first fully validated in three different baby food products including apple-pear juice, apple-pear puree, and infant cereals. Then the scope of application of the method was extended to pear concentrate, raw apples, apple flakes (naturally contaminated), dried apples, and yogurt. The sensitivity achieved by the method in all matrices gave limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of ≤0.5 and ≤10 μg/kg, respectively, which was compliant with maximum levels settled in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006. Method performances for all matrices also fulfilled the criteria established in the CEN/TR 16059:2010 document. Indeed, recoveries were within the 94-104% range; relative standard deviations of repeatability (RSD(r)) and intermediate reproducibility (RSD(IR)) were ≤7.5 and ≤13.0%, respectively, and trueness in an infant apple drink (FAPAS 1642) was measured at 99%. PMID:21699174

  11. Pistil-function breakdown in a new S-allele of European pear, S21*, confers self-compatibility.

    PubMed

    Sanzol, Javier

    2009-03-01

    European pear exhibits RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility controlled by the polymorphic S-locus. S-allele diversity of cultivars has been extensively investigated; however, no mutant alleles conferring self-compatibility have been reported. In this study, two European pear cultivars, 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', were classified as self-compatible after fruit/seed setting and pollen tube growth examination. S-genotyping through S-PCR and sequencing identified a new S-RNase allele in the two cultivars, with identical deduced amino acid sequence as S(21), but differing at the nucleotide level. Test-pollinations and analysis of descendants suggested that the new allele is a self-compatible pistil-mutated variant of S(21), so it was named S(21)*. S-genotypes assigned to 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño' were S(10)S(21)* and S(21)*S(25) respectively, of which S(25) is a new functional S-allele of European pear. Reciprocal crosses between cultivars bearing S(21) and S(21)* indicated that both alleles exhibit the same pollen function; however, cultivars bearing S(21)* had impaired pistil-S function as they failed to reject either S(21) or S (21)* pollen. RT-PCR analysis showed absence of S(21)* -RNase gene expression in styles of 'Abugo' and 'Ceremeño', suggesting a possible origin for S(21)* pistil dysfunction. Two polymorphisms found within the S-RNase genomic region (a retrotransposon insertion within the intron of S(21)* and indels at the 3'UTR) might explain the different pattern of expression between S(21) and S(21)*. Evaluation of cultivars with unknown S-genotype identified another cultivar 'Azucar Verde' bearing S(21)*, and pollen tube growth examination confirmed self-compatibility for this cultivar as well. This is the first report of a mutated S-allele conferring self-compatibility in European pear.

  12. Evaluation of yeasts from Tibetan fermented products as agents for biocontrol of blue mold of Nashi pear fruits*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Xu, Yang; Lu, Huang-ping; Xiao, Rui; Zheng, Xiao-dong; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    A total of 20 strains of yeast isolated from Tibetan fermented products were screened for antagonism against blue mold of pear caused by Penicillium expansum. Six isolates that inhibited incidence of postharvest decay by 35% or more were selected for further screening. Among them, the most effective was Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The results showed that washed cell suspensions of R. mucilaginosa yielded better antagonistic efficacy than unwashed cell-culture mixtures, cell-free culture filtrates, and autoclaved cell cultures. Biocontrol activity improved with increasing concentrations of incubated cells. The best concentration was 1×108 cells/ml, at which the incidence of decay was only 16.7% after 6 d of incubation. The germination of conidia of P. expansum in vitro was significantly inhibited by both washed cell-suspensions and unwashed cell-culture mixtures. Rapid colonization by yeast at different concentrations showed a relationship between yeast-cell concentration and biocontrol activity. Although the titratable acidity of pear fruits increased after treatment, R. mucilaginosa did not affect the total soluble solids or ascorbic acid content. This is the first study to report that the yeast R. mucilaginosa from Tibet Autonomous Region of China may have potential as an antagonist to control the postharvest decay of pear fruits. PMID:25845361

  13. Penicillium solitum produces a polygalacturonase isozyme in decayed Anjou pear fruit capable of macerating host tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jurick, Wayne M; Vico, Ivana; Gaskins, Verneta L; Whitaker, Bruce D; Garrett, Wesley M; Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Conway, William S

    2012-01-01

    A polygalacturonase (PG) isozyme was isolated from Penicillium solitum-decayed Anjou pear fruit and purified to homogeneity with a multistep process. Both gel filtration and cation exchange chromatography revealed a single PG activity peak, and analysis of the purified protein showed a single band with a molecular mass of 43 kDa, which is of fungal origin. The purified enzyme was active from pH 3.5-6, with an optimum at pH 4.5. PG activity was detectable 0-70 C with 50 C maximum. The purified isozyme was inhibited by the divalent cations Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Fe(2+) and analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products revealed polygalacturonic acid monomers and oligomers. The purified enzyme has an isoelectric point of 5.3 and is not associated with a glycosylated protein. The PG isozyme macerated fruit tissue plugs in vitro and produced ~1.2-fold more soluble polyuronides from pear than from apple tissue, which further substantiates the role of PG in postharvest decay. Data from this study show for the first time that the purified PG produced in decayed Anjou pear by P. solitum, a weakly virulent fungus, is different from that PG produced by the same fungus in decayed apple.

  14. Increasing water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2014-10-15

    Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit.

  15. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  16. Duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction reveals competition between Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on pear blossoms.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Susan M; Kim, Won-Sik; Castle, Alan J; Svircev, Antonet M

    2008-06-01

    Erwinia amylovora and E. pyrifoliae are the causative agents of fire blight and Asian pear blight, respectively. The pathogens are closely related, with overlapping host ranges. Data are unavailable on the current distribution of E. pyrifoliae and on the interaction between the two species when they are present together on the same host. In this study, a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was developed to monitor the population dynamics of E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae on the surface of Bartlett pear blossoms. Bacterial cells washed from blossoms were used directly as the PCR template without DNA extraction. Primers and a probe based on the E. amylovora levansucrase gene detected all E. amylovora strains. All E. pyrifoliae strains, including the Japanese Erwinia strains previously described as E. amylovora, were detected with a primer and probe combination based on the E. pyrifoliae hrpW gene. Disease development and severity were not significantly different in blossoms inoculated with individual Erwinia species or with a mixture of the two species. However, E. amylovora grew to greater population sizes than did E. pyrifoliae in both single species inoculations and in mixtures, suggesting that E. amylovora has a greater competitive fitness on Bartlett pear blossoms than E. pyrifoliae.

  17. Dickeyafangzhongdai sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yuan, Xiaoli; Yi, Jianping; Fan, Jiaqin; Xu, Zhigang; Hu, Baishi; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Gram-stain-negative, pectinolytic bacteria were repeatedly isolated from pear trees displaying symptoms of bleeding canker in China. Three strains, JS5T, LN1 and QZH3, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that shared 99 % similarity to the type strain of Dickeya dadantii. Phylogenetic analysis of strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 with isolates representing all species of the genus Dickeya and related Pectobacterium species supported their affiliation to Dickeya. Multi-locus sequence typing employing concatenated sequences encoding recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, dnaX and the intergenic spacer illustrated a phylogeny which placed strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 as a distinct clade, separate from all other species of the genus Dickeya. Average nucleotide identity values obtained in comparison with all species of the genus Dickeya supported the distinctiveness of strain JS5T within the genus Dickeya. Additionally, all three strains were phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus Dickeya by failing to hydrolyse casein, and by producing acids from (-)-d-arabinose, (+)melibiose, (+)raffinose, mannitol and myo-inositol, but not from 5-keto-d-gluconate or β-gentiobiose. The name Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains; the type strain is JS5T (=CGMCC 1.15464T=DSM 101947T). PMID:27045848

  18. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers.

  19. Microscale Mechanism of Age Dependent Wetting Properties of Prickly Pear Cacti (Opuntia).

    PubMed

    Rykaczewski, Konrad; Jordan, Jacob S; Linder, Rubin; Woods, Erik T; Sun, Xiaoda; Kemme, Nicholas; Manning, Kenneth C; Cherry, Brian R; Yarger, Jeffery L; Majure, Lucas C

    2016-09-13

    Cacti thrive in xeric environments through specialized water storage and collection tactics such as a shallow, widespread root system that maximizes rainwater absorption and spines adapted for fog droplet collection. However, in many cacti, the epidermis, not the spines, dominates the exterior surface area. Yet, little attention has been dedicated to studying interactions of the cactus epidermis with water drops. Surprisingly, the epidermis of plants in the genus Opuntia, also known as prickly pear cacti, has water-repelling characteristics. In this work, we report that surface properties of cladodes of 25 taxa of Opuntia grown in an arid Sonoran climate switch from water-repelling to superwetting under water impact over the span of a single season. We show that the old cladode surfaces are not superhydrophilic, but have nearly vanishing receding contact angle. We study water drop interactions with, as well as nano/microscale topology and chemistry of, the new and old cladodes of two Opuntia species and use this information to uncover the microscopic mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We demonstrate that composition of extracted wax and its contact angle do not change significantly with time. Instead, we show that the reported age dependent wetting behavior primarily stems from pinning of the receding contact line along multilayer surface microcracks in the epicuticular wax that expose the underlying highly hydrophilic layers. PMID:27537082

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation using cotyledons in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia)

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ikuko; Sato, Yoshihiko; Saito, Toshihiro; Moriguchi, Takaya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2013-01-01

    Genetic transformation was successfully established producing both transformed adventitious shoots and calli in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) by using cotyledons as explants. Cotyledons of five cultivars were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying the pBIN19-sgfp, which contained a green fluorescent protein gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase gene. In order to increase transformation efficiency, sonication and ethylenedioxybis (ethylamine)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) treatments were applied, which could produce physical wounds across the tissue and prevent plant defense reaction, respectively. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence was evaluated two weeks and five months after Agrobacterium inoculation as measures of transient and stable transformations, respectively. As a result, sonication significantly increased both transient and stable expression of GFP fluorescence, whereas EGTA treatment did not show a positive effect on either. Out of 18 regenerated plantlets obtained, one plant regenerated from ‘Agenosho Shinanashi’ showed stable GFP fluorescence. This plant was confirmed as a transformant by PCR and genomic Southern blotting. Three other transformed regenerated shoots by myb gene showed red color, which were derived from ‘Imamuraaki’ by the same transformation method. Transformation system in this study was shown to be reproducible since plural transformants were obtained. PMID:24273422

  1. A new post-harvest fungicide to control fruit rot on apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Vorstermans, B; Creemers, P; Bylemans, D; Garnier, A

    2005-01-01

    PHILABUSTER is a new post-harvest fungicide developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V.. It provides an advanced mould control by post-harvest treatments of citrus and pome fruit. The product is formulated as a stable suspension concentrate intended for dilution in water before use. PHILABUSTER 400 SC contains 200 g/L imazalil and 200 g/L pyrimethanil. Both active ingredients have a different single site mode of action. Imazalil inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis (DMI), whereas pyrimethanil interferes with fungal enzyme secretion and methionine biosynthesis. Due to the combination of these low risk fungicides a good anti-resistance management can be obtained. In case of existing reduced sensitivity of a population to DMI or MBC fungicides, no cross-resistance with pyrimethanil was observed. PHILABUSTER showed good activity by post-harvest treatment against key pathogens on apple and pear Penicillium expansum (blue mold), Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Gloeosporium spp. (lenticel rot) in small and large scale experiments with artificial or natural infections. By dip treatment of large volumes of fruit (up to 50 tons) the depletion of both active ingredients in the treatment water was low, both when plastic or wooden bins were used. Lower dose rates resulted in an inferior and inconsistent residue level of both active ingredients on fruit. Possible advantages of post-harvest treatments versus field treatments for the control of storage diseases are discussed.

  2. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  4. Cactus pear extracts induce reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Feugang, Jean M; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y; Yu, Yanhong; Zhong, Mei; Zhang, Sui; Zou, Changping

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of natural products such as fruits and vegetables against cancer has attracted great attention because of their fewer side effects and therefore, potentially greater safety. We have previously reported that cactus pear mixture aqueous extract (CME) reduces gynecologic cancer cells growth by inducting apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular pathway(s) triggered by CME in cancer cells. Normal, immortalized ovarian and ovarian cancer cells (OVCA420, SKOV3) were treated with 5 and 10% CME. After 2 days of treatment, immortalized cells treated with 10% CME accumulated more ROS than untreated cells, whereas cancer cells cultured with 5% and 10% CME exhibited a dramatic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Greater levels of DNA fragmentation, together with a perturbed expression of apoptotic-related (Bax, Bad, caspase 3, Bcl2, p53, and p21) and ROS-sensitive (NF-kappaB, c-jun/c-fos) genes were observed in the treated cancer cells. After three days of treatment, the NF-kappaB and p-/SAPK/JNK expressions were decreased, whereas p-AKT was upregulated. The CME significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells. The results suggest an inhibitory effect of Arizona CME on cancer cell growth through the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which may activate a cascade of reactions leading to the apoptosis. PMID:20574930

  5. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  6. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars.

  7. Dickeyafangzhongdai sp. nov., a plant-pathogenic bacterium isolated from pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yanli; Zhao, Yuqiang; Yuan, Xiaoli; Yi, Jianping; Fan, Jiaqin; Xu, Zhigang; Hu, Baishi; De Boer, Solke H; Li, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Gram-stain-negative, pectinolytic bacteria were repeatedly isolated from pear trees displaying symptoms of bleeding canker in China. Three strains, JS5T, LN1 and QZH3, had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences that shared 99 % similarity to the type strain of Dickeya dadantii. Phylogenetic analysis of strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 with isolates representing all species of the genus Dickeya and related Pectobacterium species supported their affiliation to Dickeya. Multi-locus sequence typing employing concatenated sequences encoding recA, fusA, gapA, purA, rplB, dnaX and the intergenic spacer illustrated a phylogeny which placed strains JS5T, LN1 and QZH3 as a distinct clade, separate from all other species of the genus Dickeya. Average nucleotide identity values obtained in comparison with all species of the genus Dickeya supported the distinctiveness of strain JS5T within the genus Dickeya. Additionally, all three strains were phenotypically distinguished from other species of the genus Dickeya by failing to hydrolyse casein, and by producing acids from (-)-d-arabinose, (+)melibiose, (+)raffinose, mannitol and myo-inositol, but not from 5-keto-d-gluconate or β-gentiobiose. The name Dickeya fangzhongdai sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains; the type strain is JS5T (=CGMCC 1.15464T=DSM 101947T).

  8. PEAR - public exposure from accidental releases: software package EI-028-S86

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    PEAR is a digital computer program developed to calculate radiation doses to an individual or population in the path of a plume of airborne radioactive materials released into the atmosphere following an accident at a nuclear facility. The code uses the methodology described in the CSA standard N288.2 Guidelines for calculation of radiation doses to the public from a release of airborne radioactive material under accident conditions in nuclear facilities. The code calculates internal and external dose equivalent (to organs and effective) and factors in the specific meteorological and topographical conditions of the site and the specific characteristics of the releases. It deals with 38 radionuclides and with mixtures of radioisotopes. The code is useful for the evaluation of the effects of postulated accidents (such as in the safety reports) and as a real time analysis tool for emergency planning exercises and actual accidents, should they occur. It is relatively easy to run as it is based on a strong interaction between the computer and the user and has easy access to data files.

  9. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J. )

    1990-02-26

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. {sup 125}I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids.

  10. Asynchronous development of stigmatic receptivity in the pear (Pyrus communis; Rosaceae) flower.

    PubMed

    Sanzol, Javier; Rallo, Pilar; Herrero, María

    2003-01-01

    While stigma anatomy is well documented for a good number of species, little information is available on the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity. The aim of this work is to characterize the development of stigma receptivity, from anthesis to stigma degeneration, in the pentacarpellar pear (Pyrus communis) flower. Stigma development and stigmatic receptivity were monitored over two consecutive years, as the capacity of the stigmas to offer support for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. In an experiment where hand pollinations were delayed for specified times after anthesis, three different stigmatic developmental stages could be observed: (1) immature stigmas, which allow pollen adhesion but not hydration; (2) receptive stigmas, which allow proper pollen hydration and germination; and (3) degenerated stigmas, in which pollen hydrates and germinates properly, but pollen tube growth is impaired soon after germination. This developmental characterization showed that stigmas in different developmental stages coexist within a flower and that the acquisition and cessation of stigmatic receptivity by each carpel occur in a sequential manner. In this way, while the duration of stigmatic receptivity for each carpel is rather short, the flower has an expanded receptive period. This asynchronous period of receptivity for the different stigmas of a single flower is discussed as a strategy that could serve to maximize pollination resources under unreliable pollination conditions.

  11. Identification of Erwinia species isolated from apples and pears by differential PCR.

    PubMed

    Gehring, I; Geider, K

    2012-04-01

    Many pathogenic and epiphytic bacteria isolated from apples and pears belong to the genus Erwinia; these include the species E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. billingiae, E. persicina, E. rhapontici and E. tasmaniensis. Identification and classification of freshly isolated bacterial species often requires tedious taxonomic procedures. To facilitate routine identification of Erwinia species, we have developed a PCR method based on species-specific oligonucleotides (SSOs) from the sequences of the housekeeping genes recA and gpd. Using species-specific primers that we report here, differentiation was done with conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) applying two consecutive primer annealing temperatures. The specificity of the primers depends on terminal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that are characteristic for the target species. These PCR assays enabled us to distinguish eight Erwinia species, as well as to identify new Erwinia isolates from plant surfaces. When performed with mixed bacterial cultures, they only detected a single target species. This method is a novel approach to classify strains within the genus Erwinia by PCR and it can be used to confirm other diagnostic data, especially when specific PCR detection methods are not already available. The method may be applied to classify species within other bacterial genera.

  12. Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov., a novel pathogen that affects European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Takayuki; Mizuno, Akifumi; Tsukamoto, Takanori; Shimizu, Yoshiaki; Saito, Norihiko; Sato, Shigeyoshi; Kikuchi, Shigemi; Uzuki, Tsuneyasu; Azegami, Koji; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2012-08-01

    Bacteria were isolated from black lesions on shoots of European pear trees (Pyrus communis L.) in an orchard in Japan. Previous characterization of this novel pathogen by phenotypic and genotypic methods suggested that it should belong to the genus Erwinia but might not correspond to either Erwinia amylovora or Erwinia pyrifoliae. Here, phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it could not be assigned to any recognized species of the genus Erwinia. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the bacterial strains represented a novel species. The DNA G+C contents, the fatty acid profile and phenotypic characteristics resembled those previously reported for members of the genus Erwinia. On the basis of these and previous results, the pathogen represents a novel species of the genus Erwinia, for which the name Erwinia uzenensis sp. nov. (type strain: YPPS 951(T) = LMG 25843(T) = NCPPB 4475(T)) is proposed.

