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Sample records for peat sphagnum magallanicum

  1. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  2. Isotope evidence for N2-fixation in Sphagnum peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Jackova, Ivana; Buzek, Frantisek; Stepanova, Marketa; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Curik, Jan; Prechova, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Waterlogged organic soils store as much as 30 % of the world's soil carbon (C), and 15 % of the world's soil nitrogen (N). In the era of climate change, wetlands are vulnerable to increasing temperatures and prolonged periods of low rainfall. Higher rates of microbial processes and/or changing availability of oxygen may lead to peat thinning and elevated emissions of greenhouse gases (mostly CO2, but also CH4 and N2O). Biogeochemical cycling of C and N in peat bogs is coupled. Under low levels of pollution by reactive nitrogen (NO3-, NH4+), increasing N inputs may positively affect C storage in peat. Recent studies in North America and Scandinavia have suggested that pristine bogs are characterized by significant rates of microbial N2 fixation that augments C storage in the peat substrate. We present a nitrogen isotope study aimed at corroborating these findings. We conducted an isotope inventory of N fluxes and pools at two Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). For the first time, we present a time-series of del15N values of atmospheric input at the same locations as del15N values of living Sphagnum and peat. The mean del15N values systematically increased in the order: input NH4+ (-10.0 ‰) < input NO3- (-7.9 ‰) < peat porewater (-5.6 ‰) < Sphagnum (-5.0 ‰) < shallow peat (-4.2 ‰) < deep peat (-2.2 ‰) < runoff (-1.4 ‰) < porewater N2O (1.4 ‰). Importantly, N of Sphagnum was isotopically heavier than N of the atmospheric input (p < 0.001). If partial incorporation of reactive N from the atmosphere into Sphagnum was isotopically selective, the residual N would have to be isotopically extremely light. Such N, however, was not identified anywhere in the ecosystem. Alternatively, Sphagnum may have contained an admixture of isotopically heavier N from atmospheric N2 (del15N N2 = 0 ‰). We conlude that the N isotope systematics at the two Czech sites is consistent with the concept of significant N2 fixation

  3. Preferential degradation of polyphenols from Sphagnum - 4-Isopropenylphenol as a proxy for past hydrological conditions in Sphagnum-dominated peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bindler, Richard; Martínez-Cortizas, Antonio; McClymont, Erin L.; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Biester, Harald; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Buurman, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The net accumulation of remains of Sphagnum spp. is fundamental to the development of many peatlands. The effect of polyphenols from Sphagnum on decomposition processes is frequently cited but has barely been studied. The central area of the Rödmossamyran peatland (Sweden) is an open lawn that consists mostly of Sphagnum spp. with a very low contribution from vascular plants. In order to determine the effects of decay on sphagnum phenols, 53 samples of a 2.7 m deep core from this lawn were analysed with pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pyrolysis-GC-MS) and compared with more traditional decomposition proxies such as C/N ratio, UV light transmission of alkaline peat extracts, and bulk density. Factor analysis of 72 quantified pyrolysis products suggested that the variation in 4-isopropenylphenol was largely determined by aerobic decomposition instead of Sphagnum abundance. In order to evaluate the effects of aerobic decay in Sphagnum peat, down-core records from different climatic regions were compared using molecular markers for plant biopolymers and C/N ratio. These included markers for lignin from vascular plants ((di)methoxyphenols), polyphenols from Sphagnum spp. (4-isopropenylphenol), and cellulose (levoglucosan). Our results indicate that polyphenols from Sphagnum are preferentially degraded over polysaccharides; consequently the variability of the marker for sphagnum acid, 4-isopropenylphenol, was found indicative of decomposition instead of reflecting the abundance of Sphagnum remains. The fact that 4-isopropenylphenol is aerobically degraded in combination with its specificity for Sphagnum spp. makes it a consistent indicator of past hydrological conditions in Sphagnum-dominated peat. In contrast, the variability of C/N records in Sphagnum-dominated peat was influenced by both vegetation shifts and decomposition, and the dominant effect differed between the studied peatlands. Our results provide direction for modelling studies that try to

  4. Acidophilic Methanotrophic Communities from Sphagnum Peat Bogs

    PubMed Central

    Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Panikov, Nicolai S.; Tiedje, James M.

    1998-01-01

    Highly enriched methanotrophic communities (>25 serial transfers) were obtained from acidic ombrotrophic peat bogs from four boreal forest sites. The enrichment strategy involved using media conditions that were associated with the highest rates of methane uptake by the original peat samples, namely, the use of diluted mineral medium of low buffering capacity, moderate incubation temperature (20°C), and pH values of 3 to 6. Enriched communities contained a mixture of rod-shaped bacteria arranged in aggregates with a minor contribution of Hyphomicrobium-like cells. The growth stoichiometry of isolates was characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria (CH4/O2/CO2=1:1.1:0.59), with an average apparent yield of 0.41 ± 0.03 g of biomass C/g of CH4-C. DNA from each enrichment yielded a PCR product of the expected size with primers for both mmoX and mmoY genes of soluble methane monooxygenase. Two types of sequences were obtained for PCR-amplified fragments of mmoX. One of them exhibited high identity to the mmoX protein of the Methylocystis-Methylosinus group, whereas the other showed an equal level of divergence from both the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group and Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and formed a distinct branch. The pH optimum for growth and for CH4 uptake was 4.5 to 5.5, which is very similar to that for the optimum CH4 uptake observed in the original peat samples. These methanotrophs are moderate acidophiles rather than acidotolerant organisms, since their growth rate and methane uptake were much lower at neutral pH. The growth of the methanotrophic community was enhanced by using media with a very low salt content (20 to 200 mg/liter), more typical of their natural environment. All four enriched communities grew on N-free medium. PMID:9501432

  5. Copper and zinc adsorption onto poorly humified Sphagnum and Carex peat.

    PubMed

    Ringqvist, L; Oborn, I

    2002-05-01

    Peat generally has a high adsorption capacity and has been suggested as an adsorbent for metals in polluted waters. However, the adsorption potential of peat can be expected to be strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the water. In this study, the effect of pH, ionic strength (CaCl2 and NaCl concentrations), and metal concentration on Cu and Zn adsorption onto poorly humified Sphagnum and Carex peat was investigated in batch experiments using a fractional factorial experimental design. The pH value was varied between 4 and 8, the CaCl2 and NaCl concentrations between 1.2-6.2 and 0.4-43 mM, respectively, and the Cu and Zn concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mM. The amount of Zn adsorbed increased more with increasing pH than the amount of Cu adsorbed. The effect of NaCl/CaCl2 concentration was minor. It was found that Zn adsorption in particular, but also Cu adsorption, increased more with pH onto Carex peat than onto Sphagnum peat. In the pH interval 4-8, the removal of Zn from the solution increased from 0% to 80% using Carex peat and from 10% to 65% using Sphagnum peat as the adsorbent. The Carex peat sample decreased the Cu concentration by 80% at pH 4 and by 95% at pH 8 and for Sphagnum peat a decrease of 85% was maintained in the pH range investigated. The differences between Sphagnum and Carex peat were attributed to the habitat conditions at the time of peat formation. Carex peat has higher ash, nitrogen and sulphur concentrations, while Sphagnum peat contains a higher amount of uronic acid. In treating polluted waters with peat, a higher degree of metal removal can be expected at high pH values than at low. The removal of Cu, which has a high affinity to the peat surface, was less dependent on pH than Zn removal. Poorly humified Carex peat should be chosen in treating wastewaters high in pH.

  6. Effect of fire on phosphorus forms in Sphagnum moss and peat soils of ombrotrophic bogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoping; Yu, Xiaofei; Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Gao, Chuanyu; Lin, Qianxin; Lu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of burning Sphagnum moss and peat on phosphorus forms was studied with controlled combustion in the laboratory. Two fire treatments, a light fire (250 °C) and a severe fire (600 °C), were performed in a muffle furnace with 1-h residence time to simulate the effects of different forest fire conditions. The results showed that fire burning Sphagnum moss and peat soils resulted in losses of organic phosphorus (Po), while inorganic phosphorus (Pi) concentrations increased. Burning significantly changed detailed phosphorus composition and availability, with severe fires destroying over 90% of organic phosphorus and increasing the availability of inorganic P by more than twofold. Our study suggest that, while decomposition processes in ombrotrophic bogs occur very slowly, rapid changes in the form and availability of phosphorus in vegetation and litter may occur as the result of forest fires on peat soils.

  7. Effect of water-table fluctuations on the degradation of Sphagnum phenols in surficial peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Swain, Eleanor Y.; Muhammad, Aminu B.; Allton, Kathryn; Belyea, Lisa R.; Laing, Christopher G.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2013-04-01

    A much improved understanding of how water-table fluctuations near the surface affect decomposition and preservation of peat-forming plant litter and surficial peats is needed in order to predict possible feedbacks between the peatland carbon cycle and the global climate system. In this study peatland plants (bryophytes and vascular plants), their litter and peat cores were collected from the Ryggmossen peatland in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden. The extracted insoluble residues from whole plant tissues were depolymerized using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) in the presence of both unlabelled and 13C-labelled tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) which yielded both vascular plant- and Sphagnum-derived phenols. Methylated 4-isopropenylphenol (IUPAC: 1-methoxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzene), methylated cis- and trans-3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-2-enoic acid (IUPAC: (E/Z)-methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-2-enoate), and methylated 3-(4'-hydroxyphen-1-yl)but-3-enoic acid (IUPAC: methyl 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)but-3-enoate) (van der Heijden et al., 1997) are confirmed as TMAH thermochemolysis products of "bound" sphagnum acid and also as being specific to Sphagnum mosses. These putative biomarkers were also significant components in the unlabelled TMAH thermochemolysis products from the depolymerization of ultrasonically extracted samples from eight peat cores, one from a hummock and one from a hollow at each of the four stages along the bog plateau-to-swamp forest gradient. We have proposed and measured two parameters namely (i) σ which is defined as the total amount of these four molecules normalised to 100 mg of OC; and (ii) an index (SR%) which is the ratio of σ to the Λ parameter giving a measure of the relative amounts of "bound" sphagnum acid to the "bound" vascular plant phenols in peat moss and the surficial peat layers. Changes in σ and SR% down the bog plateau (BP), bog margin (BM) and fen lagg (FL) cores in the Ryggmossen mire indicates

  8. Carbon release from Sphagnum peat during thawing in a montane area in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Song, Changchun; Wang, Jiaoyue; Miao, Yuqing; Mao, Rong; Song, Yanyu

    2013-08-01

    Soil thawing may affect the turnover of soil organic carbon (C) and the release of C to the atmosphere. Little is known about C release during thawing in the Great Hing'an Mountains, China. Through the incubations, we studied the emissions of CO2 and CH4 during thawing from the Sphagnum moss layer to the permafrost layer under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Carbon was released quickly during thawing under different conditions. The Sphagnum moss layer produced more CO2 than the other layers. However, there was little CH4 release during thawing in the Sphagnum moss layer and burst of CH4 emissions in the peat and permafrost soils. These bursts include stored CH4 in the frozen samples and productions from microbial activity. The temperature sensitivity during thawing decreased across the freezing point in the Sphagnum moss layer, did not change greatly in the root layer, and increased greatly in the peat and permafrost layers. Changes in soil substrates and enzyme activities may affect C release during thawing.

  9. [Detection of representatives of the Planctomycetes in Sphagnum peat bogs by molecular and cultivation methods].

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    By means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes (FISH), it has been shown that members of the phylum Planctomycetes represent a numerically significant bacterial group in boreal Sphagnum peat bogs. The population size of planctomycetes in oxic layers of the peat bog profile was in the range of 0.4-2.0 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising 4 to 13% of the total bacterial cell number. A novel effective approach that combined a traditional cultivation technique with FISH-mediated monitoring of the target organism during the isolation procedure has been developed for the isolation of planctomycetes. Using this approach, we succeeded in isolating several peat-inhabiting planctomycetes in a pure culture. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from two of these isolates, strains A10 and MPL7, showed that they belonged to the planctomycete lineages defined by the genera Gemmata and Planctomyces, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains A10 and MPL7 and the phylogenetically closest organisms, namely, Gemmata obscuriglobus and Planctomyces limnophilus, was only 90%. These results suggest that the indigenous planctomycetes inhabiting Sphagnum peat bogs are so far unknown organisms.

  10. Titanium in ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses from various peat bogs of Germany and Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kempter, Heike; Frenzel, Burkhard

    2008-03-25

    Titanium concentrations and Ti inventories (total Ti in the sample) in living Sphagnum mosses from the surfaces of eight ombrotrophic peat bogs of five different regions of Germany and Belgium were studied over a period of two years (1995-7). Six to ten peat moss samples with a given surface area (100 cm2) and length (5 cm) were collected at different sites in the peat bogs studied several times (every six weeks to three months) during a year. Variability of Ti concentrations and inventories were determined within each peat bog for the species S. magellanicum, S. rubellum, S. papillosum, and S. cuspidatum, for the microhabitats 'lawn', 'slope' and 'hollow', as well as for the studied peat bogs of different regions and for each season. Likewise, Ti concentration values were determined for the moss plant segments: 'capitulum', 'living green' and 'dead brown'. Ti concentrations and inventories were found to be highly variable, even in one species of the same peat bog and at the same time. Moreover, median Ti concentrations and inventories of different species and microhabitats were quite similar to one another. As a result, we suggest that more productive species might be able to accumulate more Ti onto their bigger surface areas than the less productive ones. Besides, Ti particles might be transported downwards with the water and accumulated by the mosses over a longer time period than only one year. To reliably specify the variations in the geochemistry of peat mosses on the peat bog surface the annual production of each collected Sphagnum sample has to be exactly known and samples of equal ages and time periods they were exposed to atmospheric deposition have to be studied.

  11. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process.

  12. Substrate-induced growth and isolation of Acidobacteria from acidic Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofei A; Serkebaeva, Yulia M; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2008-05-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to estimate the population size of the poorly characterized phylum Acidobacteria in acidic peat sampled from nine different Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. The cell numbers of these bacteria in oxic peat layers ranged from 0.4 x 10(6) to 1.3 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, comprising up to 4% of total bacterial cells. Substrate-induced growth of acidobacteria was observed after amendment of peat samples with glucose, pectin, xylan, starch, ethanol and methanol, while weak or no response was obtained for acetate, pyruvate, mannitol and cellobiose. Using low-nutrient media and FISH-mediated monitoring of the isolation procedure, we succeeded in obtaining nine strains of acidobacteria in pure cultures. These strains belonged to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria and represented strictly aerobic, heterotrophic organisms. Except for methanol, the substrate utilization patterns of these isolates matched the results obtained in our substrate-amendment experiments with native peat. All strains were also capable of utilizing galacturonic acid, a characteristic component of the cell wall in Sphagnum spp, which is released during moss decomposition. Most isolates from subdivision 1 were truly acidophilic organisms with the growth optimum at pH 3.5-4.5, while the isolates from subdivision 3 grew optimally at pH 5.5-6.5. Another important phenotypic trait of novel strains was their capability of active growth at low temperatures. Both acidophily and low-temperature growth are consistent with the occurrence of acidobacteria in cold and acidic northern wetlands.

  13. Effects of sulphuric compounds on the ATP content of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1984-01-01

    Luminometric determination of ATP in the photosynthetic tissues of the peat moss Sphagnum fuscum proved to be a suitable technique in studying the effects of bisulphite and sulphate on the metabolism of the mosses. The method has the advantage that it is rapid and easy to perform, and that the results are reliable and equal with those obtained by using other techniques. Bisulphite (HSO/sub 3//sup -/) caused marked reductions in the ATP contents at the 1 mM level, and the 5 mM level was clearly detrimental to the energy metabolism of the mosses. In contrast, sulphate (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) increased the ATP contents markedly.

  14. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at the U.S. peat market as of July 2013. Peat is produced from deposits of plant organic materials in wetlands and includes varieties such as reed-sedge, sphagnum moss, and humus. Use for peat include horticultural soil additives, filtration, and adsorbents. Other topics include effects of environmental protection regulations on peat extraction, competition from products such as coir, composted organic waste, and wood products, and peatland carbon sinks.

  15. Bacterial populations and environmental factors controlling cellulose degradation in an acidic Sphagnum peat.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Ivanova, Anastasia O; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner

    2011-07-01

    Northern peatlands represent a major global carbon store harbouring approximately one-third of the global reserves of soil organic carbon. A large proportion of these peatlands consists of acidic Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs, which are characterized by extremely low rates of plant debris decomposition. The degradation of cellulose, the major component of Sphagnum-derived litter, was monitored in long-term incubation experiments with acidic (pH 4.0) peat extracts. This process was almost undetectable at 10°C and occurred at low rates at 20°C, while it was significantly accelerated at both temperature regimes by the addition of available nitrogen. Cellulose breakdown was only partially inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that bacteria participated in this process. We aimed to identify these bacteria by a combination of molecular and cultivation approaches and to determine the factors that limit their activity in situ. The indigenous bacterial community in peat was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The addition of cellulose induced a clear shift in the community structure towards an increase in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes. Increasing temperature and nitrogen availability resulted in a selective development of bacteria phylogenetically related to Cytophaga hutchinsonii (94-95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which densely colonized microfibrils of cellulose. Among isolates obtained from this community only some subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were capable of degrading cellulose, albeit at a very slow rate. These Acidobacteria represent indigenous cellulolytic members of the microbial community in acidic peat and are easily out-competed by Cytophaga-like bacteria under conditions of increased nitrogen availability. Members of the phylum Firmicutes, known to be key players in cellulose degradation in neutral habitats, were not detected in the cellulolytic community enriched at low pH.

  16. [High abundance of planctomycetes in anoxic layers of a Sphagnum peat bog].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A O; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    The depth distribution of planctomycete abundance has been examined in six different sites of the Sphagnum peat bog in Bakchar, Tomsk oblast, Russia. In situ hybridization of peat with the fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes PLA46 and PLA886, reported to be group-specific for representatives of the phylum Planctomycetes, revealed two distinct population maxima of these bacteria in all of the profiles examined. The first population maximum was detected in the uppermost, oxic layer of the bog profile, while the second maximum was located at a depth of 30 cm below the water table level. The population sizes of planctomycetes in the uppermost layer and at a depth of 30 cm were of the same order of magnitude and comprised 0.5-1.5 x 10(7) and 0.4-0.7 x 10(7) cells per g of wet peat, respectively. Only 25-30% of the total number of planctomycete cells in the anoxic layer could be detected if the probe PLA886, whose target specificity is restricted to taxonomically characterized aerobic planctomycetes of the genera Gemmata, Planctomyces, Pirellula, and Isosphaera, was used alone. Other planctomycete cells in this layer were detected only with the probe PLA46, which possesses a much wider scope. This suggests the affiliation of these organisms with a yet undescribed phylogenetic subgroup within the Planctomycetes.

  17. Relative importance of local habitat complexity and regional factors for assemblages of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A

    2016-11-01

    We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.

  18. The narrow endemic Norwegian peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum originated before the last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Stenøien, H K; Shaw, A J; Stengrundet, K; Flatberg, K I

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly found that individual hybrid, polyploid species originate recurrently and that many polyploid species originated relatively recently. It has been previously hypothesized that the extremely rare allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum troendelagicum has originated multiple times, possibly after the last glacial maximum in Scandinavia. This conclusion was based on low linkage disequilibrium in anonymous genetic markers within natural populations, in which sexual reproduction has never been observed. Here we employ microsatellite markers and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA)-encoded trnG sequence data to test hypotheses concerning the origin and evolution of this species. We find that S. tenellum is the maternal progenitor and S. balticum is the paternal progenitor of S. troendelagicum. Using various Bayesian approaches, we estimate that S. troendelagicum originated before the Holocene but not before c. 80 000 years ago (median expected time since speciation 40 000 years before present). The observed lack of complete linkage disequilibrium in the genome of this species suggests cryptic sexual reproduction and recombination. Several lines of evidence suggest multiple origins for S. troendelagicum, but a single origin is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. We hypothesize that S. troendelagicum originated in a peat-dominated refugium before last glacial maximum, and subsequently immigrated to central Norway by means of spore flow during the last thousands of years. PMID:20717162

  19. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evan; Iv, Edward J Nolan; Dillard, Zachary W; Dague, Ryan D; Semple, Amanda L; Wentzell, Wendi L

    2015-04-02

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  20. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  1. Vertical variation of δ13C of sphagnum in the four peat cores collected from both the hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, S.; Akagi, T.; Franzen, L.; McCulloch, R.; Skrzypek, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotope profiles of the organic burials in several peat lands have been reported and have been discussed in terms of some local climatic and/or environmental conditions such as moistness, local CO2 supply from fossil carbon combustion, etc. In order to discuss the influence of some global environmental factors on the carbon isotope composition of sphagnum, we have sampled four peat cores from the world: two high latitudinal location in the Northern hemisphere (Fallahogy, Northern Ireland and Suche Bagno, Poland), one medium latitudinal site in the Northern hemisphere (Oze, Japan), and one high latitudinal site in the Southern hemisphere (Harbarton, Argentina). Here we report the vertical profiles of δ13C of sphagnum in the four peat cores. The peat core samples were divided to 2-5cm and dried. After drying we separated only sphagnum tissues with tweezers. The waxes and oils in the collected sphagnum material were removed with a mixture solvent of benzene and ethanol by soxhlet extraction and then lignin and cellulose components were isolated from the treated samples and the recovered components were weighed. The δ13C of the three components (the treated sample, lignin and cellulose components) were measured with EA-IRMS. The 14C ages were also measured using some of the treated samples. The δ13C variations of the cores showed a similar general tend to become greater with time and it is very interesting that the range of the δ13C changes were equally 2.5-3‰. Although the possibility of the diagensis of organic materials cannot be ruled out as the cause of the changes at the moment, a global factor, such as gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration during the last ten millennia years, may be one of the candidates for the cause. Besides some simultaneous changes, some minor local changes are also noticeable. It has been reported that the δ13C of sphagnum varies with several factors: species, tissue, lignin/cellulose ratio, water

  2. An attempt to extract climatic factors from δ13C record of sphagnum peat cores in both the hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, T.; Ooki, S.; Franzen, L.; McCulloch, R.

    2009-12-01

    The reconstruction of the atmospheric CO2 concentration of the near past less than 10,000 years ago is still poorly established, mainly because of the low time-resolution of the analysis of the air trapped in ice cores. To discuss the recent rapid change of the global climate, the CO2 record with time resolution as high as several tens years is needed. Carbon isotope ratio of sphagnum tissues may change depending on many factors. White et al. (1994) reconstructed the atmospheric CO2 concentration from δ13C data of sphagnum after the correction for a moisture condition using δ13C of carex. The work evoked the skepticism on the method from some scientists: for instance Price et al. (1997) reported that δ13C of sphagnum responded to a moisture condition parabolically, which cast a doubt on the correction method for moistness of White et al. (1994). However, our preliminary study of δ13C record of a mid-latitudal peat core from Japan presented an interesting δ13C profile resembling a high resolution record of sea level (Akagi et al., 2004), implying that the above-mentioned effects may not impose a serious constant influence over several tens of years on peat cores. To reevaluate the effectiveness of peat cores as a proxy of the atmospheric CO2, we have approached the problem from an opposite direction. Our hypothesis is that similar isotopic signals must be observed in any peat cores from the world, if the δ13C of sphagnum reflects the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In this paper the δ13C signals of the sphagnum collected from two high-latitudal peat cores (Farahogy, Northern Island, and Herberton, Argentine) from both the hemispheres are compared. The similarity and differences are discussed separately. The difference may be attributable to the temperature difference in both the hemispheres, and the similarity possibly to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, as the similarity again shows the fluctuation resembling the sea level fluctuation.

  3. Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov., a photochromogenic bacterium isolated from sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, Geoffrey D; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Fordice, Daniel; Welch, Jacqueline B; Dahl, John L

    2013-01-01

    Several intermediate-growing, photochromogenic bacteria were isolated from sphagnum peat bogs in northern Minnesota, USA. Acid-fast staining and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed these environmental isolates in the genus Mycobacterium, and colony morphologies and PCR restriction analysis patterns of the isolates were similar. Partial sequences of hsp65 and dnaJ1 from these isolates showed that Mycobacterium arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T) was the closest mycobacterial relative, and common biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities existed between the isolates and M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T). However, compared to nonchromogenic M. arupense ATCC BAA-1242(T), the environmental isolates were photochromogenic, had a different mycolic acid profile and had reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity in liquid culture. The data reported here support the conclusion that the isolates are representatives of a novel mycobacterial species, for which the name Mycobacterium minnesotense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DL49(T) (=DSM 45633(T) = JCM 17932(T) = NCCB 100399(T)).

  4. [Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia as a typical component of the microbial community of sphagnum peat bogs].

    PubMed

    Belova, S E; Pankratov, T A; Dedysh, S N

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Burkholderia are a typical component of the microbial complex of sphagnum peat bogs and constitute a substantial portion of the aerobic chemoorganotrophic isolates which are routinely obtained from these environments on acidic nutrient media. The ecophysiological characteristics of the 27 strains of such organisms, which were isolated from the peat of acidic sphagnum bogs of the boreal and tundra zones of Russia, Canada, and Estonia, were investigated in the present paper. The overwhelming majority of the Burkholderia strains isolated from these bogs were phylogenetically close to the species B. glathei, B. phenazinium, B. fungorum, and B. caryophylli, the typical inhabitants of soil and plant rhizosphere. The bog isolates utilized a broad range of substrates as carbon and energy sources, including organic acids, sugars, polyalcohols, and certain aromatic compounds. All the strains studied were capable of growth on nitrogen-free media. They developed in the pH ranges of 3.5 to 7.4 and from 3 to 37 degrees C, with the optima at pH 5-7 and 11-23 degrees C, respectively. They were therefore moderately acidophilic, psychroactive, dinitrogen-fixing microorganisms well adapted to the conditions of acidic northern sphagnum bogs.

  5. Greenhouse gas exchange of rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades an increasing area of drained peatlands has been rewetted. Especially in Germany, rewetting is the principal treatment on cutover sites when peat extraction is finished. The objectives are bog restoration and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first sites were rewetted in the 1980s. Thus, there is a good opportunity to study long-term effects of rewetting on greenhouse gas exchange, which has not been done so far on temperate cutover peatlands. Moreover, Sphagnum cultivating may become a new way to use cutover peatlands and agriculturally used peatlands as it permits the economical use of bogs under wet conditions. The climate impact of such measures has not been studied yet. We conducted a field study on the exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide at three rewetted sites with a gradient from dry to wet conditions and at a Sphagnum cultivation site in NW Germany over the course of more than 2 years. Gas fluxes were measured using transparent and opaque closed chambers. The ecosystem respiration (CO2) and the net ecosystem exchange (CO2) were modelled at a high temporal resolution. Measured and modelled values fit very well together. Annually cumulated gas flux rates, net ecosystem carbon balances (NECB) and global warming potential (GWP) balances were determined. The annual net ecosystem exchange (CO2) varied strongly at the rewetted sites (from -201.7 ± 126.8 to 29.7± 112.7g CO2-C m-2 a-1) due to differing weather conditions, water levels and vegetation. The Sphagnum cultivation site was a sink of CO2 (-118.8 ± 48.1 and -78.6 ± 39.8 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). The annual CH4 balances ranged between 16.2 ± 2.2 and 24.2 ± 5.0g CH4-C m-2 a-1 at two inundated sites, while one rewetted site with a comparatively low water level and the Sphagnum farming site show CH4 fluxes close to 0. The net N2O fluxes were low and not significantly different between the four sites. The annual NECB was between -185.5 ± 126.9 and 49

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from rewetted bog peat extraction sites and a Sphagnum cultivation site in Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, C.; Höper, H.

    2014-03-01

    . The yearly GWP100 balances ranged from -280.5 ± 465.2 to 644.5 ± 413.6 g CO2-eq. m-2 a-1 at the rewetted sites. In contrast, the Sphagnum farming site had a cooling impact on the climate in both years (-356.8 ± 176.5 and -234.9 ± 145.9 g CO2-C m-2 a-1). If the exported carbon through the harvest of the Sphagnum biomass and the additional CO2 emission from the decay of the organic material is considered, the NECB and GWP100 balances are near neutral. Peat mining sites are likely to become net carbon sinks and a peat accumulating ("growing") peatland within 30 years after rewetting, but the GWP100 balance may still be positive. A recommended measure for rewetting is to achieve a water level of a few centimetres below ground surface. Sphagnum farming is a climate friendly alternative to conventional commercial use of bogs. A year round constant water level of a few centimetres below ground level should be maintained.

  7. Maternal transmission of cytoplasmic DNA in interspecific hybrids of peat mosses, Sphagnum (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Natcheva, R; Cronberg, N

    2007-07-01

    The progeny of spontaneous interspecific hybrid sporophytes of Sphagnum were used to analyse the inheritance of cytoplasmic DNA. The analysis showed that only the female parent donated chloroplasts and mitochondria in Sphagnum hybrids. Thus, this is the first study demonstrating maternal cytoplasmic inheritance in a nonvascular land plant. This finding has important implications for phylogenetic reconstructions utilizing chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA sequences as well as for the evolution of cytoplasmic inheritance in relation to the life cycle of land plants.

  8. Bacillus acidicola sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, acidophilic species isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Albert, Richard A; Archambault, Julieta; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Tindall, Brian J; Matheny, Mike

    2005-09-01

    A mesophilic, acidophilic, spore-forming bacterium, strain 105-2(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog in Wisconsin, USA. Strain 105-2(T) has 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T) of 97.4 and 97.8%, respectively. The primary lipoquinone is MK-7 and the major fatty acids are 15:0 iso, 15:0 anteiso and 17:0 anteiso. The predominant polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and a glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was found to be 43.2 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular analyses identified strain 105-2(T) as a novel Bacillus species, for which the name Bacillus acidicola is proposed. The type strain is 105-2(T) (=DSM 14745(T)=ATCC BAA-366(T)=NRRL B-23453(T)).

  9. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of pmoA amplicons confirms the prevalence of Methylomonas and Methylocystis in Sphagnum mosses from a Dutch peat bog.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Dutilh, Bas E; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; Neveling, Kornelia; Kwint, Michael P; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-12-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs in these ecosystems have been shown to reduce methane emissions and provide additional carbon to Sphagnum mosses. However, little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses in these peatlands. In this study, we applied a pmoA microarray and high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing to pmoA PCR products obtained from total DNA from Sphagnum mosses from a Dutch peat bog to investigate the presence of methanotrophs and to compare the two different methods. Both techniques showed comparable results and revealed an abundance of Methylomonas and Methylocystis species in the Sphagnum mosses. The advantage of the microarray analysis is that it is fast and cost-effective, especially when many samples have to be screened. Pyrosequencing is superior in providing pmoA sequences of many unknown or uncultivated methanotrophs present in the Sphagnum mosses and, thus, provided much more detailed and quantitative insight into the microbial diversity.

  10. [Isolation and characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum from the soil of a Sphagnum peat bog].

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, E V; Bulygina, E S; Spiridonova, E M; Turova, T P; Kravchenko, I K

    2007-01-01

    The presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Azospirillum in the soils of acidic raised Sphagnum bogs is revealed for the first time. Three Azospirillum strains, B2, B21, and B22, were isolated as a component of methane-oxidizing enrichment cultures, whereas attempts to isolate them directly from peat samples have failed. The results of comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA genes, DNA-DNA hybridization, and the analysis of the sequences of the functional genes encoding nitrogenase and ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase reveal that all the newly obtained strains can be classified as Azospirillum lipoferum. Yet, unlike A. lipoferum. the isolates do not require biotin and utilize sucrose, inositol, and glycerol for growth. The cell morphology of strain B2 differs from that of the type strain and strains B21 and B22. The results obtained indicate the variability of morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties in closely related Azospirillum strains and suggest the existence of metabolic relationships between methanotrophic bacteria and the representatives of the genus Azospirillum under peat bog conditions.

  11. Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov., a planctomycete from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Singulisphaera.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Detkova, Ekaterina N; Bodelier, Paul L E; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-01-01

    An aerobic, pink-pigmented, budding bacterium, designated strain S26(T), was isolated from an acidic Sphagnum peat bog of north-western Russia. Cells were non-motile and spherical, occurring singly, in pairs or in short chains, and were able to attach to surfaces by means of a holdfast material. Strain S26(T) was a moderately acidophilic, mesophilic organism capable of growth at pH 3.2-7.1 (optimum at pH 4.8-5.0) and at 4-33 °C (optimum at 20-26 °C). Most sugars, several organic acids and polyalcohols were the preferred growth substrates. The major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6c,12c. The major neutral lipids were n-C(31:9) hydrocarbon and squalene; the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and components with an unknown structure. The DNA G+C content of strain S26(T) was 62.2 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain S26(T) is a member of the order Planctomycetales. Among taxonomically characterized representatives of this order, highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (95.1-95.2%) were observed with strains of the non-filamentous, peat-inhabiting planctomycete Singulisphaera acidiphila. Strain S26(T) could be differentiated from Singulisphaera acidiphila based on pigmentation, significant differences in substrate utilization patterns, greater tolerance of acidic conditions and the presence of C(16:1)ω9c. Based on the data presented, strain S26(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Singulisphaera, for which the name Singulisphaera rosea sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is S26(T) (=DSM 23044(T)=VKM B-2599(T)).

  12. Freezing cytorrhysis and critical temperature thresholds for photosystem II in the peat moss Sphagnum capillifolium.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Neuner, Gilbert

    2010-07-01

    Leaflets of Sphagnum capillifolium were exposed to temperatures from -5 degrees C to +60 degrees C under controlled conditions while mounted on a microscope stage. The resultant cytological response to these temperature treatments was successfully monitored using a light and fluorescence microscope. In addition to the observable cytological changes during freezing cytorrhysis and heat exposure on the leaflets, the concomitant critical temperature thresholds for inactivation of photosystem II (PS II) were studied using a micro fibre optic and a chlorophyll fluorometer mounted to the microscope stage. Chlorophyllous cells of S. capillifolium showed extended freezing cytorrhysis immediately after ice nucleation at -1.1 degrees C in the water in which the leaflets were submersed during the measurement. The occurrence of freezing cytorrhysis, which was visually manifested by cell shrinkage, was highly dynamic and was completed within 2 s. A total reduction of the mean projected diameter of the chloroplast containing area during freezing cytorrhysis from 8.9 to 3.8 microm indicates a cell volume reduction of approximately -82%. Simultaneous measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence of PS II was possible even through the frozen water in which the leaf samples were submersed. Freezing cytorrhysis was accompanied by a sudden rise of basic chlorophyll fluorescence. The critical freezing temperature threshold of PS II was identical to the ice nucleation temperature (-1.1 degrees C). This is significantly above the temperature threshold at which frost damage to S. capillifolium leaflets occurs (-16.1 degrees C; LT(50)) which is higher than observed in most higher plants from the European Alps during summer. High temperature thresholds of PS II were 44.5 degrees C which is significantly below the heat tolerance of chlorophyllous cells (49.9 degrees C; LT(50)). It is demonstrated that light and fluorescence microscopic techniques combined with simultaneous chlorophyll fluorescence

  13. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  14. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of azinphosmethyl from aqueous solution onto pyrolyzed (at 600 degrees C) ocean peat moss (Sphagnum sp.).

    PubMed

    Aroguz, A Z

    2006-07-31

    The removal of azinphosmethyl from aqueous solution onto pyrolyzed ocean peat moss (Sphagnum sp.), as a residue, from the Rhode Island coast (USA), has been investigated at different temperatures and initial concentrations. The ocean peat moss had been pyrolyzed at 600 degrees C in nitrogen atmosphere before the adsorption process. The kinetic data obtained from batch studies have been analyzed using pseudo-first order kinetic model. The rate constants were evaluated at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters (DeltaG degrees , DeltaH degrees , DeltaS degrees ) for the adsorption process were calculated and the results suggest that the nature of adsorption is endothermic and the process is spontaneous and favorable. The activation energy for adsorption process was estimated, about 18.3 kJ mol(-1). According to this value the adsorption of azinphosmethyl onto pyrolyzed ocean peat moss is in the range of physical adsorption. The experimental data have been modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. It was found that Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms give the best correlation with the experimental data.

  15. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  16. Climatic modifiers of the response to nitrogen deposition in peat-forming Sphagnum mosses: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Limpens, J; Granath, G; Gunnarsson, U; Aerts, R; Bayley, S; Bragazza, L; Bubier, J; Buttler, A; van den Berg, L J L; Francez, A-J; Gerdol, R; Grosvernier, P; Heijmans, M M P D; Hoosbeek, M R; Hotes, S; Ilomets, M; Leith, I; Mitchell, E A D; Moore, T; Nilsson, M B; Nordbakken, J-F; Rochefort, L; Rydin, H; Sheppard, L J; Thormann, M; Wiedermann, M M; Williams, B L; Xu, B

    2011-07-01

    Peatlands in the northern hemisphere have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) during the Holocene than any other terrestrial ecosystem, making peatlands long-term C sinks of global importance. Projected increases in nitrogen (N) deposition and temperature make future accumulation rates uncertain. Here, we assessed the impact of N deposition on peatland C sequestration potential by investigating the effects of experimental N addition on Sphagnum moss. We employed meta-regressions to the results of 107 field experiments, accounting for sampling dependence in the data. We found that high N loading (comprising N application rate, experiment duration, background N deposition) depressed Sphagnum production relative to untreated controls. The interactive effects of presence of competitive vascular plants and high tissue N concentrations indicated intensified biotic interactions and altered nutrient stochiometry as mechanisms underlying the detrimental N effects. Importantly, a higher summer temperature (mean for July) and increased annual precipitation intensified the negative effects of N. The temperature effect was comparable to an experimental application of almost 4 g N m(-2)  yr(-1) for each 1°C increase. Our results indicate that current rates of N deposition in a warmer environment will strongly inhibit C sequestration by Sphagnum-dominated vegetation.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission potentials of Burkholderia species isolated from the leaves of a boreal peat moss Sphagnum fuscum.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yanxia; Li, Li; Wang, Mengcen; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Using a culture-based nitrous oxide (N2O) emission assay, three active N2O emitters were isolated from Sphagnum fuscum leaves and all identified as members of Burkholderia. These isolates showed N2O emission in the medium supplemented with [Formula: see text] but not with [Formula: see text], and Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 showed the most efficient N2O emission (0.20 μg·vial(-1)·day(-1)) at 1.0 mM KNO3. In Burkholderia sp. SF-E2, the optimum pH for N2O production was 5.0, close to that of the phyllosphere of Sphagnum mosses, while the optimum temperature was uniquely over 30 °C. The stimulating effect of additional 1.5 mM sucrose on N2O emission was ignorable, but Burkholderia sp. SF-E2 upon exposure to 100 mg·L(-1) E-caffeic acid showed uniquely 67-fold higher N2O emission. All of the three N2O emitters were negative in both acetylene inhibition assay and PCR assay for nosZ-detection, suggesting that N2O reductase or the gene itself is missing in the N2O-emitting Burkholderia.

  18. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, peat was harvested in 15 US states. Florida, Michigan and Minnesota accounted for more than 80% of the US production. Reed-sedge was the dominant variety of peat harvested in the United States. More than 56% of all peat used in the US was imported from Canada. With the growing interest in gardening, landscaping related to home construction and golf courses, peat usage is expected to remain near current levels during the next several years.

  19. Testing the sensitivity of stable carbon isotopes of sub-fossil Sphagnum cellulose to past climate variability: a two millennia high resolution stable carbon isotope time series from the peat deposit "Dürres Maar", Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschen, Robert; Kühl, Norbert; Peters, Sabrina; Vos, Heinz; Lücke, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Peat deposits are terrestrial archives of environmental changes and climate dynamics over time. They are widely distributed and cover a large part of the earth's land surface often within human habitat and, thus, form an excellent basis for evaluating ecosystem and climate dynamics by multiple geochemical and biological methods. Records of the stable carbon composition of cellulose separately extracted from selected Sphagnum plant components (δ13CSphagnum) from the kettle-hole type peat deposit of 'Dürres Maar' are presented. Manually separated Sphagnum stems, branches and the small leaves covering Sphagnum branches were used for cellulose extraction and subsequent isotope measurements, because intra-plant δ13CSphagnum variability between different physical components of individual modern plants has been described (Loader et al. 2007). We observed the same isotopic offset between single plant components of sub-fossil Sphagnum plant components which is statistically highly significant and observable down-core (Moschen et al. 2009). Using the size fraction of 355-630 μm, which almost exclusively consists of single Sphagnum leaves, allows to derive environmental and climate signals based on a plant response to external controls, presumably including temperature and relative humidity. Because down-core changes in the ratio of different plant components in the peat profile seem probable, erroneous interpretations of isotope records are likely if no differentiation into single Sphagnum plant components is possible. A high resolution time series of δ13CSphagnum is presented covering the last two millennia, tracing decadal to sub-decadal past environmental and climate dynamics. The thickness of the water film surrounding the chloroplasts of Sphagnum plants has been suggested as the most important factor influencing δ13CSphagnum. This points to bog surface wetness which is primarily driven by precipitation and evaporation temperature as the major control of δ13

  20. Inhibitory effect of fulvic acid extracted from Canadian sphagnum peat on chemical mediator release by RBL-2H3 and KU812 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Parida; Isoda, Hiroko; Han, Jun Kyu; Talorete, Terence P N; Abe, Yukuo

    2007-05-01

    Fulvic acid (FA) was extracted and purified from Canadian Sphagnum peat (CP-FA) and characterized by using an element analysis meter, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C-NMR) spectroscopy. To investigate the antiallergic effect of CP-FA, we incubated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells with 0.001-10.0 microg/ml of CP-FA and determined the beta-hexosaminidase release inhibition at different response stages. The intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) level was also determined by using Fluo 3-AM, a calcium-specific fluorescent probe, and the cytotoxicity of CP-FA was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results revealed that RBL-2H3 cells incubated for 48 h with 0.001-10.0 microg/ml of CP-FA did not show any decreased viability. CP-FA inhibited the beta-hexosaminidase release by IgE-sensitized, antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells at the antigen-antibody binding stage and the antibody-receptor binding stage. CP-FA also inhibited histamine release from A23187 plus PMA- or compound 48/80-stimulated KU812 cells. Furthermore, there was a decrease in the intracellular [Ca(2+)](i) level in IgE-sensitized cells incubated with CP-FA and stimulated with antigen. Our results show that CP-FA may be useful for the treatment or prevention of allergic diseases.

  1. Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov., a facultatively methanotrophic bacterium from acidic Sphagnum peat, and emended description of the genus Methylocystis (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993.

    PubMed

    Belova, Svetlana E; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Bodelier, Paul L E; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2013-03-01

    A novel species is proposed for two facultatively methanotrophic representatives of the genus Methylocystis, strains H2s(T) and S284, which were isolated from an acidic (pH 4.3) Sphagnum peat-bog lake (Teufelssee, Germany) and an acidic (pH 3.8) peat bog (European North Russia), respectively. Cells of strains H2s(T) and S284 are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, curved coccoids or short rods that contain an intracytoplasmic membrane system typical of type-II methanotrophs. They possess both a soluble and a particulate methane monooxygenase (MMO); the latter is represented by two isozymes, pMMO1 and pMMO2. The preferred growth substrates are methane and methanol. In the absence of C1 substrates, however, these methanotrophs are capable of slow growth on acetate. Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by means of an aerotolerant nitrogenase. Strains H2s(T) and S284 grow between pH 4.2 and 7.6 (optimum pH 6.0-6.5) and at 8-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). The major fatty acids are C18 : 1ω8c, C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 1ω7c; the major quinone is Q-8. The DNA G+C content is 62.0-62.3 mol%. Strains H2s(T) and S284 share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which displayed 96.6-97.3 % similarity to sequences of other taxonomically characterized members of the genus Methylocystis. Therefore, strains H2s(T) and S284 are classified as members of a novel species, for which the name Methylocystis bryophila sp. nov. is proposed; strain H2s(T) ( = DSM 21852(T)  = VKM B-2545(T)) is the type strain.

  2. Mucilaginibacter paludis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov., pectin-, xylan- and laminarin-degrading members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae from acidic Sphagnum peat bog.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofei A; Tindall, Brian J; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2007-10-01

    Two facultatively aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria capable of degrading pectin, xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides were obtained from the acidic Sphagnum peat bog Bakchar, in western Siberia, Russia, and were designated strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T). Cells of these isolates are Gram-negative, non-motile, long rods that are covered by large capsules. On ageing, they transform into spherical L-forms. Strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) are acido- and psychrotolerant organisms capable of growth at pH 4.2-8.2 (with an optimum at pH 6.0-6.5) and at 2-33 degrees C (with an optimum at 20 degrees C). The major fatty acids are iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH and summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c); the quinones are MK-7 and MK-6. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the novel strains share 97 % sequence similarity and belong to the family Sphingobacteriaceae; however, they are related only distantly to members of the genera Pedobacter (91.8-93.3 % similarity) and Sphingobacterium (89.6-91.2 % similarity). The DNA G+C content of strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) is 42.4 and 46.1 mol%, respectively. The low DNA-DNA hybridization value (42 %) and a number of phenotypic differences between strains TPT18(T) and TPT56(T) indicated that they represent two separate species. Since the two isolates are clearly distinct from all currently described members of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, we propose a novel genus, Mucilaginibacter gen. nov., containing two novel species, Mucilaginibacter gracilis sp. nov. and Mucilaginibacter paludis sp. nov. The type strains of Mucilaginibacter gracilis and Mucilaginibacter paludis are respectively TPT18(T) (=ATCC BAA-1391(T) =VKM B-2447(T)) and TPT56(T) (=ATCC BAA-1394(T) =VKM B-2446(T)).

  3. Granulicella paludicola gen. nov., sp. nov., Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov., Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. and Granulicella rosea sp. nov., acidophilic, polymer-degrading acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofey A; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2010-12-01

    Five strains of strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria that form pink-red colonies and are capable of hydrolysing pectin, xylan, laminarin, lichenan and starch were isolated from acidic Sphagnum peat bogs and were designated OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T) and TPO1014(T). Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative, non-motile rods that produced an amorphous extracellular polysaccharide-like substance. Old cultures contained spherical bodies of varying sizes, which represent starvation forms. Cells of all five strains were acidophilic and psychrotolerant, capable of growth at pH 3.0-7.5 (optimum pH 3.8-4.5) and at 2-33°C (optimum 15-22°C). The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). The major menaquinone detected was MK-8. The pigments were carotenoids. The genomic DNA G+C contents were 57.3-59.3 mol%. The five isolates were found to be members of subdivision 1 of the phylum Acidobacteria and displayed 95.3-98.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest described relatives to strains OB1010(T), LCBR1, TPB6011(T), TPB6028(T), and TPO1014(T) were members of the genera Terriglobus (94.6-95.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Edaphobacter (94.2-95.4 %). Based on differences in cell morphology, phenotypic characteristics and hydrolytic capabilities, we propose a novel genus, Granulicella gen. nov., containing four novel species, Granulicella paludicola sp. nov. with type strain OB1010(T) (=DSM 22464(T) =LMG 25275(T)) and strain LCBR1, Granulicella pectinivorans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6011(T) (=VKM B-2509(T) =DSM 21001(T)), Granulicella rosea sp. nov. with type strain TPO1014(T) (=DSM 18704(T) =ATCC BAA-1396(T)) and Granulicella aggregans sp. nov. with type strain TPB6028(T) (=LMG 25274(T) =VKM B-2571(T)).

  4. Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gemmata-like planctomycete from Sphagnum peat bog and the proposal of Gemmataceae fam. nov.

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Ivanova, Anastasia A; Baulina, Olga I; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2017-02-01

    An aerobic, budding, dark pink to red-pigmented bacterium was isolated from an acidic boreal Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain SP5T. Cells of this strain were non-motile spheres that were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and fimbria, and tended to form aggregates during growth in liquid media. Strain SP5T was capable of growth between pH 4.0 and pH 6.8 (optimum at pH 5.5-6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30 °C (optimum at 20-25 °C). The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides. The major fatty acids were C20 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0, and the major polar lipid was trimethylornithine. Cells contained also significant amounts of bound (ω-1)OH-C30 : 1 fatty acid. The quinone was menaquinone-6, and the G+C content of the DNA was 60.7 mol%. Strain SP5T was a member of the order Planctomycetales and belonged to the phylogenetic lineage defined by the genus Gemmata. It displayed 88 and 89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Gemmata obscuriglobusUQM 2246T and 'Gemmata massiliana' IIL30, 89 % to Zavarzinella formosa A10T and 86 % to Telmatocola sphagniphila SP2T. However, strain SP5T differed from members of these genera by cell morphology, substrate utilization pattern and fatty acid composition. Based on these data, the novel isolate should be considered as representing a novel species of a new genus of planctomycetes, for which the name Fimbriiglobus ruber gen. nov., sp. nov, is proposed. The type strain is SP5T (=LMG 29572T=VKM B-3045T). We also suggest the establishment of a novel family, Gemmataceaefam. nov., which includes the phylogenetically related genera Gemmata, Zavarzinella, Telmatocola and Fimbriiglobus.

  5. Dust is the dominant source of "heavy metals" to peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum) in the bogs of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region of northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Bicalho, Beatriz; Cuss, Chad W; Duke, M John M; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Steinnes, Eiliv; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Sphagnum fuscum was collected from twenty-five ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS) in northern Alberta (AB) in order to assess the extent of atmospheric contamination by trace elements. As a control, this moss species was also collected at a bog near Utikuma (UTK) in an undeveloped part of AB and 264km SW of the ABS region. For comparison, this moss was also collected in central AB, in the vicinity of the City of Edmonton which is approximately 500km to the south of the ABS region, from the Wagner Wetland which is 22km W of the City, from Seba Beach (ca. 90km W) and from Elk Island National Park (ca. 45km E). All of the moss samples were digested and trace elements concentrations determined using ICP-SMS at a commercial laboratory, with selected samples also analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis at the University of Alberta. The mosses from the ABS region yielded lower concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, and Zn compared to the moss from the Edmonton area. Concentrations of Ni and Mo in the mosses were comparable in these two regions, but V was more abundant in the ABS samples. Compared with the surface vegetation of eight peat cores collected in recent years from British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick, the mean concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn in the mosses from the ABS region are generally much lower. In fact, the concentrations of these trace elements in the samples from the ABS region are comparable to the corresponding values in forest moss from remote regions of central and northern Norway. Lithophile element concentrations (Ba, Be, Ga, Ge, Li, Sc, Th, Ti, Zr) explain most of the variation in trace metal concentrations in the moss samples. The mean concentrations of Th and Zr are greatest in the moss samples from the ABS region, reflecting dust inputs to the bogs from open pit mines, aggregate

  6. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 612 kt (674,600 st), compared with 609 kt (671,300 st) in 2009. In 2010, imports increased to 947 kt (1.04 million st), compared with 906 kt (998,600 st) in 2009. Exports were estimated to have decreased to 69 kt (76,000 st) in 2010. U.S. apparent consumption for 2010 was estimated to have increased to 1.5 Mt (1.65 million st). World production was estimated to be about 23 Mt (25 million st) in 2010, which is 8 percent lower than in 2009.

  7. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 560 kt (617,000 st), compared with 568 kt (626,000 st) in 2011. In 2012, imports decreased to 940 kt (1 million st) compared with 982 kt (1.1 million st) in 2011, and exports were estimated to have increased to 75 kt (82,600 st) in 2012. U.S. apparent consumption for 2012 was estimated to have remained the same as that of 2011. World production was estimated to be about 27 Mt (30 million st) in 2012, which was slightly higher than 2011.

  8. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 605 kt (667,000 st), compared with 628 kt (629,000 st) in 2010. In 2011, imports increased to 1.1. Mt (1.2 million st) compared with 947 kt (1 million st) in 2010, and exports were estimated to have decreased to 39 kt (43,000 st) in 2011. U.S. apparent consumption for 2011 was estimated to have increased to 1.6 Mt (1.7 million st). World production was estimated to be about 22 Mt (24 million st) in 2011, which was 6 percent lower than 2010.

  9. Peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, domestic production of peat, excluding Alaska, was estimated to be 610 kt (672,000 st), compared with 615 kt (678,000 st) in 2008. In 2009, imports decreased to 906 kt (999,000 st) compared with 936 kt (1 million st) in 2008, and exports were estimated to have increased to 77 kt (85,000 st) in 2009. U.S. apparent consumption for 2009 was estimated to be about the same as in 2008. World production was estimated to be about 25 Mt (27.5 million st) in 2009, which is about the same as 2008.

  10. [Metagenomics and biodiversity of sphagnum bogs].

    PubMed

    Rusin, L Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity of sphagnum bogs is one of the richest and less studied, while these ecosystems are among the top ones in ecological, conservation, and economic value. Recent studies focused on the prokaryotic consortia associated with sphagnum mosses, and revealed the factors that maintain sustainability and productivity of bog ecosystems. High-throughput sequencing technologies provided insight into functional diversity of moss microbial communities (microbiomes), and helped to identify the biochemical pathways and gene families that facilitate the spectrum of adaptive strategies and largely foster the very successful colonization of the Northern hemisphere by sphagnum mosses. Rich and valuable information obtained on microbiomes of peat bogs sets off the paucity of evidence on their eukaryotic diversity. Prospects and expectations of reliable assessment of taxonomic profiles, relative abundance of taxa, and hidden biodiversity of microscopic eukaryotes in sphagnum bog ecosystems are briefly outlined in the context of today's metagenomics.

  11. [Methanotrophic bacteria of acid sphagnum bogs].

    PubMed

    Dedysh, S N

    2002-01-01

    Acid sphagnum bogs cover a considerable part of the territory of Russia and are an important natural source of biogenic methane, which is formed in their anaerobic layers. A considerable portion of this methane is consumed in the aerobic part of the bog profile by acidophilic methanotrophic bacteria, which comprise the methane filter of sphagnum bogs and decrease CH4 emission to the atmosphere. For a long time, these bacteria escaped isolation, which became possible only after the elucidation of the optimal conditions of their functioning in situ: pH 4.5 to 5.5; temperature, from 15 to 20 degrees C; and low salt concentration in the solution. Reproduction of these conditions and rejection of earlier used media with a high content of biogenic elements allowed methanotrophic bacteria of two new genera and species--Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila--to be isolated from the peat of sphagnum bogs of the northern part of European Russia and West Siberia. These bacteria are well adapted to the conditions in cold, acid, oligotrophic sphagnum bogs. They grow in a pH range of 4.2-7.5 with an optimum at 5.0-5.5, prefer moderate temperatures (15-25 degrees C) and media with a low content of mineral salts (200-500 mg/l), and are capable of active nitrogen fixation. Design of fluorescently labeled 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the detection of Methylocella palustris and Methylocapsa acidophila and their application to the analysis of sphagnum peat samples showed that these bacteria represent dominant populations of methanotrophs with a density of 10(5)-10(6) cells/g peat. In addition to Methylocella and Methylocapsa populations, one more abundant population of methanotrophs was revealed (10(6) cells/g peat), which were phylogenetically close to the genus Methylocystis.