  13. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent. PMID:21391790

  14. Genomic characterization, phylogenetic comparison and differential expression of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels gene family in pear (Pyrus bretchneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqing; Yin, Hao; Gu, Jinping; Li, Leiting; Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Xueting; Zhou, Hongsheng; Wei, Shuwei; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Juyou

    2015-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC) family is involved in the uptake of various cations, such as Ca(2+), to regulate plant growth and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there is far less information about this family in woody plants such as pear. Here, we provided a genome-wide identification and analysis of the CNGC gene family in pear. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 21 pear CNGC genes could be divided into five groups (I, II, III, IVA and IVB). The majority of gene duplications in pear appeared to have been caused by segmental duplication and occurred 32.94-39.14 million years ago. Evolutionary analysis showed that positive selection had driven the evolution of pear CNGCs. Motif analyses showed that Group I CNGCs generally contained 26 motifs, which was the greatest number of motifs in all CNGC groups. Among these, eight motifs were shared by each group, suggesting that these domains play a conservative role in CNGC activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis indicated that functional diversification of the duplicated CNGC genes was a major feature of long-term evolution. Our results also suggested that the P-S6 and PBC & hinge domains had co-evolved during the evolution. These results provide valuable information to increase our understanding of the function, evolution and expression analyses of the CNGC gene family in higher plants.

  15. PEAR 2. 1 (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences): User's manual. [Report contains diskette; program uses DOE-2. 1 data base

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This document provides descriptions of the data screens that make up PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences), together with step-by-step instructions for using the microcomputer program diskette. PEAR is entirely contained on a single 5-1/4 inch diskette that can be used by IBM or all IBM-compatible personal computers having at least 128K memory. The program will operate on either a hard disk or a two disk drive system, with either a monochromatic or color monitor. However, a graphics adapter is needed to implement the Bar Chart Option. It is strongly recommended that a backup copy of the PEAR program be made for everyday use and that the original program diskette be stored in a safe place. A diskette for data storage is not needed in order to run the PEAR program. PEAR is an interactive program for residential building energy analysis utilizing a comprehensive DOE-2.1 database for residential buildings. This database was compiled by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with over 10,000 computer simulations covering five residential buildings in 45 geographical locations. 3 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen Sulfide Prolongs Postharvest Storage of Fresh-Cut Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) by Alleviation of Oxidative Damage and Inhibition of Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shuai-Ping; Wu, Jun; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Han, Yi; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has proved to be a multifunctional signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here, we investigated the role of H2S in the decay of fresh-cut pears (Pyrus pyrifolia). H2S gas released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) prolonged the shelf life of fresh-cut pear slices in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, H2S maintained higher levels of reducing sugar and soluble protein in pear slices. H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radicals (•O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Further investigation showed that H2S fumigation up-regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), while it down-regulated those of lipoxygenase (LOX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Furthermore, H2S fumigation effectively inhibited the growth of two fungal pathogens of pear, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum, suggesting that H2S can be developed as an effective fungicide for postharvest storage. The present study implies that H2S is involved in prolonging postharvest storage of pears by acting as an antioxidant and fungicide. PMID:24454881

  17. Effect of different fermentation conditions on the kinetic parameters and production of volatile compounds during the elaboration of a prickly pear distilled beverage.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, J; Calderón, C; Sandoval, G

    2006-11-01

    An experimental design considering thermal treatment of must, yeast strain, prickly pear variety and degree of ripeness was chosen to evaluate the fermentation behavior and generation of volatile compounds, during the elaboration of a distilled beverage from prickly pear. Four Mexican prickly pear varieties were characterized physically and two of them were selected for fermentation studies. The thermal treatment of the must showed the highest statistical influence on fermentation behavior and production of volatile compounds, followed by prickly pear variety, then yeast strain and finally the degree of ripeness was the least statistically significant factor. The growth rate increased when the thermal treatment was applied whereas the ethanol production rate and alcoholic efficiency were unaffected. The results also suggested that thermal treatment was effective for inhibition of microbial contamination. As regards volatile compounds production, acetic acid and methanol decreased while other volatiles increased when the thermal treatment was applied. Despite the influence of thermal treatment, prickly pear variety strongly influences the volatile profile of fermented musts. PMID:16915396

  18. Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel.

  19. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca(2+)-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear. PMID:27656193

  20. Effects of aortic root motion on wall stress in the Marfan aorta before and after personalised aortic root support (PEARS) surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, S D; Xu, X Y; Pepper, J R; Izgi, C; Treasure, T; Mohiaddin, R H

    2016-07-01

    Aortic root motion was previously identified as a risk factor for aortic dissection due to increased longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aortic root motion on wall stress and strain in the ascending aorta and evaluate changes before and after implantation of personalised external aortic root support (PEARS). Finite element (FE) models of the aortic root and thoracic aorta were developed using patient-specific geometries reconstructed from pre- and post-PEARS cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images in three Marfan patients. The wall and PEARS materials were assumed to be isotropic, incompressible and linearly elastic. A static load on the inner wall corresponding to the patients' pulse pressure was applied. Cardiovascular MR cine images were used to quantify aortic root motion, which was imposed at the aortic root boundary of the FE model, with zero-displacement constraints at the distal ends of the aortic branches and descending aorta. Measurements of the systolic downward motion of the aortic root revealed a significant reduction in the axial displacement in all three patients post-PEARS compared with its pre-PEARS counterparts. Higher longitudinal stresses were observed in the ascending aorta when compared with models without the root motion. Implantation of PEARS reduced the longitudinal stresses in the ascending aorta by up to 52%. In contrast, the circumferential stresses at the interface between the supported and unsupported aorta were increase by up to 82%. However, all peak stresses were less than half the known yield stress for the dilated thoracic aorta. PMID:27255604

  1. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca2+-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear. PMID:27656193

  2. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca(2+)-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear.

  3. Physiological differences between bud breaking and flowering after dormancy completion revealed by DAM and FT/TFL1 expression in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Bai, Songling; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying bud breaking (scale leaf elongation) and flowering in the lateral flower buds of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') are unknown. To more fully characterize these processes, we treated pear trees with different amounts of chilling initiated at different times. Chilling for ∼900 h at 6 °C always induced bud breaking (scale elongation in ≥70% lateral flower bud) when provided between October and February, whereas chilling provided earlier (between October and December) was less effective on flowering (floret growth and development) than later chilling and the flowering rate increased with longer chilling durations. During chilling, the expression of pear DAMs (PpMADS13-1, 13-2 and 13-3) in lateral flower buds decreased as chilling accumulated irrespective of the timing of chilling. In addition, pear TFL1 (PpTFL1-1a) in the lateral flower buds was expressed at higher levels when the time interval for chilling was earlier. On the other hand, during forcing at 15 °C after chilling, the expression pattern of all three PpMADS13 genes was similar among the treatments, and the expression levels seemed lower in the treatment where scale leaves of the lateral flower bud elongated faster, whereas pear FT (PpFT2a) was expressed at higher levels in the buds whose flower clusters elongated more vigorously during forcing. From these results, we infer that flowering time may be mediated via the balance of flowering-related genes FT and TFL1, whereas bud breaking may be regulated via the DAM genes in Japanese pear.

  4. Characterization of CIPK Family in Asian Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd) and Co-expression Analysis Related to Salt and Osmotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Lin, Jing; Li, Hui; Li, Xiaogang; Yang, Qingsong; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-01

    Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca2+-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear.

  5. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kalcsits, Lee A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  6. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  7. Sequence characterization and spatiotemporal expression patterns of PbS26-RNase gene in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Jia, Baoguang; Zou, Feng; Tan, Xiaofeng; Liu, Min; Song, Zhibo; Zeng, Yanling; Jiang, Nan; Yuan, Deyi

    2014-01-01

    Many flowering plants exhibit an important intraspecific reproductive barrier phenomenon, that is, self-incompatibility (SI), in which S-RNase genes play a significant role. To clarify the specific function of S-RNase genes in Chinese pears, the full length cDNA of PbS 26 -RNase was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology from Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) cultivar "Hongpisu." The cDNA sequence for PbS 26 -RNase was deposited in GenBank under accession number EU081888. At the amino acid level, the PbS 26 -RNase displayed the highest similarity (96.9%) with PcSa-RNase of P. communis, and only seven amino acid differences were present in the two S-RNases. Phylogenetic analysis of rosaceous S-RNases indicated that the PbS 26 -RNase clustered with maloideous S-RNases, forming a subfamily-specific not a species-specific group. The PbS 26 -RNase gene was specifically expressed in the style but not other tissues/organs. The expression level of the PbS 26 -RNase gene rapidly increased at bell balloon stage (BBS), and then it dropped after pollination. However, the abundance of the PbS 26 -RNase gene transcript in the style was greater after cross-pollination than after self-pollination. In addition, a method for rapidly detecting the PbS 26 -RNase gene was developed via allele-specific primers design. The present study could provide a scientific basis for fully clarifying the mechanism of pear SI at the molecular level.

  8. Oxidative stress associated with rootstock-scion interactions in pear/quince combinations during early stages of graft development.

    PubMed

    Irisarri, Patricia; Binczycki, Piotr; Errea, Pilar; Martens, Helle Juel; Pina, Ana

    2015-03-15

    Exposing a plant to stress situations, such as grafting, generally triggers antioxidant defense systems. In fruit tree grafting, quince (Cydonia oblonga) is widely used as a rootstock for pear (Pyrus communis L.), but several economically important pear cultivars are incompatible with available quince rootstocks. In this study, grafts were established using an in vitro callus graft system mimicking the events taking place in fruit trees. In vitro grown callus from pear [P. communis L. cv. 'Conference' (Co) and cv. 'William' (Wi)] and quince (C. oblonga Mill. clone 'BA29') was used to establish the compatible homografts 'Co/Co', 'Wi/Wi' and 'BA29/BA29', the compatible heterograft 'Co/BA29' and the incompatible heterograft 'Wi/BA29'. The main objective was to determine whether specific isoforms of genes involved in oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT)] are differentially expressed at the graft interface from compatible and incompatible unions throughout 3 weeks after grafting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and programmed cell death were also evaluated in the course of graft development. Genes differentially expressed between compatible and incompatible heterografts were identified. Transcript levels of six antioxidant genes (SOD1, SOD3, APX3, APX6, CAT1 and CAT3) were down-regulated 10 days after grafting (DAG) in the incompatible heterograft in comparison to the compatible one. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activities were significantly higher at 1 and 10 days after wounding in the compatible cultivar 'Co' than in the incompatible one 'Wi'. These findings, together with live cell imaging of ROS-specific probes, ultrastructural mitochondrial changes and DNA fragmentation related to apoptotic processes, give indications that within incompatible rootstock/scion interfaces, either the level of ROS is increased or there is a less efficient detoxification system.

  9. Non-destructive Measurement of Calcium and Potassium in Apple and Pear Using Handheld X-ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Kalcsits, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and potassium are essential for cell signaling, ion homeostasis and cell wall strength in plants. Unlike nutrients such as nitrogen and potassium, calcium is immobile in plants. Localized calcium deficiencies result in agricultural losses; particularly for fleshy horticultural crops in which elemental imbalances in fruit contribute to the development of physiological disorders such as bitter pit in apple and cork spot in pear. Currently, elemental analysis of plant tissue is destructive, time consuming and costly. This is a limitation for nutrition studies related to calcium in plants. Handheld portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be used to non-destructively measure elemental concentrations. The main objective was to test if handheld XRF can be used for semi-quantitative calcium and potassium analysis of in-tact apple and pear. Semi-quantitative measurements for individual fruit were compared to results obtained from traditional lab analysis. Here, we observed significant correlations between handheld XRF measurements of calcium and potassium and concentrations determined using MP-AES lab analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.73 and 0.97. Furthermore, measuring apple and pear using handheld XRF identified spatial variability in calcium and potassium concentrations on the surface of individual fruit. This variability may contribute to the development of localized nutritional imbalances. This highlights the importance of understanding spatial and temporal variability in elemental concentrations in plant tissue. Handheld XRF is a relatively high-throughput approach for measuring calcium and potassium in plant tissue. It can be used in conjunction with traditional lab analysis to better understand spatial and temporal patterns in calcium and potassium uptake and distribution within an organ, plant or across the landscape. PMID:27092160

  10. Two neutral variants segregating at the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) (Rosaceae, Pyrinae).

    PubMed

    Sanzol, J

    2010-09-01

    Extensive survey of the S-locus diversity of plant species with RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility has failed to identify neutral variation segregating within S-allele specificities. Although this is the expected result according to population genetics theory, it conflicts with recent models of S-allele evolution, which suggest that new specificities might arise by a continuous process of subtle changes that individually do not alter the specificity of the S-genes, but whose cumulative effects result in new S-allele functions. Genomic analysis of S-RNase sequences associated with the S(104) (=S(4), =S(b)) allele of European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars yielded two distinct variants (named herein S(104-1) and S(104-2)) that differed at five nucleotide positions within the open reading frame, two of which resulted in changes in the predicted protein sequence. Test-cross experiments indicated that the S-alleles associated with the S(104-1) and S(104-2)RNases exhibit the same pollen and pistil functions, suggesting that they are two neutral variants segregating within the S(104) haplotype of European pear. These allelic forms might represent transitional states in the process of generating new specificities in the species, in accordance with models that predict S-function transition through neutral intermediates. This possibility was further evaluated through the pattern of molecular evolution of functionally distinct European pear S-RNases, which indicated that most recent S-allele diversification in this species proceeded in the absence of adaptive selective pressure.

  11. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  12. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state.

  13. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA.

  14. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE PEARS SURVEY: PROBING THE STELLAR POPULATIONS AT MODERATE REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Pirzkal, Nor; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Panagia, Nino; Lisker, Thorsten; Daddi, Emanuele; Hathi, Nimish P.

    2009-11-20

    Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) slitless grism spectra from the PEARS program, we study the stellar populations of morphologically selected early-type galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. The sample-extracted from a visual classification of the (v2.0) HST/ACS images and restricted to redshifts z > 0.4-comprises 228 galaxies (i {sub F775W} < 24 mag, AB) out to z approx< 1.3 over 320 arcmin{sup 2}, with a median redshift z {sub M} = 0.75. This work significantly increases our previous sample from the GRAPES survey in the HUDF (18 galaxies over approx11 arcmin{sup 2}). The grism data allow us to separate the sample into 'red' and 'blue' spectra, with the latter comprising 15% of the total. Three different grids of models parameterizing the star formation history are used to fit the low-resolution spectra. Over the redshift range of the sample-corresponding to a cosmic age between 5 and 10 Gyr-we find a strong correlation between stellar mass and average age, whereas the spread of ages (defined by the root mean square of the distribution) is roughly approx1 Gyr and independent of stellar mass. The best-fit parameters suggest that it is the formation epoch and not the formation timescale that best correlates with mass in early-type galaxies. This result-along with the recently observed lack of evolution of the number density of massive galaxies-motivates the need for a channel of (massive) galaxy formation bypassing any phase in the blue cloud, as suggested by the simulations of Dekel et al.

  15. Distribution of Transglutaminase in Pear Pollen Tubes in Relation to Cytoskeleton and Membrane Dynamics1[W

    PubMed Central

    Del Duca, Stefano; Faleri, Claudia; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Cresti, Mauro; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Cai, Giampiero

    2013-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TGases) are ubiquitous enzymes that take part in a variety of cellular functions. In the pollen tube, cytoplasmic TGases are likely to be involved in the incorporation of primary amines at selected peptide-bound glutamine residues of cytosolic proteins (including actin and tubulin), while cell wall-associated TGases are believed to regulate pollen tube growth. Using immunological probes, we identified TGases associated with different subcellular compartments (cytosol, membranes, and cell walls). Binding of cytosolic TGase to actin filaments was shown to be Ca2+ dependent. The membrane TGase is likely associated with both Golgi-derived structures and the plasma membrane, suggesting a Golgi-based exocytotic delivery of TGase. Association of TGase with the plasma membrane was also confirmed by immunogold transmission electron microscopy. Immunolocalization of TGase indicated that the enzyme was present in the growing region of pollen tubes and that the enzyme colocalizes with cell wall markers. Bidimensional electrophoresis indicated that different TGase isoforms were present in distinct subcellular compartments, suggesting either different roles or different regulatory mechanisms of enzyme activity. The application of specific inhibitors showed that the distribution of TGase in different subcellular compartments was regulated by both membrane dynamics and cytoskeleton integrity, suggesting that delivery of TGase to the cell wall requires the transport of membranes along cytoskeleton filaments. Taken together, these data indicate that a cytoplasmic TGase interacts with the cytoskeleton, while a different TGase isoform, probably delivered via a membrane/cytoskeleton-based transport system, is secreted in the cell wall of pear (Pyrus communis) pollen tubes, where it might play a role in the regulation of apical growth. PMID:23396835

  16. Promotion of Softening and Ethylene Synthesis in Bartlett Pears by 3-Methylene Oxindole 1

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Chaim; Haddon, Virginia R.; Smallheer, Joanne M.

    1975-01-01

    A purified preparation of 3-methylene oxindole (3-MeOx) was applied to Bartlett pears (Lyrus communis) by vacuum infiltration. The infiltrated fruit were kept at room temperature at atmospheric or at one-twentieth of an atmospheric tension. The rate of softening was markedly enhanced by the application of 0.1 and 1 μm 3-MeOx. At 10 μm 3-MeOx the promotive effect of the compound was diminished. All the employed concentrations of 3-MeOx exceeded the effect of applied ethylene. The enhancement of softening in fruit kept under hypobaric conditions suggests that the action of 3-MeOx is a direct one and not an indirect ethylene effect. 3-MeOx also showed stimulation in the onset of ethylene synthesis, shortening the time required to obtain the peak in ethylene synthesis from 5 days by the control to 3 days by 0.1 μm and 2 days by 1 μm of the applied compound. As with softening, 3-MeOx at 10 μm diminished the rate of ethylene synthesis. The results suggest that 3-MeOx could function as a senescence promoter in fruit. Also, since auxins retard ripening while 3-MeOx promotes ripening, the action of 3-MeOx may be considered as that of an auxin antagonist. The occurrence and the mode of action of 3-MeOx as a possible senescence factor in fruit are discussed. PMID:16659363

  17. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the promotion

  18. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5–12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the

  19. Determination of plant growth regulators in pears by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuejin; Tang, Lijuan; Tan, Ting; Wan, Yiqun

    2014-06-01

    A new method for the determination of six plant growth regulators, 3-indolylacetic acid, 3-indolepropionic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid, 1-naphthlcetic acid, and methyl naphthalene-1-acetate, in pears was established by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In this study, a microwave-assisted extraction technique was first applied for the determination of plant growth regulators in fruit and three cleanup techniques were, respectively, investigated for the purification of pear samples. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil C18 column by using 0.01 mol/L formic acid/ammonium formate buffer solution (pH 3.5)/methanol (35:65, v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min in 1:1 split mode. The LODs ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 μg/kg. Under optimized conditions, the average recoveries (five replicates) for six plant growth regulators (spiked at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.5 mg/kg) ranged from 78.9 to 118.0%, and the RSDs were 1.4-10.3%.

  20. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Climacteric Fruit of Chinese Pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) Reveals New Insights into Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups ‘biological process’, ‘molecular function’ and ‘cellular component’. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening. PMID:25215597

  1. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage.