  12. Chemical composition, pH, and redox state of sulfur and iron in complete vertical porewater profiles from two Sphagnum peat bogs, Jura Mountains, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmann, Philipp; Shotyk, William

    1997-03-01

    Complete porewater profiles from two peat bogs in the Jura Mountains were analysed for major and trace inorganic anions and cations. At La Tourbière des Genevez (TGe) and Etang de la Gruère (EGr), peat formation began approximately 5,000 and 10,000 years BP, respectively. The maximum depths of peat accumulation are 140 cm (TGe) and 650 cm (EGr); previous geochemical studies showed that the ombrogenic sections of the bogs extend to depths of approximately 20 cm (TGe) and 250 cm (EGr). Water samples were obtained using in situ diffusion equilibrium samplers (peepers), which allow filtered (0.2 μm) porewaters to be obtained while preventing degassing and oxidation. These samplers were found to be well suited to bog porewaters and allowed volatile (dissolved CO 2, acetate) and redox-sensitive species (HS -, Fe 2+) to be quantified without further sample preparation or treatment. Aqueous species concentrations were determined immediately afterwards using ion chromatography with either conductivity (acetate, HCO 3-, Cl -, Br -, NO 3-, HPO 42-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+), amperometry (HS -), or absorbance detection (Fe(III) and Fe(II)). The comprehensive analyses of anions and cations allowed humic substances to be calculated by the difference in electrical charge balance (i.e., the anion deficit). Concentrations of total dissolved CO 2 (2-12 mM) showed that carbonate equilibria play a significant role in the acid-base chemistry throughout the profiles. In near surface, ombrogenic porewaters with pH around 4, however, protons (approx. 160 μeq/L) are contributed mainly by the dissociation of humic substances (2-7 mM DOC). In the deepest, minerogenic layers H 2CO 3 is the predominant acid at both sites. At these depths, carbonate alkalinity (up to 3 meq/L at EGr, up to 8 meq/L at TGe) arises from reaction of the pore fluids with mineral matter in the underlying sediments. In the transition zone between the ombrogenic and minerogenic extremes, organic and

  13. Desiccation tolerance of Sphagnum revisited: a puzzle resolved.

    PubMed

    Hájek, T; Vicherová, E

    2014-07-01

    As ecosystem engineers, Sphagnum mosses control their surroundings through water retention, acidification and peat accumulation. Because water retention avoids desiccation, sphagna are generally intolerant to drought; however, the literature on Sphagnum desiccation tolerance (DT) provides puzzling results, indicating the inducible nature of their DT. To test this, various Sphagnum species and other mesic bryophytes were hardened to drought by (i) slow drying; (ii) ABA application and (iii) chilling or frost. DT tolerance was assessed as recovery of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters after severe desiccation. We monitored the seasonal course of DT in bog bryophytes. Under laboratory conditions, following initial de-hardening, untreated Sphagnum shoots lacked DT; however, DT was induced by all hardening treatments except chilling, notably by slow drying, and in Sphagnum species of the section Cuspidata. In the field, sphagna in hollows and lawns developed DT several times during the growing season, responding to reduced precipitation and a lowered water table. Hummock and aquatic species developed DT only in late autumn, probably as a response to frost. Sphagnum protonemata failed to develop DT; hence, desiccation may limit Sphagnum establishment in drier habitats with suitable substrate chemistry. Desiccation avoiders among sphagna form compact hummocks or live submerged; thus, they do not develop DT in the field, lacking the initial desiccation experience, which is frequent in hollow and lawn habitats. We confirmed the morpho-physiological trade-off: in contrast to typical hollow sphagna, hummock species invest more resources in water retention (desiccation avoidance), while they have a lower ability to develop physiological DT.

  14. Detection, isolation, and characterization of acidophilic methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2011-08-15

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses.

  15. Response of Sphagnum fuscum to Nitrogen Deposition: A Case Study of Ombrogenous Peatlands in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vitt, D.H.; Wieder, K.; Halsey, L.A.; Turetsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands cover about 30% of northeastern Alberta and are ecosystems that are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. In polluted areas of the UK, high atmospheric N deposition (as a component of acid deposition) has been considered among the causes of Sphagnum decline in bogs (ombrogenous peatlands). In relatively unpolluted areas of western Canada and northern Sweden, short-term experimental studies have shown that Sphagnum responds quickly to nutrient loading, with uptake and retention of nitrogen and increased production. Here we examine the response of Sphagnum fuscum to enhanced nitrogen deposition generated during 34 years of oil sands mining through the determination of net primary production (NPP) and nitrogen concentrations in the upper peat column. We chose six continental bogs receiving differing atmospheric nitrogen loads (modeled using a CALPUFF 2D dispersion model). Sphagnum fuscum net primary production (NPP) at the high deposition site (Steepbank - mean of 600 g/m2; median of 486 g/m2) was over three times as high than at five other sites with lower N deposition. Additionally, production of S. fuscum may be influenced to some extent by distance of the moss surface from the water table. Across all sites, peat nitrogen concentrations are highest at the surface, decreasing in the top 3 cm with no significant change with increasing depth. We conclude that elevated N deposition at the Steepbank site has enhanced Sphagnum production. Increased N concentrations are evident only in the top 1-cm of the peat profile. Thus, 34 years after mine startup, increased N-deposition has increased net primary production of Sphagnum fuscum without causing elevated levels of nitrogen in the organic matter profile. A response to N-stress for Sphagnum fuscum is proposed at 14-34 kg ha-1 yr-1. A review of N-deposition values reveals a critical N-deposition value of between 14.8 and 15.7 kg ha -1 yr-1 for NPP of Sphagnum species.

  16. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Obando A, L.; Malavassi R, L.; Ramirez E, O. ); Cohen, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were: (1) to locate potential peat deposits in Costa Rica; (2) to estimate as closely as possible by representative sampling the amount of peat present in each deposit, and (3) to make a preliminary evaluation of the quality of the peat in each deposit. With information from soil maps and a 3-week survey of Costa Rica, it is estimated that a potential area of about 1000 km{sup 2} is covered by peat. Most of the peat area (about 830 km{sup 2}) is in northeastern Costa Rica in the Tortuguero area. An aerial survey identified the potential peat areas by the exclusive presence of the Yolillo palm. The next largest potential area of peat (about 175 km{sup 2}) is in the cloud-covered areas of the Talamanca Mountains. Some reconnaissance has been done in the Talamanca Mountains, and samples of the peat indicate that it is very similar to the sphagnum peat moss found in Canada and the northern US. Smaller bogs have been discovered at Medio Queso, El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport. Two bogs of immediate interest are Medio Queso and El Cairo. The Medio Queso bog has been extensively sampled and contains about 182,000 metric tons (dry) of highly decomposed peat, which is being used as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The El Cairo bog is sparsely sampled and contains about 1,300,000 metric tons of slightly decomposed dry peat. Plans are to use this peat in horticultural applications on nearby farms. 10 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Relationship between peat geochemistry and depositional environments, Cranberry Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, R.; Cameron, C.C.; Cohen, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Heath, Great Cranberry Island, Maine, offers a unique locality for studying lateral and vertical relationships between radically different peat types within 1 km2. The majority of The Heath is a Sphagnum moss-dominated raised bog. Surrounding the raised bog is a swamp/marsh complex containing grass, sedge, Sphagnum moss, alder, tamarack, and skunk cabbage. Swamp/ marsh-deposited peat occurs both around the margins of The Heath and under Sphagnum-dominated peat, which was deposited within the raised bog. A third peat type, dominated by herbaceous aquatics, is present underlying the swamp/marsh-dominated peat but is not present as a dominant botanical community of The Heath. The three peat types have major differences in petrographic characteristics, ash contents, and associated minerals. Sulfur contents range from a low of 0.19 wt.% (dry) within the raised bog to a high of 4.44 wt% (dry) near the west end of The Heath, where swamp/marsh peat occurring directly behind a storm beach berm has been influenced by marine waters. The presence of major geochemical variations within a 1-km2 peat deposit suggests the need for in-depth characterization of potential peat resources prior to use. ?? 1987.

  18. Swift recovery of Sphagnum nutrient concentrations after excess supply.

    PubMed

    Limpens, Juul; Heijmans, Monique M P D

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the effects of increased N deposition on nutrient-poor environments such as raised bogs, few studies have dealt with to what extent, and on what time-scale, reductions in atmospheric N supply would lead to recovery of the ecosystems in question. Since a considerable part of the negative effects of elevated N deposition on raised bogs can be related to an imbalance in tissue nutrient concentrations of the dominant peat-former Sphagnum, changes in Sphagnum nutrient concentration after excess N supply may be used as an early indicator of ecosystem response. This study focuses on the N and P concentrations of Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax before, during and after a factorial fertilization experiment with N and P in two small peatlands subject to a background bulk deposition of 2 g N m(-2) year(-1). Three years of adding N (4.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)) increased the N concentration, and adding P (0.3 g P m(-2) year(-1)) increased the P concentration in Sphagnum relative to the control treatment at both sites. Fifteen months after the nutrient additions had ceased, N concentrations were similar to the control whereas P concentrations, although strongly reduced, were still slightly elevated. The changes in the N and P concentrations were accompanied by changes in the distribution of nutrients over the capitulum and the stem and were congruent with changes in translocation. Adding N reduced the stem P concentration, whereas adding P reduced the stem N concentration in favor of the capitulum. Sphagnum nutrient concentrations quickly respond to reductions in excess nutrient supply, indicating that a management policy aimed at reducing atmospheric nutrient input to bogs can yield results within a few years.

  19. Some peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Anderson, Walter A.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty of the peat deposits in Penobscot County, Maine contain an estimated 29,282,000 short tons air-dried peat. The peat is chiefly sphagnum moss and reed-sedge of high quality according to ASTM standards for agricultural and horticultural use. Analyses show that this same volume has high fuel value, low sulfur and high hydrogen contents compared with lignite and sub-bituminous coal, which may indicate that it also has potential for fuel use. On the basis of the metallic trace element content, one area within the region containing the 20 deposits has been delineated for further bedrock studies.

  20. Moisture content measurements of moss (Sphagnum spp.) using commercial sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yoshikawa, K.; Overduin, P.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Sphagnum (spp.) is widely distributed in permafrost regions around the arctic and subarctic. The moisture content of the moss layer affects the thermal insulative capacity and preservation of permafrost. It also controls the growth and collapse history of palsas and other peat mounds, and is relevant, in general terms, to permafrost thaw (thermokarst). In this study, we test and calibrate seven different soil moisture sensors for measuring the moisture content of Sphagnum moss under laboratory conditions. The soil volume to which each probe is sensitive is one of the important parameters influencing moisture measurement, particularly in a heterogeneous medium such as moss. Each sensor has a unique response to changing moisture content levels, solution salinity, moss bulk density and to the orientation (structure) of the Sphagnum relative to the sensor. All of the probes examined here require unique polynomial calibration equations to obtain moisture content from probe output. We provide polynomial equations for dead and live Sphagnum moss (R2 > 0.99. Copyright ?? 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Simultaneous high C fixation and high C emissions in Sphagnum mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpenslager, S. F.; van Dijk, G.; Kosten, S.; Roelofs, J. G. M.; Smolders, A. J. P.; Lamers, L. P. M.

    2015-08-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle due to their large C storage potential. Their C sequestration rates, however, highly vary depending on climatic and geohydrological conditions. Transitional mires are often characterised by floating peat with infiltration of buffered groundwater or surface water. Sphagnum mosses grow on top, producing recalcitrant organic matter and fuelling large C stocks. As Sphagnum species strongly differ in their tolerance to the higher pH in these mires, their species composition can be expected to influence C dynamics in transitional mires. We therefore experimentally determined growth and net C sequestration rates for four different Sphagnum species (Sphagnum squarrosum, S. palustre, S. fallax and S. magellanicum) in aquaria, with floating peat influenced by the infiltration of buffered water. Surprisingly, even though the first three species increased their biomass, the moss-covered peat still showed a net efflux of CO2 that was up to 3 times higher than that of bare peat. This species-dependent C release could be explained by Sphagnum's active lowering of the pH, which triggers the chemical release of CO2 from bicarbonate. Our results clearly illustrate that high Sphagnum biomass production may still coincide with high C emission. These counterintuitive C dynamics in mire succession seem to be the result of both species- and biomass-dependent acidification and buffered water infiltration. Together, these processes can explain part of the large variation in C fluxes (ranging from C sequestration to C release) reported for pristine mires in the literature.

  2. Simultaneous high C fixation and high C emissions in Sphagnum mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harpenslager, S. F.; van Dijk, G.; Kosten, S.; Roelofs, J. G. M.; Smolders, A. J. P.; Lamers, L. P. M.

    2015-03-01

    Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle due to their large C storage potential. Their C sequestration rates, however, highly vary depending on climatic and geohydrological conditions. Transitional mires are often characterised by floating peat with infiltration of buffered groundwater or surface water. On top, Sphagnum mosses grow, producing recalcitrant organic matter and fuelling the large C stocks. As Sphagnum species strongly differ in their tolerance to the higher pH in these mires, their species composition can be expected to influence C dynamics in transitional mires. We therefore experimentally determined growth and net C sequestration rates for four different Sphagnum species (Sphagnum squarrosum, S. palustre, S. fallax and S. magellanicum) in aquaria, with floating peat influenced by the infiltration of buffered water. Surprisingly, even though the first three species increased their biomass, the moss-covered peat still showed a net efflux of CO2 that was up to three times higher than that of bare peat. This species-dependent C release could be explained by Sphagnum's active lowering of the pH, which triggers the chemical release of CO2 from bicarbonate. Our results clearly illustrate that high Sphagnum biomass production may still coincide with high C emission. These counterintuitive C dynamics in mire succession seem to be the result of both species- and biomass-dependent acidification and buffered water infiltration. Together, these processes can explain part of the large variation in C fluxes (ranging from C sequestration to C release) reported for pristine mires in literature.

  3. Biochar as growing media additive and peat substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, C.; Harttung, T.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental concerns raised the demand for alternative growing media substituting sphagnum peat. However growing media formulations still depend on peat and alternatives are limited. Biochar is carbonized plant material and could be an appropriate additive or even substitute for sphagnum peat. Freshly produced, it is free from pathogens, has a low nutrient content (if produced from nutrient poor feedstock), a very high structural stability and likely other favourable properties such as air capacity and water holding capacity. Preliminary tests were conducted to compare biochar with other growing media and growing media additives. The growth of a miniature sunflower, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in different growing media such as biochar, perlite, clay granules, sphagnum peat and peat mixed with biochar in the ratios 1 : 4, 1 : 1 and 4 : 1 (25, 50 and 75%, by volume). Fresh biochar has a similar EC than peat which is even lower after rinsing with water. Due to the relatively high pH of biochar, it could be added to peat instead of lime in a concentration of up to 75%. The growth of the sunflower was similar in all growing media. Only the plant weight was slightly higher of plants that grew in perlite or peat. There is a large potential for optimization such as selection of particle size and feedstock for biochar production and growing media formulations for specific plant requirements.

  4. Biochar as a growing media additive and peat substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, C.; Harttung, T.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental concerns raised the demand for alternative growing media substituting Sphagnum peat. However growing media formulations still depend on peat and alternatives are limited. Biochar is carbonized plant material and could be an appropriate additive or even substitute for Sphagnum peat. Freshly produced, it is free from pathogens, has a low nutrient content (if produced from nutrient-poor feedstock), a very high structural stability and likely other favourable properties such as air capacity and water-holding capacity. Preliminary tests were conducted to compare biochar with other growing media and growing media additives. The growth of a miniature sunflower, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) was measured in different growing media such as biochar, perlite, clay granules, Sphagnum peat and peat mixed with biochar in the ratios 1 : 4, 1 : 1 and 4 : 1 (25, 50 and 75%, by volume). Fresh biochar has a similar EC to peat which is even lower after rinsing with water. Due to the relatively high pH of biochar, it could be added to peat instead of lime in a concentration of up to 75%. The growth of the sunflower was similar in all growing media. Only the plant weight was slightly higher of plants that grew in perlite or peat. There is a large potential for optimization such as selection of particle size and feedstock for biochar production and growing media formulations for specific plant requirements.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Deepening of the Combustion Front into Peat Layers Different in Botanical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasymov, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    The deepening of the center of combustion into peat layers of different botanical compositions (pine-cotton grass and grass-sphagnum peats), typical for the Tomsk region, was investigated experimentally. Peats were ignited from a model ground forest fire initiated by firing of a needle-litter layer. As a result of laboratory investigations, the change in the temperature in the bulk of peat samples with time was determined and analyzed, and the rates of their combustion in the horizontal and vertical directions were estimated. It was established that a fire penetrates deep into a layer of grass-sphagnum peat, containing more than 70% of combustion conductors in its composition, more rapidly as compared to that of pine-cotton grass peat. The rates of combustion of grass-sphagnum peat in the vertical and horizontal directions are larger by 20 and 22%, respectively, than those of pine-cotton grass peat, which is evidently due to the botanical composition of grass-sphagnum peat and the random arrangement of components in its layers.

  6. The Sphagnum microbiome supports bog ecosystem functioning under extreme conditions.

    PubMed

    Bragina, Anastasia; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Zachow, Christin; Halwachs, Bettina; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Müller, Henry; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-09-01

    Sphagnum-dominated bogs represent a unique yet widely distributed type of terrestrial ecosystem and strongly contribute to global biosphere functioning. Sphagnum is colonized by highly diverse microbial communities, but less is known about their function. We identified a high functional diversity within the Sphagnum microbiome applying an Illumina-based metagenomic approach followed by de novo assembly and MG-RAST annotation. An interenvironmental comparison revealed that the Sphagnum microbiome harbours specific genetic features that distinguish it significantly from microbiomes of higher plants and peat soils. The differential traits especially support ecosystem functioning by a symbiotic lifestyle under poikilohydric and ombrotrophic conditions. To realise a plasticity-stability balance, we found abundant subsystems responsible to cope with oxidative and drought stresses, to exchange (mobile) genetic elements, and genes that encode for resistance to detrimental environmental factors, repair and self-controlling mechanisms. Multiple microbe-microbe and plant-microbe interactions were also found to play a crucial role as indicated by diverse genes necessary for biofilm formation, interaction via quorum sensing and nutrient exchange. A high proportion of genes involved in nitrogen cycle and recycling of organic material supported the role of bacteria for nutrient supply. 16S rDNA analysis indicated a higher structural diversity than that which had been previously detected using PCR-dependent techniques. Altogether, the diverse Sphagnum microbiome has the ability to support the life of the host plant and the entire ecosystem under changing environmental conditions. Beyond this, the moss microbiome presents a promising bio-resource for environmental biotechnology - with respect to novel enzymes or stress-protecting bacteria.

  7. A Novel Framework for Quantifying past Methane Recycling by Sphagnum-Methanotroph Symbiosis Using Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Leaf Wax Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Isles, Peter D. F.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric methane is strongly linked to variations in Earth's climate. Currently, we can directly reconstruct the total atmospheric concentration of methane, but not individual terms of the methane cycle. Northern wetlands, dominated by Sphagnum, are an important contributor of atmospheric methane, and we seek to understand the methane cycle in these systems. We present a novel method for quantifying the proportion of carbon Sphagnum assimilates from its methanotrophic symbionts using stable isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers. Carbon isotope ratios of Sphagnum compounds are determined by two competing influences, water content and the isotope ratio of source carbon. We disentangled these effects using a combined hydrogen and carbon isotope approach. We constrained Sphagnum water content using the contrast between the hydrogen isotope ratios of Sphagnum and vascular plant biomarkers. We then used Sphagnum water content to calculate the carbon isotope ratio of Sphagnum's carbon pool. Using a mass balance equation, we calculated the proportion of recycled methane contributed to the Sphagnum carbon pool, 'PRM.' We quantified PRM in peat monoliths from three microhabitats in the Mer Bleue peatland complex. Modern studies have shown that water table depth and vegetation have strong influences on the peatland methane cycle on instrumental time scales. With this new approach, delta C-13 of Sphagnum compounds are now a useful tool for investigating the relationships among hydrology, vegetation, and methanotrophy in Sphagnum peatlands over the time scales of entire peatland sediment records, vital to our understanding of the global carbon cycle through the Late Glacial and Holocene.

  8. A novel framework for quantifying past methane recycling by Sphagnum-methanotroph symbiosis using carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf wax biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan E.; Isles, Peter D. F.; Peteet, Dorothy M.

    2014-05-01

    concentration of atmospheric methane is strongly linked to variations in Earth's climate. Currently, we can directly reconstruct the total atmospheric concentration of methane, but not individual terms of the methane cycle. Northern wetlands, dominated by Sphagnum, are an important contributor of atmospheric methane, and we seek to understand the methane cycle in these systems. We present a novel method for quantifying the proportion of carbon Sphagnum assimilates from its methanotrophic symbionts using stable isotope ratios of leaf-wax biomarkers. Carbon isotope ratios of Sphagnum compounds are determined by two competing influences, water content and the isotope ratio of source carbon. We disentangled these effects using a combined hydrogen and carbon isotope approach. We constrained Sphagnum water content using the contrast between the hydrogen isotope ratios of Sphagnum and vascular plant biomarkers. We then used Sphagnum water content to calculate the carbon isotope ratio of Sphagnum's carbon pool. Using a mass balance equation, we calculated the proportion of recycled methane contributed to the Sphagnum carbon pool, "PRM." We quantified PRM in peat monoliths from three microhabitats in the Mer Bleue peatland complex. Modern studies have shown that water table depth and vegetation have strong influences on the peatland methane cycle on instrumental time scales. With this new approach, δ13C of Sphagnum compounds are now a useful tool for investigating the relationships among hydrology, vegetation, and methanotrophy in Sphagnum peatlands over the time scales of entire peatland sediment records, vital to our understanding of the global carbon cycle through the Late Glacial and Holocene.

  9. Sphagnum mosses as methane traps in two northern mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larmola, Tuula; Koponen, Hannu; Riutta, Terhi; Fritze, Hannu; Goodrich, Jordan; Varner, Ruth; Bubier, Jill; Juutinen, Sari; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2010-05-01

    to the atmosphere from the same sites. Moss removal could increase the actual net flux of CH4 by up to 50%. Our results suggest that CH4 oxidation in the Sphagnum layer is potentially an important control for CH4 release from a mire ecosystem. Reference. Raghoebarsing, A.A., A.J.P. Smolders, M.C. Schmid, I.C. Rijpstra, M. Wolters-Arts, J. Derksen, M.S.M. Jetten, S. Schouten, J.S. Sinninghe Damsté, L.P.M. Lamers, J.G.M. Roelofs, H.J.M. Opden Camp and M. Strous 2005. Methanotrophic symbionts provide carbon for photosynthesis in peat bogs. Nature 436: 1153-1156. Sphagnum team. Hannu Koponen (2), Terhi Riutta (3), Hannu Fritze (4), Jordan Goodrich (5), Ruth Varner(5), Jill Bubier (6), Sari Juutinen (6), Janne Rinne (7), Timo Vesala (7), Pertti J. Martikainen (2) and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila (1)

  10. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  11. pH Lowering Ability of Sphagnum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glime, Janice M.; Li, Yenhung

    1998-01-01

    States that the ecological role of Sphagnum species in peatlands is enormous. Presents a cation exchange experiment and background information on the characteristics and economic importance of Sphagnum. Contains 42 references. (DDR)

  12. Detection, Isolation, and Characterization of Acidophilic Methanotrophs from Sphagnum Mosses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kip, Nardy; Ouyang, Wenjing; van Winden, Julia; Raghoebarsing, Ashna; van Niftrik, Laura; Pol, Arjan; Pan, Yao; Bodrossy, Levente; van Donselaar, Elly G.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methane-oxidizing bacteria in these ecosystems serve as a methane filter and limit methane emissions. Yet little is known about the diversity and identity of the methanotrophs present in and on Sphagnum mosses of peatlands, and only a few isolates are known. The methanotrophic community in Sphagnum mosses, originating from a Dutch peat bog, was investigated using a pmoA microarray. A high biodiversity of both gamma- and alphaproteobacterial methanotrophs was found. With Sphagnum mosses as the inoculum, alpha- and gammaproteobacterial acidophilic methanotrophs were isolated using established and newly designed media. The 16S rRNA, pmoA, pxmA, and mmoX gene sequences showed that the alphaproteobacterial isolates belonged to the Methylocystis and Methylosinus genera. The Methylosinus species isolated are the first acid-tolerant members of this genus. Of the acidophilic gammaproteobacterial strains isolated, strain M5 was affiliated with the Methylomonas genus, and the other strain, M200, may represent a novel genus, most closely related to the genera Methylosoma and Methylovulum. So far, no acidophilic or acid-tolerant methanotrophs in the Gammaproteobacteria class are known. All strains showed the typical features of either type I or II methanotrophs and are, to the best of our knowledge, the first isolated (acidophilic or acid-tolerant) methanotrophs from Sphagnum mosses. PMID:21724892

  13. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  14. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  15. Environmental controls on δ13C variations of Sphagnum derived n-alkanes in the Dajiuhu peatland, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Xue, J.; Wang, X.; WANG, H.; Meyers, P. A.; Qin, Y.; Gong, L.; Ding, W.

    2012-12-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the very important atmospheric carbon sinks and represent about 30% of the global soil organic carbon (Gorham, 1991). In peatland conditions, high water levels and consequent anoxia make them an important source of methane. A recent study revealed that methanotrophic bacteria growing on stems or in hyaline cells of Sphagnum can provide methane derived carbon for photosynthesis (Raghoebarsing et al., 2005). This interaction has been found to be globally prevalent in peat-moss ecosystems and can contribute up to 30% of carbon for Sphagnum photosynthesis (Kip et al., 2010). Due to the uptake of 13C-depleted methane-derived CO2 and the sensitivity of methane oxidizing bacteria to the surface wetness, the carbon isotopic signatures of Sphagnum derived lipids have the potential to be used as a proxy for the surface wetness in peatlands and hence as paleoclimate archives (Nichols et al., 2009). In this study, we report the δ13C variations of the Sphagnum derived n-C23 alkane in both fresh Sphagnum and surface peat samples in the Dajiuhu peatland, a small fen located in the Shennongjia forestry region, Hubei province, central China. The δ13C23 values of Sphagnum show a negative correlation with the water level, supporting the idea that that the carbon isotope fractionation of Sphagnum is mainly manifested by the diffusion resistance of CO2 in hyaline cells of Sphagnum. However, δ13C23 values of surface peats collected in Sphagnum dominated ecosystems display a positive relation with the water level when the water level is less than 30 cm. Such an inconsistency probably results from the higher potential for methane-oxidizing activity in the lower parts of Sphagnum in fen meadows. When the water level is higher than 30 cm, the influence of symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria on Sphagnum derived n-C23 alkane is weak or nearly absent. These findings provide direct evidence to support the hypothesis that the carbon isotopic signatures of Sphagnum

  16. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  17. Bacteriohopanepolyol signatures as markers for methanotrophic bacteria in peat moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Winden, Julia F.; Talbot, Helen M.; Kip, Nardy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Pol, Arjan; McNamara, Niall P.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are bacterial biomarkers with a likely potential to identify present and past methanotrophic communities. To unravel the methanotrophic community in peat bogs, we report the BHP signatures of type I and type II methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum mosses and of an extreme acidophilic verrucomicrobial methanotroph. A type I Methylovulum-like strain (M200) contains a remarkable combination of BHPs, including a complete suite of mono-unsaturated aminobacteriohopanepentol, -tetrol and -triol. The Methylomonas-like strain (M5) mainly produces aminobacteriohopanepentol, characteristic for type I methanotrophs, and the Methylosinus-like strain (29) contains both aminobacteriohopanetetrol and aminobacteriohopanetriol, typical for a type II methanotroph. The type II methanotroph Methylocella palustris and the verrucomicrobial Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum strain SolV primarily produce aminotriol, which is also produced by many other bacteria. In Sphagnum mosses and underlying peat from a peat bog from Moorhouse, UK, the only detectable BHPs indicative of methanotrophs are aminobacteriohopanepentol (aminopentol) and aminobacteriohopanetetrol (aminotetrol), although both are relatively low in abundance compared to other BHPs. Aminopentol serves as a marker for type I methanotrophs, while aminotetrol may reflect the presence of both type I and type II methanotrophs. The similar quantities of aminotetrol and aminopentol indicate that the methanotrophic community in Sphagnum peat probably consist of a combination of both type I and type II methanotrophs, which is in line with previously published pmoA-based micro-array results.

  18. Application of static and dynamic enclosures in determining DMS and OCS fluxes in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic enclosure measurements with S-free air used as sweep gas. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable between 5 and 500 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1). The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Measurements using both techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat is a source of both DMS and OCS. Results suggested that OCS is produced in surface peat but it is taken up from the atmosphere by Sphagnum mosses. However, the net effect of both processes is that OCS uptake exceeds emission. The dynamic enclosure technique is adequate to measure rates of emissions of S gases which are produced in peatlands but not consumed, as long as attention is paid to the rate of sweep flow.

  19. [Analysis of the bacterial community developing in the course of Sphagnum moss decomposition].

    PubMed

    Kulichevskaia, I S; Belova, S E; Kevbrin, V V; Dedysh, S N; Zavarzin, G A

    2007-01-01

    Slow degradation of organic matter in acidic Sphagnum peat bogs suggests a limited activity of organotrophic microorganisms. Monitoring of the Sphagnum debris decomposition in a laboratory simulation experiment showed that this process was accompanied by a shift in the water color to brownish due to accumulation of humic substances and by the development of a specific bacterial community with a density of 2.4 x 10(7) cells ml(-1). About half of these organisms are metabolically active and detectable with rRNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. Molecular identification of the components of this microbial community showed the numerical dominance of bacteria affiliated with the phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Phanctomycetes. The population sizes of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, which are believed to be the main agents of bacterially-mediated decomposition in eutrophic wetlands, were low. The numbers of planctomycetes increased at the final stage of Sphagnum decomposition. The representative isolates of Alphaproteobacteria were able to utilize galacturonic acid, the only low-molecular-weight organic compound detected in the water samples; the representatives of Planctomycetes were able to decompose some heteropolysaccharides, which points to the possible functional role of these groups of microorganisms in the community under study. Thus, the composition of the bacterial community responsible for Sphagnum decomposition in acidic and low-mineral oligotrophic conditions seems to be fundamentally different from that of the bacterial community which decomposes plant debris in eutrophic ecosystems at neutral pH.

  20. Applications of peat-based sorbents for removal of metals from water

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Stack, E.M.; Eltayeb, S.; Durig, J.B

    1995-12-31

    The results reported in this paper are derived from one part of an ongoing investigation of peat sorption properties, in particular, the capacities of acid-treated peats to adsorb chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium from water. Acid treatment was done to remove as much previously adsorbed metal as possible before testing. Four peat types were selected for study, two highly decomposed types (a woody, Taxodium-dominated peat from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia and a sedge-dominated, charcoal-rich peat from the Tamiami Trail region of Florida) and two less decomposed ones (a Sphagnum moss-dominated peat from Maine and a Nymphaea-dominated peat from the Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia). Single metal and mixed metal solutions were tested in slurry experiments with each peat type. Solutions were analyzed using a Perkin-Elmer model 305B Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. In single metal tests, chromium and copper tended to be adsorbed to a greater extent than the other metals. Three of the peats were found to be capable of adsorbine more copper ions than zince ions, while a fourth type adsorbed approximately the same amounts of each. Degree of decomposition of the peats tended to affect sorption properties for certain metals. The results of batch studies revealed that chromium was always preferentially adsorbed regardless of the peat type tested. The results of these studies further confirm that remediation of metal-contaminated waters using peats will require selection of specific peats to match the contaminants.

  1. Isotopic evidence for nitrogen mobility in peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Stepanova, Marketa; Jackova, Ivana; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, R. Kelman; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie; Erbanova, Lucie; Fottova, Daniela; Komarek, Arnost

    2014-05-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) input may reduce carbon (C) storage in peat. Under low atmospheric deposition, most N is bound in the moss layer. Under high N inputs, Sphagnum is not able to prevent penetration of dissolved N to deeper peat. Nitrogen may become available to the roots of invading vascular plants. The concurrent oxygenation of deeper peat layers, along with higher supply of labile organic C, may enhance microbial decomposition and lead to peat thinning. The resulting higher emissions of greenhouse gases may accelerate global warming. Seepage of N to deeper peat has never been quantified. Here we present evidence for post-depositional mobility of atmogenic N in peat, based on natural-abundance N isotope ratios. We conducted a reciprocal peat transplant experiment between two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic (Central Europe), differing in anthropogenic N inputs. The northern site VJ received as much as 33 kg N ha-1 yr-1 via spruce canopy throughfall. The southern site was less polluted (17.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Isotope signatures of living moss differed between the two sites (δ15N of -3‰ and -7‰ at VJ and CB, respectively). After 18 months, an isotope mass balance was constructed. In the CB-to-VJ transplant, a significant portion of original CB nitrogen (98-31%) was removed and replaced by nitrogen of the host site throughout the top 10 cm of the profile. Nitrogen, deposited at VJ, was immobilized in imported CB peat that was up to 20 years old. Additionally, we compared N concentration and N accumulation rates in 210Pb-dated peat profiles with well-constrained data on historical atmospheric N pollution. Nationwide N emissions peaked in 1990, while VJ exhibited the highest N content in peat that formed in 1930. This de-coupling of N inputs and N retention in peat might be interpreted as a result of translocation of dissolved pollutant N downcore, corroborating our δ15N results at VJ and CB. Data from a variety of peat bogs along pollution

  2. Growth reduction of Sphagnum magellanicum subjected to high nitrogen deposition: the role of amino acid nitrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Limpens, J; Berendse, F

    2003-05-01

    We tested the relationship between Sphagnum growth and the amount of nitrogen stored in free amino acids in a fertilisation experiment with intact peat monoliths in an open greenhouse in The Netherlands. Three nitrogen deposition scenarios were used: no nitrogen deposition, field conditions and a doubling of the latter, corresponding to 0, 40 and 80 kg N ha(-1 )year(-1). Growth of Sphagnum as expressed by height increment was reduced in the 80 kg N treatment, but showed no correlation with the total nitrogen tissue concentration or with the concentration of individual or pooled free amino acids. The amount of nitrogen stored in free amino acids increased concomitantly with deposition, although it lagged more and more behind the total nitrogen concentration, the latter pointing to the accumulation of unmeasured nitrogen compounds. Asparagine clearly acted as the major storage compound for nitrogen in Sphagnum stem tissue, whereas arginine fulfilled this function to a lesser extent in the capitulum. It appears that nitrogen-induced growth inhibition of Sphagnum is related to acclimation rather than to certain threshold concentrations of amino nitrogen or total nitrogen. We propose that when Sphagnum is exposed to a step increase of nitrogen, its nitrogen metabolism does not adapt fast enough to keep up with the enhanced uptake rate. This imbalance between nitrogen uptake and assimilation may lead to an accumulation of toxic NH(4)(+ )in the cell and a subsequent reduction in growth.

  3. Photosynthetic traits of Sphagnum and feather moss species in undrained, drained and rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Laura; Maanavilja, Liisa; Hájek, Tomáš; Juurola, Eija; Chimner, Rodney A; Mehtätalo, Lauri; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-01-01

    In restored peatlands, recovery of carbon assimilation by peat-forming plants is a prerequisite for the recovery of ecosystem functioning. Restoration by rewetting may affect moss photosynthesis and respiration directly and/or through species successional turnover. To quantify the importance of the direct effects and the effects mediated by species change in boreal spruce swamp forests, we used a dual approach: (i) we measured successional changes in moss communities at 36 sites (nine undrained, nine drained, 18 rewetted) and (ii) photosynthetic properties of the dominant Sphagnum and feather mosses at nine of these sites (three undrained, three drained, three rewetted). Drainage and rewetting affected moss carbon assimilation mainly through species successional turnover. The species differed along a light-adaptation gradient, which separated shade-adapted feather mosses from Sphagnum mosses and Sphagnum girgensohnii from other Sphagna, and a productivity and moisture gradient, which separated Sphagnum riparium and Sphagnum girgensohnii from the less productive S. angustifolium, S. magellanicum and S. russowii. Undrained and drained sites harbored conservative, low-production species: hummock-Sphagna and feather mosses, respectively. Ditch creation and rewetting produced niches for species with opportunistic strategies and high carbon assimilation. The direct effects also caused higher photosynthetic productivity in ditches and in rewetted sites than in undrained and drained main sites. PMID:24634723

  4. Physiological responses to nitrogen and sulphur addition and raised temperature in Sphagnum balticum.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Strengbom, Joachim

    2009-09-01

    Sphagnum, the main genus which forms boreal peat, is strongly affected by N and S deposition and raised temperature, but the physiological mechanisms behind the responses are largely unknown. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)), maximum efficiency of photosystem II [variable fluorescence (F (v))/maximum fluorescence yield (F (m))] and concentrations of N, C, chlorophyll and carotenoids as responses to N and S addition and increased temperature in Sphagnum balticum (a widespread species in the northern peatlands) in a 12-year factorial experiment. NP(max) did not differ between control (0.2 g N m(-2) year(-1)) and high N (3.0 g N m(-2) year(-1)), but was higher in the mid N treatment (1.5 g N m(-2) year(-1)). N, C, carotenoids and chlorophyll concentration increased in shoot apices after N addition. F (v)/F (m) did not differ between N treatments. Increased temperature (+3.6 degrees C) had a small negative effect on N concentration, but had no significant effect on NP(max) or F (v)/F (m). Addition of 2 g S m(-2) year(-1) showed a weak negative effect on NP(max) and F (v)/F (m). Our results suggest a unimodal response of NP(max) to N addition and tissue N concentration in S. balticum, with an optimum N concentration for photosynthetic rate of ~13 mg N g(-1). In conclusion, high S deposition may reduce photosynthetic capacity in Sphagnum, but the negative effects may be relaxed under high N availability. We suggest that previously reported negative effects on Sphagnum productivity under high N deposition are not related to negative effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, but differences in optimum N concentration among Sphagnum species may affect their competitive ability under different N deposition regimes.

  5. Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli K; Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Mets, Anchelique; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2015-09-01

    Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface.

  6. Abundant Trimethylornithine Lipids and Specific Gene Sequences Are Indicative of Planctomycete Importance at the Oxic/Anoxic Interface in Sphagnum-Dominated Northern Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Laura; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Mets, Anchelique; Dedysh, Svetlana N.

    2015-01-01

    Northern wetlands make up a substantial terrestrial carbon sink and are often dominated by decay-resistant Sphagnum mosses. Recent studies have shown that planctomycetes appear to be involved in degradation of Sphagnum-derived debris. Novel trimethylornithine (TMO) lipids have recently been characterized as abundant lipids in various Sphagnum wetland planctomycete isolates, but their occurrence in the environment has not yet been confirmed. We applied a combined intact polar lipid (IPL) and molecular analysis of peat cores collected from two northern wetlands (Saxnäs Mosse [Sweden] and Obukhovskoye [Russia]) in order to investigate the preferred niche and abundance of TMO-producing planctomycetes. TMOs were present throughout the profiles of Sphagnum bogs, but their concentration peaked at the oxic/anoxic interface, which coincided with a maximum abundance of planctomycete-specific 16S rRNA gene sequences. The sequences detected at the oxic/anoxic interface were affiliated with the Isosphaera group, while sequences present in the anoxic peat layers were related to an uncultured planctomycete group. Pyrosequencing-based analysis identified Planctomycetes as the major bacterial group at the oxic/anoxic interface at the Obukhovskoye peat (54% of total 16S rRNA gene sequence reads), followed by Acidobacteria (19% reads), while in the Saxnäs Mosse peat, Acidobacteria were dominant (46%), and Planctomycetes contributed to 6% of the total reads. The detection of abundant TMO lipids in planctomycetes isolated from peat bogs and the lack of TMO production by cultures of acidobacteria suggest that planctomycetes are the producers of TMOs in peat bogs. The higher accumulation of TMOs at the oxic/anoxic interface and the change in the planctomycete community with depth suggest that these IPLs could be synthesized as a response to changing redox conditions at the oxic/anoxic interface. PMID:26150465

  7. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  8. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  9. Changes in vegetation, peat properties and peat accumulation in Swedish peatlands as revealed by archive data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoning, Kristian; Sohlenius, Gustav

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation we have studied patterns in peat accumulation and changes in mire status since the early 1900s for two areas in Sweden. In the early 1900s the Geological Survey of Sweden collected a vast amount of peat and peatland data, including information on vegetation and land-use. We have used this archive data to evaluate changes in mire vegetation, mire wetness and surface peat properties, rates of peat accumulation, succession in young wetlands and the effects of cultivation on peatlands. In total 156 mires in an uplift area of eastern middle Sweden were included in the data-set, including both pristine mires and peatlands used for agricultural purposes. In this area new peatlands have continuously been formed during the past 7 000 years making it possible to evaluate changes in peat accumulation over time. The other study area is situated in the south Swedish Uplands where we have revisited some larger bogs. The results from our investigation show that many of the peatlands have underwent major changes since the early 1900s. In most of the small peatlands we have found important changes in vegetation where mire vegetation has been replaced by nutrient demanding and/or dry species flora while the tree stand on large mires in south Sweden have increased. In some mires humification has increased in the uppermost peat-layers and the mire surface have become drier compared to the early 1900s. In eastern middle Sweden there are indications that the peat accumulation is lower 0,5 mm/year in older peatlands compared with younger ones 1,2 mm/year, although the mire vegetation in the older peatlands is dominated by sphagnum. The peat depth of the cultivated mires in this area shows a mean decrease of 40 cm since the early 1900s.

  10. The impact of drought and air pollution on metal profiles in peat cores.

    PubMed

    Souter, Laura; Watmough, Shaun A

    2016-01-15

    Peat cores have long been used to reconstruct atmospheric metal deposition; however, debate remains regarding how well historical depositional patterns are preserved in peat. This study examined peat cores sampled from 14 peatlands in the Sudbury region of Ontario, Canada, which has a well-documented history of acid and metal deposition. Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentrations within individual peat cores were strongly correlated and were elevated in the upper 10 cm, especially in the sites closest to the main Copper Cliff smelter. In contrast, nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) concentrations were often elevated at depths greater than 10 cm, indicating much greater post-depositional movement of these metals compared with Cu and Pb. Post-depositional movement of metals is supported by the observation that Ni and Co concentrations in peat pore water increased by approximately 530 and 960% for Ni and Co, respectively between spring and summer due to drought-induced acidification, but there was much less change in Cu concentration. Sphagnum cover and (210)Pb activity measured at 10 cm at the 14 sites significantly increased with distance from Copper Cliff, and the surface peat von Post score decreased with distance from Copper Cliff, indicating the rate of peat formation increases with distance from Sudbury presumably as a result of improved Sphagnum survival. This study shows that the ability of peat to preserve deposition histories of some metals is strongly affected by drought-induced post-depositional movement and that loss of Sphagnum due to air pollution impairs the rate of peat formation, further affecting metal profiles in peatlands.

  11. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the athabasca bituminous sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of "heavy metals".

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Belland, Rene; Duke, John; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie A; Wieder, Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-11-04

    Sphagnum moss was collected from 21 ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca bituminous sands in Alberta (AB). In comparison to contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th, and V. Except for V, in comparison to the "cleanest", ancient peat samples ever tested from the northern hemisphere (ca. 6000-9000 years old), the concentrations of each of these metals in the AB mosses are within a factor of 3 of "natural, background" values. The concentrations of "heavy metals" in the mosses, however, are proportional to the concentration of Th (a conservative, lithophile element) and, therefore, contributed to the plants primarily in the form of mineral dust particles. Vanadium, the single most abundant trace metal in bitumen, is the only anomaly: in the AB mosses, V exceeds that of ancient peat by a factor of 6; it is therefore enriched in the mosses, relative to Th, by a factor of 2. In comparison to the surface layer of peat cores collected in recent years from across Canada, from British Columbia to New Brunswick, the Pb concentrations in the mosses from AB are far lower.

  12. Investigation of gas exchange processes in peat bog ecosystems by means of innovative Raman gas spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Frosch, Torsten; Keiner, Robert; Michalzik, Beate; Fischer, Bernhard; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-05

    Highly sensitive Raman gas spectroscopy is introduced for simultaneous real time analysis of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and N(2) in order to elucidate the dynamics of greenhouse gases evolving from climate-sensitive ecosystems. The concentrations and fluxes of this suite of biogenic gases were quantified in the head space of a water-saturated, raised peat bog ecotron. The intact peat bog, exhibiting various degradation stages of peat and sphagnum moss, was exposed to various light regimes in order to determine important ecosystem parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate of the sphagnum as well as the extent of soil and plant respiration. Miniaturized Raman gas spectroscopy was proven to be an extremely versatile analytical technique that allows for onsite multigas analysis in high temporal resolution. Therefore it is an urgently needed tool for elucidation of complex biochemical processes especially in climate-sensitive ecosystems and consequently for the estimation of climate-relevant gas budgets.

  13. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  14. Factors controlling fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni

    1992-01-01

    Exchange of DMS and OCS between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere were measured with dynamic (S-free sweep air) and static enclosures. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were comparable. The dynamic method provided positive OCS flux rates (emission) for measurements performed at sites containing Sphagnum. Conversely, data from the static method indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere. Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in a poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen in Barrington, NH, USA). At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control and experimental sections within two major physiographic areas of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). DMS was the predominant VSC released from Mire 239 and varied largely with time and space. Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic area of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic area, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments, while DMS and MSH concentrations increased greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. The major environmental factors controlling fluxes of DMS in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland were investigated in Sallie's Fen, NH. DMS emissions from the surface of the peatland varied greatly over 24 hours and seasonally. Temperature seemed to be the major environmental factor controlling these variabilities. Concentrations of dissolved VSC's varied with time and space throughout the fen

  15. Revegetation processes and environmental conditions in abandoned peat production fields in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orru, M.; Orru, H.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of peat extraction, peat production has been finished in Estonia at different times in 154 peat production areas and 9,500 ha (~1% of peatlands) are abandoned, although the peat reserves are not exhausted yet; besides, several areas are not properly recultivated. In addition 12,000 ha of fens (oligotrophic peat layers) are drained and used as grasslands. If the abandoned and non-recultivated peat production areas are not vegetated, their CO2 emission is considerable and peat mineralises in such areas. The aim of the study was to find out specific ecological and geological factors, which affect recovering of peatlands and influence the recultivation. During the revision the amount and quality of the remained reserves, as well as the state of water regime, drainage network and revegetation was assessed in all 154 abandoned peat production areas. The study showed that the state of them is very variable. Some of them are covered with forest, prevailingly with birches at former drainage ditches, later supplemented by pine trees. In the others predominate grasses among plants, and various species of moss (Cladonia rei, Bryum caespiticum, Sphagnum ripariuma, Sphagnum squarrosum) occur as well. Besides, some abandoned areas are completely overgrown with cotton grass. Open abandoned peat areas, which are not covered by vegetation, are much rarer. We found out, that water regime among the factors plays most important role. Moreover abandoned peat production fields, where the environmental conditions have changed - are appropriate for growth of several moss species, which cannot inhabit the areas already occupied by other species. The most interesting discovers were: second growing site of Polia elongata in West-Estonia and Ephemerum serratum, last found in Estonia in the middle of the 19th century, was identified in central Estonia. Also Campylopus introflexus, what was unknown in Estonia. However, the changes in environmental conditions influence the peat layers

  16. The effect of temperature on growth and competition between Sphagnum species.

    PubMed

    Breeuwer, Angela; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Berendse, Frank

    2008-05-01

    Peat bogs play a large role in the global sequestration of C, and are often dominated by different Sphagnum species. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how Sphagnum vegetation in peat bogs will respond to global warming. We performed a greenhouse experiment to study the effect of four temperature treatments (11.2, 14.7, 18.0 and 21.4 degrees C) on the growth of four Sphagnum species: S. fuscum and S. balticum from a site in northern Sweden and S. magellanicum and S. cuspidatum from a site in southern Sweden. In addition, three combinations of these species were made to study the effect of temperature on competition. We found that all species increased their height increment and biomass production with an increase in temperature, while bulk densities were lower at higher temperatures. The hollow species S. cuspidatum was the least responsive species, whereas the hummock species S. fuscum increased biomass production 13-fold from the lowest to the highest temperature treatment in monocultures. Nutrient concentrations were higher at higher temperatures, especially N concentrations of S. fuscum and S. balticum increased compared to field values. Competition between S. cuspidatum and S. magellanicum was not influenced by temperature. The mixtures of S. balticum with S. fuscum and S. balticum with S. magellanicum showed that S. balticum was the stronger competitor, but it lost competitive advantage in the highest temperature treatment. These findings suggest that species abundances will shift in response to global warming, particularly at northern sites where hollow species will lose competitive strength relative to hummock species and southern species.

  17. The use of plant-specific pyrolysis products as biomarkers in peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, Judith; Bradley, Jonathan A.; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Fraga, Isabel; Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Abbott, Geoffrey D.; Buurman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands are archives of environmental change that can be driven by climate and human activity. Proxies for peatland vegetation composition provide records of (local) environmental conditions that can be linked to both autogenic and allogenic factors. Analytical pyrolysis offers a molecular fingerprint of peat, and thereby a suite of environmental proxies. Here we investigate analytical pyrolysis as a method for biomarker analysis. Pyrolysates of 48 peatland plant species were compared, comprising seventeen lichens, three Sphagnum species, four non-Sphagnum mosses, eleven graminoids (Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae), five Ericaceae and six species from other families. This resulted in twenty-one potential biomarkers, including new markers for lichens (3-methoxy-5-methylphenol) and graminoids (ferulic acid methyl ester). The potential of the identified biomarkers to reconstruct vegetation composition is discussed according to their depth records in cores from six peatlands from boreal, temperate and tropical biomes. The occurrence of markers for Sphagnum, graminoids and lichens in all six studied peat deposits indicates that they persist in peat of thousands of years old, in different vegetation types and under different conditions. In order to facilitate the quantification of biomarkers from pyrolysates, typically expressed as proportion (%) of the total quantified pyrolysis products, an internal standard (5-α-androstane) was introduced. Depth records of the Sphagnum marker 4-isopropenylphenol from the upper 3 m of a Sphagnum-dominated peat, from samples analysed with and without internal standard showed a strong positive correlation (r2 = 0.72, P < 0.0005, n = 12). This indicates that application of an internal standard is a reliable method to assess biomarker depth records, which enormously facilitates the use of analytical pyrolysis in biomarker research by avoiding quantification of a high number of products.

  18. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  19. Sphagnum growth and ecophysiology during mire succession.

    PubMed

    Laine, Anna M; Juurola, Eija; Hájek, Tomáš; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2011-12-01

    Sphagnum mosses are widespread in areas where mires exist and constitute a globally important carbon sink. Their ecophysiology is known to be related to the water level, but very little is currently known about the successional trend in Sphagnum. We hypothesized that moss species follow the known vascular plant growth strategy along the successional gradient (i.e., decrease in production and maximal photosynthesis while succession proceeds). To address this hypothesis, we studied links between the growth and related ecophysiological processes of Sphagnum mosses from a time-since-initiation chronosequence of five wetlands. We quantified the rates of increase in biomass and length of different Sphagnum species in relation to their CO(2) assimilation rates, their photosynthetic light reaction efficiencies, and their physiological states, as measured by the chlorophyll fluorescence method. In agreement with our hypothesis, increase in biomass and CO(2) exchange rate of Sphagnum mosses decreased along the successional gradient, following the tactics of more intensely studied vascular plants. Mosses at the young and old ends of the chronosequence showed indications of downregulation, measured as a low ratio between variable and maximum fluorescence (F(v)/F(m)). Our study divided the species into three groups; pioneer species, hollow species, and ombrotrophic hummock formers. The pioneer species S. fimbriatum is a ruderal plant that occurred at the first sites along the chronosequence, which were characterized by low stress but high disturbance. Hollow species are competitive plants that occurred at sites with low stress and low disturbance (i.e., in the wet depressions in the middle and at the old end of the chronosequence). Ombrotrophic hummock species are stress-tolerant plants that occurred at sites with high stress and low disturbance (i.e., at the old end of the chronosequence). The three groups along the mire successional gradient appeared to be somewhat analogous

  20. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  1. Emission factors for smouldering peat megafires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadden, Rory; Santamaria, Simon; Pironi, Paolo; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Smouldering wildfires occur in large deposits of peat across the globe in boreal and temperate regions. These fires are the most persistent fires on earth and consume large quantities of biomass which can take centuries or longer to regenerate. Recently large peat fires in Indonesia have caused significant health issues across a large geographic area in south east Asia. A similar event that occurred in 1997 was estimated to have released up to 13.7Gt of carbon to the atmosphere. Globally, the carbon stored in peatlands is greater than that stored in vegetation and is similar to that stored in the atmosphere. One of the major threats to these ecosystems is smouldering megafires which can be ignited easily in peat with the resulting fire persisting for extended periods of time (often many weeks or months). Given the potential impact on global carbon balances, it is essential to have accurate estimates of carbon emitted from these fires. Is is established that the emissions from any combustion process are strongly dependent on the combustion conditions these include the temperature (energy balance), availability of oxygen and the fuel composition. Because smouldering is a persistent form of combustion, it can occur over a wide range of conditions. This necessitates an understanding of emission factors linked to the burning dynamics. To allow for controlled, repeatable burning conditions across this range of conditions, a series of laboratory scale experiments were undertaken to identify the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane flux from samples of smouldering sphagnum moss peat. This peat is used as it has been extensively studied experimentally and numerically. By using repeatable experimental conditions delivered by the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus, the flux of CO, CO2 and methane can be linked to the smouldering fire dynamics. Smouldering in shallow fronts is represented by burning in ambient oxygen concentration while deep fronts are simulated using

  2. Analysis of ecological factors limiting the destruction of high-moor peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, T. G.; Golovchenko, A. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2014-03-01

    This review presents an analysis of literature data and original studies by the authors aimed at revealing the factors inhibiting the destruction of high-moor (oligotrophic) peat. Each of the ecological factors that prevent the decomposition of the high-moor peat by different groups of microorganisms is considered. The acid reaction, low temperatures, and lack of nutrients were found not to be the primary factors inhibiting the destruction of the peat. The limited content of oxygen in the peatbogs leads to a drastic decrease in the number of mycelial microorganisms and a reduction of the activity of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. The main factor inhibiting the decomposition of sphagnum is its mechanical and chemical stability, since animals crushing sphagnum are absent in the soil, and this moss has polysaccharides of special composition. The toxicity of phenol compounds, which is manifested under the aerobic conditions, prevents the activity of all the hydrolytic enzymes. This is the main reason for the slow decomposition of sphagnum peat and the long-term preservation of the residues of bodies and food in high-moor peatlands.

  3. Factors controlling peat chemistry and vegetation composition in Sudbury peatlands after 30 years of pollution emission reductions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Sophie E; Watmough, Shaun A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this research was to assess factors controlling peat and plant chemistry, and vegetation composition in 18 peatlands surrounding Sudbury after more than 30 years of large (>95%) pollution emission reductions. Sites closer to the main Copper Cliff smelter had more humified peat and the surface horizons were greatly enriched in copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Copper and Ni concentrations in peat were significantly correlated with that in the plant tissue of Chamaedaphne calyculata. The pH of peat was the strongest determining factor for species richness, diversity, and community composition, although percent vascular plant cover was strongly negatively correlated with surface Cu and Ni concentrations in peat. Sphagnum frequency was also negatively related to peat Cu and Ni concentrations indicating sites close to Copper Cliff smelter remain adversely impacted by industrial activities.

  4. Temperature-Induced Increase in Methane Release from Peat Bogs: A Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Winden, Julia F.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P.; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe.

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs. PMID:22768100

  5. Temperature-induced increase in methane release from peat bogs: a mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    van Winden, Julia F; Reichart, Gert-Jan; McNamara, Niall P; Benthien, Albert; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

    2012-01-01

    Peat bogs are primarily situated at mid to high latitudes and future climatic change projections indicate that these areas may become increasingly wetter and warmer. Methane emissions from peat bogs are reduced by symbiotic methane oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs). Higher temperatures and increasing water levels will enhance methane production, but also methane oxidation. To unravel the temperature effect on methane and carbon cycling, a set of mesocosm experiments were executed, where intact peat cores containing actively growing Sphagnum were incubated at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C. After two months of incubation, methane flux measurements indicated that, at increasing temperatures, methanotrophs are not able to fully compensate for the increasing methane production by methanogens. Net methane fluxes showed a strong temperature-dependence, with higher methane fluxes at higher temperatures. After removal of Sphagnum, methane fluxes were higher, increasing with increasing temperature. This indicates that the methanotrophs associated with Sphagnum plants play an important role in limiting the net methane flux from peat. Methanotrophs appear to consume almost all methane transported through diffusion between 5 and 15°C. Still, even though methane consumption increased with increasing temperature, the higher fluxes from the methane producing microbes could not be balanced by methanotrophic activity. The efficiency of the Sphagnum-methanotroph consortium as a filter for methane escape thus decreases with increasing temperature. Whereas 98% of the produced methane is retained at 5°C, this drops to approximately 50% at 25°C. This implies that warming at the mid to high latitudes may be enhanced through increased methane release from peat bogs.

  6. Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial

  7. Inorganic contents of peats

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Bish, D.L.; Cohen, A.D.