  2. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of an Endogenous Root-promoting Factor Obtained from Basal Sections of Pear Hardwood Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Fadl, M S; Hartmann, H T

    1967-04-01

    Basal segments taken from Old Home and Bartlett pear hardwood cuttings collected at intervals during the rooting period in September were extracted with ethanol and fractionated by paper chromatography in different solvent systems. Different zones on the chromatograms were bioassayed by the mung bean rooting test, which showed high levels of promotion in Old Home basal extracts when the cuttings were obtained during the period of maximum rooting. Extracts from Bartlett cuttings, however, showed considerably less promotion activity in the bioassay but did show high levels of inhibitory activity.After the easily-rooted Old Home cuttings had been in the rooting medium for 10 days, a highly active endogenous root-promoting material was found in extracts from basal segments of cuttings having buds and which had been treated with indolebutyric acid. Similar extracts obtained from disbudded cuttings, or from cuttings with buds but not treated with indolebutyric acid, lacked this rooting-factor. Extracts obtained from all types of the difficult-to-root Bartlett cuttings also lacked this rooting-factor. The latter is believed to be produced by physiologically active Old Home buds, and is very effective in the mung bean bioassay, even at extremely low concentrations.From paper chromatographic studies, tests with spray reagents, solubility determinations, biological tests, UV spectrum analysis, and infrared spectroscopy, it is believed that this rooting factor could be a condensation product between exogenous auxin (indolebutyric acid) and a phenolic compound produced by physiologically active Old Home pear buds. PMID:16656535

  3. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of the cation proton antiporters family in pear and four other Rosaceae species.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongsheng; Qi, Kaijie; Liu, Xing; Yin, Hao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Jianqing; Wu, Juyou; Zhang, Shaoling

    2016-08-01

    The monovalent cation proton antiporters (CPAs) play essential roles in plant nutrition, development, and signal transduction by regulating ion and pH homeostasis of the cell. The CPAs of plants include the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, K(+) efflux antiporter, and cation/H(+) exchanger families. However, currently, little is known about the CPA genes in Rosaceae species. In this study, 220 CPA genes were identified from five Rosaceae species (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, and Prunus mume), and 53 of which came from P. bretschneideri. Phylogenetic, structure, collinearity, and gene expression analyses were conducted on the entire CPA genes of pear. Gene expression data showed that 35 and 37 CPA genes were expressed in pear fruit and pollen tubes, respectively. The transcript analysis of some CPA genes under abiotic stress conditions revealed that CPAs may play an important role in pollen tubes growth. The results presented here will be useful in improving understanding of the complexity of the CPA gene family and will promote functional characterization in future studies. PMID:27193473

  4. Prodigious polyphyly in imperilled freshwater pearly-mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae): a phylogenetic test of species and generic designations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydeard, Charles; Minton, Russell L.; Williams, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Unionid bivalves or freshwater pearly-mussels (Unionoidea: Unionidae) serve as an exemplary system for examining many of the problems facing systematists and conservation biologists today. Most of the species and genera were described in the late 1800s and early 1900s, but few phylogenetic studies have been conducted to test conventional views of species and classification. Pearly-mussels of Gulf Coastal drainages of the southeastern United States from the Escambia (southern Alabama to Florida) to the Suwannee Rivers (Florida) are a unique fauna comprised of approximately 100 species, with about 30 endemic to the region. In this study, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S rRNA gene sequences were used to test the monophyly and to estimate evolutionary relationships of five unionid species representing three different genera. The molecular phylogenies depict all three genera as polyphyletic. The prodigious polyphyly exhibited within unionids is due to incorrect notions of homology and false assumptions about missing anatomical data. In contrast, the molecular phylogeny provides evidence to support the recognition of all five unionid species as distinct evolutionary entities. Furthermore, molecular genealogical evidence supports the elevation of Quincuncina infucata (Conrad) of the Suwannee River to species level, for which Q. kleiniana (Lea) is available.

  5. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  6. Steam explosion treatment for ethanol production from branches pruned from pear trees by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the production of ethanol from unutilized branches pruned from pear trees by steam explosion pretreatment. Steam pressures of 25, 35, and 45 atm were applied for 5 min, followed by enzymatic saccharification of the extracted residues with cellulase (Cellic CTec2). High glucose recoveries, of 93.3, 99.7, and 87.1%, of the total sugar derived from the cellulose were obtained from water- and methanol-extracted residues after steam explosion at 25, 35, and 45 tm, respectively. These values corresponded to 34.9, 34.3, and 27.1 g of glucose per 100 g of dry steam-exploded branches. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation experiments were done on water-extracted residues and water- and methanol-extracted residues by Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC 1777. An overall highest theoretical ethanol yield of 76% of the total sugar derived from cellulose was achieved when 100 g/L of water- and methanol-washed residues from 35 atm-exploded pear branches was used as substrate.

  7. Ionic liquid-based vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of organophosphorus pesticides in apple and pear.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Liu, Shaowen; Chen, Biyu; Pan, Canping

    2012-09-01

    An ionic liquid-based vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the analysis of trace amounts of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apple and pear coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. During the DLLME, the effect of some experimental factors including extraction solvent and its volume, dispersion solvent and its volume, vortex time, salt addition, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the chosen extraction conditions, the analytes were enriched more than 300-fold and the limits of detections were greatly dropped to 0.061-0.73 μg/kg. The linearity relationship was observed in the range of 2-100 μg/kg with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.9967 to 0.9983. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.3 to 5.7% (n = 6). Mean recovery values of the OPPs were in the range of 69.8-109.1% with a relative standard deviation lower than 7.0%. Based on these above, it could be concluded that 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)MIM][PF(6)]) was a good extraction solvent and the proposed [C(8)MIM][PF(6)]-based vortex-assisted DLLME method was suitable for the effective extraction of the OPPs in apple and pear.

  8. Unusual immuno-modulatory triterpene-caffeates in the skins of russeted varieties of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Larsen, Lesley; Burgess, Elaine J; Jensen, Dwayne J; Cooney, Janine M; Evers, Danièle; Zhang, Jingli; Perry, Nigel B; Laing, William A

    2013-03-20

    Three triterpene-caffeates have been isolated from skins of a russeted apple cultivar "Merton Russet" and identified by LC-MS and NMR as betulinic acid-3-cis-caffeate, betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate and oleanolic acid-3-trans-caffeate were also found in russeted pear skins. These compounds have not been previously reported in apples or pears, or in any other foods. Their presence was related to suberized tissue as they were only found in russet portions of the partially russeted apple cultivar "Cox's Orange Pippin" and were not detected in the waxy apple cultivar "Royal Gala". High concentrations of betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate were found in the bark of both "Merton Russet" and "Royal Gala" trees. The three triterpene-caffeates showed anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, inhibiting NF-κB activation with IC50's of 6-9 μM. Betulinic acid-3-trans-caffeate, the predominant compound in the apples, was immuno-modulatory at around 10 μM in the in vitro and ex vivo bioassays, boosting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα in cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

  9. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit.

  10. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  11. De novo assembly, functional annotation, and marker development of Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit transcriptome through massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, J F; Gao, Z; Lou, Y S; Luo, M; Song, S R; Xu, W P; Wang, S P; Zhang, C X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the Asian pear transcriptome using the RNA-Seq normalized fruit cDNA library to create a transcriptomic resource for unigene and marker discovery. Following the removal of lowquality reads, 127,085,054 trimmed reads were assembled de novo to yield 37,649 non-redundant unigenes with an average length of 599 bp. Alternative splicing events were detected in 4121 contigs. A total of 30,560 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 7443 simple sequence repeat (SSR) makers were obtained. Approximately 21,449 (56.9%) unigenes were categorized into three gene ontology groups; 3682 (9.8%) were classified into 25 cluster of orthologous groups; and 10,451 (27.8%) were assigned to six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Differentially expressed genes were investigated using the reads per kilobase of the exon model per million reads methodology. A total of 546 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels at different fruit developmental stages. Gene ontology categories associated with various aspects, including carbohydrate metabolic processes, transmembrane transport, and signal transduction, were enriched with genes with divergent expressions. These Pyrus pyrifolia transcriptome data provide a rich resource for the discovery and identification of new genes. Furthermore, the numerous putative SSRs and SNPs detected in this study will be important resources for the future development of a linkage map or of marker-assisted breeding programs for the Asian pear.

  12. Preparation, characterization, and photocatalytic performance of pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Jian-Qi; Ge, Hong-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Pear-shaped ZnO/Ag core-shell submicrospheres with good monodispersity were prepared via a seed-mediated particle growth procedure, where metal Ag (by reducing Ag+ with Sn2+) deposited on the as-prepared ZnO submicrospheres served as seeds (nucleation sites) for further growth of Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectra. Structure characterization demonstrates that the ZnO/Ag composites are composed of pear-shaped wurtzite ZnO submicrosphere core and Ag nanoparticles (nanoshell). Photoluminescence indicates that Ag nanoshell can effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electrons and holes of ZnO. This is responsible for the higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO/Ag core-shell composites. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared ZnO/Ag samples for degradation of Rhodamine B was evaluated with a comparative study. The relationship between the structure of the samples and their photocatalytic performance shows that Ag deposits can significantly enhance the photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO submicrospheres.

  13. Interaction of antifungal peptide BP15 with Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of brown spot of pear.

    PubMed

    Puig, Mireia; Moragrega, Concepció; Ruz, Lídia; Calderón, Claudia E; Cazorla, Francisco M; Montesinos, Emilio; Llorente, Isidre

    2016-01-01

    Peptide BP15 has shown antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi, including Stemphylium vesicarium, the causal agent of brown spot of pear. BP15 inhibits the germination, growth and sporulation of S. vesicarium and displays post-infection activity by stopping fungal infection in pear leaves. In this work, live-cell imaging was undertaken to understand the antifungal mechanism of BP15. A double-staining method based on the combination of calcofluor white and SYTOX green coupled with epifluorescence microscopy was used to investigate fungal cell permeabilization and alterations in fungal growth induced by BP15. GFP-transformants of S. vesicarium were obtained and exposed to rhodamine-labelled BP15. Confocal laser microscopy provided evidence of peptide internalization by hyphae, resulting in fungal cell disorganization and death. S. vesicarium membrane permeabilization by BP15 was found to be peptide-concentration dependent. BP15 at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations (10 and 5 μM, respectively) inhibited S. vesicarium growth and produced morphological alterations to germ tubes, with slow and discontinuous compromise of fungal cell membranes. Fungal cell membrane disruption was immediately induced by BP15 at 100 μM, and this was accompanied by rapid peptide internalization by S. vesicarium hyphae. Peptide BP15 interacted with germ tubes and hyphae of S. vesicarium but not with conidial cells.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of climacteric fruit of Chinese pear (Pyrus ussuriensis) reveals new insights into fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guohui; Li, Tong; Li, Xinyue; Tan, Dongmei; Jiang, Zhongyu; Wei, Yun; Li, Juncai; Wang, Aide

    2014-01-01

    The fruit of Pyrus ussuriensis is typically climacteric. During ripening, the fruits produce a large amount of ethylene, and their firmness drops rapidly. Although the molecular basis of climacteric fruit ripening has been studied in depth, some aspects remain unclear. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of pre- and post-climacteric fruits of Chinese pear (P. ussuriensis c.v. Nanguo) using RNA-seq. In total, 3,279 unigenes were differentially expressed between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were subjected to Gene Ontology analysis, and 31 categories were significantly enriched in the groups 'biological process', 'molecular function' and 'cellular component'. The DEGs included genes related to plant hormones, such as ethylene, ABA, auxin, GA and brassinosteroid, and transcription factors, such as MADS, NAC, WRKY and HSF. Moreover, genes encoding enzymes related to DNA methylation, cytoskeletal proteins and heat shock proteins (HSPs) showed differential expression between the pre- and post-climacteric fruits. Select DEGs were subjected to further analysis using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the results were consistent with those of RNA-seq. Our data suggest that in addition to ethylene, other hormones play important roles in regulating fruit ripening and may interact with ethylene signaling during this process. DNA methylation-related methyltransferase and cytoskeletal protein genes are also involved in fruit ripening. Our results provide useful information for future research on pear fruit ripening.

  15. The ability of a cold-adapted Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from Tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Yan, Fujie; Wilson, Charles; Shen, Qing; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-12-01

    Cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in Tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (Penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. YC1, an isolate identified as Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. A washed cell suspension of YC1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. A concentration of 10(8) cells/ml reduced the incidence of decay to 35 %, compared to the control where decay incidence was 100 %. A higher intracellular level of trehalose and a higher proportion of polyunsaturated acids present in YC1, was associated with increased the tolerance of this strain to low temperatures, relative to the other strains that were evaluated. The increased tolerance to low temperature allowed the YC1 strain of yeast to more effectively compete for nutrients and space in wounded pear fruit that had been inoculated with spores of P. expansum and placed in cold storage. The present study demonstrated the ability to select cold-adapted yeasts from cold climates and use them as biocontrol agents of postharvest diseases of fruit placed in cold storage. PMID:26454432

  16. Effects of high temperatures on UV-B/visible irradiation induced postharvest anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Yunhongli No. 1’ (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Chinese sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) have seen increased cultivation in China in recent years, prized for their attractive market value and nutritional benefits. However, poor fruit coloration has been a noticeable problem. Postharvest ultraviolet-B (UV-B)/visible irradiation has been used...

  17. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  18. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of ‘Osa Gold’ were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated. PMID:27436955

  19. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  20. Fresh pear consumption is associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight parameters in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No studies have examined the association of consuming fresh pears on nutrient intake or adequacy, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). The purpose of this study was to examine these association in adults (n=24,808) participating the NHANES 2001-2010. Covariate adjusted linear regres...

  1. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  2. In vitro colchicine-induced polyploid plantlet production and regeneration from leaf explants of the diploid pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar, 'Fertility'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyploid plantlets, including triploid, tetraploid and other polyploids, were induced from in vitro leaves of a European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Fertility' by a colchicine treatment. In vitro leaves were incubated in 0.4% colchicine solution for 24, 48 or 72 h, and transferred to an adv...

  3. Complementary DNA cloning of the pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene and agrobacterium-mediated anti-sense genetic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Dong, Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to genetically modify plantlets of the Chinese yali pear to reduce their expression of ripening-associated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and therefore increase the shelf-life of the fruit. Primers were designed with selectivity for the conserved regions of published ACO gene sequences, and yali complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning was performed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The obtained cDNA fragment contained 831 base pairs, encoding 276 amino acid residues, and shared no less than 94% nucleotide sequence identity with other published ACO genes. The cDNA fragment was inversely inserted into a pBI121 expression vector, between the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator, in order to construct the anti‑sense expression vector of the ACO gene; it was transfected into cultured yali plants using Agrobacterium LBA4404. Four independent transgenic lines of pear plantlets were obtained and validated by PCR analysis. A Southern blot assay revealed that there were three transgenic lines containing a single copy of exogenous gene and one line with double copies. The present study provided germplasm resources for the cultivation of novel storage varieties of pears, therefore providing a reference for further applications of anti‑sense RNA technology in the genetic improvement of pears and other fruit.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps.

  5. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated.

  6. The relationship between the morphology and structure and the quality of fruits of two pear cultivars (Pyrus communis L.) during their development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Konarska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The flavour and nutritional values of pears are appreciated by consumers worldwide, who, however, demand specific fruit quality, that is, attractive appearance, firmness and flavour, and health safety as well as long-term shelf life and storability. Pear cultivars differ in terms of the above-mentioned traits; therefore, we undertook investigations to demonstrate the differences in structure of fruits of two pear cultivars that determine fruit quality in its broadest sense. The micromorphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure of "Clapp's Favourite" and "Conference" fruits in the fruit set stage and in the harvest maturity stage were investigated under light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The fruits of "Clapp's Favourite" and "Conference" in the fruit set stage exhibited distinct differences in the values of anatomical parameters only. Substantial differences in fruit structure were observed in the harvest maturity stage. The analyses indicate that firmness and durability of pear fruits are largely influenced by the presence of russeting, the proportion of closed lenticels and number of stone cells, and the content of starch grains and tannin compounds. The thickness of the cuticle and presence of epicuticular waxes as well as the number of lenticels and the number and depth of microcracks play a minor role.

  7. Cropload management and appropriate harvest timing improves final fruit size and fruit quality of US 71655-014, a new fire blight resistant European pear selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US71655-014 (‘Gem’) is a fire blight resistant pear selection developed at the USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Station. Despite possessing several positive attributes (precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit appearance, fire blight resistance good storability and consumer acceptance), ‘...

  8. Combined effects of sodium chlorite dip treatment and chitosan coatings on the quality of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chlorite (SC) alone and its sequential treatment with edible coatings on browning inhibition and quality maintenance of fresh-cut d’Anjou pears. Edible coatings were prepared from chitosan (CH) and its water soluble derivative: carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCH...

  9. Quantitative Proteomics-Based Reconstruction and Identification of Metabolic Pathways and Membrane Transport Proteins Related to Sugar Accumulation in Developing Fruits of Pear (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Stefan; Fukao, Yoichiro; Morimoto, Reina; Otagaki, Shungo; Oikawa, Akira; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2016-03-01

    During their 6 month development, pear (Pyrus communis) fruits undergo drastic changes in their morphology and their chemical composition. To gain a better understanding of the metabolic pathways and transport processes active during fruit development, we performed a time-course analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based protein identification and quantification of fruit flesh tissues. After pre-fractionation of the samples, 2,841 proteins were identified. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the samples from seven developmental stages into three distinct clusters representing the early, mid and late developmental phase. Over-representation analysis of proteins characteristic of each developmental phase revealed both expected and novel biological processes relevant at each phase. A high abundance of aquaporins was detected in samples from fruits in the cell expansion stage. We were able quantitatively to reconstruct basic metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which indicates sufficient coverage to reconstruct other metabolic pathways. Most of the enzymes that presumably contribute to sugar accumulation in pear fruits could be identified. Our data indicate that invertases do not play a major role in the sugar conversions in developing pear fruits. Rather, sucrose might be broken down by sucrose synthases. Further focusing on sugar transporters, we identified several putative sugar transporters from diverse families which showed developmental regulation. In conclusion, our data set comprehensively describes the proteome of developing pear fruits and provides novel insights about sugar accumulation as well as candidate genes for key reactions and transport steps. PMID:26755692

  10. Different biosynthesis patterns among flavonoid 3-glycosides with distinct effects on accumulation of other flavonoid metabolites in pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear 'Zaosu' (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant 'Red Zaosu'. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in 'Zaosu' pear. By comparison with 'Red Zaosu', the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of 'Zaosu' after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in 'Zaosu' pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between 'Zaosu' and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome.

  11. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy R.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Straughn, Amber N.