    1988-02-01

    Peat, the precursor of coal, is composed primarily of plant components and secondarily of inorganic matter derived from a variety of sources. The elemental, mineralogic, and petrographic composition of a peat is controlled by a combination of both its botanical and depositional environment. Inorganic contents of peats can vary greatly between geographically separated peat bogs as well as vertially and horizontally within an individual bog. Predicting the form and distribution of inorganic matter in a coal deposit requires understanding the distribution and preservation of inorganic matter in peat-forming environments and diagenetic alterations affecting such material during late-stage peatification and coalification processes. 43 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  9. Long-Term Perspectives of Shrub Expansions and Peat Initiation in Arctic Tundra on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, K.; Yu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The ongoing climate warming in the Arctic has caused rapid terrestrial ecosystem changes, including shrub expansion and permafrost thaw. Here we used results from a peat-accumulating permafrost tundra in upper Imnavait Creek on the Arctic foothills of Alaska (68° 36' N, 149° 18' W) to investigate ecological responses to recent climate warming in the context of the last millennium. Six peat soil cores were collected from Sphagnum mosaics along an elevational gradient from 906 m to 950 m on a hillslope covered by Eriophorum-dominated tussock tundra. Macrofossil analysis documents a consistent development sequence among all cores from a mineral soil to a minerotrophic sedge peat and finally to an ombrotrophic Sphagnum peat. The 14C dating results show the ages of peat initiation range from about 900 to 140 cal BP, but do not follow the elevation gradient, suggesting the dominant control of local factors. The Sphagnum onset begins at 1820 AD near the ridge top, and subsequently propagates downslope to the floodplain at 2008 AD. This transition (ombrotrophication) was likely in response to Arctic warming, and subsequent permafrost thaw and active layer thickening, leading to drying initiating at the ridge top and facilitating Sphagnum colonization. Pollen analysis of the master core UIC13-3 at 916 m elevation (basal age 700 cal BP) shows that the vegetation was dominated by sedges (up to 84%) during the cool Little Ice Age until 1800 AD, followed by increases in shrubs first from dwarf birch (Betula nana) (up to 57%) and then willows (Salix spp.) up to 62% in the 1960s. These results indicate that shrub expansion of willows, due to accelerated warming in recent decades, was preceded by birch expansion over the last two centuries. Our new results provide a long-term perspective on ecological transformations in the Arctic, in particular the history of recent shrub expansions and the process of peatland initiation and expansion across Arctic tundra.

  10. Sphagnum-dominated bog systems are highly effective yet variable sources of bio-available iron to marine waters.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Regina; Krachler, Rudolf F; Wallner, Gabriele; Steier, Peter; El Abiead, Yasin; Wiesinger, Hubert; Jirsa, Franz; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2016-06-15

    Iron is a micronutrient of particular interest as low levels of iron limit primary production of phytoplankton and carbon fluxes in extended regions of the world's oceans. Sphagnum-peatland runoff is extraordinarily rich in dissolved humic-bound iron. Given that several of the world's largest wetlands are Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, this ecosystem type may serve as one of the major sources of iron to the ocean. Here, we studied five near-coastal creeks in North Scotland using freshwater/seawater mixing experiments of natural creek water and synthetic seawater based on a (59)Fe radiotracer technique combined with isotopic characterization of dissolved organic carbon by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Three of the creeks meander through healthy Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs and the two others through modified peatlands which have been subject to artificial drainage for centuries. The results revealed that, at the time of sampling (August 16-24, 2014), the creeks that run through modified peatlands delivered 11-15μg iron per liter creek water to seawater, whereas the creeks that run through intact peatlands delivered 350-470μg iron per liter creek water to seawater. To find out whether this humic-bound iron is bio-available to marine algae, we performed algal growth tests using the unicellular flagellated marine prymnesiophyte Diacronema lutheri and the unicellular marine green alga Chlorella salina, respectively. In both cases, the riverine humic material provided a highly bio-available source of iron to the marine algae. These results add a new item to the list of ecosystem services of Sphagnum-peatlands.

  11. Experimental evidence for mobility/immobility of metals in peat.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Voldrichova, Petra; Stepanova, Marketa; Adamova, Marie; Pacherova, Petra; Komarek, Arnost; Krachler, Michael; Prechova, Eva

    2011-09-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of most toxic metals have been significantly altered by anthropogenic activities. Anaerobic, rain-fed organic soils are believed to record historical changes in atmospheric pollution. Suspected postdepositional mobility of trace elements, however, hinders the usefulness of peat bogs as pollution archives. To lower this uncertainty, we quantified the mobility of six trace metals in peat during an 18-month field manipulation. A replicated, reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between a heavily polluted and a relatively unpolluted peatland, located 200 km apart in the Czech Republic (Central Europe). Both peatlands were Sphagnum-derived, lawn-dominated, and had water table close to the surface. A strikingly different behavior was observed for two groups of elements. Elements of group I, Fe and Mn, adjusted their abundances and vertical patterns to the host site, showing an extremely high degree of mobility. In contrast, elements of group II, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Ti, preserved their original vertical patterns at the host site, showing a high degree of immobility. Our experimental results suggest that not just lead, but also copper and zinc concentration profiles in peat are a reliable archive of temporal pollution changes within a wide pH range (2.5-5.8).

  12. The effect of a reciprocal peat transplant between two contrasting Central European sites on C cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M.; Zemanova, L.; Buzek, F.; Jackova, I.; Adamova, M.; Komarek, A.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R. K.; Stepanova, M.

    2009-10-01

    An 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between two peatlands in the Czech Republic. Both sites were 100% Sphagnum-covered, with no vascular plants, and no hummocks and hollows. Atmospheric depositions of sulfur were up to 10 times higher at the northern site Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ), compared to the southern site Cervene blato (CB). Forty-cm deep peat cores, 10 cm in diameter, were used as transplants and controls in five replicates. Our objective was to evaluate whether CO2 and CH4 production potentials in Sphagnum peat bogs are governed mainly by organic matter quality, or by environmental conditions. Production rates and δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 were measured in the laboratory at time t=18 months. All measured parameters converged to those of the host site, indicating that, at least in the short-term perspective, environmental conditions were a more important control of greenhouse gas emissions than organic carbon quality. Since sulfate reducers outcompete methanogens, we hypothesized that the S-polluted site VJJ should have lower methane emissions than CB. In fact, the opposite was true, with higher methane emissions from VJJ. As a first step in an effort to link C isotope composition of emitted gases and residual peat substrate, we determined whether multiple vertical δ13C profiles in peat agree. A high degree of within-site homogeneity in δ13C was found. The δ13C value increased downcore at both CB and VJJ. However, 20 cm below surface, a reversal to lower δ13C downcore was seen at VJJ. Based on 210Pb dating, peat at 20 cm depth at VJJ was only 15 years old. Increasing δ13C values in VJJ peat accumulated between 1880-1990 could not be caused by assimilation of atmospheric CO2 gradually enriched in the light isotope 12C due to fossil fuel burning.

  13. Solute Transport in Unsaturated Sphagnum Mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J. S.; Faux, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Natural Sphagnum cushions develop an upwardly increasing concentration of dissolved solutes during periods of sustained upward capillary flow of solutes, and become enriched by evaporative loss of water. The transport process is poorly documented as a consequence of poor parameterization of unsaturated flow parameters, and the lack of transport parameters such as dispersivity and solute retardation coefficients for flow in unsaturated mosses. Sphagnum mosses contain hyaline cells and dead-end pores that can store but not transmit water and solute. Since these spaces do not drain at moderate (negative) pressures (ψ), the ratio of fluid actively flowing in films in the unsaturated moss to that which is stored decreases as the moss drains. Solutes can pass by diffusion from the film of flowing water into these closed spaces resulting in increased dispersion of the flowing solute, and retardation of even conservative solutes like chloride. These processes were demonstrated in unsaturated Sphagnum mosses using a step input solute (NaCl) source from a constant head device for undecomposed near-surface moss (~5 cm depth), and slightly more decomposed deeper moss (~25 cm depth). Smaller water retention in the undecomposed upper moss sample resulted in lower unsaturated hydraulic conductivity thus lower flow rates. When the sample was initially drained (ψ = ~ 4 cm of water) it was determined that the solute breakthrough expressed as relative concentration (C/C0 = 0.5) occurred at a cumulative discharge of 91.5 ml and at 5.8 minutes in the upper moss, compared to 233.2 ml after 2.8 minutes in the lower (more decomposed) sample. In a drier state (ψ = ~ 16 cm of water), C/C0 = 0.5 was reached after 67.9 ml of discharge at 37.9 minutes in the upper moss compared to 109.2 ml and at 22.4 minutes in the lower sample. Thus less solute flow is required for breakthrough in less decomposed mosses, and in mosses that are relatively dry. Dispersivity was determined on the basis of

  14. Isolation of aerobic, gliding, xylanolytic and laminarinolytic bacteria from acidic Sphagnum peatlands and emended description of Chitinophaga arvensicola Kampfer et al. 2006.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Timofei A; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Liesack, Werner; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2006-12-01

    Four aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow-pigmented and flexirubin-producing bacterial strains with gliding motility were isolated from acidic Sphagnum-dominated wetlands of Northern Russia. These bacteria are capable of degrading xylan, laminarin and some other polysaccharides, but not cellulose, pectin or chitin. The four strains possess almost identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and are most closely related (98.9-99.5 % sequence similarity) to the recently reclassified species of the phylum Bacteroidetes, Chitinophaga arvensicola Kämpfer et al. 2006, formerly known as [Cytophaga] arvensicola Oyaizu et al. 1983. However, the novel isolates from Sphagnum peat differed from C. arvensicola DSM 3695(T) in their ability to degrade xylan and starch, by greater tolerance of acidic pH and by their inability to reduce nitrate. An emended description of this species is proposed.

  15. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

  16. Sensitivity of blanket peat vegetation and hydrochemistry to local disturbances.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Smart, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    At the ecosystem scale, peatlands can be extremely resilient to perturbations. Yet, they are very sensitive to local disturbances, especially mechanical perturbations (e.g. trampling). The effects of these disturbances on vegetation, and potential effects on hydrochemical conditions along the peat surface, however, are largely unknown. We used three research tracks (paths researchers use to access their study sites) differing in time of abandonment to investigate the impact of local disturbance (trampling) on the vegetation and its short-term (< or = 2 year) recovery in a flagship research blanket peatland. Additionally, we examined the effects of local disturbance on fluvial runoff events and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in runoff water. Local disturbance heavily impacted peat vegetation, resulting in large areas of scarred and churned peat. Recovery of vascular plants along abandoned tracks was slow, but a functional Sphagnum layer re-established after just one year. The absence of vegetation elicited an increase in the number of runoff events along the tracks, by which POC runoff from the tracks increased. POC concentrations were highest in the surface water from the recently abandoned track, while they were low in the runoff water from the track abandoned longest and the undisturbed control track. We attribute this to the relatively fast recovery of the Sphagnum vegetation. DOC concentrations did not differ significantly either spatially or temporally in surface runoff or soil solution waters. While at an ecosystem scale local disturbances may be negligible in terms of carbon loss, our data points to the need for further research on the potential long-term effects of local disturbance on the vegetation, and significant effects on local scale carbon fluxes. Moreover, the effects of disturbances could be long-lasting and their role on ecosystem processes should not be underestimated.

  17. Atmospheric Mercury Transfer to Peat Bogs Dominated by Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Maxime; Roux, Gaël Le; Marusczak, Nicolas; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Claustres, Adrien; Fu, Xuewu; Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the dominant form of mercury in the atmosphere. Its conversion into oxidized gaseous and particulate forms is thought to drive atmospheric mercury wet deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, where it can be subsequently transformed into toxic methylmercury. The contribution of mercury dry deposition is however largely unconstrained. Here we examine mercury mass balance and mercury stable isotope composition in a peat bog ecosystem. We find that isotope signatures of living sphagnum moss (Δ(199)Hg = -0.11 ± 0.09‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.03 ± 0.02‰, 1σ) and recently accumulated peat (Δ(199)Hg = -0.22 ± 0.06‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.00 ± 0.04‰, 1σ) are characteristic of GEM (Δ(199)Hg = -0.17 ± 0.07‰, Δ(200)Hg = -0.05 ± 0.02‰, 1σ), and differs from wet deposition (Δ(199)Hg = 0.73 ± 0.15‰, Δ(200)Hg = 0.21 ± 0.04‰, 1σ). Sphagnum covered during three years by transparent and opaque surfaces, which eliminate wet deposition, continue to accumulate Hg. Sphagnum Hg isotope signatures indicate accumulation to take place by GEM dry deposition, and indicate little photochemical re-emission. We estimate that atmospheric mercury deposition to the peat bog surface is dominated by GEM dry deposition (79%) rather than wet deposition (21%). Consequently, peat deposits are potential records of past atmospheric GEM concentrations and isotopic composition.

  18. Investigating carbon dynamics in Siberian peat bogs using molecular-level analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    Total hydrolysable carbohydrates, and lignin and cutin acid compounds were analyzed in peat cores collected 56.8 N (SIB04), 58.4 N (SIB06), 63.8 N (G137) and 66.5 N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland to investigate vegetation, chemical compositions and the stage of decomposition. Sphagnum mosses dominated peatland vegetation in all four cores. High-resolution molecular analyses revealed rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years in the southern cores Sib4 and Sib6. Syringyl and vanillyl (S/V) ratios and cutin acids indicated these vegetation changes were due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm and root material. In the G137 and E113 cores lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants. Molecular decomposition indicators used in this study tracked the decomposition of different organic constituents of peat organic matter. The carbohydrate decomposition index was sensitive to the polysaccharide component of all peat-forming plants, whereas acid/aldehyde ratios of S and V phenols (Ac/AlS,V) followed the lignin component of vascular plants. Low carbohydrate decomposition indices in peat layers corresponded well with elevated (Ad/Al)S,V ratios. This suggested both classes of biochemicals were simultaneously decomposed, and decomposition processes were associated with extensive total mass loss in these ombrotrophic systems. Selective decomposition or transformation of lignin was observed in the permafrost-influenced northern cores G137 and E113. Both cores exhibited the highest (Ad/Al)S,V ratios, almost four-fold higher than measured in peat-forming plants. The extent of decomposition in the four peat cores did not uniformly increase with age, but showed episodic extensive decomposition events. Variable decomposition events independent of climatic conditions and vegetation shifts highlight the complexity of peatland dynamics.

  19. In vitro decomposition of Sphagnum by some microfungi resembles white rot of wood.

    PubMed

    Rice, Adrianne V; Tsuneda, Akihiko; Currah, Randolph S

    2006-06-01

    The abilities of some ascomycetes (Myxotrichaceae) from a Sphagnum bog in Alberta to degrade cellulose, phenolics, and Sphagnum tissue were compared with those of two basidiomycetes. Most Myxotrichaceae degraded cellulose and tannic acid, and removed cell-wall components simultaneously from Sphagnum tissues, whereas the basidiomycetes degraded cellulose and insoluble phenolics, and preferentially removed the polyphenolic matrix from Sphagnum cell walls. Mass losses from Sphagnum varied from up to 50% for some ascomycetes to a maximum of 35% for the basidiomycetes. The decomposition of Sphagnum by the Myxotrichaceae was analogous to the white rot of wood and indicates that these fungi have the potential to cause significant mineralization of carbon in bogs.

  20. Bringing back the rare - biogeochemical constraints of peat moss establishment in restored cut-over bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raabe, Peter; Blodau, Christian; Hölzel, Norbert; Kleinebecker, Till; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2016-04-01

    In rewetted cut-over bogs in north-western Germany and elsewhere almost no spontaneous recolonization of hummock peat mosses, such as Sphagnum magellanicum, S. papillosum or S. rubellum can be observed. However, to reach goals of climate protection every restoration of formerly mined peatlands should aim to enable the re-establishment of these rare but functionally important plant species. Besides aspects of biodiversity, peatlands dominated by mosses can be expected to emit less methane compared to sites dominated by graminoids. To assess the hydrological and biogeochemical factors constraining the successful establishment of hummock Sphagnum mosses we conducted a field experiment by actively transferring hummock species into six existing restoration sites in the Vechtaer Moor, a large peatland complex with active peat harvesting and parallel restoration efforts. The mosses were transferred as intact sods in triplicate at the beginning of June 2016. Six weeks (mid-July) and 18 weeks later (beginning of October) pore water was sampled in two depths (5 and 20 cm) directly beneath the inoculated Sphagnum sods as well as in untreated control plots and analysed for phosphate, ferrous iron, ammonia, nitrate and total organic carbon (TOC). On the same occasions and additionally in December, the vitality of mosses was estimated. Furthermore, the increment of moss height between July and December was measured by using cranked wires and peat cores were taken for lab analyses of nutrients and major element inventories at the depths of pore water sampling. Preliminary results indicate that vitality of mosses during the period of summer water level draw down was strongly negatively related to plant available phosphate in deeper layers of the residual peat. Furthermore, increment of moss height was strongly negatively related to TOC in the upper pore waters sampled in October. Concentration of ferrous iron in deeper pore waters was in general significantly higher beneath

  1. Atmospheric Pb and Ti accumulation rates from Sphagnum moss: dependence upon plant productivity.

    PubMed

    Kempter, H; Krachler, M; Shotyk, W

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation rates of atmospheric Pb and Ti were obtained using the production rates of Sphagnum mosses collected in four ombrotrophic bogs from two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and one year later the production of plant matter was harvested. Metal concentrations were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS employing well established analytical procedures. Up to 12 samples (40 x 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites were investigated per bog. Variations within a given sampling site were in the range 2.3-4x for Pb concentrations, 1.8-2.5x for Ti concentrations, 3-8.3x for Pb/Ti, 5.6-7.8x for Pb accumulation rates, and 2.3-6.4x for Ti accumulation rates. However, the median values of these parameters for the sites (6-10 per bog) were quite consistent. The mosses from the bogs in NBF exhibited significantly greater productivity (187-202 g m(-2) a(-1)) compared to the OB peat bogs (71-91 g m(-2) a(-1)), and these differences had a pronounced effect on the Pb and Ti accumulation rates. Highly productive mosses showed no indication of a "dilution effect" of Pb or Ti concentrations, suggesting that more productive plants were simply able to accumulate more particles from the air. The median rates of net Pb accumulation by the mosses are in excellent agreement with the fluxes obtained by direct atmospheric measurements at nearby monitoring stations in both regions (EMEP and MAPESI data).

  2. Phylogenetic or environmental control on the organo-chemical composition of Sphagnum mosses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpens, Juul; Nilsson, Mats

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of organic material is one of the key processes that determines the size of the soil-feedback to global warming, but it is also a process surrounded with one of the largest uncertainties, making understanding its mechanistic drivers of crucial importance. In organic soils decomposition is closely determined by the organo-chemical composition of the litter entering the soil. But what, in turn drives the organo-chemical composition? Is it an emergent feature of the environment the species producing the litter grow in, or is it an evolutionary trait that can be tracked through the species' phylogeny? We set out to answer this question for one of the most import peat-forming plants on earth: the genus Sphagnum. We sampled 18 Sphagnum species, about equally distributed over 6 sites spanning a wide range of environmental conditions: most species were collected at multiple sites. For all species we characterised the chemical composition, focussing on three functional chemistry groups: (i) mineral elements, (ii) carbohydrate polymers (iii) non-carbohydrate polymers (aromatic and aliphatic compounds) . For each group of compounds we used multivariate statistical techniques to derive the degree of variation explained by environment: (site, position within site) and phylogeny (sections within genus Sphagnum). We found that the variation in mineral element concentrations was mostly explained by environment, with the biggest differences in the concentrations of basic cat-ions calcium and magnesium. In contrast, the variation in carbohydrates was mostly explained by phylogeny, with clear associations between sections and monosaccharides. The monosaccharide rhamnose was associated with species from the Acutifolia section known for their poor degradability, whereas xylose and galactose were closely associated with degradable species from the Cuspidata section. The composition non-carbohydrate polymers took an intermediate position: both environment and phylogeny

  3. Measurement of Entrapped Biogenic Gas Bubbles in Northern Peat Soils: Application of Resistivity and X-ray Computed Tomography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, N.; Binley, A.; Baird, A.

    2008-05-01

    Peatlands are the largest natural source per annum of CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. CH4 is lost from peatlands via diffusion or active transport through vascular plants, and as bubbles moving to the peatland surface - ebullition. The build up and ebullition of biogenic gas bubbles within northern peatlands is spatially variable and depends on the rate of CH4 production, the transport of dissolved CH4 to bubbles through pore water, and the physical properties of the peat. Recent measurements suggest a threshold bubble volume must be reached to trigger episodic or cyclic ebullition, which is assumed to be dependent on peat type. However, this threshold theory lacks a secure physical basis and therefore cannot be applied to simulate methane ebullition from northern peatlands with any confidence. We develop an approach to examine the structural attributes of the peat that cause and promote the trapping and release of bubbles by combining resistivity and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The spatial and temporal variation in the biogenic gas content of peat cores are identified from resistivity measurements. Areas of high and low entrapped gas content are subsequently correlated with the pore structure of the peat samples, characterised using CT. The CT images of the peat structure are vectorised to allow them to be analysed for metrics which relate to the ability of the peat to trap bubbles: e.g. stem length and width, number of branches, angle of branches. Difficulties applying these approaches within northern peatlands are examined. The low pore water conductivity of poorly decomposed near surface peat can hamper resistivity measurements at the laboratory scale, and electrolytic reactions induce the development of artificial gas bubbles. The similarity in linear attenuations between poorly decomposed Sphagnum and pore water also makes the peat structure indistinguishable from the pore water within standard CT scans. The peat samples must, therefore, first be doped

  4. Third technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The conference dealt with the estimation of US peat reserves, methods for the gasification of peat, including biogasification, techniques for dewatering peat, and the harvesting of peat. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  5. The effect of a reciprocal peat transplant between two contrasting Central European sites on C cycling and C isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, M.; Zemanova, L.; Buzek, F.; Jackova, I.; Adamova, M.; Komarek, A.; Vile, M. A.; Kelman Wieder, R.; Stepanova, M.

    2010-03-01

    An 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment was conducted between two peatlands in the Czech Republic. Both sites were 100% Sphagnum-covered, with no vascular plants, and no hummocks and hollows. Atmospheric depositions of sulfur were up to 10 times higher at the northern site Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ), compared to the southern site Cervene blato (CB). Forty-cm deep peat cores, 10-cm in diameter, were used as transplants and controls in five replicates. Our objective was to evaluate whether CO2 and CH4 emissions from Sphagnum peat bogs are governed mainly by organic matter quality in the substrate, or by environmental conditions. Emission rates and δ13C values of CO2 and CH4 were measured in the laboratory at time t=18 months. All measured parameters converged to those of the host site, indicating that, at least in the short-term perspective, environmental conditions were a more important control of greenhouse gas emissions than organic carbon quality in the substrate. Since sulfate reducers outcompete methanogens, we hypothesized that the S-polluted site VJJ should have lower methane emissions than CB. In fact, the opposite was true, with significantly (p<0.01) higher methane emissions from VJJ. Additionally, as a first step in an effort to link C isotope composition of emitted gases and residual peat substrate, we determined whether multiple vertical δ13C profiles in peat agree. A high degree of within-site homogeneity in δ13C was found. When a specific vertical δ13C trend was seen in one peat core, the same trend was also seen in all the remaining peat cores from the wetland. The δ13C value increased downcore at both CB and VJJ. At VJJ, however, 20 cm below surface, a reversal to lower δ13C downcore was seen. Based on 210Pb dating, peat at 20-cm depth at VJJ was only 15 years old. Increasing δ13C values in VJJ peat accumulated between 1880-1990 could not be caused by assimilation of atmospheric CO2 gradually enriched in the light isotope 12C due to

  6. Dynamics of Viral Abundance and Diversity in a Sphagnum-Dominated Peatland: Temporal Fluctuations Prevail Over Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Ballaud, Flore; Dufresne, Alexis; Francez, André-Jean; Colombet, Jonathan; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Quaiser, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different layers of the peat surface. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7 x 106 to 5.6 x 108 particles mL-1, and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with prokaryote abundance and dissolved organic carbon, and negatively correlated with water-table height and dissolved oxygen. Using shotgun metagenomics we observed a shift in viral diversity between winter/spring and summer/autumn, indicating a seasonal succession of viral communities, mainly driven by weather-related environmental changes. Based on the seasonal asynchrony between viral and microbial diversity, we hypothesize a seasonal shift in the active microbial communities associated with a shift from lysogenic to lytic lifestyles. Our results suggest that temporal variations of environmental conditions rather than current habitat differences control the dynamics of virus-host interactions in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. PMID:26779149

  7. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples.

    PubMed

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A; Goodsite, M E; Biester, H; Shotyk, W

    2002-06-20

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural variation on measured Hg concentrations are investigated. Slight increases in mercury concentrations were observed in samples dried at room temperature and at 30 degrees C (6.7 and 2.48 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively), and slight decreases were observed in samples dried at 60, 90 and 105 degrees C (2.36, 3.12 and 8.52 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively). Fertilising the peat slightly increased Hg loss (3.08 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in NPK-fertilised peat compared to 0.28 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in unfertilised peat, when averaged over all temperatures used). Homogenising samples by grinding in a machine also caused a loss of Hg. A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum and Pseudevernia furfuracea) are particularly efficient Hg retainers. The disproportionally high Hg concentrations in these species can cause considerable variation in Hg concentrations within a peat slice. The variation of water content (1.6% throughout 17-cm core, 0.97% in a 10 x 10 cm slice), bulk density (40% throughout 17-cm core, 15.6% in a 10 x 10 cm slice) and Hg concentration (20% in a 10 x 10 cm slice) in ombrotrophic peat were quantified in order to determine their relative importance as sources of analytical error. Experiments were carried out to determine a suitable peat analysis program using the Leco AMA 254, capable of determining mercury concentrations in solid samples. Finally, an analytical protocol for the determination of Hg concentrations in solid peat samples

  8. Behavior of lead in pristine and urbanized acid wetlands in the New Jersey pinelands with special reference to the role of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Vedagiri, U.K.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of lead in naturally acidic Sphagnum moss-dominated wetlands of the New Jersey Pinelands and to compare it to the behavior of lead in similar wetlands which had been impacted by storm-water runoff. Data from the field showed that the runoff-impacted sites were characterized by elevated pH, elimination of Spaghnum ground cover, erosion of peat substrate and high lead accumulations, contributing to an effective but decreasing sink capacity. Laboratory experiments explored differences in fractionation, mobility and bioavailability of lead between the two systems. The low pH and high dissolved organic matter of the pristine waters led to higher solubilization and complexing of added lead compared to impacted waters. Lead added to runoff showed unexpectedly high solubility and lability, possibly due to low suspended solids. Lead added to runoff was also much more mobile vertically through peat columns than lead added to swampwater, possibly due to its high lability. The extremely high porosity of the peat substrate allows rapid vertical migration of solutes during events of sudden influx, such as storms. Sphagnum moss greatly decreased vertical transport by binding and flow retardation. The lead that is held in the moss layer was differentially available to different species. Red maple seedlings were better able to take up lead from the peat substrate in the absence of moss cover while cranberry plants showed the reverse pattern. This may be related to differences in rooting requirements and growth of the two species. Lead added in runoff was initially less available to the plants than in swampwater, but was ultimately taken up the red maple, which could tolerate conditions in the impacted substrates.

  9. Fourth technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The papers presented dealt with peat dewatering, international peat programs, environmental and socio-economic factors, peat gasification, peat harvesting, and the state peat surveys for 14 states. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual papers. (CKK)

  10. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    tannic acid led to a considerable underestimation (up to 90%) of polyphenolic concentrations in peat soils. As hypothesised we found that highly degraded peat contains far lower levels of total polyphenolics (factor 8) and condensed tannins (factor 50) than less decomposed peat. In addition we detected large differences between different plant species with highest polyphenolic contents for the roots of Carex appropinquata that were more than 10-fold higher than Sphagnum spp. (450 mg/g dry mass vs. 39 mg/g dry mass). Despite these differences, we did not find a significant correlation between enzyme activities and peat degradation state, indicating that there is no simple linear relationship between polyphenolic contents and microbial activity.

  11. Elevated Nitrogen Deposition from Alberta Oil Sands Development Stimulates Phosphatase Activity in Dominant Sphagnum Moss Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, N. N.; Wieder, R.; Vile, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions of NOx associated with Alberta oil sands (AOS) development are leading to locally elevated atmospheric N deposition, in a region where background N deposition has been historically quite low (< 1 kg/ha/yr). This elevated N deposition has the potential to alter the ecosystem structure and function of nutrient-poor boreal peatlands. Nitrogen enrichment may alter soil microbial activity, which could be manifested in changes in extracellular enzyme activities. Since 2011, we have been experimentally adding N as NH4NO3 in simulated precipitation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha/yr/ plus no-water controls to a boreal bog and a poor fen (3 replicate plots per treatment). In 2013, acid phosphatase activities in living plant capitulum of Sphagnum angustifolium, Sphagnum fuscum, and Sphagnum magellanicum were quantified in June and July using 4-methyumbelliferylphosphate and fluorescence detection of the enzymatically released methylumbelliferone (MUF). Phosphatase activities did not differ with N treatment for S. angustifolium in the bog (p=0.3409) or the poor fen (p=0.0629), or for S. fuscum in the bog (p=0.1950), averaging 35.0 × 0.7, 61.6 × 1.2, and 41.6 × 0.9 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr, respectively. For S. fuscum in the poor fen, phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0275), ranging 40.6 × 1.1 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the control plots to 73.7 × 2.0 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 5 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots; increasing N deposition did not result in a gradual change in enzyme activity. On the other hand, S. magellanicum phosphatase activities differed between N treatments (p=0.0189) and showed a pattern of generally increasing activity with increasing N deposition (37.4 × 0.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in control plots; 97.9 × 4.5 μmol MUF/g DWT/hr in the 25 kg/ha/yr N treatment plots). The differing phosphatase responses between these dominant Sphagnum species suggest unique differences in nutrient balance and/or microbial activity. Combining the

  12. A novel testate amoebae trait-based approach to infer environmental disturbance in Sphagnum peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Colombaroli, Daniele; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Tinner, Willy; Kołaczek, Piotr; Gałka, Mariusz; Karpińska-Kołaczek, Monika; Słowiński, Michał; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Species’ functional traits are closely related to ecosystem processes through evolutionary adaptation, and are thus directly connected to environmental changes. Species’ traits are not commonly used in palaeoecology, even though they offer powerful advantages in understanding the impact of environmental disturbances in a mechanistic way over time. Here we show that functional traits of testate amoebae (TA), a common group of palaeoecological indicators, can serve as an early warning signal of ecosystem disturbance and help determine thresholds of ecosystem resilience to disturbances in peatlands. We analysed TA traits from two Sphagnum-dominated mires, which had experienced different kinds of disturbances in the past 2000 years – fire and peat extraction, respectively. We tested the effect of disturbances on the linkages between TA community structure, functional trait composition and functional diversity using structural equation modelling. We found that traits such as mixotrophy and small hidden apertures (plagiostomic apertures) are strongly connected with disturbance, suggesting that these two traits can be used as palaeoecological proxies of peatland disturbance. We show that TA functional traits may serve as a good proxy of past environmental changes, and further analysis of trait-ecosystem relationships could make them valuable indicators of the contemporary ecosystem state.

  13. A novel testate amoebae trait-based approach to infer environmental disturbance in Sphagnum peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Colombaroli, Daniele; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Tinner, Willy; Kołaczek, Piotr; Gałka, Mariusz; Karpińska-Kołaczek, Monika; Słowiński, Michał; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Species’ functional traits are closely related to ecosystem processes through evolutionary adaptation, and are thus directly connected to environmental changes. Species’ traits are not commonly used in palaeoecology, even though they offer powerful advantages in understanding the impact of environmental disturbances in a mechanistic way over time. Here we show that functional traits of testate amoebae (TA), a common group of palaeoecological indicators, can serve as an early warning signal of ecosystem disturbance and help determine thresholds of ecosystem resilience to disturbances in peatlands. We analysed TA traits from two Sphagnum-dominated mires, which had experienced different kinds of disturbances in the past 2000 years – fire and peat extraction, respectively. We tested the effect of disturbances on the linkages between TA community structure, functional trait composition and functional diversity using structural equation modelling. We found that traits such as mixotrophy and small hidden apertures (plagiostomic apertures) are strongly connected with disturbance, suggesting that these two traits can be used as palaeoecological proxies of peatland disturbance. We show that TA functional traits may serve as a good proxy of past environmental changes, and further analysis of trait-ecosystem relationships could make them valuable indicators of the contemporary ecosystem state. PMID:27658521

  14. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    PubMed

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. <20 Ma). Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death.

  15. Metal accumulation capacity of five species of Sphagnum moss

    SciTech Connect

    Aulio, K.

    1985-10-01

    The present paper describes the first experimental evidence of the species-specific differences in the cation accumulation properties in Sphagnum mosses. Manganese was chosen for the object of the experiments because this element appears to show the greatest variability under natural conditions.

  16. Simulated climate change impact on summer dissolved organic carbon release from peat and surface vegetation: implications for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Ritson, Jonathan P; Bell, Michael; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R; Brazier, Richard E; Verhoef, Anne; Freeman, Chris; Clark, Joanna M

    2014-12-15

    Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g(-1)) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g(-1)) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers.

  17. The role of Sphagnum mosses in the methane cycling of a boreal mire.

    PubMed

    Larmola, Tuula; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tiirola, Marja; Nykänen, Hannu; Martikainen, Pertti J; Yrjälä, Kim; Tuomivirta, Tero; Fritze, Hannu

    2010-08-01

    Peatlands are a major natural source of atmospheric methane (CH4). Emissions from Sphagnum-dominated mires are lower than those measured from other mire types. This observation may partly be due to methanotrophic (i.e., methane-consuming) bacteria associated with Sphagnum. Twenty-three of the 41 Sphagnum species in Finland can be found in the peatland at Lakkasuo. To better understand the Sphagnum-methanotroph system, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) all these Sphagnum species support methanotrophic bacteria; (2) water level is the key environmental determinant for differences in methanotrophy across habitats; (3) under dry conditions, Sphagnum species will not host methanotrophic bacteria; and (4) methanotrophs can move from one Sphagnum shoot to another in an aquatic environment. To address hypotheses 1 and 2, we measured the water table and CH4 oxidation for all Sphagnum species at Lakkasuo in 1-5 replicates for each species. Using this systematic approach, we included Sphagnum spp. with narrow and broad ecological tolerances. To estimate the potential contribution of CH4 to moss carbon, we measured the uptake of delta13C supplied as CH4 or as carbon dioxide dissolved in water. To test hypotheses 2-4, we transplanted inactive moss patches to active sites and measured their methanotroph communities before and after transplantation. All 23 Sphagnum species showed methanotrophic activity, confirming hypothesis 1. We found that water level was the key environmental factor regulating methanotrophy in Sphagnum (hypothesis 2). Mosses that previously exhibited no CH4 oxidation became active when transplanted to an environment in which the microbes in the control mosses were actively oxidizing CH4 (hypothesis 4). Newly active transplants possessed a Methylocystis signature also found in the control Sphagnum spp. Inactive transplants also supported a Methylocystis signature in common with active transplants and control mosses, which rejects hypothesis 3. Our

  18. Peat surface GHG fluxes related to peat hydrology in various tropical peat land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri

    2010-05-01

    It is generally accepted that the gradual increase in the mean temperature of the Earth's surface is primarily due to rising concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. Tropical peatlands are an important component of the global peatland resource, contributing to terrestrial carbon storage in both their above-ground biomass (peat swamp forest) and underlying thick deposits of peat, which both participate soil-atmosphere carbon exchange processes. In their natural state, these forests have the ability to sequester carbon from the atmosphere during photosynthesis, retain this in plant biomass and store part of it in the peat. This process occurs mainly because of the frequent waterlogged condition of the peat, which reduces organic matter decomposition significantly and this causes the rate of organic matter production to exceed its breakdown. Peatland development, however, requires drainage, brings about changes in the vegetation type C-sequestration capacity and leads to changes in peat organic matter dynamics. Drainage promotes the depth of oxic conditions deeper in peat profile and thus speeds up peat stored organic matter mineralization. Aerobic conditions and high redox potentials created by drainage are known to favour microbial activity, which can enhance C and N losses by peat mineralization. Large areas of tropical peat have been drained, resulting in an abrupt and permanent shift in the ecosystem carbon balance from sink to source. Discussion of the current role of tropical peatlands in regional and global climate change processes is based mostly on circumstantial and secondary evidence, largely because total ecosystem carbon balance studies are very few and unsatisfactory. Peat surface GHG flux data are spatially very fragmented and have not usually been collected over entire diurnal or seasonal cycles. Interpretation of the impact of biophysical factors of tropical

  19. The peats of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Peat has been identified in Cost Rica, and an economic analysis of energy applications for peat has been done. About 1000 km{sup 2} of Cost Rica has the potential of being covered by peat. The Talamanca Mountains and the northeastern plains contain most of the Costa Rican peat. Specific bogs have been identified by the Medio Queso River in north-central Costa Rica and near El Cairo, Moin, and the Limon airport in northeastern Costa Rica. The Medio Queso bog, which is supplying peat for use as a carrier for nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and the El Cairo bog, which has been identified as a source of horticultural peat for nearby ornamental plant farms, are of special interest. The economics of three energy applications of peat were examined -- as a fuel in large boilers, as a fuel in small boilers, and as an oil substitute in a cement plant. A facility using coal would have the same total costs as one using peat if coal prices were $45 and $30 per metric ton (used for large boilers and a cement plant, respectively). A facility using Bunker C or diesel would have the same total cost as one using peat if oil prices were $0.11, $0.08, and $0.06 per liter (used for large boilers, small boilers, and a cement plant, respectively). In all three cases, the costs for peat were comparable or less than the costs for coal and oil at 1987 prices. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Sulfate reduction in peat from a new jersey pinelands cedar swamp.

    PubMed

    Spratt, H G; Morgan, M D; Good, R E

    1987-07-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction rates in acidic peat from a New Jersey Pine Barrens cedar swamp in 1986 were similar to sulfate reduction rates in freshwater lake sediments. The rates ranged from a low of 1.0 nmol cm day in February at 7.5- to 10.0-cm depth to 173.4 nmol cm day in July at 5.0- to 7.5-cm depth. The presence of living Sphagnum moss at the surface generally resulted in reduced rates of sulfate reduction. Pore water sulfate concentrations and water table height also apparently affected the sulfate reduction rate. Concentrations of sulfate in pore water were nearly always higher than those in surface water and groundwater, ranging from 26 to 522 muM. The elevated pore water sulfate levels did not result from the evapotranspiratory concentration of infiltrating stream water or groundwater, but probably resulted from oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, hydrolysis of ester sulfates present in the peat, or both. The total sulfur content of peat that had no living moss at the surface was 164.64 +/- 1.5 and 195.8 +/- 21.7 mumol g (dry weight) for peat collected from 2.5 to 5.0 and 7.5 to 10.0 cm, respectively. Organosulfur compounds accounted for 84 to 88% of the total sulfur that was present in the peat. C-bonded sulfur accounted for 91 to 94% of the organic sulfur, with ester sulfate being only a minor constituent. Reduced inorganic sulfur species in peat from 2.5 to 7.5 cm were dominated by H(2)S-FeS (68%), while pyritic sulfide was the predominant inorganic sulfur species in the peat from depths of 7.5 to 10.0 cm (75%).

  1. Persistent versus transient tree encroachment of temperate peat bogs: effects of climate warming and drought events.

    PubMed

    Heijmans, Monique M P D; van der Knaap, Yasmijn A M; Holmgren, Milena; Limpens, Juul

    2013-07-01

    Peatlands store approximately 30% of global soil carbon, most in moss-dominated bogs. Future climatic changes, such as changes in precipitation patterns and warming, are expected to affect peat bog vegetation composition and thereby its long-term carbon sequestration capacity. Theoretical work suggests that an episode of rapid environmental change is more likely to trigger transitions to alternative ecosystem states than a gradual, but equally large, change in conditions. We used a dynamic vegetation model to explore the impacts of drought events and increased temperature on vegetation composition of temperate peat bogs. We analyzed the consequences of six patterns of summer drought events combined with five temperature scenarios to test whether an open peat bog dominated by moss (Sphagnum) could shift to a tree-dominated state. Unexpectedly, neither a gradual decrease in the amount of summer precipitation nor the occurrence of a number of extremely dry summers in a row could shift the moss-dominated peat bog permanently into a tree-dominated peat bog. The increase in tree biomass during drought events was unable to trigger positive feedbacks that keep the ecosystem in a tree-dominated state after a return to previous 'normal' rainfall conditions. In contrast, temperature increases from 1 °C onward already shifted peat bogs into tree-dominated ecosystems. In our simulations, drought events facilitated tree establishment, but temperature determined how much tree biomass could develop. Our results suggest that under current climatic conditions, peat bog vegetation is rather resilient to drought events, but very sensitive to temperature increases, indicating that future warming is likely to trigger persistent vegetation shifts.

  2. Sulfate Reduction in Peat from a New Jersey Pinelands Cedar Swamp †

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Henry G.; Morgan, Mark D.; Good, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction rates in acidic peat from a New Jersey Pine Barrens cedar swamp in 1986 were similar to sulfate reduction rates in freshwater lake sediments. The rates ranged from a low of 1.0 nmol cm−3 day−1 in February at 7.5- to 10.0-cm depth to 173.4 nmol cm−3 day−1 in July at 5.0- to 7.5-cm depth. The presence of living Sphagnum moss at the surface generally resulted in reduced rates of sulfate reduction. Pore water sulfate concentrations and water table height also apparently affected the sulfate reduction rate. Concentrations of sulfate in pore water were nearly always higher than those in surface water and groundwater, ranging from 26 to 522 μM. The elevated pore water sulfate levels did not result from the evapotranspiratory concentration of infiltrating stream water or groundwater, but probably resulted from oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds, hydrolysis of ester sulfates present in the peat, or both. The total sulfur content of peat that had no living moss at the surface was 164.64 ± 1.5 and 195.8 ± 21.7 μmol g (dry weight)−1 for peat collected from 2.5 to 5.0 and 7.5 to 10.0 cm, respectively. Organosulfur compounds accounted for 84 to 88% of the total sulfur that was present in the peat. C-bonded sulfur accounted for 91 to 94% of the organic sulfur, with ester sulfate being only a minor constituent. Reduced inorganic sulfur species in peat from 2.5 to 7.5 cm were dominated by H2S-FeS (68%), while pyritic sulfide was the predominant inorganic sulfur species in the peat from depths of 7.5 to 10.0 cm (75%). PMID:16347371

  3. Recent atmospheric dust deposition in an ombrotrophic peat bog in Great Hinggan Mountain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Kunshan; Xing, Wei; Yu, Xiaofei; Zhao, Hongmei; McLaughlin, Neil; Lu, Xianguo; Wang, Guoping

    2012-08-01

    Recent deposition of atmospheric soil dust (ASD) was studied using (210)Pb-dated Sphagnum-derived peat sequences from Great Hinggan Mountain in northeast China. Physicochemical indices of peat including dry bulk density, water content, ash content, total organic carbon and mass magnetic susceptibility were measured. Acid-insoluble concentration of lithogenic metals (Al, Ca, Fe, Mn, V and Ti) were measured using ICP-AES. The basic physicochemical properties were used to assess the peat trophic status and indicated that the sections above 45-60 cm are rain-fed peat. A continuous record of ASD fluxes over the past 150 years was reconstructed based on the geochemical data obtained from the ombrotrophic zone, and the average input rate of ASD is 13.4-68.1 g m(-2) year(-1). The source of soil dust deposited in peat was dominated by the long-range transport of mineral aerosol from the drylands in north China and Mongolia. The temporal variation of ASD fluxes in the last 60 years coincides well with the meteorological records of dust storm frequency during 1954-2002 in north China. This suggests that the reconstructed sequence of atmospheric dust deposition is reliable and we can look back in time at the dust evolution before 1949. Dust storm events were observed occasionally in the late Qing dynasty, and their frequency and intensity were smaller than dust weather occurring in recent times. Four peaks of ASD fluxes were distinguished and correlated with the historical events at that time. This study presents the first atmospheric soil dust data in peat records in northeast China, and complements a global database of peat bog archives of atmospheric deposition. The results reflect the patterns of local environmental change over the past century in north China and will be helpful in formulating policies to achieve sustainable and healthy development.

  4. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire: field measurements and model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Zatsarinnaya, Dina; Novenko, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia (54.06N, 37.59E, 260 m a.s.l.) was described using results of field measurements and simulations with Mixfor-3D model. The area of the mire is about 1.2 ha and it is surrounded by a broadleaved forest stand. It is a typical peat mire according to water and mineral supply as well as to vegetation composition. The vegetation of the peripheral parts of the mire is typical eutrophic whereas the vegetation in its central part is represented by meso-oligothrophic plant communities. To describe the spatial variability of NEE and ET within the mire a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2 and H2O analyzer LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) was used. The measurements were provided along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and from May 2013 to October 2013. The chamber method was used for measurements of NEE and ET fluxes because of small size of the mire, a very uniform surrounding forest stand and the mosaic mire vegetation. All these factors promote very heterogeneous exchange conditions within the mire and make it difficult to apply, for example, an eddy covariance method that is widely used for flux measurements in the field. The results of the field measurements showed a significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation, air temperature and ground water level. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere (up to 6.8±4.2 µmol m-2 s-1 in June) whereas its peripheral part, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was mainly a source of

  5. Downwash of atmospherically deposited trace metals in peat and the influence of rainfall intensity: an experimental test.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sophia V; Tolu, Julie; Bindler, Richard

    2015-02-15

    Accumulation records of pollutant metals in peat have been frequently used to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition rates. While there is good support for peat as a record of relative changes in metal deposition over time, questions remain whether peat archives represent a quantitative or a qualitative record. Several processes can potentially influence the quantitative record of which downwashing is particularly pertinent as it would have a direct influence on how and where atmospherically deposited metals are accumulated in peat. The aim of our study was two-fold: first, to compare and contrast the retention of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in peat cores; and second, to test the influence of different precipitation intensities on the potential downwashing of metals. We applied four 'rainfall' treatments to 13 peat cores over a 3-week period, including both daily (2 or 5.3 mm day(-1)) and event-based additions (37 mm day(-1), added over 1h or over a 10h rain event). Two main trends were apparent: 1) there was a difference in retention of the added dissolved metals in the surface layer (0-2 cm): 21-85% for Pb, 18-63% for Cu, 10-25% for Zn and 10-20% for Ni. 2) For all metals and both peat types (sphagnum lawn and fen), the addition treatments resulted in different downwashing depths, i.e., as the precipitation-addition increased so did the depth at which added metals could be detected. Although the largest fraction of Pb and Cu was retained in the surface layer and the remainder effectively immobilized in the upper peat (≤ 10 cm), there was a smearing effect on the overall retention, where precipitation intensity exerts an influence on the vertical distribution of added trace metals. These results indicate that the relative position of a deposition signal in peat records would be preserved, but it would be quantitatively attenuated.

  6. The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate - A European initiative for practical peat bog and climate protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smidt, Geerd; Tänzer, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The new European Competence Centre for Moor and Climate (EFMK) is an initiative by different local communities, environmental protection NGOs, agricultural services, and partners from the peat and other industries in Lower Saxony (Germany). The Centre aims to integrate practical peat bog conservation with a focus on green house gas emission after drainage and after water logging activities. Together with our partners we want to break new ground to protect the remaining bogs in the region. Sphagnum mosses will be produced in paludiculture on-site in cooperation with the local peat industry to provide economic and ecologic alternatives for peat products used in horticulture business. Land-use changes are needed in the region and will be stimulated in cooperation with agricultural services via compensation money transfers from environmental protection funds. On a global scale the ideas of Carbon Credit System have to be discussed to protect the peat bogs for climate protection issues. Environmental education is an important pillar of the EFMK. The local society is invited to explore the unique ecosystem and to participate in peat bog protection activities. Future generations will be taught to understand that the health of our peat bogs is interrelated with the health of the local and global climate. Besides extracurricular classes for schools the centre will provide infrastructure for Master and PhD students, as well for senior researchers for applied research in the surrounding moor. International partners in the scientific and practical fields of peat bog ecology, renaturation, green house gas emissions from peat bogs, and environmental policy are invited to participate in the European Competence Center for Moor and Climate.

  7. DMS emissions from Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Demello, William Zamboni; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    in peat in the unsaturated zone.

  8. Growing season variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire in the broad-leaved forest zone of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, A.; Volkova, E.; Karataeva, T.; Novenko, E.

    2013-09-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia in the Tula region was described using results from field measurements. NEE and ET were measured using a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2/H2O analyzer, LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and in May 2013. The results of the field measurements showed significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation and ground water level. The seasonal patterns of NEE and ET within the mire were quite different. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere. NEE reached maximal values in June-July (-6.8 ± 4.2 μmol m-2 s-1). The southern peripheral part of the mire, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere in June-July only. ET reached maximal values in the well-lighted central parts of the mire in May (0.34 ± 0.20 mm h-1) mainly because of high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. Herbaceous species made the maximum contribution to the total gross primary production (GPP) in both the central and the peripheral parts of the mire. The contribution of sphagnum to the total GPP of these plant communities was relatively small and ranged on sunny days of July-August from -1.1 ± 1.1 mgC g-1 of dry weight (DW) per hour in the peripheral zone of the mire to -0.6 ± 0.2 mgC g-1 DW h-1 at the mire center. The sphagnum layer made the maximum contribution to total ET at the mire center (0.25 ± 0.10 mm h-1) and the herbaceous

  9. Terrestrial isopod community as indicator of succession in a peat bog.

    PubMed

    Antonović, Ivan; Brigić, Andreja; Sedlar, Zorana; Bedek, Jana; Soštarić, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were studied in the Dubravica peat bog and surrounding forest in the northwestern Croatia. Sampling was conducted using pitfall traps over a two year period. Studied peat bog has a history of drastically decrease in area during the last five decades mainly due to the process of natural succession and changes in the water level. A total of 389 isopod individuals belonging to 8 species were captured. Species richness did not significantly differ between bog, edge and surrounding forest. High species richness at the bog is most likely the result of progressive vegetation succession, small size of the bog and interspecific relationships, such as predation. With spreading of Molinia grass on the peat bog, upper layers of Sphagnum mosses become less humid and probably more suitable for forest species that slowly colonise bog area. The highest diversity was found at the edge mainly due to the edge effect and seasonal immigration, but also possibly due to high abundance and predator pressure of the Myrmica ants and lycosid spiders at the bog site. The most abundant species were Trachelipus rathkii and Protracheoniscus politus, in the bog area and in the forest, respectively. Bog specific species were not recorded and the majority of the species collected belong to the group of tyrphoneutral species. However, Hyloniscus adonis could be considered as a tyrphoxenous species regarding its habitat preferences. Most of collected isopod species are widespread eurytopic species that usually inhabit various habitats and therefore indicate negative successive changes or degradation processes in the peat bog.

  10. Dynamics of methane ebullition from a peat monolith revealed from a dynamic flux chamber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongjie; Slater, Lee D.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Varner, Ruth K.

    2014-09-01

    Methane (CH4) ebullition in northern peatlands is poorly quantified in part due to its high spatiotemporal variability. In this study, a dynamic flux chamber (DFC) system was used to continuously measure CH4 fluxes from a monolith of near-surface Sphagnum peat at the laboratory scale to understand the complex behavior of CH4 ebullition. Coincident transmission ground penetrating radar measurements of gas content were also acquired at three depths within the monolith. A graphical method was developed to separate diffusion, steady ebullition, and episodic ebullition fluxes from the total CH4 flux recorded and to identify the timing and CH4 content of individual ebullition events. The results show that the application of the DFC had minimal disturbance on air-peat CH4 exchange and estimated ebullition fluxes were not sensitive to the uncertainties associated with the graphical model. Steady and episodic ebullition fluxes were estimated to be averagely 36 ± 24% and 38 ± 24% of the total fluxes over the study period, respectively. The coupling between episodic CH4 ebullition and gas content within the three layers supports the existence of a threshold gas content regulating CH4 ebullition. However, the threshold at which active ebullition commenced varied between peat layers with a larger threshold (0.14 m3 m-3) observed in the deeper layers, suggesting that the peat physical structure controls gas bubble dynamics in peat. Temperature variation (23°C to 27°C) was likely only responsible for small episodic ebullition events from the upper peat layer, while large ebullition events from the deeper layers were most likely triggered by drops in atmospheric pressure.

  11. The importance of pH and sand substrate in the revegetation of saline non-waterlogged peat fields.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Marilou B; Price, Jonathan; Rochefort, Line

    2015-11-01

    A partially peat-extracted coastal bog contaminated by seawater was barren and required revegetation as a wetland. Peat fields were rectangular in shape, cambered in cross-section profile, and separated by drainage ditches. Common to all peat fields were symmetrical patterns in micro-topography with slopes between differences in elevation. Saline non-waterlogged slopes of ∼5% occurred as a symmetrical pair on each side of the crest of the cambered profile, at one end of each peat field. Three rows were laid across this slope (Top, Middle, and Bottom rows) and transplanted with naturally-growing plant species with their sand substrate, in three experiments, and grown for a year. In the Spartina pectinata experiment, bare root stem sections were also planted. Another experiment was conducted to determine changes in the characteristics of a volume of sand when incubated in saline peat fields. We found the salinity of peat increased with moisture downslope, and pH decreased with increase in salinity. S. pectinata grew best when planted with its sand substrate compared with bare root stem section, and when planted in Bottom rows. Juncus balticus had excellent growth in all rows. Unexpectedly, Festuca rubra that was inconspicuous beneath the J. balticus canopy in the natural donor site grew densely within the J. balticus sods. Agrostis stolonifera grew well but seemed to show intolerance to the surrounding acidic peat by curling up its stolons. The pH of the incubated sand volume was much higher than the surrounding peat. These studies suggest that recognition of plant niches and pH manipulation are important in the revegetation of disturbed Sphagnum peatlands that are found abundantly in the northern hemisphere. Results are also relevant to the reclamation of other disturbed lands.

  12. Trophic Status Controls Mercury Methylation Pathways in Northern Peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, M. E.; Zhang, L.; Barkay, T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Schaefer, J.; Hu, H.; Sidelinger, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) can be produced by a variety of microbes including syntrophs, methanogens, acetogens, and fermenters, besides sulfate (SO42-, SRB) and iron- reducing bacteria. Many freshwater wetlands are deficient in electron acceptors that support the traditional respiratory pathways of methylation, yet they accumulate high levels of MeHg. To investigate methylation in these wetlands and to connect these pathways with vegetation and microbial communities, incubation experiments were conducted using peats from 26 sites in Alaska. The sites were clustered using multiple factor analysis based on pH, temp, CH4 and volatile fatty acids production rates, and surface vegetation composition. Three clusters were generated and corresponded to three trophic levels that were manifested by three pH levels (3.5, 4.5, and 5). Hg methylation activity in laboratory incubations was determined using the short-lived radioisotope 197Hg. In the low pH, Sphagnum-dominated cluster, methylation rates were less than 1% day-1 and likely conducted by primary fermenters. Conversely, the high pH trophic cluster dominated by Carex aquatilis and active syntrophy exhibited Hg methylation rates as high as 12% day-1. In intermediate sites, rich in Sphagnum magellanicum with less Carex, a gradient in syntrophy and Hg methylation paths was observed. Amendments with process-stimulators and inhibitors revealed no evidence of SO42- reduction, but suggested that SRB, metabolizing either syntrophically with methanogens and/or by fermentation, likely methylated Hg. While on going metatranscriptomics studies are required to verify the role of syntrophs, fermenters, and methanogens as methylators, these results revealed that Hg methylation pathways change greatly along trophic gradients with a dominance of respiratory pathways in mineral-rich sites, syntrophy dominance in intermediate sites, and fermentation dominance in nutrient-poor sites.

  13. Intercomparison of radiocarbon bomb pulse and 210Pb age models. A study in a peat bog core from North Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; De Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Pawlyta, Jacek; Fagel, Nathalie; Le Roux, Gaël; Pazdur, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Radiocarbon and 210Pb were measured on the uppermost 40 cm of a Wardenaar peat core retrieved from a Baltic raised bog at Słowińskie Błota (Pomerania, North Poland). This site is the subject of ongoing multiproxy studies covering the last 1300 years. Radiocarbon age model was constructed on the basis of 14 AMS dates obtained on selected Sphagnum spp. fragments, with use of P_Sequence tool. We present here a comparison of this model with the age model obtained using CRS model classically applied to 210Pb measurements.

  14. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  15. Sphagnum establishment in alkaline fens: Importance of weather and water chemistry.