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  12. PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 Interact with bHLH to Enhance Anthocyanin Accumulation in Pears

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouqian; Sun, Shasha; Chen, Xiaoliu; Wu, Shujing; Wang, Deyun; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Color is an important agronomic trait of pears, and the anthocyanin content of fruit is immensely significant for pear coloring. In this study, an anthocyanin-activating R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene, PyMYB10.1, was isolated from fruits of red sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Aoguan). Alignments of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences suggested that PyMYB10.1 was involved in anthocyanin regulation. Similar to PyMYB10, PyMYB10.1 was predominantly expressed in red tissues, including the skin, leaf and flower, but it was minimally expressed in non-red fruit flesh. The expression of this gene could be induced by light. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 activated the AtDFR promoter. The activation of AtDFR increased to a greater extent when combined with a bHLH co-factor, such as PybHLH, MrbHLH1, MrbHLH2, or AtbHLH2. However, the response of this activation depended on the protein complex formed. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 activated the AtDFR promoter to a greater extent than other combinations of proteins. PyMYB10-AtbHLH2 also induced the highest anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco transient-expression assays. Moreover, PybHLH interacted with PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1. These results suggest that both PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 are positive anthocyanin biosynthesis regulators in pears that act via the formation of a ternary complex with PybHLH. The functional characterization of PyMYB10 and PyMYB10.1 will aid further understanding of the anthocyanin regulation in pears. PMID:26536358

  13. Molecular analysis of the processes of surface brown spot (SBS) formation in pear fruit (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. Dangshansuli) by de novo transcriptome assembly.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pu; Xue, Cheng; Wu, Ting-ting; Heng, Wei; Jia, Bing; Ye, Zhenfeng; Liu, Li; Zhu, Liwu

    2013-01-01

    Browning disorder, which usually occurs post-harvest in pears subjected to long-term storage, can cause browning of the pear flesh and/or core. In 2011, investigators in China found a novel type of brown spot (designated as surface brown spot, SBS) in pre-harvest 'Dangshansuli' pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.). SBS has a large impact on the exterior quality of the pears. Interestingly, the brown coloration was only found on the peel and not the flesh or the core. In this paper, de novo transcriptome analysis of the exocarp of pears with SBS using Illumina sequencing showed that SBS up-regulated the expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, phenolic compound synthesis and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and SBS was associated with inhibition of primary and secondary metabolism genes. Ca(2+)-sensor proteins might be involved in the signal transduction that occurs during the process of SBS formation, and this signaling is likely to be regulated by H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA3). Phytohormone and mineral element analyses confirmed that GA3, ABA, H2O2 and Ca(2+) contribute to SBS formation. In addition to the seasonal characteristics, low levels of O2 and Ca(2+) in the fruit are potential causes of the browning response due to exposure to oxidative stress, oxidative-reductive imbalance and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affected the membrane integrity. Disruption of the membranes allows for PPO and phenolic compounds to come into contact, and the phenolic compounds are oxidized to form the browning pigments.

  14. Different Biosynthesis Patterns among Flavonoid 3-glycosides with Distinct Effects on Accumulation of Other Flavonoid Metabolites in Pears (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Feng, Wen-Ting; Chen, Sha-Sha; Xu, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jiang-Li; Li, Peng-Min; Ma, Feng-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis profile was clarified by fruit bagging and re-exposure treatments in the green Chinese pear ‘Zaosu’ (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) and its red mutant ‘Red Zaosu’. Two distinct biosynthesis patterns of flavonoid 3-glycosides were found in ‘Zaosu’ pear. By comparison with ‘Red Zaosu’, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides and flavonoid 3-arabinosides were inhibited by bagging and these compounds only re-accumulated to a small degree in the fruit peel of ‘Zaosu’ after the bags were removed. In contrast, the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-gluctosides and flavonoid 3-rutinosides was reduced by bagging and then increased when the fruits were re-exposed to sunlight. A combination of correlation, multicollinearity test and partial-correlation analyses among major flavonoid metabolites indicated that biosynthesis of each phenolic compound was independent in ‘Zaosu’ pear, except for the positive correlation between flavonoid 3-rutincosides and flavanols. In contrast with the green pear cultivar, almost all phenolic compounds in the red mutant had similar biosynthesis patterns except for arbutin. However, only the biosynthesis of flavonoid 3-galactosides was relatively independent and strongly affected the synthesis of the other phenolic compounds. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the strong accumulation of flavonoid 3-galactosides stimulated the biosynthesis of other flavonoid compounds in the red mutant and, therefore, caused systemic variation of flavonoid biosynthesis profiles between ‘Zaosu’ and its red mutant. This hypothesis had been further demonstrated by the enzyme activity of UFGT, and transcript levels of flavonoid biosynthetic genes and been well tested by a stepwise linear regression forecasting model. The gene that encodes flavonoid 3-galacosyltransferase was also identified and isolated from the pear genome. PMID:24637788

  15. Pigmentation in sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) fruit: biochemical characterization, gene discovery and expression analysis with exocarp pigmentation mutant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Zhang, Shujun; Dai, Mei-song; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-05-01

    Exocarp color of sand pear is an important trait for the fruit production and has caused our concern for a long time. Our previous study explored the different expression genes between the two genotypes contrasting for exocarp color, which indicated the different suberin, cutin, wax and lignin biosynthesis between the russet- and green-exocarp. In this study, we carried out microscopic observation and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to detect the differences of tissue structure and biochemical composition between the russet- and green-exocarp of sand pear. The green exocarp was covered with epidermis and cuticle which was replaced by a cork layer on the surface of russet exocarp, and the chemicals of the russet exocarp were characterized by lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. We explored differential gene expression between the russet exocarp of 'Niitaka' and its green exocarp mutant cv. 'Suisho' using Illumina RNA-sequencing. A total of 559 unigenes showed different expression between the two types of exocarp, and 123 of them were common to the previous study. The quantitative real time-PCR analysis supports the RNA-seq-derived gene with different expression between the two types of exocarp and revealed the preferential expression of these genes in exocarp than in mesocarp and fruit core. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed divorced expression of lipid metabolic process genes, transport genes, stress responsive genes and other biological process genes in the two types of exocarp. Expression changes in lignin metabolism-related genes were consistent with the different pigmentation of russet and green exocarp. Increased transcripts of putative genes involved the suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in 'Suisho' exocarp could facilitate deposition of the chemicals and take a role in the mutant trait responsible for the green exocarp. In addition, the divorced expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters involved in the trans

  16. Comparative gas exchange characteristics of potted, glasshouse-grown almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, S.S.; Larsen, F.E.; Bendel, R.B.; Radamaker, G.K.; Bassman, J.H.; Bidlake, W.R.; Wir, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), dark respiration (Rd), transpirational flux density (TFD) and leaf conductance (kl) on glasshouse-grown plants of almond, apple, fig, grape, olive, peach and Asian pear were examined under various laboratory environmental conditions. Grape and almond had the highest light-saturated photosynthetic rates, greater than 20 ??mol CO2 m-2 s-1. Apple had the lowest temperature optimum for Pn, 20??C. Almond had the highest Rd rate between 10 and 50??C, but grape had the highest Q10 for respiration, a value of 2.5. Apple, olive and grape stomata were most sensitive to the leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference. Apple had the greatest sensitivity of Pn to the vapor pressure difference. ?? 1992.

  17. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants.

  18. Biogas production from pear residues using sludge from a wastewater treatment plant digester. Influence of the feed delivery procedure.

    PubMed

    Arhoun, B; Bakkali, A; El Mail, R; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Garcia-Herruzo, F

    2013-01-01

    Clear economic advantages may be obtained from the management of seasonal fruit wastes by codigestion at existing facilities which are working throughout the year with other residues. We have explored the biomethanization of pear residues in a 5L stirred reactor loaded with sludge from the anaerobic digester of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Different organic loading rates (OLRs) of fruit waste were tested with two delivery procedures: a discontinuous one (fed once a day) and a pseudocontinuous one. For both procedures, as the OLR increases the pH of the digester drops to acidic values and large OLRs may cause the reactor failure. Nevertheless, the pseudocontinuous delivery allows the treatment of more residue, (10.5 versus 6.0 g of volatile solids per litre of reactor and day), maintaining the specific biogas production (0.44 L of biogas per gram of volatile solids), with some improvement in methane concentration (44% vs 39%). PMID:23131648

  19. Effects of elevated CO sub 2 concentrations on glycolysis in intact Bartlett pear fruit. [Pyrus communis L

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbel, E.L.; Kader, A.A.; Romani, R.J. )

    1988-04-01

    Mature intact Bartlett pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.) were stored under a continuous flow of air or air + 10% CO{sub 2} for 4 days at 20{degree}C. Fruit kept under elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations exhibited reduced respiration (O{sub 2} consumption) and ethylene evolution rates, and remained firmer and greener than fruit stored in air. Protein content, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate levels, and ATP:phosphofructokinase and PPi:phosphofructokinase activities declined, while levels of fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate increased in fruit exposed to air + 10% CO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in light of a possible inhibitory effect of CO{sub 2} at the site of action of both phosphofructokinases in the glycolytic pathway, which could account, at least in part, for the observed reduction in respiration.

  20. Relative effect of temperature and pH on diel cycling of dissolved trace elements in prickly pear creek, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.A.; Nimick, D.A.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Diel (24 hr) cycles in dissolved metal and As concentrations have been documented in many northern Rocky Mountain streams in the U.S.A. The cause(s) of the cycles are unknown, although temperature- and pH-dependent sorption reactions have been cited as likely causes. A light/dark experiment was conducted to isolate temperature and pH as variables affecting diel metal cycles in Prickly Pear Creek, Montana. Light and dark chambers containing sediment and a strand of macrophyte were placed in the stream to simulate instream temperature oscillations. Photosynthesis-induced pH changes were allowed to proceed in the light chambers while photosynthesis was prevented in the dark chambers. Water samples were collected periodically for 22 hr in late July 2001 from all chambers and the stream. In the stream, dissolved Zn concentrations increased by 300% from late afternoon to early morning, while dissolved As concentrations exhibited the opposite pattern, increasing 33% between early morning and late afternoon. Zn and As concentrations in the light chambers showed similar, though less pronounced, diel variations. Conversely, Zn and As concentrations in the dark chambers had no obvious diel variation, indicating that light, or light-induced reactions, caused the variation. Temperature oscillations were nearly identical between light and dark chambers, strongly suggesting that temperature was not controlling the diel variations. As expected, pH was negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with dissolved Zn concentrations and positively correlated with dissolved As concentrations in both the light and dark chambers. From these experiments, photosynthesis-induced pH changes were determined to be the major cause of the diel dissolved Zn and As cycles in Prickly Pear Creek. Further research is necessary in other streams to verify that this finding is consistent among streams having large differences in trace-element concentrations and mineralogy of channel substrate. ?? 2004 Kluwer

  1. [Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].

    PubMed

    Tovkach, F I; Faĭdiuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

    2013-01-01

    Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure.

  2. Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene and storage atmosphere on changes in volatile compounds and fruit quality of conference pears.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Cambiaghi, Paola; Grassi, Maurizio; Zerbini, Paola Eccher

    2005-12-14

    Conference pears (Pyrus communis L.) were treated with 25 and 50 nL L(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at -0.5 degrees C for 24 h, then stored for up to 22 weeks in air (NA) and controlled atmosphere (CA). After 7 and 14 weeks of storage, fruits were retreated with 1-MCP. After 7, 14, and 22 weeks of storage, fruits were kept for up to 7 days at 20 degrees C in air for poststorage ripening. The effects of 1-MCP treatment declined with duration of storage in both storage atmospheres, indicating that retreatments had little additional effects on subsequent ripening. Ethylene production was lower and firmness was higher in 50 nL L(-1) fruits, while the 25 nL L(-1) dose was not very different from the control. Development of superficial scald was not prevented by 1-MCP treatments, but the severity of the symptoms was influenced. The 1-MCP effects were perceivable on texture (juiciness) and flavor. Control fruit and 25 nL L(-1) fruit reached their best sensory quality after 14 weeks of storage, while 50 nL L(-1) fruit reached the same sensory quality later, keeping a fresh flavor when the quality of control fruit declined and became watery or grainy. The fresh flavor in 50 nL L(-1) fruit was probably due to the presence below the odor detection threshold concentrations of the volatile compounds responsible for the "ripe pear" aroma, mainly of butanol and ethyl butanoate. CA prolonged or enhanced the effects of 1-MCP; 1-MCP cannot substitute for CA but can reinforce the CA effects. PMID:16332131

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Functional Divergence of MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese White Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Xue, Cheng; Li, Jiaming; Qiao, Xin; Li, Leiting; Yu, Li'ang; Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The MYB superfamily is large and functionally diverse in plants. To date, MYB family genes have not yet been identified in Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, we identified 231 genes as candidate MYB genes and divided them into four subfamilies. The R2R3-MYB (PbrMYB) family shared an R2R3 domain with 104 amino acid residues, including five conserved tryptophan residues. The Pbr MYB family was divided into 37 functional subgroups including 33 subgroups which contained both MYB genes of Rosaceae plants and AtMYB genes, and four subgroups which included only Rosaceae MYB genes or AtMYB genes. PbrMYB genes with similar functions clustered into the same subgroup, indicating functional conservation. We also found that whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplications played critical roles in the expansion of the MYB family. The 87 Pbr MYB duplicated gene pairs dated back to the two WGD events. Purifying selection was the primary force driving Pbr MYB gene evolution. The 15 gene pairs presented 1-7 codon sites under positive selection. A total of 147 expressed genes were identified from RNA-sequencing data of fruit, and six Pbr MYB members in subgroup C1 were identified as important candidate genes in the regulation of lignin synthesis by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Further correlation analysis revealed that six PbrMYBs were significantly correlated with five structural gene families (F5H, HCT, CCR, POD and C3'H) in the lignin pathway. The phylogenetic, evolution and expression analyses of the MYB gene family in Chinese white pear establish a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of Pbr MYB genes.

  4. Emission-Line Galaxies from the PEARS Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A 2-D Detection Method and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, james; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; diSeregoAlighieri, Sperello

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS North and South fields. One important subset of objects in these data are emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [0 1111 emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [0 1111 emitters having rest-frame EW> 100A). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots; several show evidence of variations in H-alpha flux in the knots, suggesting that the differing star formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts approximately greater than 0.2 - 0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  5. Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.

    PubMed

    Butera, Daniela; Tesoriere, Luisa; Di Gaudio, Francesca; Bongiorno, Antonino; Allegra, Mario; Pintaudi, Anna Maria; Kohen, Rohn; Livrea, Maria A

    2002-11-01

    Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) produce yellow, red, and white fruits, due to the combination of two betalain pigments, the purple-red betanin and the yellow-orange indicaxanthin. The betalain distribution in the three cultivars and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from edible pulp were investigated. In addition, the reducing capacity of purified betanin and indicaxanthin was measured. According to a spectrophotometric analysis, the yellow cultivar exhibited the highest amount of betalains, followed by the red and white ones. Indicaxanthin accounted for about 99% of betalains in the white fruit, while the ratio of betanin to indicaxanthin varied from 1:8 (w:w) in the yellow fruit to 2:1 (w:w) in the red one. Polyphenol pigments were negligible components only in the red fruit. When measured as 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalents per gram of pulp, the methanolic fruit extracts showed a marked antioxidant activity. Vitamin C did not account for more than 40% of the measured activity. In addition, the extracts dose-dependently inhibited the organic hydroperoxide-stimulated red cell membrane lipid oxidation, as well as the metal-dependent and -independent low-density lipoprotein oxidation. The extract from the white fruit showed the highest protection in all models of lipid oxidation. Purified betanin and indicaxanthin were more effective than Trolox at scavenging the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt cation radical. Cyclic voltammetric measurements show two anodic waves for betanin and indicaxanthin, and differential pulse voltammetry shows three anodic waves for betanin, with calculated peak potentials of 404, 616, and 998 mV, and two anodic waves for indicaxanthin, with peak potentials of 611 and 895 mV. Betanin underwent complex formation through chelation with Cu(2+), whereas indicaxanthin was not modified. These findings suggest that the above

  6. Fine structure and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuemei; Zhang, Chunni; Li, Zhilin; Xu, Lingfei; Dai, Wu

    2013-11-01

    The pear psyllid, Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang et Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is one of the most significant economic pests of pear in China, causing direct damage through feeding by the highly specialized piercing-sucking mouthparts. The ultrastructural morphology and sensory apparatus of the mouthparts of the adult were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The piercing-sucking mouthparts of C. chinensis are composed of a three-segmented labium with a deep groove in the anterior side, a stylet fascicle consisting of two mandibular and two maxillary stylets, and a pyramid-shaped labrum. Proximal to the labium, the stylet fascicle forms a large loop within a membranous crumena. Mandibles, with more than ten teeth on the external convex region, can be seen on the distal extremity. Smooth maxillary stylets are interlocked to form a larger food canal and a smaller salivary canal. One dendritic canal housing 2 dendrites is also found in each mandible. Two types of sensilla trichodea, four types of sensilla basiconica, single as well as groups of sensilla campaniformia, and oval flattened sensilla occur in different locations on the labium, whereas a kind of sensilla basiconica is at the junction of the labrum and anteclypeus. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia, always present with denticles, are present on the middle labial segment. Three types of sensilla basiconica, two types of sensilla trichodea and two oval flattened sensilla are located on the distal labial segment. The mouthpart morphology and abundance of sensilla located on the labium in C. chinensis are illustrated, along with a brief discussion of their taxonomic and putative functional significance.

  7. Histone modification and signalling cascade of the dormancy-associated MADS-box gene, PpMADS13-1, in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) during endodormancy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    Dormancy-associated MADS-box (DAM) genes play an important role in endodormancy phase transition. We investigated histone modification in the DAM homolog (PpMADS13-1) from Japanese pear, via chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR, to understand the mechanism behind the reduced expression of the PpMADS13-1 gene towards endodormancy release. Our results indicated that the reduction in the active histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 4 contributed to the reduction of PpMADS13-1 expression towards endodormancy release. In contrast, the inactive histone mark by trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at lysine 27 in PpMADS13-1 locus was quite low, and these levels were more similar to a negative control [normal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG)] than to a positive control (AGAMOUS) in endodormancy phase transition. The loss of histone variant H2A.Z also coincided with the down-regulation of PpMADS13-1. Subsequently, we investigated the PpMADS13-1 signalling cascade and found that PpCBF2, a pear C-repeated binding factor, regulated PpMADS13-1 expression via interaction of PpCBF2 with the 5'-upstream region of PpMADS13-1 by transient reporter assay. Furthermore, transient reporter assay confirmed no interaction between the PpMADS13-1 protein and the pear FLOWERING LOCUS T genes. Taken together, our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying endodormancy phase transition in Japanese pear.

  8. Exploring candidate genes for pericarp russet pigmentation of sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq data in two genotypes contrasting for pericarp color.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. 'Qingxiang' × 'Cuiguan' F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to 'cellular_component' and 'biological_process', suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of 'lipid metabolic processes', 'transport', 'response to stress', 'oxidation-reduction process' and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation.

  9. Season-long volatile emissions from peach and pear trees in situ, overlapping profiles, and olfactory attraction of an oligophagous fruit moth in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Najar-Rodriguez, A; Orschel, B; Dorn, S

    2013-03-01

    Insect herbivores that have more than one generation per year and reproduce on different host plants are confronted with substantial seasonal variation in the volatile blends emitted by their hosts. One way to deal with such variation is to respond to a specific set of compounds common to all host plants. The oriental fruit moth Cydia (=Grapholita) molesta is a highly damaging invasive pest. The stone fruit peach (Prunus persica) is its primary host, whereas pome fruits such as pear (Pyrus communis) are considered secondary hosts. In some parts of their geographic range, moth populations switch from stone to pome fruit orchards during the growing season. Here, we tested whether this temporal switch is facilitated by female responses to plant volatiles. We collected volatiles from peach and pear trees in situ and characterized their seasonal dynamics by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also assessed the effects of the natural volatile blends released by the two plant species on female attraction by using Y-tube olfactometry. Finally, we related variations in volatile emissions to female olfactory responses. Our results indicate that the seasonal host switch from peach to pear is facilitated by the changing olfactory effect of the natural volatile blends being emitted. Peach volatiles were only attractive early and mid season, whereas pear volatiles were attractive from mid to late season. Blends from the various attractive stages shared a common set of five aldehydes, which are suggested to play an essential role in female attraction to host plants. Particular attention should be given to these aldehydes when designing candidate attractants for oriental fruit moth females.