    PubMed

    Vicherová, Eliška; Hájek, Michal; Šmilauer, Petr; Hájek, Tomáš

    2017-02-15

    Sphagnum expansion to alkaline fens has accelerated during the last decades in Europe, leading to changes in diversity, habitat distributions and carbon storage. The causes are still not clearly understood and involve an interplay between climate change, hydrology, nutrient supply and Sphagnum physiology. We conducted a 4-year field experiment in eight fens in Central European highlands and assessed survival and establishment of individual apical shoot fragments of S. flexuosum, S. warnstorfii and S. squarrosum transplanted along the microtopographical gradient. In a laboratory experiment, we tested combined effects of desiccation and high calcium bicarbonate concentration on Sphagnum survival. We found that in unflooded positions, living shoots of Sphagnum and brown mosses lowered [Ca(2+)] and pH in their capillary water, in contrast to dead fragments; yet without differences between species. Survival and expansion of Sphagnum fragments, which did not die of acute calcium toxicity during first weeks/months, was negatively affected by dry weather and alkaline water chemistry, reflecting Sphagnum intolerance to desiccation and to combined high [Ca(2+)] and pH. Shoot fragments expanded to patches only when precipitation was high. Interestingly, non-toxic concentration of calcium bicarbonate reduced desiccation damage in Sphagnum, probably through protection of membranes or other cell components. This mechanism would facilitate Sphagnum survival in elevated, frequently desiccated microhabitats of calcareous fens such as brown-moss hummocks. However, since water-retaining capacity of few Sphagnum shoots is insufficient to change water chemistry in its surroundings, surface acidification may occur only once the environment (e.g. sufficient humidity) enabled expansion to larger mats. Then, the retained rainwater together with hardly decomposable Sphagnum litter would separate mire surface from groundwater, speeding up successional shift towards poor fens. Sphagnum

  16. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  17. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  18. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  19. 46 CFR 148.290 - Peat moss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Peat moss. 148.290 Section 148.290 Shipping COAST GUARD... SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.290 Peat moss. (a) Before shipment, peat... handling or coming into contact with peat moss must wear gloves, a dust mask, and goggles....

  20. Second technical contractors' conference on peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This conference reported the status of the US Department of Energy Peat Program. The program includes peat resource surveys of eleven states, peat gasification process and equipment studies, dewatering studies, and environmental and socioeconomic factors in the development of peat technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for selected papers. (CKK)

  1. Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Mello, William Z.; Hines, Mark E.

    1994-01-01

    A static enclosure method was applied to determine the exchange of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) between the surface of Sphagnum peatlands and the atmosphere. Measurements were performed concurrently with dynamic (flow through) enclosure measurements with sulfur-free air used as sweep gas. This latter technique has been used to acquire the majority of available data on the exchange of S gases between the atmosphere and the continental surfaces and has been criticized because it is thought to overestimate the true flux of gases by disrupting natural S gas gradients. DMS emission rates determined by both methods were not statistically different between 4 and greater than 400 nmol/sq m/h, indicating that previous data on emissions of at least DMS are probably valid. However, the increase in DMS in static enclosures was not linear, indicating the potential for a negative feedback of enlosure DMS concentrations on efflux. The dynamic enclosure method measured positive OCS flux rates (emission) at all sites, while data using static enclosures indicated that OCS was consumed from the atmosphere at these same sites at rates of 3.7 to 55 nmol/sq m/h. Measurements using both enclosure techniques at a site devoid of vegetation showed that peat was a source of both DMS and OCS. However, the rate of OCS efflux from decomposing peat was more than counterbalanced by OCS consumption by vegetation, including Sphagnum mosses, and net OCS uptake occurred at all sites. We propose that all wetlands are net sinks for OCS.

  2. Effects of bryophytes on succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog

    SciTech Connect

    Glime, J.M.; Wetzel, R.G.; Kennedy, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    The alkaline eastern marsh of Lawrence Lake, a marl lake in southwestern Michigan, was sampled by randomly placed line transects to determine the bryophyte cover and corresponding vascular plant zones. Cluster analysis indicated three distinct bryophyte zones which correspond with the recognized vascular plant zones. Mosses occupied over 50% of the surface in some areas. Invasion of Sphagnum, vertical zonation of the mosses on hummocks, zonation with distance from the lake, the abundance of non-Sphagnum moss hummocks, and the ability of the non-Sphagnum species to lower the pH of marsh water during laboratory incubations are evidence that non-Sphagnum mosses facilitate succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog.

  3. Cutaneous sporotrichosis in forestry workers. Epidemic due to contaminated Sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Powell, K E; Taylor, A; Phillips, B J; Blakey, D L; Campbell, G D; Kaufman, L; Kaplan, W

    1978-07-21

    In December 1975 and January and February 1976, an epidemic of cutaneous sporotrichosis occurred in Mississippi among forestry workers and other persons exposed to sphagnum moss used in packing pine seedlings. Seventeen cases were identified, 15 of which were from patients who had been exposed to sphagnum moss from a single source. Attack rates were significantly higher among workers exposed to this moss than among those not exposed. Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from the implicated batch of sphagnum moss but not from other batches. The source of contamination of the sphagnum moss that caused this epidemic and sphagnum moss associated with similar epidemics is unknown. One worker without cutaneous sporotrichosis may have had asymptomatic pulmonary sporotrichosis.

  4. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  5. Dewatering Peat With Activated Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    Proposed process produces enough gas and carbon to sustain itself. In proposed process peat slurry is dewatered to approximately 40 percent moisture content by mixing slurry with activated carbon and filtering with solid/liquid separation techniques.

  6. Investigations of the structure and function of bacterial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses.

    PubMed

    Opelt, Katja; Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Schönmann, Susan; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

    2007-11-01

    High acidity, low temperature and extremely low concentration of nutrients form Sphagnum bogs into extreme habitats for organisms. Little is known about the bacteria associated with living Sphagnum plantlets, especially about their function for the host. Therefore, we analysed the endo- and ectophytic bacterial populations associated with two widely distributed Sphagnum species, Sphagnum magellanicum and Sphagnum fallax, by a multiphasic approach. The screening of 1222 isolates for antagonistic activity resulted in 326 active isolates. The bacterial communities harboured a high proportion of antifungal (26%) but a low proportion of antibacterial isolates (0.4%). Members of the genus Burkholderia (38%) were found to be the most dominant group of antagonistic bacteria. The finding that a large proportion (89%) of the antagonistic bacteria produced antifungal compounds may provide an explanation for the well-known antimicrobial activity of certain Sphagnum species. The secondary metabolites of the Sphagnum species themselves were analysed by HPLC-PDA. The different spectra of detected compounds may not only explain the antifungal activity but also the species specificity of the microbial communities. The latter was analysed using cultivation-independent single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Using Burkholderia-specific primers we found a high diversity of Burkholderia isolates in the endophytic and ectophytic habitats of Sphagnum. Furthermore, a high diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria was detected by using nifH-specific primers, especially inside Sphagnum mosses. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that both Sphagnum species were colonized by characteristic bacterial populations, which appear to be important for pathogen defence and nitrogen fixation.

  7. Peat soil composition as indicator of plants growth environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, M.; Tonutare, T.; Kauer, K.; Szajdak, L.; Kolli, R.

    2009-04-01

    Exhausted milled peat areas have been left behind as a result of decades-lasting intensive peat production in Estonia and Europe. According to different data there in Estonia is 10 000 - 15 000 ha of exhausted milled peat areas that should be vegetated. Restoration using Sphagnum species is most advantageous, as it creates ecological conditions closest to the natural succession towards a natural bog area. It is also thought that the large scale translocation of vegetation from intact bogs, as used in some Canadian restoration trials, is not applicable in most of European sites due to limited availability of suitable donor areas. Another possibility to reduce the CO2 emission in these areas is their use for cultivation of species that requires minimum agrotechnical measures exploitation. It is found by experiments that it is possible to establish on Vaccinium species for revegetation of exhausted milled peat areas. Several physiological activity of the plant is regulated by the number of phytohormones. These substances in low quantities move within the plant from a site of production to a site of action. Phytohormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is formed in soils from tryptophane by enzymatic conversion. This compound seems to play an important function in nature as result to its influence in regulation of plant growth and development. A principal feature of IAA is its ability to affect growth, development and health of plants. This compound activates root morphology and metabolic changes in the host plant. The physiological impact of this substance is involved in cell elongation, apical dominance, root initiation, parthenocarpy, abscission, callus formation and the respiration. The investigation areas are located in the county of Tartu (58˚ 22' N, 26˚ 43' E), in the southern part of Estonia. The soil of the experimental fields belongs according to the WRB soil classification, to the soils subgroups of Fibri-Dystric Histosols. The investigation areas were

  8. A multistate outbreak of sporotrichosis associated with sphagnum moss.

    PubMed

    Coles, F B; Schuchat, A; Hibbs, J R; Kondracki, S F; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Chang, H G; Duncan, R A; Hurd, N J; Morse, D L

    1992-08-15

    In the spring of 1988, the largest documented US outbreak of cutaneous sporotrichosis to date occurred, with 84 cases among persons from 15 states who were exposed to Wisconsin-grown sphagnum moss used in packing evergreen tree seedlings. In New York State, 13 cases occurred among 109 forestry workers. All 13 cases occurred among 76 workers who had handled evergreen seedlings and moss (attack rate = 17%). For those exposed to evergreens and moss, the risk of infection increased as worktime exposure to moss increased (attack rates: less than 10 hours, 8%; 10-19 hours, 12%; greater than 19 hours, 33%). While environmental samples of moss from the Wisconsin supplier were negative, Sporothrix schenckii was cultured from multiple samples of the sphagnum moss obtained from one of six Pennsylvania tree nurseries, representing the nursery that was identified as the source for 79 (94%) of the moss-associated cases. Differences in tree-handling procedures at this nursery--including the use of 1- to 3-year-old moss to pack seedlings, use of a pond water source to wet the moss, use of an organic polymer gel on the seedling root system, and underground storage and longer storage of moss-packed seedlings before shipping--suggested possible explanations for the association. Efforts to prevent sporotrichosis among persons handling evergreen seedlings should include the use of alternate types of packing material (e.g., cedar wood chips or shredded paper) and protective clothing such as gloves and long-sleeved shirts.

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics and development of the Changuinola peat deposit of northwestern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.; Ramirez, A.

    1987-08-01

    A peat deposit occupying over 80 square kilometers, and averaging 8 meters in thickness, was discovered on the Caribbean coast of northwestern Panama near the town of Changuinola. This deposit occurs inland (behind) the present beach-barrier shoreline. It is thickest in the center and thins toward all edges (as if domed). The surface vegetation in the central regions consists primarily of ombrotrophic plants (especially sedges, grasses, Sphagnum, Sagittaria, and various scattered shrubs). Toward the edges, the deposit has a surface cover of more minerotrophic plants (such as swamp-forest trees, ferns, and palms). Petrographic/botanical analysis of the deposit with depth reveals the presence of five peat types (swamp-forest, sedge-grass-fern, Sagittaria et al., Nymphaea et al., and Rhizophora). Typically peats of the thick, central portions of the deposit are very low in ash and sulfur (less than 2% ash and 0.3% sulfur). Ash contents tend to increase abruptly at the base and more gradually toward the edges of the deposit and sulfur contents increasing gradually toward the ocean and bay. Vertical and lateral variations in botanical, chemical, and physical properties of this deposit can be related to factors that have controlled: (1) the surrounding rocks and water chemistry; (2) the source vegetation; and (3) the environments in which these source ingredients were deposited. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and peat: mechanisms and potential use for groundwater nitrate remediation.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    We conducted batch tests on the nature of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (121 degrees C for 2h each day for three consecutive days) for the cotton burr compost and autoclaving of all labware and the nitrate working solutions resulted in drastically different results compared to the non-autoclaved treatment. In the non-autoclaved cotton burr compost, added nitrate at 20 mg N l(-1) decreased rapidly and was not detected after 3d; whereas, the autoclaved cotton burr compost showed persistent nitrate above 15.5 mg N l(-1) even after 10d, which is comparable with nitrate concentrations above 17.6 mg N l(-1) in a treatment using NaN(3) at 1000 mg l(-1). Dewaxed cotton burr compost showed decreased nitrate reduction compared to the pristine cotton burr compost. No nitrate reduction was detected in the dewaxed sphagnum peat. It is concluded that nitrate removal in the organic media is controlled by microbiologically mediated processes. The use of readily available cotton burr and mulch composts may offer a cost-effective method of nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater.

  11. Seven hundred years of peat formation recorded throughout a deep floating mire profile from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobianco, Daniela; D'Orazio, Valeria; Miano, Teodoro; Zaccone, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Floating mires are defined by the occurrence of emergent vegetation rooted in highly organic buoyant mats that rise and fall with changes in water level. Islands floating and moving on a lake naturally were already described by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis historia almost two millennia ago. Actually, he devoted a whole chapter of Naturalis historia to "Of Islands Ever Floating and Swimming", reporting how certain isles were always waving and never stood still. The status of "flotant" has been defined transitory; in fact, these small isles often disappear, in most of the cases because of a transition from floating island to firm land during decades is likely to happen. That is why most of the floating islands described by Pliny the Elder (e.g., Lacus Fundanus, Lacus Cutiliensis, Lacus Mutinensis, Lacus Statoniensis, Lacus Tarquiniensis, Lydia Calaminae, Lacus Vadimonis) do not exist anymore. In the present study, peat formation and organic matter evolution were investigated in order to understand how these peculiar environments form, and how stable actually they are. In fact, it is hoped that peat-forming floating mires could provide an exceptional tool for environmental studies, since much of their evolution, as well as the changes of the surrounding areas, is recorded in their peat deposits. A complete, 4-m deep peat core was collected in July 2012 from the floating island of Posta Fibreno, a relic mire in the Central Italy. This floating island has a diameter of ca. 30 m, a submerged thickness of about 3 m, and the vegetation is organized in concentric belts, from the Carex paniculata palisade to the Sphagnum centre. Here, some of the southernmost Italian populations of Sphagnum palustre occur. The 14C age dating of organic sediments isolated from the sample at 385 cm of depth revealed that the island formed ca. 700 yrs ago (620±30 yr BP). The top 100 cm, consisting almost exclusively of Sphagnum mosses, show a very low bulk density (avg., 0.03±0.01 g cm-3

  12. Similar Diversity of Alphaproteobacteria and Nitrogenase Gene Amplicons on Two Related Sphagnum Mosses

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Anastasia; Maier, Stefanie; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Chobot, Vladimir; Hadacek, Franz; Berg, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Sphagnum mosses represent a main vegetation component in ombrotrophic wetlands. They harbor a specific and diverse microbial community with essential functions for the host. To understand the extend of host specificity and impact of environment, Sphagnum fallax and Sphagnum angustifolium, two phylogenetically closely related species, which show distinct habitat preference with respect to the nutrient level, were analyzed by a multifaceted approach. Microbial fingerprints obtained by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism of 16S rRNA and nitrogenase-encoding (nifH) genes were highly similar for both Sphagnum species. Similarity was confirmed for colonization patterns obtained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM): Alphaproteobacteria were the main colonizers inside the hyaline cells of Sphagnum leaves. A deeper survey of Alphaproteobacteria by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reveals a high diversity with Acidocella, Acidisphaera, Rhodopila, and Phenylobacterium as major genera for both mosses. Nitrogen fixation is an important function of Sphagnum-associated bacteria, which is fulfilled by microbial communities of Sphagna in a similar way. NifH libraries of Sphagnum-associated microbial communities were characterized by high diversity and abundance of Alphaproteobacteria but contained also diverse amplicons of other taxa, e.g., Cyanobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria. Statistically significant differences between the microbial communities of both Sphagnum species could not be discovered in any of the experimental approach. Our results show that the same close relationship, which exists between the physical, morphological, and chemical characteristics of Sphagnum mosses and the ecology and function of bog ecosystems, also connects moss plantlets with their associated bacterial communities. PMID:22294982

  13. Symbiosis revisited: phosphorus and acid buffering stimulate N2 fixation but not Sphagnum growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Elzen, Eva; Kox, Martine A. R.; Harpenslager, Sarah F.; Hensgens, Geert; Fritz, Christian; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Ettwig, Katharina F.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2017-03-01

    In pristine Sphagnum-dominated peatlands, (di)nitrogen (N2) fixing (diazotrophic) microbial communities associated with Sphagnum mosses contribute substantially to the total nitrogen input, increasing carbon sequestration. The rates of symbiotic nitrogen fixation reported for Sphagnum peatlands, are, however, highly variable, and experimental work on regulating factors that can mechanistically explain this variation is largely lacking. For two common fen species (Sphagnum palustre and S. squarrosum) from a high nitrogen deposition area (25 kg N ha-1 yr-1), we found that diazotrophic activity (as measured by 15 - 15N2 labeling) was still present at a rate of 40 nmol N gDW-1 h-1. This was surprising, given that nitrogen fixation is a costly process. We tested the effects of phosphorus availability and buffering capacity by bicarbonate-rich water, mimicking a field situation in fens with stronger groundwater or surface water influence, as potential regulators of nitrogen fixation rates and Sphagnum performance. We expected that the addition of phosphorus, being a limiting nutrient, would stimulate both diazotrophic activity and Sphagnum growth. We indeed found that nitrogen fixation rates were doubled. Plant performance, in contrast, did not increase. Raised bicarbonate levels also enhanced nitrogen fixation, but had a strong negative impact on Sphagnum performance. These results explain the higher nitrogen fixation rates reported for minerotrophic and more nutrient-rich peatlands. In addition, nitrogen fixation was found to strongly depend on light, with rates 10 times higher in light conditions suggesting high reliance on phototrophic organisms for carbon. The contrasting effects of phosphorus and bicarbonate on Sphagnum spp. and their diazotrophic communities reveal strong differences in the optimal niche for both partners with respect to conditions and resources. This suggests a trade-off for the symbiosis of nitrogen fixing microorganisms with their Sphagnum

  14. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations of dissolved organic matter dynamics in a disturbed Sphagnum peatland after hydrological restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moing, Franck; Guirimand-Dufour, Audrey; Jozja, Nevila; Defarge, Christian; D'Angelo, Benoît; Binet, Stéphane; Gogo, Sébastien; Laggoun, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Peatlands contain a third of the world soil C in spite of their relatively low global area (3% of land area). They can become sources of C because of human disturbances such as drainage. The aim of this work is to assess the effect of an hydrological restoration on a disturbed Sphagnum peatland. It concerns spatial and temporal variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics. The investigated site was La Guette peatland (France, N 47°19'44', E 2°17'04', alt. 154m), whose hydrological conditions are influenced by a road passing through its former area. The road drain accelerates drying mechanisms, favouring thus vascular plants settlement to the detriment of specific flora of peatlands (i.e. Sphagnum). Hydrological restoration was undertaken in February 2014. It consisted in building thresholds to slow down drain runoff and to promote the soil rewetting. Two transects of piezometers were settled in independent two hydrological sub-systems: Trans-up and Trans-down. Trans-down is supposed to be influenced by the hydrological restoration, while Trans-up is not. These transects cross the peatland and follow water flow direction until the outlet. Six sampling campaigns were performed before, during and after the vegetation period. Water conductivity and pH were measured on site. Water samples were collected in the piezometers. Samples were filtered in the field at 0.45 μm. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO2-, NO3-) were measured. Absorbance was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometer to assess SUVA254 and aromaticity of DOM. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were undertaken to characterise fluorescent DOM (FDOM). Humification (HIX) and biological (BIX) fluorescence indices were calculated. PARAFAC algorithm was used to treat EEMs. Precipitations and water levels were measured automatically by a weather station and automatic probes, respectively. Rain water was

  16. Assessing the Impact of Land Management on Organic Matter Composition in Peat Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.; Holden, J.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-05-01

    to gaseous carbon emissions data collected during fortnightly monitoring. R. Laiho (2006) Decomposition in peatlands: Reconciling seemingly contrasting results on the impacts of lowered water levels Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 2011-2024. R.K. Wieder & S.T. Starr (1998) Quantitative determination of organic fractions in highly organic, Sphagnum peat soils Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 29, 847-857.

  17. A new peat bog testate amoeba transfer function and quantitative palaeohydrological reconstructions from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bellen, S.; Mauquoy, D.; Payne, R.; Roland, T. P.; Hughes, P. D.; Daley, T. J.; Street-Perrot, F. A.; Loader, N.

    2013-12-01

    Testate amoebae have been used extensively as proxies for environmental change and palaeoclimate reconstructions in European and North American peatlands. The presence of these micro-organisms in surface samples is generally significantly linked to the local water table depth (WTD) and preservation of the amoeba shells downcore allows for millennial length water table reconstructions. Peat bog archive records in southern Patagonia are increasingly the focus of palaeoecological research due to the possibility of detecting changes in the Southern Westerlies. These Sphagnum magellanicum-dominated peat bogs are characterised by a wide range of water table depths, from wet hollows to high hummocks (>100 cm above the water table). Here we present the first transfer function for this region along with ~2k-year palaeorecords from local peat bogs. A modern dataset (155 samples) was sampled along transects from five bogs in 2012 and 2013. Measurements of WTD, pH and conductivity were taken for all samples. The transfer function model was based on the 2012 dataset, while the 2013 samples served as an independent test set to validate the model. Besides the standard leave-one-out cross-validation, we applied leave-one-site-out and leave-one transect-out cross-validation, which are effective means of verifying the degree of clustering in the dataset. To ensure that the environmental gradient had been evenly sampled we quantified the root-mean-squared error of prediction (RMSEP) individually for segments of this gradient. Ordinations showed a clear hydrological gradient in amoeba assemblages, with the dominant Assulina muscorum at the dry end and Amphitrema wrightianum and Difflugia globulosa at the wet end. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that WTD was the most important environmental variable, accounting for 18% of the variance in amoeba assemblages. A weighted averaging-partial least squares model showed best performance in cross-validation, using the 2013 data as an

  18. Artificial radioactivity in fuel peat and peat ash in Finland after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mustonen, R.A.; Reponen, A.R.; Jantunen, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 caused very uneven deposition of radionuclides in Finland. The deposited radionuclides were found in relatively high concentrations in fuel peat and especially in peat ash because a thin surface layer of peat-production bogs was extracted as fuel peat soon after the fallout occurred. Concentrations of artificial radionuclides in fuel peat and peat ash were measured at six peat-fired power plants in Finland throughout the heating season 1986-87. Concentrations of /sup 137/Cs in composite peat samples varied between 30 and 3600 Bq kg-1 dry weight and in ash samples between 600 and 68,000 Bq kg-1. High concentrations in peat ash caused some restrictions to the utilization of peat ash for various purposes.

  19. Inventory of peat resources, Koochiching County, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, L.S.; Mooers, H.D.; Malterer, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject of this report is the reconnaissance-level peatland survey of Koochiching County, Minnesota. Discussed are: geological setting; peat formation; and peat properties and classification. Included are maps and a list of selected DOE sampling sites. Distribution, tonnages, and energy value analysis of peat are described. (DMC)

  20. High-resolution Record of Holocene Climate, Vegetation, and Fire from a Raised Peat Bog, Prince Edward Island, Canadian Maritimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M. C.; Chan, K.; Ponsford, L.; Carroll, J.; Magnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Raised peat bogs receive all precipitation and nutrients from the atmosphere and are thus widely used archives for information on past environments and climates. In this paper we provide high-resolution multi-proxy data from a raised bog from northeastern Prince Edward Island, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. We studied testate amoeba (a proxy for water table depth), macrocharcoal (a proxy for local-scale fire), peat humification (a proxy for decomposition), plant macrofossils (indicative of local-scale vegetation), and organic matter content (yielding carbon accumulation rates) from a 5.5 m long core lifted from the center of Baltic Bog. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates show that peat accumulation began before 9000 cal yr BP and continued almost uninterrupted until the present. The macrofossil data show that a transition from a sedge-dominated fen to a sphagnum-dominated bog occurred around 8000 cal yr BP, and sphagnum remained dominant in the bog throughout most of the Holocene. A testate amoeba-based reconstruction of water table depth indicates that conditions were drier during the early Holocene (~8000 to 5000 cal yr BP) and became gradually wetter into the late Holocene. In addition, a number of higher frequency shifts in precipitation are inferred throughout the Holocene on the basis of the testate amoeba and humification results. The macrocharcoal evidence indicates fire—probably in the surrounding forest—was relatively more common during the early Holocene, perhaps due to drier climate conditions. A large influx of charcoal at around 2000 cal yr BP suggests the presence of one or more major fires at this time, and a concurrent decrease in the rate of peat accumulation indicates the fire may have affected the bog itself. The data from Baltic Bog is broadly comparable to other proxy data (in particular pollen studies) from the Canadian Maritimes. This work is important because it: 1) helps us better understand the role of hydroclimatic

  1. Seasonal pattern of metal bioaccumulation and their toxicity on Sphagnum squarrosum.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anuj

    2006-01-01

    Present study was undertaken as an attempt to study the effect of pollutants on biological responses of Sphagnum growing at Kainchi, Kumaon hills (Uttranchal). Sphagnum plants of almost identical size, collected from the marked sites of Kainchi in different seasons viz., monsoon, winter, summer and again in monsoon, were analysed for chlorophyll, protein, shoot length and nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities. Maximum chlorophyll, protein, shoots length and nitrate reductase activities were observed during the monsoon while minimum in summers. The abundance of Sphagnum and two other bryophytes, Marchantia and Plagiochasma was also higher in monsoon than in other seasons. The study also indicated that Sphagnum has more bioaccumulation and tolerance potential for heavy metals than Marchantia and Plagiochasma.

  2. Mobility of trace metals in pore waters of two Central European peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra

    2008-05-15

    Vertical peat profiles can only be used as archives of past changes in pollution levels if atmogenic elements are immobile after their burial. For mobile elements, similar pore-water concentrations can be expected at different peat depths. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Cd were determined in surface bog water and bog pore water 40 cm below surface in two Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs in the Czech Republic. Velke jerabi jezero (VJJ) is an upland bog located in an industrial area, Cervene blato (CB) is a lowland bog located in a rural area. Metal concentrations were monitored seasonally over 3 years (2002--2005) at both sites. Higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd and lower concentrations of Mn, Fe and Co were found at the less polluted CB compared to VJJ. No clear-cut seasonality was observed in metal concentrations in bog waters, despite seasonal differences in industrial emission rates of pollutants (more coal burning in winter than in summer). This contrasts with an earlier observation of distinct seasonality in sulfate concentration and isotope composition in these stagnating bog waters. Peat substrate 40 cm below current bog surface represented pre-industrial low-pollution environment, yet pore waters at such depths contained the same metal concentrations as surface waters. The only exception was Pb, whose concentration in water solutes increased with increasing depth. Lack of vertical stratification in pore-water contents of Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co indicated vertical mobility of these metals.