  10. High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Lei-Ting; Li, Meng; Khan, M Awais; Li, Xiu-Gen; Chen, Hui; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-11-01

    Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps.

  11. Exploring Candidate Genes for Pericarp Russet Pigmentation of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) via RNA-Seq Data in Two Genotypes Contrasting for Pericarp Color

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-zhi; Dai, Mei-song; Zhang, Shu-jun; Shi, Ze-bin

    2014-01-01

    Sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) russet pericarp is an important trait affecting both the quality and stress tolerance of fruits. This trait is controlled by a relative complex genetic process, with some fundamental biological questions such as how many and which genes are involved in the process remaining elusive. In this study, we explored differentially expressed genes between the russet- and green-pericarp offspring from the sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) cv. ‘Qingxiang’ × ‘Cuiguan’ F1 group by RNA-seq-based bulked segregant analysis (BSA). A total of 29,100 unigenes were identified and 206 of which showed significant differences in expression level (log2fold values>1) between the two types of pericarp pools. Gene Ontology (GO) analyses detected 123 unigenes in GO terms related to ‘cellular_component’ and ‘biological_process’, suggesting developmental and growth differentiations between the two types. GO categories associated with various aspects of ‘lipid metabolic processes’, ‘transport’, ‘response to stress’, ‘oxidation-reduction process’ and more were enriched with genes with divergent expressions between the two libraries. Detailed examination of a selected set of these categories revealed repressed expressions of candidate genes for suberin, cutin and wax biosynthesis in the russet pericarps.Genes encoding putative cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and peroxidase (POD) that are involved in the lignin biosynthesis were suggested to be candidates for pigmentation of sand pear russet pericarps. Nine differentially expressed genes were analyzed for their expressions using qRT-PCR and the results were consistent with those obtained from Illumina RNA-sequencing. This study provides a comprehensive molecular biology insight into the sand pear pericarp pigmentation and appearance quality formation. PMID:24400075

  12. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed. PMID:27118401

  13. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27375258

  14. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed.

  15. Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese Pear) in Orchards with Variable Amounts of Soil-Available Phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg−1, showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment. PMID:23257910

  16. Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards with variable amounts of soil-available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Ido, Akifumi; Iwase, Koji; Matsumoto, Teruyuki; Yamato, Masahide

    2013-01-01

    We examined the colonization rate and communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the roots of Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta (Japanese pear) in orchards to investigate the effect of phosphorus (P) fertilization on AMF. Soil cores containing the roots of Japanese pear were collected from 13 orchards in Tottori Prefecture, Japan. Soil-available P in the examined orchards was 75.7 to 1,200 mg kg(-1), showing the extreme accumulation of soil P in many orchards. The AMF colonization rate was negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.01). AMF communities were examined on the basis of the partial fungal DNA sequences of the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) amplified by AMF-specific primers AML1 and AML2. The obtained AMF sequences were divided into 14 phylotypes, and the number of phylotypes (species richness) was also negatively correlated with soil-available P (P <0.05). It was also suggested that some AM fungi may be adapted to high soil-available P conditions. Redundancy analysis showed the significant effects of soil pH, available P in soil, and P content in leaves of P. pyrifolia var. culta trees on AMF distribution. These results suggested that the accumulation of soil-available P affected AMF communities in the roots of Japanese pear in the orchard environment.

  17. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis reveals multiple long terminal repeats, lineage-specific amplification, and frequent interelement recombination for Cassandra retrotransposon in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.).

    PubMed

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-06-01

    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants.

  19. The red sport of 'Zaosu' pear and its red-striped pigmentation pattern are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.

    PubMed

    Qian, Minjie; Sun, Yongwang; Allan, Andrew C; Teng, Yuanwen; Zhang, Dong

    2014-11-01

    'Zaosu' pear, a hybrid of Pyrus pyrifolia and Pyrus communis, is a popular cultivar developed in China. 'Zaosu Red' is a bud sport of 'Zaosu' with red shoots, young leaves, and fruit. After grafting of 'Zaosu Red', reverse mutations in some branches lead to a loss of colour in leaves and stems. Also, the mature fruit of 'Zaosu Red' exhibits two phenotypes; fully red and striped. The aim of this study was to establish the mechanism of the red colour mutation in 'Zaosu' and the striped pigmentation pattern in fruit of 'Zaosu Red'. The accumulation of anthocyanins and transcript levels of the genes PpUFGT2 and PyMYB10 were highly correlated. The open reading frames (ORF) and promoter regions of these two key genes were cloned and compared between 'Zaosu' and its bud sports, but no sequence differences were found. The R2R3 MYB, PyMYB10, can activate expression of genes encoding enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. A yeast one-hybrid assay showed that PyMYB10 was associated with the -658 to -172bp fragment of the PpUFGT2 promoter, probably via a MYB binding site (MBS) located at -466bp. The PyMYB10 promoter had lower methylation levels in anthocyanin-rich tissues, indicating that the red bud sport of 'Zaosu' pear and the striped pigmentation pattern of 'Zaosu Red' pear are associated with demethylation of the PyMYB10 promoter.

  20. Effect of aqueous extracts of alligator pear seed (Persea americana mill) on blood glucose and histopathology of pancreas in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Edem, Do; Ekanem, Is; Ebong, Pe

    2009-07-01

    Effects of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed on normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated in 6 groups of rats (5 rats per group). Test groups were made diabetic with intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan and treated with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight of alligator pear seed extract. Two non-diabetic groups were also administered with 300 mg and 600 mg/kg body weight extract. The levels of blood glucose were examined in all 6 experimental groups. In diabetic rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 73.26-78.24% on consumption of the extracts, with greater effect exhibited by the 600 mg/kg extract. In normal rats, blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by 34.68-38.9% on consumption of the seed extract. Histological studies showed a degenerative effect on the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats. The result suggested restorative (protective) effect of the extract on pancreatic islet cells. Administration of aqueous extract of alligator pear seed may contribute significantly to the reduction of blood glucose levels and can be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA metabolism enzymes during the fruit development and dehydration stress of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shengjie; Li, Ping; Chen, Pei; Li, Qian; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Liao, Yalan; Leng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) in pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' during fruit ripening and under dehydration stress, two cDNAs (PpNCED1 and PpNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) (a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), two cDNAs (PpCYP707A1 and PpCYP707A2) which encode 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA), one cDNA (PpACS3) which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and one cDNA (PpACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from 'Gold Nijisseiki' fruit. In the pulp, peel and seed, expressions of PpNCED1 and PpNCED2 rose in two stages which corresponded with the increase of ABA levels. The expression of PpCYP707A1 dramatically declined after 60-90 days after full bloom (DAFB) in contrast to the changes of ABA levels during this period, while PpCYP707A2 stayed low during the whole development of fruit. Application of exogenous ABA at 100 DAFB increased the soluble sugar content and the ethylene release but significantly decreased the titratable acid and chlorophyll contents in fruits. When fruits harvested at 100 DAFB were stored in the laboratory (25 °C, 50% relative humidity), the ABA content and the expressions of PpNCED1/2 and PpCYP707A1 in the pulp, peel and seed increased significantly, while ethylene reached its highest value after the maximum peak of ABA accompanied with the expressions of PpACS3 and PpACO1. In sum the endogenous ABA may play an important role in the fruit ripening and dehydration of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' and the ABA level was regulated mainly by the dynamics of PpNCED1, PpNCED2 and PpCYP707A1 at the transcriptional level.

  2. Transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis associated with red/green skin color mutant of pear (Pyrus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. “Starkrimson” (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11–71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned “Starkrimson,” and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource

  3. Transcriptome profiling reveals differential gene expression in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis associated with red/green skin color mutant of pear (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanan; Yao, Gaifang; Yue, Wenquan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin concentration is the key determinant for red skin color in pear fruit. However, the molecular basis for development of red skin is complicated and has not been well-understood thus far. "Starkrimson" (Pyrus communis L.), an introduced red pear cultivated in the north of China and its green mutant provides a desirable red/green pair for identification of candidate genes involved in color variation. Here, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome for the red/green color mutant at three stages of development using Illumina RNA-seq technology. The total number of mapped reads ranged from 26 to 46 million in six libraries. About 70.11-71.95% of clean reads could be mapped to the reference genome. Compared with green colored fruit, a total of 2230 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in red fruit. Gene Ontology (GO) terms were defined for 4886 differential transcripts involved in 15 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Three DEGs were identified as candidate genes in the flavonoid pathway, LAR, ANR, and C3H. Tellingly, higher expression was found for genes encoding ANR and LAR in the green color mutant, promoting the proanthocyanidin (PA) pathway and leading to lower anthocyanin. MYB-binding cis-motifs were identified in the promoter region of LAR and ANR. Based on these findings, we speculate that the regulation of PA biosynthesis might be a key factor for this red/green color mutant. Besides the known MYB and MADS transcription families, two new families, AP2 and WRKY, were identified as having high correlation with anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned pear. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to confirm the transcriptome results for 17 DEGs, high correlation of gene expression, further proved that AP2 and WARK regulated the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red skinned "Starkrimson," and ANR and LAR promote PA biosynthesis and contribute to the green skinned variant. This study can serve as a valuable new resource laying a

  4. More for less: Improving the biomass yield of a pear cell suspension culture by design of experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rasche, Stefan; Herwartz, Denise; Schuster, Flora; Jablonka, Natalia; Weber, Andrea; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell suspension cultures are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins and secondary metabolites. One of the most important steps during process development is the optimization of yields by testing different cultivation parameters, including the components of the growth medium. However, we have shown that the biomass yield of a cell suspension culture derived from the pear cultivar Pyrus communis cv. Champagner Bratbirne can be significantly improved solely by varying the temperature, inoculum density, illumination, and incubation time. In contrast to medium optimization, these simple physical factors are easily controlled and varied, thereby reducing the effort required. Using an experimental design approach, we improved the biomass yield from 146 g fresh weight (FW)/L to 407 g FW/L in only 5 weeks, simultaneously reducing the costs of goods sold per kg biomass from €125 to €45. Our simple approach therefore offers a rapid, efficient and economical process for the optimization of plant cell suspension cultures. PMID:26988402

  5. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Thins Pear Fruits by Inhibiting Pollen Tube Growth via Ca(2+)-ATPase-Mediated Ca(2+) Efflux.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Li, Jie; Duan, Chunhui; Liu, Longbo; Sun, Yongping; Cao, Rongxiang; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Chemical fruit thinning has become a popular practice in modern fruit orchards for achieving high quality fruits, reducing costs of hand thinning and promoting return bloom. However, most of the suggested chemical thinners are often concerned for their detrimental effects and environmental problems. 5-Aminolevulic acid (ALA) is a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly plant growth regulator. One of its outstanding roles is improving plant photosynthesis and fruit quality. Here, results showed that applying 100-200 mg/L ALA at full bloom stage significantly reduced pear fruit set. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that ALA significantly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. ALA decreased not only cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) but also "tip-focused" [Ca(2+)]cyt gradient, indicating that ALA inhibited pollen tube growth by down-regulating calcium signaling. ALA drastically enhanced pollen Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, suggesting that ALA-induced decrease of calcium signaling probably resulted from activating calcium pump. The significant negative correlations between Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and pollen germination or pollen tube length further demonstrated the critical role of calcium pump in ALA's negative effect on pollen germination. Taken together, our results suggest that ALA at low concentrations is a potential biochemical thinner, and it inhibits pollen germination and tube growth via Ca(2+) efflux by activating Ca(2+)-ATPase, thereby thinning fruits by preventing fertilization.

  6. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a gene for sucrose transporter from pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huping; Zhang, Shujun; Qin, Gaihua; Wang, Lifen; Wu, Tao; Qi, Kaijie; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-12-01

    Here we report the cloning of a sucrose transporter cDNA from pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv 'Yali') fruit and an analysis of the expression of the gene. A cDNA clone, designated PbSUT1 was identified as a sucrose transporter cDNA from its sequence homology at the amino acid level to sucrose transporters that have been cloned from other higher plant species. PbSUT1 potentially encoded a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.21. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the PbSUT1 belonged to type III SUTs and was more closely related to the MdSUT1 from apple fruit. Some major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-specific sequence motifs were found in the predicted PbSUT1 peptides, and an MFS_1 domain was located at the amino acid positions of 29-447 of the sequence. A study of gene expression along fruit development showed that PbSUT1 transcripts are present at all stages but significantly increase before fruit enlargement and during the ripening process with increasing sucrose levels. In contrast, the expression levels don't change much during the period of rapid fruit growth. This work shows that sucrose transporter may play a role in the accumulation of sugars during maturation and in maintaining the internal cellular distribution.

  7. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid Thins Pear Fruits by Inhibiting Pollen Tube Growth via Ca2+-ATPase-Mediated Ca2+ Efflux

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Li, Jie; Duan, Chunhui; Liu, Longbo; Sun, Yongping; Cao, Rongxiang; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Chemical fruit thinning has become a popular practice in modern fruit orchards for achieving high quality fruits, reducing costs of hand thinning and promoting return bloom. However, most of the suggested chemical thinners are often concerned for their detrimental effects and environmental problems. 5-Aminolevulic acid (ALA) is a natural, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environment-friendly plant growth regulator. One of its outstanding roles is improving plant photosynthesis and fruit quality. Here, results showed that applying 100–200 mg/L ALA at full bloom stage significantly reduced pear fruit set. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that ALA significantly inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. ALA decreased not only cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) but also “tip-focused” [Ca2+]cyt gradient, indicating that ALA inhibited pollen tube growth by down-regulating calcium signaling. ALA drastically enhanced pollen Ca2+-ATPase activity, suggesting that ALA-induced decrease of calcium signaling probably resulted from activating calcium pump. The significant negative correlations between Ca2+-ATPase activity and pollen germination or pollen tube length further demonstrated the critical role of calcium pump in ALA's negative effect on pollen germination. Taken together, our results suggest that ALA at low concentrations is a potential biochemical thinner, and it inhibits pollen germination and tube growth via Ca2+ efflux by activating Ca2+-ATPase, thereby thinning fruits by preventing fertilization. PMID:26904082

  8. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds.

  9. Influence of heat stress on leaf ultrastructure, photosynthetic performance, and ascorbate peroxidase gene expression of two pear cultivars (Pyrus pyrifolia)*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-feng; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Guo-qin; Hussain, Sayed; Teng, Yuan-wen

    2013-01-01

    Plants encounter a variety of stresses in natural environments. One-year-old pot-grown trees of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Cuiguan and Wonhwang) were exposed to two heat stress regimes. Under constant short-term heat stress, chloroplasts and mitochondria were visibly damaged. Relative chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were significantly decreased, which indicated that the leaf photosynthetic capability declined. Under chronic heat stress, mesophyll cell ultrastructure was not obviously damaged, but leaf photosynthetic capability was still restrained. As chronic heat stress was a simulation of the natural environment in summer, further study of the responses under this stress regime was undertaken. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in ‘Cuiguan’, but not in ‘Wonhwang’. Inducible expression of PpAPX genes in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and peroxisomes was consistent with increased APX activity in ‘Cuiguan’, whereas only weak induction of PpAPX genes was observed in ‘Wonhwang’. The isoenzymes cytosolic APX1 (cAPX1) and stromal APX (sAPX) were confirmed to be localized in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, respectively. PMID:24302708

  10. Fingerprinting of polysaccharides attacked by hydroxyl radicals in vitro and in the cell walls of ripening pear fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Fry, S C; Dumville, J C; Miller, J G

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (*OH) may cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides in vivo, e.g. in plant cell walls and mammalian connective tissues. To provide a method for detecting the action of endogenous *OH in vivo, we investigated the products formed when polysaccharides were treated with *OH (generated in situ by ascorbate-H(2)O(2)-Cu(2+) mixtures) followed by NaB(3)H(4). Treatment with *OH increased the number of NaB(3)H(4)-reacting groups present in citrus pectin, homogalacturonan and tamarind xyloglucan. This increase is attributed partly to the formation of glycosulose and glycosulosuronic acid residues, which are then reduced back to the original (but radioactive) sugar residues and their epimers by NaB(3)H(4). The glycosulose and glycosulosuronic acid residues were stable for >16 h at 20 degrees C in ethanol or buffer (pH 4.7), but were destroyed in alkali. Driselase-digestion of the radiolabelled polysaccharides yielded characteristic patterns of (3)H-products, which included galactose and galacturonate from pectin, and isoprimeverose, galactose, glucose and arabinose from xyloglucan. Pectin yielded at least eight (3)H-labelled anionic products, separable by electrophoresis at pH 3.5. The patterns of radioactive products form useful 'fingerprints' by which *OH-attacked polysaccharides may be recognized. Applied to the cell walls of ripening pear (Pyrus communis) fruit, the method gave evidence for progressive *OH radical attack on polysaccharides during the softening process. PMID:11463343

  11. Efficacy and putative mode of action of native and commercial antagonistic yeasts against postharvest pathogens of pear.

    PubMed

    Lutz, M Cecilia; Lopes, Christian A; Rodriguez, M Eugenia; Sosa, M Cristina; Sangorrín, Marcela P

    2013-06-17

    Putative mechanisms of action associated with the biocontrol capacity of four yeast strains (Cryptoccocus albidus NPCC 1248, Pichia membranifaciens NPCC 1250, Cryptoccocus victoriae NPCC 1263 and NPCC 1259) against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea were studied by means of in vitro and in situ assays. C. albidus(YP), a commercial yeast was also evaluated for comparative purposes. The yeast strains exhibited a variety of different mechanisms including: wound colonization, germination inhibition, biofilm formation, secretion of killer toxins, competition for nutrient and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (protease, chitinase and glucanase). The relationship between strains (and their associated antagonist mechanisms) and in situ antagonist activity was also evaluated. Results indicate that mechanisms such as production of hydrolytic enzymes, the ability for colonization of wounds, production of killer toxin and inhibition of germination are the most important for biocontrol activity. Our study indicate that multiple modes of action may explain why P. membranifaciens NPCC 1250 and C. victoriae NPCC 1263 provided excellent control of postharvest pears disease. PMID:23680800

  12. The Properties of Terrestrial Laser System Intensity for Measuring Leaf Geometries: A Case Study with Conference Pear Trees (Pyrus Communis)

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, Mathilde A.F.; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Stuckens, Jan; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Coppin, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology can be a valuable tool for describing and quantifying vegetation structure. However, because of their size, extraction of leaf geometries remains complicated. In this study, the intensity data produced by the Terrestrial Laser System (TLS) FARO LS880 is corrected for the distance effect and its relationship with the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the surface of the leaf of a Conference Pear tree (Pyrus Commmunis) is established. The results demonstrate that with only intensity, this relationship has a potential for determining the angle of incidence with the leaves surface with a precision of ±5° for an angle of incidence smaller than 60°, whereas it is more variable for an angle of incidence larger than 60°. It appears that TLS beam footprint, leaf curvatures and leaf wrinkles have an impact on the relationship between intensity and angle of incidence, though, this analysis shows that the intensity of scanned leaves has a potential to eliminate ghost points and to improve their meshing. PMID:22319374

  13. Influence of heat stress on leaf ultrastructure, photosynthetic performance, and ascorbate peroxidase gene expression of two pear cultivars (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-feng; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Guo-qin; Hussain, Sayed; Teng, Yuan-wen

    2013-12-01

    Plants encounter a variety of stresses in natural environments. One-year-old pot-grown trees of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Cuiguan and Wonhwang) were exposed to two heat stress regimes. Under constant short-term heat stress, chloroplasts and mitochondria were visibly damaged. Relative chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II were significantly decreased, which indicated that the leaf photosynthetic capability declined. Under chronic heat stress, mesophyll cell ultrastructure was not obviously damaged, but leaf photosynthetic capability was still restrained. As chronic heat stress was a simulation of the natural environment in summer, further study of the responses under this stress regime was undertaken. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was increased in 'Cuiguan', but not in 'Wonhwang'. Inducible expression of PpAPX genes in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts and peroxisomes was consistent with increased APX activity in 'Cuiguan', whereas only weak induction of PpAPX genes was observed in 'Wonhwang'. The isoenzymes cytosolic APX1 (cAPX1) and stromal APX (sAPX) were confirmed to be localized in the cytoplasm and chloroplasts, respectively.

  14. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. PMID:22445806

  15. Efficacy and putative mode of action of native and commercial antagonistic yeasts against postharvest pathogens of pear.

    PubMed

    Lutz, M Cecilia; Lopes, Christian A; Rodriguez, M Eugenia; Sosa, M Cristina; Sangorrín, Marcela P

    2013-06-17

    Putative mechanisms of action associated with the biocontrol capacity of four yeast strains (Cryptoccocus albidus NPCC 1248, Pichia membranifaciens NPCC 1250, Cryptoccocus victoriae NPCC 1263 and NPCC 1259) against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea were studied by means of in vitro and in situ assays. C. albidus(YP), a commercial yeast was also evaluated for comparative purposes. The yeast strains exhibited a variety of different mechanisms including: wound colonization, germination inhibition, biofilm formation, secretion of killer toxins, competition for nutrient and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (protease, chitinase and glucanase). The relationship between strains (and their associated antagonist mechanisms) and in situ antagonist activity was also evaluated. Results indicate that mechanisms such as production of hydrolytic enzymes, the ability for colonization of wounds, production of killer toxin and inhibition of germination are the most important for biocontrol activity. Our study indicate that multiple modes of action may explain why P. membranifaciens NPCC 1250 and C. victoriae NPCC 1263 provided excellent control of postharvest pears disease.

  16. The properties of terrestrial laser system intensity for measuring leaf geometries: a case study with Conference Pear trees (Pyrus communis).

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, Mathilde A F; Van der Zande, Dimitry; Stuckens, Jan; Verstraeten, Willem W; Coppin, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology can be a valuable tool for describing and quantifying vegetation structure. However, because of their size, extraction of leaf geometries remains complicated. In this study, the intensity data produced by the Terrestrial Laser System (TLS) FARO LS880 is corrected for the distance effect and its relationship with the angle of incidence between the laser beam and the surface of the leaf of a Conference Pear tree (Pyrus commmunis) is established. The results demonstrate that with only intensity, this relationship has a potential for determining the angle of incidence with the leaves surface with a precision of ±5° for an angle of incidence smaller than 60°, whereas it is more variable for an angle of incidence larger than 60°. It appears that TLS beam footprint, leaf curvatures and leaf wrinkles have an impact on the relationship between intensity and angle of incidence, though, this analysis shows that the intensity of scanned leaves has a potential to eliminate ghost points and to improve their meshing. PMID:22319374

  17. Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Cristina; Saavedra, Jorge; Sáenz, Carmen; García, Paula; Robert, Paz

    2014-08-15

    Pulp (CP) and ultrafiltered (UF) cactus pear extracts were encapsulated with Capsul (C) by applying a central composite design (CP-C and UF-C systems) by spray-drying. To evaluate the effect of the extract, microparticles obtained under optimal conditions were characterised and stored at 60 °C. Betacyanin and betaxanthin encapsulation efficiency reached values above 98% for both systems studied. This efficiency was attributed to strong interactions between betalains and the polymer. Betalain degradation in CP-C and UF-C microparticles followed pseudo-first order kinetics. The betacyanin degradation rate constant was significantly higher for CP-C than for UF-C. These results suggested that the mucilage or higher sugar content of CP increased the hygroscopicity of the CP-C microparticles, leading to the degradation of betalain. The hydrolysis pathway was the main mechanism of betanin degradation during microparticle storage. These results demonstrate the potential utility of both CP-C and UF-C microparticles as natural colourants for healthy foods.

  18. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  19. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  20. Impact of Atmospheric Plasma Generated by a DBD Device on Quality-Related Attributes of "Abate Fetel" Pear Fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Vannini, Lucia; Ragni, Luigi; Guerzoni, M. Elisabetta

    The effects of gas plasma generated by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) device on "Abate Fetel" fresh pears were assessed following exposure times from 10 to 90 min. In particular the decontamination efficacy towards the indigenous microflora naturally occurring on the surface of the fruit was evaluated. The main results showed that total mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds had different inactivation dynamics. However, maximum cell decreases of 2.5 Log CFU/fruit were achieved for all the microbial groups after 90 min of treatment at a relative humidity level of 60% (22°C). Immediately after the treatments, no significant effects were observed on the measured quality traits. After storage for 5 days at 20°C significant changes were detected only in the peel (colour and antioxidant capacity) of fruit samples treated for 90 min. The Magness-Taylor flesh firmness (MTf), the soluble solid content (SSC) and the antioxidant capacity of fruits were unaffected by the tested treatments.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Calcineurin B-like gene (PbCBL1) and its promoter in birch-leaf pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Y; Li, H; Lin, J; Li, X G; Chang, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium plays a critical role in regulating abiotic stress responses in plants. Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are calcium sensors in calcium signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium signaling remain to be elucidated. In this study, the CBL1 gene, which codes for the CBL protein, was isolated from the birch-leaf pear. One 2,969-bp sequence was cloned using PCR, and using the cloned 2,027-bp sequence was isolated from pear genomic DNA via genome walking. Sequencing analysis revealed that the 4,996-bp sequence was a PbCBL1 gene consisting of eight exons and seven introns, and the 2,027-bp sequence was identified as the promoter of the PbCBL1 gene, which contains the basic promoter elements TATA and CAAT boxes. In addition, some other cis-acting elements including heat, cold, drought, and hormone responsive elements were also present. To further investigate the activity of this promoter, the sequence was used to drive a GUS fusion gene into leaf discs of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. GUS gene expression could be regulated by the PbCBL1 promoter following induction by GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. Furthermore, the results of real-time RT-qPCR indicate that the PbCBL1 gene can respond to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration, and that it can be induced by cold, heat, drought, and stress by several hormones including GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. PbCBL1 gene may be involved in several signal transduction pathways, and play an important role in the condition of adversity stress in pear. PMID:26681022

  2. Development of a transgenic early flowering pear (Pyrus communis L.) genotype by RNAi silencing of PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2.

    PubMed

    Freiman, Aviad; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Golobovitch, Sara; Yablovitz, Zeev; Korchinsky, Raia; Cohen, Yuval; Samach, Alon; Chevreau, Elisabeth; Le Roux, Pierre-Marie; Patocchi, Andrea; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2012-06-01

    Trees require a long maturation period, known as juvenile phase, before they can reproduce, complicating their genetic improvement as compared to annual plants. 'Spadona', one of the most important European pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivars grown in Israel, has a very long juvenile period, up to 14 years, making breeding programs extremely slow. Progress in understanding the molecular basis of the transition to flowering has revealed genes that accelerate reproductive development when ectopically expressed in transgenic plants. A transgenic line of 'Spadona', named Early Flowering-Spadona (EF-Spa), was produced using a MdTFL1 RNAi cassette targeting the native pear genes PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2. The transgenic line had three T-DNA insertions, one assigned to chromosome 2 and two to chromosome 14 PcTFL1-1 and PcTFL1-2 were completely silenced, and EF-Spa displayed an early flowering phenotype: flowers developed already in tissue culture and on most rooted plants 1-8 months after transfer to the greenhouse. EF-Spa developed solitary flowers from apical or lateral buds, reducing vegetative growth vigor. Pollination of EF-Spa trees generated normal-shaped fruits with viable F1 seeds. The greenhouse-grown transgenic F1 seedlings formed shoots and produced flowers 1-33 months after germination. Sequence analyses, of the non-transgenic F1 seedlings, demonstrated that this approach can be used to recover seedlings that have no trace of the T-DNA. Thus, the early flowering transgenic line EF-Spa obtained by PcTFL1 silencing provides an interesting tool to accelerate pear breeding.

  3. Isolation and characterization of Calcineurin B-like gene (PbCBL1) and its promoter in birch-leaf pear (Pyrus betulifolia Bunge).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Y; Li, H; Lin, J; Li, X G; Chang, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Calcium plays a critical role in regulating abiotic stress responses in plants. Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins are calcium sensors in calcium signaling pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying calcium signaling remain to be elucidated. In this study, the CBL1 gene, which codes for the CBL protein, was isolated from the birch-leaf pear. One 2,969-bp sequence was cloned using PCR, and using the cloned 2,027-bp sequence was isolated from pear genomic DNA via genome walking. Sequencing analysis revealed that the 4,996-bp sequence was a PbCBL1 gene consisting of eight exons and seven introns, and the 2,027-bp sequence was identified as the promoter of the PbCBL1 gene, which contains the basic promoter elements TATA and CAAT boxes. In addition, some other cis-acting elements including heat, cold, drought, and hormone responsive elements were also present. To further investigate the activity of this promoter, the sequence was used to drive a GUS fusion gene into leaf discs of tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. GUS gene expression could be regulated by the PbCBL1 promoter following induction by GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. Furthermore, the results of real-time RT-qPCR indicate that the PbCBL1 gene can respond to changes in the intracellular calcium concentration, and that it can be induced by cold, heat, drought, and stress by several hormones including GA, ABA, SA, and MeJA. PbCBL1 gene may be involved in several signal transduction pathways, and play an important role in the condition of adversity stress in pear.

  4. Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Type 2 Diabetes and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats’ Pancreas by Phenolic Extracts of Avocado Pear Leaves and Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats’ pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties PMID:25324703

  5. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas by phenolic extracts of avocado pear leaves and fruit.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-09-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties. PMID:25324703

  6. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. I. THE SOUTH FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Straughn, Amber N.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Jansen, Rolf A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-15

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy 'knots' within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the H{beta} and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the H{beta} and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/H{beta} ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z {approx} 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  7. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas by phenolic extracts of avocado pear leaves and fruit.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Isaac, Adelusi Temitope; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacobson; Ajani, Richard Akinlolu

    2014-09-01

    Persea americana fruit and leaves had been known in folk medicine for their anti-diabetic prowess. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic extract from avocado pear (Persea americana) leaves and fruits on some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase); and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced lipid peroxidation in rats' pancreas in vitro. The phenolic extracts of Persea americana fruit and leaves were extracted using methanol and 1M HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, their inhibitory effects on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined in vitro. The result revealed that the leaves had fruit of avocado pear inhibit both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose dependent manner. However, the Peel had the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity while the leaf had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity as revealed by their IC50 value. Furthermore, incubation of the rat pancreas in the presence of 5 mM SNP caused an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the tissue, however, introduction of the phenolic extracts inhibited MDA produced in a dose dependent manner. The additive and/or synergistic action of major phenolic compounds such as syringic acid, eugenol, vnillic acid, isoeugenol, guaiacol, kaemferol, catechin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, naringenin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin, lupeol and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in avocado pear using gas chromatography (GC) could have contributed to the observed medicinal properties of the plant. Therefore, inhibition of some key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and prevention of oxidative stress in the pancreas could be some of the possible mechanism by which they exert their anti-diabetic properties.

  8. Species composition of leaf beetle assemblages in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and Great Britain (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Vig, K; Markó, V

    2004-01-01

    The species richness and species composition of Coleoptera assemblages were investigated in the canopies of apple and pear orchards in Hungary and in the apple orchards in Great Britain. The investigations were carried out in Hungary (Nagykovácsi: 3 plots, Kecskemét: 5 plots, Sárospatak: 4 plots) between 1990-94, and in Great Britain in Kent (East Malling, Marden and Robertsbridge) in 2001 and 2002. Former investigations in Hungary revealed that the diversity of Coleoptera assemblages in the canopy of apple and pear orchard were surprisingly high. As a result of our investigations it was found that altogether 324 species, almost 3% of the Hungarian beetle fauna were represented: 253 species in apple orchards and 188 species in pear orchards. Similar results were obtained in the investigations carried out in Great Britain between 2001-2002. In Hungary, the majority of the species belonged to the families Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and Coccinelidae. The proportion of leaf beetles varied between 15 and 20%. The most common leaf beetle species in the canopy of the commercial orchards were Phyllotreta vittula, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nigripes, Oulemta melanopus, and Aphthona euphorbiae. In the abandoned orchards the most common species were Luperus xanthopoda, Smaragdina salicina and Orsodacne liieola. In Great Britain 44 leaf beetle species were found in the canopies of the investigated orchards. The species with higher abundance were Aphthona euphorbiae. Chaetocnema concinna and Longitarsus parvulus. We concluded, that leaf beetles give high part of the orchard canopy biodiversity and sometimes occur with high species richness and abundance. However, the reasons of their occurrence and their potential role are poorly known.

  9. [Relaxation times T1, T2, and T2* of apples, pears, citrus fruits, and potatoes with a comparison to human tissues].

    PubMed

    Werz, Karin; Braun, Hans; Vitha, Dominik; Bruno, Graziano; Martirosian, Petros; Steidle, Günter; Schick, Fritz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the project was a systematic assessment of relaxation times of different fruits and vegetables and a comparison to values of human tissues. Results provide an improved basis for selection of plant phantoms for development of new MR techniques and sequences. Vessels filled with agar gel are mostly used for this purpose, preparation of which is effortful and time-consuming. In the presented study apples, (malus, 8 species), pears, (pyrus, 2 species), citrus fruits (citrus, 5 species) and uncooked potatoes (solanum tuberosum, 8 species) from the supermarket were examined which are easily available nearly all-the-year. T1, T2 and T2* relaxation times of these nature products were measured on a 1.5 Tesla MR system with adapted examination protocols and mono-exponential fitting, and compared to literature data of human parenchyma tissues, fatty tissue and body fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). Resulting values were as follows: apples: T1: 1486-1874 ms, T2: 163-281 ms, T2*: 2.3-3.2 ms; pears: T1: 1631-1969 ms, T2: 119-133 ms, T2* : 10.1-10.6 ms, citrus fruits (pulp) T1: 2055-2632 ms, T2: 497-998 ms, T2* : 151-182 ms; citrus fruits (skin) T1: 561-1669 ms, T2: 93-119 ms; potatoes: T1: 1011-1459 ms, T2: 166 - 210 ms, T2* : 20 - 30 ms. All T1-values of the examined objects (except for potatoes and skins of citrus fruits) were longer than T1 values of human tissues. Also T2 values (except for pears and skins of citrus fruits) of the fruits and the potatoes tended to be longer. T2* values of apples, pears and potatoes were shorter than in healthy human tissue. Results show relaxation values of many fruits to be not exactly fitting to human tissue, but with suitable selection of the fruits and optionally with an adaption of measurement parameters one can achieve suitable contrast and signal characteristics for some purposes.

  10. [Effect of Foliar Dustfall Content (FDC) on High Spectral Characteristics of Pear Leaves and Remote Sensing Quantitative Inversion of FDC].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-qiang; Xiang, Hong-ying; Niu, Jian-long; Chi, Chun-ming; Liu, Wei-yang

    2015-05-01

    The precipitation of floating and sinking dust on leaves of plants is called as foliar dustfall. To monitor foliar dustfall, it will provide fundamental basis for environmental assessment and agricultural disaster evaluation of dust area. Therefore, the aim of this work to (1) study the effect of foliar dustfall content (FDC) on high spectral characteristics of pear leaves, (2) analyze the relationship between reflectances and FDC, and (3) establish high spectral remote sensing quantitative inversion model of FDC. The results showed that FDC increased reflectances of visible band (400~700 nrn) with maximum band of 666 nm. Absolute and relative rates of change were -10. 50% and -62. 89%, respectively. The FDC decreased reflectances of near infrared band (701 ~ 1 050 nm) with maximum band of 758 nm. Absolute and relative rates of change were 12. 04% and 41. 75%, respectively. After dustfall was removed, reflection peak of green light and absorption valley of red and blue light became prominent, and slope of 500~750 nm wake band increased when FDC was more than 20 g . m-2. While FDC just slightly affected shape and area of reflection peak of green light when FDC was less than 20 g . m-2. FDC were positive and negative correlated with reflectances of visible band and near infrared band, respectively. Maximum correlation coefficient (0. 61) showed at 663 nm. All of 7 inversion models, the model based on the first-order differential of logarithm of the reciprocal had better stability and predictive ability. The coefficient of determination(R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative percent deviation (RPD) of this model were 0. 78, 3. 37 and 2. 09, respectively. The results of this study can provide a certain reference basis for hyperspectral remote sensing of FDC.

  11. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, S.; Yadollahi, A.; Ahmadi, H.; Arab, M. M.; Eftekhari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO3-, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, PO42-, SO42-, and Cl−) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH4+ (301.7), and NO3-, NH4+ (64), SO42- (54.1), K+ (40.4), and NO3- (35.1) in OHF and Ca2+ (23.7), NH4+ (10.7), NO3- (9.1), NH4+ (317.6), and NH4+ (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO3-, 5.7 NH4+, 2.7 Ca2+, 31.5 K+, 3.3 Mg2+, 2.6 PO42-, 5.6 SO42-, and 3.5 Cl− could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO3-, 13.1 NH4+, 5.5 Ca2+, 35.7 K+, 1.5 Mg2+, 2.1 PO42-, 3.6 SO42-, and 3 Cl−. PMID:27066013

  12. Shelf life, physicochemical, microbiological and antioxidant properties of purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus indica) juice after thermoultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; León-Rivera, Jesús Ernesto; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Manríquez-Torres, José de Jesús; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in color, betalain content, browning index, viscosity, physical stability, microbiological growth, antioxidant content and antioxidant activity of purple cactus pear juice during storage after thermoultrasonication at 80% amplitude level for 15 and 25 min in comparison with pasteurized juice. Thermoultrasound treatment for 25 min increased color stability and viscosity compared to treatment for 15 min (6.83 and 6.72 MPa, respectively), but this last parameter was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the control and pasteurized juices (22.47 and 26.32 MPa, respectively). Experimental treatment reduced significantly (p<0.05) sediment solids in juices. Total plate counts decreased from the first day of storage exhibiting values of 1.38 and 1.43 logCFU/mL, for 15 and 25 min treatment, respectively. Compared to the control, both treatments reduced enterobacteria counts (1.54 logCFU/mL), and compared to pasteurized juice decreased pectinmethylesterase activity (3.76 and 3.82 UPE/mL), maintained high values of ascorbic acid (252.05 and 257.18 mg AA/L) and antioxidant activity (by ABTS: 124.8 and 115.6 mg VCEAC/100 mL; and DPPH: 3114.2 and 2757.1 μmol TE/L). During storage thermoultrasonicated juices had a minimum increase in pectinmethylesterase activity (from day 14), and exhibited similar total plate counts to pasteurized juice. An increase of phenolic content was observed after 14 days of storage, particularly for treatment at 80%, 25 min, and an increase in antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH) by the end of storage.

  13. Effect of different film packaging on microbial growth in minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    PubMed

    Palma, A; Mangia, N P; Fadda, A; Barberis, A; Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are natural contaminants of fresh produce and minimally processed products, and contamination arises from a number of sources, including the environment, postharvest handling and processing. Fresh-cut products are particularly susceptible to microbial contaminations because of the changes occurring in the tissues during processing. In package gas composition of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with low storage temperatures besides reducing physiological activity of packaged produce, can also delay pathogen growth. Present study investigated on the effect of MAPs, achieved with different plastic films, on microbial growth of minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntio ficus-indica) fruit. Five different plastic materials were used for packaging the manually peeled fruit. That is: a) polypropylene film (Termoplast MY 40 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 300 cc/m2/24h); b) polyethylene film (Bolphane BHE, 11 micron thickness, O2 transmission rate 19000 cc/m2/24h); c) polypropylene laser-perforated films (Mach Packaging) with 8, 16 or 32 100-micron holes. Total aerobic psychrophilic, mesophilic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, yeast, mould populations and in-package CO2, O2 and C2H4 were determined at each storage time. Different final gas compositions, ranging from 7.8 KPa to 17.1 KPa O2, and 12.7 KPa to 2.6 KPa CO2, were achieved with MY and micro perforated films, respectively. Differences were detected in the mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae and yeast loads, while no difference was detected in psychrophilic microorganisms. At the end of storage, microbial load in fruits sealed with MY film was significantly lower than in those sealed with BHE and micro perforated films. Furthermore, fruits packed with micro-perforated films showed the highest microbial load. This occurrence may in part be related to in-package gas composition and in part to a continuous contamination of microorganisms through micro-holes.

  14. [Effect of Foliar Dustfall Content (FDC) on High Spectral Characteristics of Pear Leaves and Remote Sensing Quantitative Inversion of FDC].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-qiang; Xiang, Hong-ying; Niu, Jian-long; Chi, Chun-ming; Liu, Wei-yang

    2015-05-01

    The precipitation of floating and sinking dust on leaves of plants is called as foliar dustfall. To monitor foliar dustfall, it will provide fundamental basis for environmental assessment and agricultural disaster evaluation of dust area. Therefore, the aim of this work to (1) study the effect of foliar dustfall content (FDC) on high spectral characteristics of pear leaves, (2) analyze the relationship between reflectances and FDC, and (3) establish high spectral remote sensing quantitative inversion model of FDC. The results showed that FDC increased reflectances of visible band (400~700 nrn) with maximum band of 666 nm. Absolute and relative rates of change were -10. 50% and -62. 89%, respectively. The FDC decreased reflectances of near infrared band (701 ~ 1 050 nm) with maximum band of 758 nm. Absolute and relative rates of change were 12. 04% and 41. 75%, respectively. After dustfall was removed, reflection peak of green light and absorption valley of red and blue light became prominent, and slope of 500~750 nm wake band increased when FDC was more than 20 g . m-2. While FDC just slightly affected shape and area of reflection peak of green light when FDC was less than 20 g . m-2. FDC were positive and negative correlated with reflectances of visible band and near infrared band, respectively. Maximum correlation coefficient (0. 61) showed at 663 nm. All of 7 inversion models, the model based on the first-order differential of logarithm of the reciprocal had better stability and predictive ability. The coefficient of determination(R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative percent deviation (RPD) of this model were 0. 78, 3. 37 and 2. 09, respectively. The results of this study can provide a certain reference basis for hyperspectral remote sensing of FDC. PMID:26415461

  15. Effect of sunlight-exposure on antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activities in 'd'Anjou' pear in relation to superficial scald development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Xingbin; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Influence of preharvest sunlight exposure on superficial scald development in 'd'Anjou' pears during cold storage was investigated. The biochemical changes related to scald including α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols), antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme activities were monitored among separated blushed and shaded peels of unbagged fruit as well as the whole peel of bagged fruit. In unbagged fruit, scald symptom was restricted to shaded peel; while there was no difference in α-farnesene between blushed and shaded peels, CTols increased significantly in shaded peel along with scald development after 3months storage. Bagging treatment increased both α-farnesene and CTols significantly and enhanced scald. Preharvest sunlight exposure significantly increased certain antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities in blushed peel at harvest and during storage. These results reveal a direct role of CTols during development of scald, however, antioxidant systems may play an important role in α-farnesene oxidation to CTols and scald susceptibility in 'd'Anjou pears. PMID:27211615

  16. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, 'Hosui' (P. pyrifolia), 'Yali' (P. bretschneideri), 'Kuerlexiangli' (P. sinkiangensis), 'Nanguoli' (P. ussuriensis), and 'Starkrimson' (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species. PMID:27305967

  17. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, ‘Hosui’ (P. pyrifolia), ‘Yali’ (P. bretschneideri), ‘Kuerlexiangli’ (P. sinkiangensis), ‘Nanguoli’ (P. ussuriensis), and ‘Starkrimson’ (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species. PMID:27305967

  18. Response of antioxidant activity and sensory quality in fresh-cut pear as affected by high O(2) active packaging in comparison with low O(2) packaging.

    PubMed

    Li, W L; Li, X H; Fan, X; Tang, Y; Yun, J

    2012-06-01

    Effects of active modified atmosphere packaging (initial O(2)/CO(2): 5/5; 30/5; and 80/0) and passive packaging [initial O(2)/CO(2): 20.8/0 (air)] on the antioxidant capacity and sensory quality of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pear stored at 4 °C for 12 days were investigated. Samples stored in high O(2) (30% and 80%) packages had higher phenolics and anthocyanin contents compared with those in passive and low O(2) packages. After 12 days of storage, phenolics and anthocyanin contents of 80% O(2) samples were 2.5 and 12 times, respectively, higher than those in the passive package and 3 and 2 times higher than those in low O(2) package. High O(2) modified atmosphere packaging was effective in keeping free radical scavenging capacity as measured by the DPPH assay. The sensory evaluation indicated that surface color of cut fruits were stable for at least 12 days in the high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging. The results suggested that high O(2) modified atmosphere packaging could be used to inhibit browning and prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut 'Yaoshan' pears in spite of more than 50% loss in vitamin C content. PMID:22397831

  19. Distinct transcriptome profiles reveal gene expression patterns during fruit development and maturation in five main cultivated species of pear (Pyrus L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Xue, Cheng; Xu, Linlin; Sun, Honghe; Qin, Meng-Fan; Zhang, Shaoling; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptomes of five pear cultivars, 'Hosui' (P. pyrifolia), 'Yali' (P. bretschneideri), 'Kuerlexiangli' (P. sinkiangensis), 'Nanguoli' (P. ussuriensis), and 'Starkrimson' (P. communis) were sequenced at seven key fruit developmental stages, from fruit setting to maturation and fruit senescence after harvesting. In total, 33,136 genes that could be mapped by reads, were analyzed. Most gene expression cluster models showed a steadily decreasing trend. Gene expression patterns had obvious differences according to maturity type, that is, post-ripening cultivars were still vigorous at maturity, and showed a higher proportion of up-regulated genes; non post-ripening cultivars had a gradually decreasing tendency during fruit maturation. Meanwhile, differentially expressed genes related to fruit quality and development, such as stone cells, sugar, acid and hormones, were identified. Co-expression analysis revealed that several ethylene synthesis genes and polyphenoloxidase-related genes interacted with each other directly, and an indirect relationship was reflected between ethylene synthesis genes and ethylene response genes. In addition, the highly diverse SNPs represented the great differences between oriental and occidental pears. Understanding how RNA-seq based gene-expression patterns and differential gene expression contribute to fruit quality allows us to build models for gene-expression for fruit development of Pyrus species.

  20. Phylogenetic position and virulence apparatus of the pear flower necrosis pathogen Erwinia piriflorinigrans CFBP 5888T as assessed by comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Smits, Theo H M; Rezzonico, Fabio; López, María M; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Frey, Jürg E; Duffy, Brion

    2013-10-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a necrotrophic pathogen of pear reported from Spain that destroys flowers but does not progress further into the host. We sequenced the complete genome of the type strain CFBP 5888(T) clarifying its phylogenetic position within the genus Erwinia, and indicating a position between its closest relative, the epiphyte Erwinia tasmaniensis and other plant pathogenic Erwinia spp. (i.e., the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and the Asian pear pathogen E. pyrifoliae). Common features are the type III and type VI secretion systems, amylovoran biosynthesis and desferrioxamine production. The E. piriflorinigrans genome also provided the first evidence for production of the siderophore chrysobactin within the genus Erwinia sensu stricto, which up to now was mostly associated with phytopathogenic, soft-rot Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. Plasmid pEPIR37, reported in this strain, is closely related to small plasmids found in the fire blight pathogen E. amylovora and E. pyrifoliae. The genome of E. piriflorinigrans also gives detailed insights in evolutionary genomics of pathoadapted Erwinia.

  1. Insecticidal activity against Bemisia tabaci biotype B of peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis var. pear and Citrus aurantium cultivated in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nicolle de Carvalho; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; Born, Flávia de Souza; de Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu

    2010-11-01

    The fumigant action of peel essential oils of Citrus sinensis var. pear (pear orange = PO) and C. aurantium (bitter orange = BO) from the northeast of Brazil were evaluated against Bemisia tabaci biotype B and compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oil concentration in the PO at 8.5 microL/L of air caused 97% mortality, while the oil concentration of BO at 9.5 microL/L of air caused 99% mortality. However, the LC50 estimates for both oils (LC50 = 3.80 microL/L of air for PO and LC50 = 5.80 microL/L of air for BO) did not differ from each other, but they did when compared with eugenol (LC50 = 0.20 microL/L of air). Regarding their effects on oviposition, the Citrus oils showed concentration-response dependence, reducing the number of eggs as the concentration increased, which was not observed for eugenol. The minimum concentrations of the oils that caused a significant reduction in the egg lay were 3.5 and 7.0 microL/L of air for BO and PO, respectively. These results suggest that oils from PO and BO peels may be promising as models to develop new insecticides that might be applied into the integrated management of whiteflies.

  2. From planning to execution to the future: An overview of a concerted effort to enhance biological control in apple, pear, and walnut orchards in the western U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We embarked on a large project designed to help enhance biological control in apple, pear and walnut orchards in the western U.S., where management programs are in the midst of a transition from older organo-phosphate insecticides to mating disruption and newer reduced risk insecticides. A “pesticid...

  3. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  4. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  5. Predicting In vitro Culture Medium Macro-Nutrients Composition for Pear Rootstocks Using Regression Analysis and Neural Network Models.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, S; Yadollahi, A; Ahmadi, H; Arab, M M; Eftekhari, M

    2016-01-01

    Two modeling techniques [artificial neural network-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) and stepwise regression analysis] were used to predict the effect of medium macro-nutrients on in vitro performance of pear rootstocks (OHF and Pyrodwarf). The ANN-GA described associations between investigating eight macronutrients (NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text], Ca(2+), K(+), Mg(2+), PO[Formula: see text], SO[Formula: see text], and Cl(-)) and explant growth parameters [proliferation rate (PR), shoot length (SL), shoot tip necrosis (STN), chlorosis (Chl), and vitrification (Vitri)]. ANN-GA revealed a substantially higher accuracy of prediction than for regression models. According to the ANN-GA results, among the input variables concentrations (mM), NH[Formula: see text] (301.7), and NO[Formula: see text], NH[Formula: see text] (64), SO[Formula: see text] (54.1), K(+) (40.4), and NO[Formula: see text] (35.1) in OHF and Ca(2+) (23.7), NH[Formula: see text] (10.7), NO[Formula: see text] (9.1), NH[Formula: see text] (317.6), and NH[Formula: see text] (79.6) in Pyrodwarf had the highest values of VSR in data set, respectively, for PR, SL, STN, Chl, and Vitri. The ANN-GA showed that media containing (mM) 62.5 NO[Formula: see text], 5.7 NH[Formula: see text], 2.7 Ca(2+), 31.5 K(+), 3.3 Mg(2+), 2.6 PO[Formula: see text], 5.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3.5 Cl(-) could lead to optimal PR for OHF and optimal PR for Pyrodwarf may be obtained with media containing 25.6 NO[Formula: see text], 13.1 NH[Formula: see text], 5.5 Ca(2+), 35.7 K(+), 1.5 Mg(2+), 2.1 PO[Formula: see text], 3.6 SO[Formula: see text], and 3 Cl(-). PMID:27066013

  6. Related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes clustering in the BAC contig sequences around the S-RNase of Japanese pear

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuma; Tonaka, Nozomi; Taguchi, Tomio; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Sawamura, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Tetsu; Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Most fruit trees in the Rosaceae exhibit self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the pistil S gene, encoding a ribonuclease (S-RNase), and the pollen S gene at the S-locus. The pollen S in Prunus is an F-box protein gene (SLF/SFB) located near the S-RNase, but it has not been identified in Pyrus and Malus. In the Japanese pear, various F-box protein genes (PpSFBB-α–γ) linked to the S-RNase are proposed as the pollen S candidate. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs around the S-RNase genes of Japanese pear were constructed, and 649 kb around S4-RNase and 378 kb around S2-RNase were sequenced. Six and 10 pollen-specific F-box protein genes (designated as PpSFBB4-u1–u4, 4-d1–d2 and PpSFBB2-u1–u5, 2-d1–d5, respectively) were found, but PpSFBB4-α–γ and PpSFBB2-γ were absent. The PpSFBB4 genes showed 66.2–93.1% amino acid identity with the PpSFBB2 genes, which indicated clustering of related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes near the S-RNase of the Japanese pear. Phylogenetic analysis classified 36 F-box protein genes of Pyrus and Malus into two major groups (I and II), and also generated gene pairs of PpSFBB genes and PpSFBB/Malus F-box protein genes. Group I consisted of gene pairs with 76.3–94.9% identity, while group II consisted of gene pairs with higher identities (>92%) than group I. This grouping suggests that less polymorphic PpSFBB genes in group II are non-S pollen genes and that the pollen S candidates are included in the group I PpSFBB genes. PMID:21172811

  7. Related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes clustering in the BAC contig sequences around the S-RNase of Japanese pear.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazuma; Tonaka, Nozomi; Taguchi, Tomio; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Sawamura, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Tetsu; Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi

    2011-03-01

    Most fruit trees in the Rosaceae exhibit self-incompatibility, which is controlled by the pistil S gene, encoding a ribonuclease (S-RNase), and the pollen S gene at the S-locus. The pollen S in Prunus is an F-box protein gene (SLF/SFB) located near the S-RNase, but it has not been identified in Pyrus and Malus. In the Japanese pear, various F-box protein genes (PpSFBB(-α-γ)) linked to the S-RNase are proposed as the pollen S candidate. Two bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contigs around the S-RNase genes of Japanese pear were constructed, and 649 kb around S(4)-RNase and 378 kb around S(2)-RNase were sequenced. Six and 10 pollen-specific F-box protein genes (designated as PpSFBB(4-u1-u4, 4-d1-d2) and PpSFBB(2-u1-u5,) (2-d1-d5), respectively) were found, but PpSFBB(4-α-γ) and PpSFBB(2-γ) were absent. The PpSFBB(4) genes showed 66.2-93.1% amino acid identity with the PpSFBB(2) genes, which indicated clustering of related polymorphic F-box protein genes between haplotypes near the S-RNase of the Japanese pear. Phylogenetic analysis classified 36 F-box protein genes of Pyrus and Malus into two major groups (I and II), and also generated gene pairs of PpSFBB genes and PpSFBB/Malus F-box protein genes. Group I consisted of gene pairs with 76.3-94.9% identity, while group II consisted of gene pairs with higher identities (>92%) than group I. This grouping suggests that less polymorphic PpSFBB genes in group II are non-S pollen genes and that the pollen S candidates are included in the group I PpSFBB genes.

  8. Effect of water deficit and domestic storage on the procyanidin profile, size, and aggregation process in pear-jujube (Z. jujuba) fruits.

    PubMed

    Collado-González, J; Cruz, Z N; Rodríguez, P; Galindo, A; Díaz-Baños, F G; García de la Torre, J; Ferreres, F; Medina, S; Torrecillas, A; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2013-07-01

    No information exists on the proanthocyanidin content of pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruit, their polymeric types and sizes, and their self-aggregation, or on the effect of different water deficit levels during the fruit maturation period on these compounds. Two trimers, two tetramers, and six B type procyanidin pentamers were identified and quantified for the first time. Water deficit increased the content of procyanidins of low molecular mass, improving their potential bioavailability and possible physiological effects on human health. The tendency of procyanidins to self-aggregate was similar in the edible portion and pit, and was not affected by water deficit. The procyanidin content of fruit from well watered trees increased during domestic cold storage, whereas the fruits from trees suffering severe water stress lost some of their procyanidin content. PMID:23750994

  9. Effect of water deficit and domestic storage on the procyanidin profile, size, and aggregation process in pear-jujube (Z. jujuba) fruits.

    PubMed

    Collado-González, J; Cruz, Z N; Rodríguez, P; Galindo, A; Díaz-Baños, F G; García de la Torre, J; Ferreres, F; Medina, S; Torrecillas, A; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2013-07-01

    No information exists on the proanthocyanidin content of pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruit, their polymeric types and sizes, and their self-aggregation, or on the effect of different water deficit levels during the fruit maturation period on these compounds. Two trimers, two tetramers, and six B type procyanidin pentamers were identified and quantified for the first time. Water deficit increased the content of procyanidins of low molecular mass, improving their potential bioavailability and possible physiological effects on human health. The tendency of procyanidins to self-aggregate was similar in the edible portion and pit, and was not affected by water deficit. The procyanidin content of fruit from well watered trees increased during domestic cold storage, whereas the fruits from trees suffering severe water stress lost some of their procyanidin content.

  10. Monitoring by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry the impact of pH and temperature on the pigment pattern of cactus pear fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José A; Castellar, Rosario; Obón, José M; Almela, Luis

    2007-03-01

    The influence of pH and moderate heating (50 degrees C) on the color and individual betacyanin content of pigment extracts from cactus pear fruits (Opuntia stricta) is studied in the course of this paper. The study is carried out by using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a photodiode array detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer. The results point to a pH-dependent degradation mechanism, which is reflected in the chromatographic patterns obtained at different exposure times (0-28 h). At pH 3, 15-descarboxy-betanin is the most resistant betacyanin derivative. At pH 5, seven peaks are detected after 8 h, the most prominent being betanin, cyclo-dopa-5-O-beta-glucoside, and betalamic. In the assay conducted at pH 7, rapid color loss affects all the pigments, except for betanin.

  11. Apples and Pears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Christine

    1999-01-01

    A mother of one set of boy-girl twins observes that boys and girls use different strategies for learning. Contends that educators and child development specialists need to reevaluate the criteria they use to determine readiness for school. (MLF)

  12. Banishing Bradford Pears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia; Cook, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Role-play provides fifth-grade students with the opportunity to develop meaningful connections to environmental science concepts and understand how those concepts relate to their community. Role-play also builds students' communication skills and increases their understanding of the attitudes of science. By participating in role-play, teachers…

  13. Profiling of compounds and degradation products from the postharvest treatment of pears and apples by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; la Farré, Marinel; Segarra, Ramon; Barceló, Damià

    2010-04-15

    This study deals with a simple strategy to pinpoint potential unknown compounds in full scan mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. Forty samples of apples and pears intended for human consumption were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight (UPLC-QqTOF-MS), after extraction of the possible contaminants by rinsing the peel of the fruit with ethyl acetate. The peaks were visually recognized in the total ion chromatogram (TIC). Two major types of postharvest treatments were detected in this set of samples: imazalil (IMZ)/ethoxyquin (EQ) and thiabendazole (TBZ)/diphenylamine (DPA). The present work also describes the metabolites formed by degradation of EQ (to our knowledge not previously reported) and DPA (there was mass spectral evidence of some of them but full identification was not pursued). Hydroxy-DPA, n-phenyl-4-quinoneimine, methoxy-DPA, demethyl-EQ, demethyldehydro-EQ, EQ-dimer, methyl-EQ, EQ-N-oxyl and 2',2,4,-trimethyl-6-quinolone were unequivocally identified and confirmed. Some relationships between the applied postharvest treatment and the metabolites formed were established. Remarkably, they may constitute a useful fingerprint in further investigations of postharvest treatments. Among other significant results, the study also reveals for the first time the presence of some EQ metabolites in fruits, which are different from those previously reported in animal tissues. There is not information on the occurrence of EQ metabolites in fruits and the DPA ones have not been studied extensively in pears and apples. The levels of the metabolites found exceeded several times those of the parent compounds.

  14. Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian C; Schieber, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold

    2002-04-10

    Betaxanthins, the yellow-orange water-soluble pigments from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cv. Bejo Zaden) and cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica cv. Gialla) have been investigated using an HPLC system compatible with mass spectrometry. Five novel betaxanthins were found and characterized as the immonium adducts of betalamic acid with serine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine. To enable concentration of betalain samples, desalting was performed by solid-phase extraction. With this technique, betacyanins could be separated from the betaxanthins using the pH-dependent retention characteristics of red and yellow betalains. The betaxanthin fraction was taken for the preparation of betalamic acid as a precursor for semisynthetic standards. The HPLC method was applied to yellow beet and cactus pear, revealing a more complex betalain profile than described earlier, thus proving its suitability for screening of betaxanthin-containing plants as potential sources for natural food colors. PMID:11929288

  15. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants. PMID:26940832

  16. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  17. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  18. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  19. Heavy metal accumulation in balsam pear and cowpea related to the geochemical factors of variable-charge soils in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Li, Shu-Yi; Liao, Xin-Rong; Dong, Jun; Li, Fang-Bai

    2014-07-01

    Variable-charge (v-c) soils in subtropical areas contain considerable amounts of iron/aluminum (Fe/Al) oxides that can strongly influence the fate of heavy metals in agricultural ecosystems. However, the relationship between heavy metal accumulation in vegetables and the geochemical factors associated with v-c soils in subtropical regions remains unknown. The present study investigated heavy metal accumulation under field conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) by measuring the content of 8 heavy metals (zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd)) in 43 pairs of v-c soil and vegetable (balsam pear and cowpea) samples. Soil physicochemical properties including pH, texture, organic matter and oxide minerals (Fe2O3, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O) were also analyzed. Heavy metal accumulation from soil to vegetables was assessed based on bioconcentration factors (BCFs). The results showed that soil extractable Fe, oxide minerals and chemical weathering indices of v-c soils strongly affected heavy metal accumulation, whereas the content of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables was strongly affected by the soil clay content. Significant correlations were found between the BCFs of heavy metals and oxide minerals. However, no significant relationship was found between pH and heavy metal accumulation (except for Cu) in balsam pear and cowpea. Correlation analyses showed that a lower oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content might indicate greater heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Hg, Cr and Ni) accumulation in vegetables. Therefore, it can be deduced that oxalate/DCB- extractable Fe content is a critical geochemical factor that determines the bioavailability of heavy metals and that iron biogeochemical cycles play vital roles in the fate of heavy metals in vegetable fields in this area. These findings provide new insights into the behaviors and fate of heavy metals in subtropical v-c soils and can be used to develop possible

  20. Effects of dormancy progression and low-temperature response on changes in the sorbitol concentration in xylem sap of Japanese pear during winter season.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-04-01

    In order to elucidate which physiological event(s) are involved in the seasonal changes of carbohydrate dynamics during winter, we examined the effects of different low temperatures on the carbohydrate concentrations of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai). For four winter seasons, large increases in the sorbitol concentration of shoot xylem sap occurred during mid- to late December, possibly due to the endodormancy completion and low-temperature responses. When trees were kept at 15 °C from 3 November to 3 December in order to postpone the initiation and completion of chilling accumulation that would break endodormancy, sorbitol accumulation in xylem sap was always higher from trees with sufficient chilling accumulation than from trees that received insufficient chilling. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred around late December in trees regardless of whether their chilling accumulation naturally progressed or was postponed. To examine different temperature effects more closely, we compared the carbohydrate concentrations of trees subjected to either 6 or 0 °C treatment. The sorbitol concentration in xylem sap tremendously increased at 0 °C treatment compared with 6 °C treatment. However, an additional increase in xylem sap sorbitol occurred at both the temperatures when sufficient chilling accumulated with a peak coinciding with the peak expression in shoots of the sorbitol transporter gene (PpSOT2). Interestingly, the total carbohydrate concentration of shoots tremendously increased with exposure to 0 °C compared with exposure to 6 °C, but was not affected by the amount of accumulated chilling. Instead, as chilling accumulated the ratio of sorbitol to total soluble sugars in shoots increased. We presumed that carbohydrates in the shoot tissues may be converted to sorbitol and loaded into the xylem sap so that the sorbitol accumulation patterns were synchronized with the progression of dormancy, whereas the total

  1. PbWoxT1 mRNA from pear (Pyrus betulaefolia) undergoes long-distance transport assisted by a polypyrimidine tract binding protein.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xuwei; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jing; Hao, Li; Wang, Shengnan; Wang, Aide; Meng, Dong; Zhang, Qiulei; Chen, Qiuju; Li, Tianzhong

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which mRNAs are transported over long distances in the phloem between the rootstock and the scion in grafted woody plants. We identified an mRNA in the pear variety 'Du Li' (Pyrus betulaefolia) that was shown to be transportable in the phloem. It contains a WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) domain and was therefore named Wox Transport 1 (PbWoxT1). A 548-bp fragment of PbWoxT1 is critical in long-distance transport. PbWoxT1 is rich in CUCU polypyrimidine domains and its mRNAs interact with a polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PbPTB3. Furthermore, the expression of PbWoxT1 significantly increased in the stems of wild-type (WT) tobacco grafted onto the rootstocks of PbWoxT1 or PbPTB3 co-overexpressing lines, but this was not the case in WT plants grafted onto PbWoxT1 overexpressing rootstocks, suggesting that PbPTB3 mediates PbWoxT1 mRNA long-distance transport. We provide novel information that adds a new mechanism with which to explain the noncell-autonomous manner of WOX gene function, which enriches our understanding of how WOX genes work in fruit trees and other species.

  2. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P.; Taranto, Adam P.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H.; Plummer, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  3. A Large Family of AvrLm6-like Genes in the Apple and Pear Scab Pathogens, Venturia inaequalis and Venturia pirina.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Jason; Van de Wouw, Angela P; Taranto, Adam P; Bowen, Joanna K; Dubois, David; Robinson, Andrew; Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M

    2015-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina are Dothideomycete fungi that cause apple scab and pear scab disease, respectively. Whole genome sequencing of V. inaequalis and V. pirina isolates has revealed predicted proteins with sequence similarity to AvrLm6, a Leptosphaeria maculans effector that triggers a resistance response in Brassica napus and B. juncea carrying the resistance gene, Rlm6. AvrLm6-like genes are present as large families (>15 members) in all sequenced strains of V. inaequalis and V. pirina, while in L. maculans, only AvrLm6 and a single paralog have been identified. The Venturia AvrLm6-like genes are located in gene-poor regions of the genomes, and mostly in close proximity to transposable elements, which may explain the expansion of these gene families. An AvrLm6-like gene from V. inaequalis with the highest sequence identity to AvrLm6 was unable to trigger a resistance response in Rlm6-carrying B. juncea. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR gene expression analyses, of in planta- and in vitro-grown V. inaequalis, has revealed that many of the AvrLm6-like genes are expressed during infection. An AvrLm6 homolog from V. inaequalis that is up-regulated during infection was shown (using an eYFP-fusion protein construct) to be localized to the sub-cuticular stroma during biotrophic infection of apple hypocotyls. PMID:26635823

  4. Respiration and protein synthesis in nongrowing cultured pear fruit cells in response to ethylene and modified atmospheres. [Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, C.J.; Romani, R.J.

    1988-07-01

    The respiration of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) cells was monitored after subculture into an auxin-free, mannitol-enriched medium in which the cells remained viable but did not grow. Respiration rates were affected by the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium even though the cells retained reserves of sucrose and starch. Provided the medium contained respirable carbohydrate, exposure to ethylene (1-10 microliters per liter) increased the respiration rate with some acceleration of cell death. In the range from 10 to 2% oxygen by volume, the respiration rate of the cells decreased with oxygen concentration resulting in some prolongation of cell life. Thus, in their responses to ethylene and modified atmospheres, the cells reflected the behavior of harvested fruits. Having defined conditions under which respiration rate could be varied without apparent influence on the quiescent state of the cells, they sought a connection between maintenance respiration and protein turnover. Relative rates of protein synthesis were assessed by measuring ribosome distribution between monosomes and polysomes. In general, the higher the respiration rate the higher the proportion of polysomes supporting the thesis that protein turnover is a variable component of maintenance metabolism. Protein turnover in cells incubated in the presence or absence of sucrose was measured as retained {alpha}-amino-{sup 3}H following a pulse of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Turnover was shown to be a quantitatively important component of the maintenance budget and to be more rapidly in cells in media supplemented with sucrose through the chase period. The experiments illustrate that cultured cells may be used to explore aspects of the maintenance metabolism of resting or senescent cells that are not amenable to study in bulky fruit tissues.

  5. Results from Stacking Grism Spectra of Galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2 in the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhavin; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Windhorst, Rogier A.; PEARS Team, FIGS Team

    2016-06-01

    We present results from median stacking of low-resolution grism spectra for ~1700 galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The data are from the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS) which is a 200 orbit HST ACS G800L grism survey in GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The visible and near-IR coverage of the grism, 6000A to 9500A, provides rest-frame visible wavelength coverage from ~3000A to ~6000A for the redshift range of our sample. We median stack galaxies of similar rest-frame u-r color and stellar mass by selecting them based on their location in our u-r color vs stellar mass diagram. The grism spectra are stacked in bins of 0.3 in u-r color and 0.5 dex in stellar mass over a range of 0.0 < u-r < 3.0 and 7.0 < log(M) [M_sol] < 11.5 with an average of ~30 galaxies per bin. We find that blue cloud galaxies typically show bluer continua, Balmer breaks and also show H-beta and [OIII] emission lines that are blended together due to the low-resolution of the grism. Red sequence galaxies typically show strong 4000A breaks and redder continua and, at lower significance, also the G-band and Mgb absorption features characteristic of late type stars. We also observe that green valley galaxies, which form ~6% of the total sample, typically show weaker 4000A breaks and relatively flatter continua at wavelengths redder than 4000A.

  6. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Dehydration Resistance in a Highly Drought-Tolerant Pear, Pyrus betulaefolia, as through RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Kong-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Xiao-San

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth, development and productivity. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms of drought tolerance in this plant are still unclear. To better understand the molecular basis regarding drought stress response, RNA-seq was performed on samples collected before and after dehydration in Pyrus betulaefolia. In total, 19,532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These genes were annotated into 144 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 18 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) involved in 129 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. These DEGs comprised 49 (26 up-regulated, 23 down-regulated), 248 (166 up-regulated, 82 down-regulated), 3483 (1295 up-regulated, 2188 down-regulated), 1455 (1065 up-regulated, 390 down-regulated) genes from the 1 h, 3 h and 6 h dehydration-treated samples and a 24 h recovery samples, respectively. RNA-seq was validated by analyzing the expresson patterns of randomly selected 16 DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR. Photosynthesis, signal transduction, innate immune response, protein phosphorylation, response to water, response to biotic stimulus, and plant hormone signal transduction were the most significantly enriched GO categories amongst the DEGs. A total of 637 transcription factors were shown to be dehydration responsive. In addition, a number of genes involved in the metabolism and signaling of hormones were significantly affected by the dehydration stress. This dataset provides valuable information regarding the Pyrus betulaefolia transcriptome changes in response to dehydration and may promote identification and functional analysis of potential genes that could be used for improving drought tolerance via genetic engineering of non-model, but economically-important, perennial species.

  7. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Related to Dehydration Resistance in a Highly Drought-Tolerant Pear, Pyrus betulaefolia, as through RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Li, Kong-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Huang, Xiao-San

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects plant growth, development and productivity. Pear is one of the most important deciduous fruit trees in the world, but the mechanisms of drought tolerance in this plant are still unclear. To better understand the molecular basis regarding drought stress response, RNA-seq was performed on samples collected before and after dehydration in Pyrus betulaefolia. In total, 19,532 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These genes were annotated into 144 Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 18 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) involved in 129 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. These DEGs comprised 49 (26 up-regulated, 23 down-regulated), 248 (166 up-regulated, 82 down-regulated), 3483 (1295 up-regulated, 2188 down-regulated), 1455 (1065 up-regulated, 390 down-regulated) genes from the 1 h, 3 h and 6 h dehydration-treated samples and a 24 h recovery samples, respectively. RNA-seq was validated by analyzing the expresson patterns of randomly selected 16 DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR. Photosynthesis, signal transduction, innate immune response, protein phosphorylation, response to water, response to biotic stimulus, and plant hormone signal transduction were the most significantly enriched GO categories amongst the DEGs. A total of 637 transcription factors were shown to be dehydration responsive. In addition, a number of genes involved in the metabolism and signaling of hormones were significantly affected by the dehydration stress. This dataset provides valuable information regarding the Pyrus betulaefolia transcriptome changes in response to dehydration and may promote identification and functional analysis of potential genes that could be used for improving drought tolerance via genetic engineering of non-model, but economically-important, perennial species. PMID:26900681

  8. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis) from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Bórquez, Jorge; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2016-01-15

    A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210-800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE)/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively).

  9. An expeditious synthesis of spinasterol and schottenol, two phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, and evaluation of their biological activities on cells of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Badreddine, Asmaa; Karym, El Mostafa; Zarrouk, Amira; Nury, Thomas; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui Malki, Mustapha; Lizard, Gérard; Samadi, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Spinasterol and schottenol, two phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, were synthesized from commercially available stigmasterol by a four steps reactions. In addition, the effects of these phytosterols on cell growth and mitochondrial activity were evaluated on 158N murine oligodendrocytes, C6 rat glioma cells, and SK-N-BE human neuronal cells with the crystal violet test and the MTT test, respectively. The effects of spinasterol and schottenol were compared with 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) and ferulic acid, which is also present in argan and cactus pear seed oil. Whatever the cells considered, dose dependent cytotoxic effects of 7KC were observed whereas no or slight effects of ferulic acid were found. With spinasterol and schottenol, no or slight effects on cell growth were detected. With spinasterol, reduced mitochondrial activities (30-50%) were found on 158N and C6 cells; no effect was found on SK-N-BE. With schottenol, reduced mitochondrial activity were revealed on 158N (50%) and C6 (10-20%) cells; no effect was found on SK-N-BE. Altogether, these data suggest that spinasterol and schottenol can modulate mitochondrial activity and might therefore influence cell metabolism.

  10. Fast Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Extracts of Easter Pears (Pyrus communis) from the Atacama Desert by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap/MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Quispe, Cristina; Bórquez, Jorge; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    A small Chilean variety of pears growing in the town of Toconao, an oasis located at the northeastern edge of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile, was studied by means of modern PDA and high resolution mass spectral data (UHPLC-PDA-HESI-orbitrap-MS/MS). In addition, the antioxidant features of the fruits were compared with the varieties Packhman's Triumph and Abate Fetel and correlated with the presence of phenolic compounds. The non-pigmented phenolics were fingerprinted and related to the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. The machine allowed a fast separation of 15 min employing a flow rate of 1 mL per minute and could accurately identify 25 compounds, including several isorhamnetin derivatives and phenolic acids, present in the peel and pulps of this Chilean variety for the first time. The compounds were monitored using a wavelength range of 210-800 nm. The native small Chilean pear showed the highest antioxidant activity measured as the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power and superoxide anion scavenging activity (8.61 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 712.63 ± 12.12 micromols trolox equivalents (μmol/TE)/100 g FW, and 82.89% ± 2.52% at 100 μg/mL, respectively). PMID:26784158

  11. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  12. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  13. Dietary indicaxanthin from cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Mill) fruit prevents eryptosis induced by oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion and adhesion of human erythrocytes to endothelial cell layers.

    PubMed

    Tesoriere, Luisa; Attanzio, Alessandro; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2015-08-14

    Toxic oxysterols in a hypercholesterolaemia-relevant proportion cause suicidal death of human erythrocytes or eryptosis. This process proceeds through early production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of prostaglandin (PGE2) and opening of PGE2-dependent Ca channels, membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalisation, and cell shrinkage. The present study was the first to reveal that a bioavailable phytochemical, indicaxanthin (Ind) from cactus pear fruit, in a concentration range (1.0-5.0 μM) consistent with its plasma level after a fruit meal, prevents PS externalisation and cell shrinkage in a dose-dependent manner when incubated with isolated healthy human erythrocytes exposed to an oxysterol mixture for 48 h. Dietary Ind inhibited ROS production, glutathione (GSH) depletion, PGE2 release and Ca2+ entry. Ind alone did not modify the erythrocyte redox environment or affect other parameters. Ex vivo spiking of normal human blood with the oxysterol mixture for 48 h induced eryptosis, resulting in the production of ROS and decreased levels of GSH, which was prevented by concurrent exposure to 5 μm-Ind. The adherence of eryptotic erythrocytes to the endothelium causes vascular tissue injury. Erythrocytes isolated from blood incubated with the oxysterol mixture plus 5 μm-Ind did not adhere to endothelial cell monolayers. Eryptotic erythrocytes may contribute to thrombotic complications in hypercholesterolaemia. Our findings suggest the positive effects of diets containing Ind on erythrocytes in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  14. Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta systems since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China Sea. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial systems (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China Sea and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta systems and their respone to the tectonic and sea level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta systems which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta systems occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta systems are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta systems are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta systems are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta systems are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta systems. The delta systems underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge

  15. Physiological Disorders of Pear Shoot Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological disorders are some of the most difficult challenges in micropropagation. Little is known of the causes of plant growth disorders which include callus formation, hyperhydricity, shoot tip necrosis, leaf lesions, epinasty, fasciation and hypertrophy. During our study of mineral nutritio...

  16. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or... name of the spice, “Seasoned with vinegar”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The style and forms of units of the...

  17. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or... name of the spice, “Seasoned with vinegar”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The style and forms of units of the...

  18. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or... name of the spice, “Seasoned with vinegar”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The style and forms of units of the...

  19. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or... name of the spice, “Seasoned with vinegar”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The style and forms of units of the...

  20. 21 CFR 145.175 - Canned pears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional ingredients. (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or... name of the spice, “Seasoned with vinegar”. When two or more of the optional ingredients specified in..., “Seasoned with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (ii) The style and forms of units of the...