  3. Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-01-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  4. Influence of different kind of peats on some physic-chemical properties, biochemical activity, the content of different forms of nitrogen and fractions of humic substances of The Great Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    Mires, or peatlands belong to the wetlands ecosystems where carbon is bounded in primary production and deposited as peat in water saturated, anoxic conditions. In those conditions, the rate of the supply of new organic matter has exceeded that the decomposition, resulting in carbon accumulation. Place of sampling belongs to an oligotrophic landscapes of the river Klyuch basin in spurs of Vasyugan mire. The catchment represents reference system for Bokchar swampy area (political district of Tomsk region). Landscape profile crosses main kinds of swampy biogeocoenosis (BGC) toward the mire center: paludal tall mixed forest, pine undershrub Sphagnum (high riam, trans-accumulative part of a profile, P2), pine-undershrub Sphagnum (low riam, transit part, P3), sedge-moss swamp (eluvial part, P5). The latter represents an eluvial part of a slope of watershed massif where it is accomplished discharge of excess, surface, soil-mire waters. The depth of peat deposit of sedge-moss swamp reaches 2,5m. To the depth of 0,6m there is a layer of Sphagnum raised bog peat, then it is a mesotrophic Scheuchzeria Sphagnum layer and at the bottom there is a thick layer of low-mire horsetail peat. The samples of peats were taken from two places (P2 and P3), both from the depth 0-75 cm of the great Vasyugan Mire. These materials represent (P2) Sphagnum fuscum peat (ash content ranged from 10.8 to 15.1%), but samples P3 belong to low-moor sedge peat (ash content ranged from 4.5-4.8%). The differences in water level, redox potential, pH, degree of degradation, bulk density, number of microorganisms, activity of enzymes, different kinds of nitrogen and humic substances were studied in two different peat soils characterized by different type of peat. In general in P2 the redox potential changed from 858 to /-140/ mV, higher activity of xanthine oxidase and peroxidase, different kinds of microorganisms (ammonifing bacteria and cellulose decomposing microorganisms) and different kinds of

  5. Ecophysiological adjustment of two Sphagnum species in response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Magdalena M; Gunnarsson, Urban; Ericson, Lars; Nordin, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Here, it was investigated whether Sphagnum species have adjusted their nitrogen (N) uptake in response to the anthropogenic N deposition that has drastically altered N-limited ecosystems, including peatlands, worldwide. A lawn species, Sphagnum balticum, and a hummock species, Sphagnum fuscum, were collected from three peatlands along a gradient of N deposition (2, 8 and 12 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The mosses were subjected to solutions containing a mixture of four N forms. In each solution one of these N forms was labeled with (15)N (namely (15)NH(+)(4), (15)NO(-)(3) and the amino acids [(15)N]alanine (Ala) and [(15)N]glutamic acid (Glu)). It was found that for both species most of the N taken up was from , followed by Ala, Glu, and very small amounts from NO(-)(3). At the highest N deposition site N uptake was reduced, but this did not prevent N accumulation as free amino acids in the Sphagnum tissues. The reduced N uptake may have been genetically selected for under the relatively short period with elevated N exposure from anthropogenic sources, or may have been the result of plasticity in the Sphagnum physiological response. The negligible Sphagnum NO(-)(3) uptake may make any NO(-)(3) deposited readily available to co-occurring vascular plants.

  6. Historical peat loss explains limited short-term response of drained blanket bogs to rewetting.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jennifer; Rowe, Edwin; Reed, David; Ruffino, Lucia; Jones, Peter; Dolan, Rachel; Buckingham, Helen; Norris, David; Astbury, Shaun; Evans, Chris D

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the short-term impacts of ditch blocking on water table depth and vegetation community structure in a historically drained blanket bog. A chronosequence approach was used to compare vegetation near ditches blocked 5 years, 4 years and 1 year prior to the study with vegetation near unblocked ditches. Plots adjacent to and 3 m away from 70 ditches within an area of blanket bog were assessed for floristic composition, aeration depth using steel bars, and topography using LiDAR data. No changes in aeration depth or vegetation parameters were detected as a function of ditch-blocking, time since blocking, or distance from the ditch, with the exception of non-Sphagnum bryophytes which had lower cover in quadrats adjacent to ditches that had been blocked for 5 years. Analysis of LiDAR data and the observed proximity of the water table to the peat surface led us to conclude that the subdued ecosystem responses to ditch-blocking were the result of historical peat subsidence within a 4-5 m zone either side of each ditch, which had effectively lowered the peat surface to the new, ditch-influenced water table. We estimate that this process led to the loss of around 500,000 m(3) peat within the 38 km(2) study area following drainage, due to a combination of oxidation and compaction. Assuming that 50% of the volume loss was due to oxidation, this amounts to a carbon loss of 11,000 Mg C over this area, i.e. 3 Mg C ha(-1). The apparent 'self-rewetting' of blanket bogs in the decades following drainage has implications for their restoration as it suggests that there may not be large quantities of dry peat left to rewet, and that there is a risk of inundation (potentially leading to high methane emissions) along subsided ditch lines. Many peatland processes are likely to be maintained in drained blanket bog, including support of typical peatland vegetation, but infilling of lost peat and recovery of original C stocks are likely to take longer than is

  7. Utilization of peat as a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clemens, D.F.; Evans, G.O. II; Whitehurst, B.M.

    1981-10-01

    This work has dealt primarily with the development and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM). POM and PAM slurries with varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios in jacketed glass tubes and slurry drain times from the tubes along with the slurry viscosities. The peat moisture content was found to be especially critical in forming stable slurries. Also, in both the PAM and POM systems, it was found that use of the more finely ground peat led to significantly higher sedimentation ratios than the use of coarse peat. Numerous additives selected to improve slurry suspension and flow characteristics have been evaluated. Cab-O-Sil M-5 and Cab-O-Sil PTG were most effective in the POM systems while Attagel X-2059 and Bentone 27 were most effective in the PAM systems. Viscosities have been measured for slurries of varied particle size and modified by selected additives. Viscosities in the PAM system were lower using the coarser peat with higher moisture content while viscosities in the POM system seemed to be lower using the finer, drier peat. Calorimetric studies of powdered peat as well as PAM and POM slurries, with and without additives, were completed. Combustion tests of POM and PAM slurries were carried out using a salamander type shop heater. Successful burns of the POM slurry were accomplished when the slurries were heated to reduce viscosities and the peat was prescreened to remove large wood fibers to avoid plugging of the small burner nozzle. Since the toxicity and low flash point of methanol precluded heating of the PAM slurries, plugging of the small burner routinely occurred. It was also demonstrated that ground peat could be burned by using an eductor connector to a compressed air line.

  8. The sensitivity of peat soil and peatland vegetation to drought: release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, Jonathan; Graham, Nigel; Templeton, Michael; Freeman, Christopher; Clark, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Organic rich peat soils are a major store of carbon worldwide. Their existence is predicated on high year-round water tables which create an anoxic environment, thus limiting decay, and also to the recalcitrance of plant litter (dead plant material) commonly found in peatland areas. Climate change threatens the stability of peat soils by altering the biogeochemical cycles which control plant decay, lowering water tables so that oxic degradation can occur and by changing habitat niches such that less recalcitrant species can thrive in peatlands. One of the major fluxes of carbon from peatlands is through dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters. As peatland areas in the UK are often used as source waters for drinking water supply this presents a problem to water utilities as DOC must be effectively removed to limit colour, odour and the formation of potentially carcinogenic by-products on disinfection. Changes in catchment vegetation may occur due to climate change, nutrient deposition and changing bioclimatic envelopes. How different peatland vegetation contribute to DOC flux and how this may change in the future is therefore of interest. A six week laboratory simulation was performed on typical peatland litter (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, Juncus effusus) and a peat soil collected from Exmoor National Park, UK. The simulation monitored DOC flux from the decaying litter/soil and considered the impact of different drought severities using the 50th, 25th, 10th and 5th percentiles of the mean July/August monthly rainfall for Exmoor. On rewetting following the drought, all sources produced significantly different amounts of DOC (Tukey HSD p<0.05) in the order Molinia>Juncus>Calluna>Sphagnum>peat. The source also had a significant (ANOVA p<0.001) effect on coagulation removal efficiency, a typical method of removing DOC during drinking water treatment, with Juncus DOC proving the easiest to remove whilst Sphagnum DOC was the most difficult

  9. A Greener Arctic: Vascular Plant Litter Input in Subarctic Peat Bogs Changes Soil Invertebrate Diets and Decomposition Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krab, E. J.; Berg, M. P.; Aerts, R.; van Logtestijn, R. S. P.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-change-induced trends towards shrub dominance in subarctic, moss-dominated peatlands will most likely have large effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics through an input of more easily decomposable litter. The mechanisms by which this increase in vascular litter input interacts with the abundance and diet-choice of the decomposer community to alter C-processing have, however, not yet been unraveled. We used a novel 13C tracer approach to link invertebrate species composition (Collembola), abundance and species-specific feeding behavior to C-processing of vascular and peat moss litters. We incubated different litter mixtures, 100% Sphagnum moss litter, 100% Betula leaf litter, and a 50/50 mixture of both, in mesocosms for 406 days. We revealed the transfer of C from the litters to the soil invertebrate species by 13C labeling of each of the litter types and assessed 13C signatures of the invertebrates Collembola species composition differed significantly between Sphagnum and Betula litter. Within the 'single type litter' mesocosms, Collembola species showed different 13C signatures, implying species-specific differences in diet choice. Surprisingly, the species composition and Collembola abundance changed relatively little as a consequence of Betula input to a Sphagnum based system. Their diet choice, however, changed drastically; species-specific differences in diet choice disappeared and approximately 67% of the food ingested by all Collembola originated from Betula litter. Furthermore, litter decomposition patterns corresponded to these findings; mass loss of Betula increased from 16.1% to 26.2% when decomposing in combination with Sphagnum, while Sphagnum decomposed even slower in combination with Betula litter (1.9%) than alone (4.7%). This study is the first to empirically show that collective diet shifts of the peatland decomposer community from mosses towards vascular plant litter may drive altered decomposition patterns. In addition, we showed that

  10. Liquefaction Potential of Adiyaman Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaca, Huseyin; Depci, Tolga; Karta, Mesut; Coskun, M. Ali

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, liquefaction potential of Adiyaman peat was studied by direct liquefaction technique to obtain oil as a fuel purposes due to its high carbon and hydrogen content and low sulphur ratio. The peat and liquefaction products, named char, asphaltene, preasphaltene and oil, were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, DTA/TG and elemental analysis. The compositions of the obtained oil were also identified by GC/MS. The results indicated that the obtained oil was paraffinic-low waxy oil with 21.73 MJ/kg of calorific value and 0.93 g/cm3 density and it was composed of naphthalene and phenolic groups. The oil conversion ratio was found to be 29 %.

  11. Late-Holocene Climate Change and Human Impact; Palaeoecological Evidence From Peat Deposits in Sweden and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, M.; van Geel, B.

    2006-12-01

    With the aim of investigating the effects of climate change and human impact on vegetation and carbon accumulation, we took peat cores of ca. 1 meter depth from four raised bogs situated on a North-South transect, at intervals of c. 500 km, Umeå in Sweden to Angermünde in northern Germany. A number of analyses were conducted (plant macrofossils, pollen/non-pollen microfossils, colorimetric humification, carbon/nitrogen ratios, bulk densities, loss on ignition), and 14C wiggle-match dating was applied to obtain a fine-resolution chronology. The cores from the northern and southern site encompass ca. 1000 years of vegetation history, showing evidence for the end of the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the twentieth century warming. The middle Swedish and German sites are high resolution records of the last 400 years. The end of the MWP and the cooling at the start of the LIA are reflected by a decline in thermophilous tree species. Changes in the macrofossil composition may also represent changes in climate. Shifts in Sphagnum composition, the dominant peat former, reflect changes in precipitation. Evidence for wet conditions and increased carbon accumulation is found during the Little Ice Age. Human activities affected the peat bog and the surrounding vegetation. Sweden suffered many wars during the 16^{th} and 17^{th} century, which caused a decline in population density. Diseases such as the plague and famines caused by crop failures fastened the population decrease. As a consequence, agricultural land was abandoned, resulting in reforestation by Betula. Later, in the modern part of the records, land-use change and planting of trees comprised the major regional vegetation changes. In the southern site, human activities (drainage to facilitate peat cutting) affected the raised bog itself. A part of the peat archive was lost owing to secondary decomposition which resulted in very low carbon accumulation.

  12. Geology and paleoecology of a mid-Wisconsin peat from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Barry G.; Clague, John J.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    1984-05-01

    A peat bed on east-central Graham Island of the Queen Charlotte Islands occurs within a nonglacial fluvial succession that is both overlain and underlain by glacial deposits. Radiocarbon dates of 27,500 ± 400 and 45,700 ± 970 yr B.P. at the top and base of the peat, respectively, indicate that it was deposited during the mid-Wisconsin nonglacial interval. The peat is the first documented mid-Wisconsin organic deposit in northern coastal areas of British Columbia. Three local pollen zones are represented. The lowest zone (PM-1) is restricted to sandy silt directly underlying the dated peat. Very high Cyperaceae and moderate Poaceae pollen percentages characterize zone PM-1, and a variety of other herbs are common, suggesting an open landscape rather than a forested one. The middle zone (PM-2) is characterized by abundant pollen of Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Cyperaceae, and also contains pollen of Abies, a genus now absent from the Queen Charlotte Islands. Graham Island probably had extensive forests at this time, but abundant pollen and macrofossils of Cyperaceae and emergent aquatics such as Hippuris vulgaris, Veronica scutellata, Potentilla palustris, and Menyanthes trifoliata indicate that there also were open wetland areas. Zone PM-3 also contains abundant arboreal pollen. Large amounts of Sphagnum spores and Selaginella selaginoides megaspores indicate succession of the wetland area at the sample site to a peat bog. Paleoecological analysis of the data suggests that subalpine vegetation elements were depressed by at least 400 m, probably due to a cooler climate. Probable modern analogs in southeastern Alaska and the presence of Abies (probably A. amabilis) indicate that precipitation was higher on eastern Graham Island during the mid-Wisconsin than at present.

  13. Biomarkers in a peat deposit in Northern Spain (Huelga de Bayas, Asturias) as proxy for climate variation.

    PubMed

    López-Días, V; Borrego, A G; Blanco, C G; Arboleya, M; López-Sáez, J A; López-Merino, L

    2010-05-21

    Peatlands are peculiar ecosystems in which well-adapted communities grow and develop, recording the variation in climate and hydrological conditions inland. In addition necromass is well preserved and therefore peatlands can be used as palaeo-archives for environmental variation. In this work a peat core of depth 60 cm dated at the bottom of the peat deposit as ca. 250cal AD from Huelga de Bayas (Asturias, Northern Spain) was studied to a resolution of 2-4 cm to investigate the evolution of the environmental conditions in the area. Samples were extracted with a dichloromethane/methanol ratio of 3:1 and studied by means of gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in order to identify possible biomarkers of climatic variation during the period of peat formation. Lipid biomarker study allows the identification of periods in which Sphagnum or higher plants preferentially contributed to the peat profile. The absolute dating of the profile combined with the n-alkane record displayed five episodes of wetter conditions around ca. 250 cal AD (Roman Warm Period), 1080 and 1270 cal AD (Medieval Warm Period), 1460 cal AD (Little Ice Age) and 1920 cal AD (Recent warming), which are consistent with climate evolution in the region. Pentacyclic triterpenoids with hopane skeleton derived from microorganisms and with oleanane skeleton derived from higher plants were identified. The presence of their ketone and acetyl-derivatives, along with the presence of unstable hopane configurations indicates a low maturity of the peat profile. A tendency for the functionalised triterpenoids to decrease with depth was observed in the profile.

  14. PwC's 3-Peat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2010-01-01

    PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) is giving the Chicago Bulls a run for their money when it comes to three-peats. The professional services firm scored the top spot on the Training Top 125 for a record third year in a row. So, just how did PwC nail No. 1 again? For starters, it met and exceeded a hefty challenge in fiscal year 2009: cutting training…

  15. Content of lipids in finnish peat mires

    SciTech Connect

    Fagernaes, L.; Ekman, R.

    1985-01-01

    Peat is a potential raw material for chemical products. Peat extracts, bitumens, obtained from peat with neutral organic solvents, and, in particular, their wax fractions have been of interest with regard to their substituting for other natural waxes. Yields and characteristics of peat extracts have been studied by numerous researchers and acid and saponification values, molecular weights and elements analyses have been determined since the 1930s. New analytical methods have recently been introduced and made it possible to determine the amount and detailed composition of the lipid components of peat extracts by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. The aim of this study was to determine the yield and lipid composition of extracts from peat samples collected from different mires in Finland.

  16. Variations of 18O/ 16O in plants from temperate peat bogs (Switzerland): implications for paleoclimatic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ménot-Combes, Guillemette; Burns, Stephen J.; Leuenberger, Markus

    2002-09-01

    Despite the great potential of peat bogs as climatic archives, to date only few studies have focused on the climatic controls on cellulose isotopic composition in modern bog plants. This study attempts to calibrate plant-climate relationships by sampling a set of modern plant species (both vascular plants and mosses) and bog surface waters along an altitude transect in Switzerland. Isotopic analyses of water samples show that the δ 18O-values of surface bog waters follow the trend of precipitation despite significant scatter in the data set. Detailed sampling of surface waters within one bog shows that δ 18O-values vary widely and are closely related to the micro-topography of the bog surface. More enriched 18O/ 16O ratios in water samples collected from small raised hummocks than the ones collected from hollows are documented in both horizontal and vertical profiles. A δ 18O-δD plot indicates that the process leading to the isotopic enrichment of the uppermost surface waters is evaporation, greater above Sphagnum covered hummocks than above open pools. To investigate the implications of such high variability of source water for plant α-cellulose δ 18O-values, a detailed study of both surface water and α-cellulose δ 18O-values within one site is conducted. The large δ 18O variability observed in surface waters is found to be considerably smoothed in α-cellulose (by a factor of 5-10 depending on the plant species). This indicates that the water used by plant photosynthetic processes reflects the isotopic composition of the average annual precipitation. This points to a source water level for plants of a few decimeters where the variations are smaller than at the air-water interface. The response of the α-cellulose δ 18O to the environmental gradient along the altitude transect varies considerably from species to species. For most of the species studied, the δ 18O-values decrease with altitude, following the trends of δ 18O-values in precipitation and

  17. Benthic plant communities in acidic Lake Colden, New York: Sphagnum and the algal mat

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrey, G R; Vertucci, J A

    1980-03-01

    Lake Colden, in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York State is botanically similar to acidified lakes in Sweden. Acidification of some Swedish lakes has been associated with an expansion of Sphagnum, primarily in shallow, sheltered littoral areas but also to depths of 18m. During a brief botanical survey on 24-25 July 1979, we observed a dense meadow of Sphagnum pylaesii around much of the shoreline of Lake Colden. Plant community composition was determined by a visual estimate of cover along a single typical transect and through underwater photography on 28-29 August 1979. Water samples were collected and returned to our laboratory for analyses several days later. Sample pH was determined by potentiometry and alkalinity by multiple end point titrations. Biomass samples were also taken of the Sphagnum mat community and dry weight was determined. Chemical content of plant tissue was analyzed.

  18. Only low methane production and emission in degraded peat extraction sites after rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agethen, Svenja; Waldemer, Carolin; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2015-04-01

    In Central Europe rewetting of bogs after peat extraction is a wide spread technique to halt secondary aerobic decomposition and to reestablish plant species such as Sphagnum spp. and Eriophorum spp. that initialize accumulation of organic carbon in peat. Before extraction, such sites are often used for agriculture causing the aerobic degradation of peat and mobilization of phosphorus, ammonia, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In nutrient poor ecosystems such as bogs, additional supply of P and N does not only trigger the establishment of uncharacteristic vegetation but also the formation of more labile plant litter and DOM that is readily degradable. Therefore, after rewetting and the development of anoxic conditions especially in initial stages high methane (CH4) emissions are reported for these systems compared to pristine bogs. Regarding the potential of methane production and emissions we investigated three common practices to prepare extraction fields for restoration (years since rewetting): i) Filling of drainage ditches, passive rewetting (1 site, Altendorfer Moor, Stade, NW-Germany, ca. 20 yr.), ii) Removal of upper 30 cm peat layer, removed peat used for construction of polder dikes (2 sites, Königsmoor, Leer, NW-Germany, 2 and 3 yr.), iii) Removal upper peat layer down to 50 cm grown peat, not extracted peat used as polder walls (2 sites, Benthullener Moor, Wardenburg, NW-Germany, 3 and 7 yr.). In each site two vegetated replicate mesocosms (diam. 30 cm, depth 40 cm) were sampled and placed in a greenhouse from May-October 2014 to maintain the water table at surface level. Pore water concentrations of ions, fermentation products and DOM, DOM electron acceptor capacity (EAC), soil gas concentrations of CO2, CH4 and H2, gas fluxes as well as element composition and organic matter quality of DOM and SOM were analyzed. We found out that practice i) with least efforts of nutrient removal in the peat produced the highest CH4 emissions (3.5 mmol m-2 d-1

  19. Bioaccumulation and glutathione-mediated detoxification of copper and cadmium in Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anuj; Saxena, Anjali

    2012-07-01

    Physiological and biochemical responses, metal bioaccumulation and tolerance potential of Sphagnum squarrosum Crome Samml. to Cu and Cd were studied to determine its bioindication and bioremediation potential. Results suggest that glutathione treatment increases the metal accumulation potential and plays a definite role in heavy metal scavenging. High abundance of Sphagnum in metal-rich sites strongly suggests its high metal tolerance capabilities. This experiment demonstrates that S. squarrosum is able to accumulate and tolerate a high amount of metals and feasibility of its application as bioindicator and remediator test species of metal-contaminated environment.

  20. Mineral resource of the month: peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Peat is a natural organic material of botanical origin, harvested from deposits in bogs and fens. Commercial deposits form from the incomplete decomposition of plant matter under anaerobic conditions and gradually accumulate to form peat over about a 5,000-year period.

  1. H2O and CO2 exchange between a sphagnum mire ecosystem and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olchev, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Karataeva, Tatiana; Novenko, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The modern climatic conditions are strongly influenced by both internal variability of climatic system, and various external natural and anthropogenic factors (IPCC 2007). Significant increase of concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and especially the growth of atmospheric CO2 due to human activity are considered as the main factors that are responsible for modern global warming and climate changes. A significant part of anthropogenic CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by land biota and especially by vegetation cover. However, it is still not completely clear what is the role of different land ecosystems and especially forests and mires in global cycles of H2O and CO2 and what is a sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate changes. Within the framework of this study the spatial and temporal variability of H2O and CO2 fluxes between a mire ecosystem and the atmosphere was described using results of the field measurements and modeling approach. For the study a mire ecosystem located in Tula region in European part of Russia was selected. The selected mire has karst origin, depth of peat float is 2.5-3.0 m (depth of depression is more than 10 meter), area is about 1 ha. The mire vegetation is characterized by sedge and sphagnum mosses cover. The mire is surrounded by broad-leaved forest of about 20 meter high. To describe the temporal and spatial patterns of H2O and CO2 fluxes within selected mire the chamber method was applied. The measurement were carried out along transect from mire edge to center from June to September of 2012. For measurements the transparent ventilated chambers combined with portable infrared CO2/H2O analyzer LI-840 (Li-Cor, USA) was used. To estimate the gross primary production and respiration of different type of vegetation within the mire the measurements were conducted both under actual light conditions and artificial shading. Results of the experimental studies showed that the maximal CO2 fluxes was observed in central

  2. Small scale controls of greenhouse gas release under elevated N deposition rates in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-06-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain nitrous oxide release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  3. Microcosm tests of the effects of temperature and microbial species number on the decomposition of Carex aquatilis and Sphagnum fuscum litter from southern boreal peatlands.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Markus N; Bayley, Suzanne E; Currah, Randolph S

    2004-10-01

    Increased decomposition rates in boreal peatlands with global warming might increase the release of atmospheric greenhouse gases, thereby producing a positive feedback to global warming. How temperature influences microbial decomposers is unclear. We measured in vitro rates of decomposition of senesced sedge leaves and rhizomes (Carex aquatilis), from a fen, and peat moss (Sphagnum fuscum), from a bog, at 14 and 20 degrees C by the three most frequently isolated fungi and bacteria from these materials. Decomposition rates of the bog litter decreased (5- to 17-fold) with elevated temperatures, and decomposition of the sedge litters was either enhanced (2- to 30-fold) or remained unaffected by elevated temperatures. The increased temperature regime always favoured fungal over bacterial decomposition rates (2- to 3-fold). Different physiological characteristics of these microbes suggest that fungi using polyphenolic polymers as a carbon source cause greater mass losses of these litters. Litter quality exerted a stronger influence on decomposition at elevated temperatures, as litter rich in nutrients decomposed more quickly than litter poorer in nutrients at higher temperatures (8.0%-25.7% for the sedge litters vs. 0.2% for the bryophyte litter). We conclude that not all peatlands may provide a positive feedback to global warming. Cautious extrapolation of our data to the ecosystem level suggests that decomposition rates in fens may increase and those in bogs may decrease under a global warming scenario.

  4. Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen belongs to chemical elements whose biogeochemical cycles are most heavily disturbed by human activities, and large regions worlwide experience elevated depositions of reactive N (NO3-, NH4+). Peatlands contain as much as 15 % of the world's soil N. It it is unclear whether fertilizing by anthopogenic N will lead to higher storage of C in wetlands. Elevated N input may lead to both higher net primary productivity, but will also augment microbial decomposition. Here we discuss two aspects of N cycling in Sphagnum-dominated bogs in the Czech Republic, an area characterized by a steep north-south pollution gradient and high annual N deposition (60 kg ha-1). These two aspects are N inventory in 210Pb-dated peat cores, and post-depositional mobility of N in peat. We compared the N inventory in two Czech bogs, differing in pollution, with cumulative atmospheric N input. We hypothesized that the total amount of N in the peat cores would be smaller than the cumulative N input (leaching of excess N from the bog, denitrification). The two bogs were VJ (industrial north) and CB (rural south). The investigated period was 1885-2002. The total amount of N was 4020 kg ha-1 at VJ and 1530 kg ha-1 at CB. Peat in the north contained 2.6 times more N than in the south. Historical rates of N deposition in the Czech Republic are well known (numerous papers by Kopacek). To estimate cumulative N inputs into the bogs, we also used the monthly N depositions between 1994 and 2002, measured in two nearby catchments. The estimated cumulative atmospheric N input was 1350 kg ha-1 at VJ, and 530 kg ha-1 at CB. In both cases, the amount of N found in peat was 3 times higher than the estimated atmospheric N input. Such high storage of N in peat is surprising. Post-depositional mobility of N may help to explain the discrepancies between atmospheric N inputs and N storage in peat. We found two-fold evidence for post-depositional mobility of N. Maximum N concentrations at VJ were observed in

  5. Exploding a myth: the capsule dehiscence mechanism and the function of pseudostomata in Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Jeffrey G; Pressel, Silvia; P'ng, Ken M Y; Renzaglia, Karen S

    2009-01-01

    The nineteenth century air-gun explanation for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum has never been tested experimentally. Similarly, the function of the numerous stomata ubiquitous in the capsule walls has never been investigated. Both intact and pricked Sphagnum capsules, that were allowed to dry out, all dehisced over an 8-12 h period during which time the stomatal guard cells gradually collapsed and their potassium content, measured by X-ray microanalysis in a cryoscanning electron microscope, gradually increased. By contrast, guard cell potassium fell in water-stressed Arabidopsis. The pricking experiments demonstrate that the air-gun notion for explosive spore discharge in Sphagnum is inaccurate; differential shrinkage of the capsule walls causes popping off the rigid operculum. The absence of evidence for a potassium-regulating mechanism in the stomatal guard cells and their gradual collapse before spore discharge indicates that their sole role is facilitation of sporophyte desiccation that ultimately leads to capsule dehiscence. Our novel functional data on Sphagnum, when considered in relation to bryophyte phylogeny, suggest the possibility that stomata first appeared in land plants as structures that facilitated sporophyte drying out before spore discharge and only subsequently acquired their role in the regulation of gaseous exchange.

  6. Vertical transmission explains the specific Burkholderia pattern in Sphagnum mosses at multi-geographic scale

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Anastasia; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Christian; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia is known for its versatile interactions with its hosts that can range from beneficial to pathogenic. A plant-beneficial-environmental (PBE) Burkholderia cluster was recently separated from the pathogen cluster, yet still little is known about burkholderial diversity, distribution, colonization, and transmission patterns on plants. In our study, we applied a combination of high-throughput molecular and microscopic methods to examine the aforementioned factors for Burkholderia communities associated with Sphagnum mosses – model plants for long-term associations – in Austrian and Russian bogs. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons libraries revealed that most of the Burkholderia are part of the PBE group, but a minor fraction was closely related to B. glathei and B. andropogonis from the pathogen cluster. Notably, Burkholderia showed highly similar composition patterns for each moss species independent of the geographic region, and Burkholderia-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization of Sphagnum gametophytes exhibited similar colonization patterns in different Sphagnum species at multi-geographic scales. To explain these patterns, we compared the compositions of the surrounding water, gametophyte-, and sporophyte-associated microbiome at genus level and discovered that Burkholderia were present in the Sphagnum sporophyte and gametophyte, but were absent in the flark water. Therefore, Burkholderia is a part of the core microbiome transmitted from the moss sporophyte to the gametophyte. This suggests a vertical transmission of Burkholderia strains, and thus underlines their importance for the plants themselves. PMID:24391630

  7. Lake or bog? Reconstructing baseline ecological conditions for the protected Galápagos Sphagnum peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Emily E. D.; Froyd, Cynthia A.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2012-10-01

    This paper documents the first 10,000 year old plant macrofossil record of vegetation changes on the central island of Santa Cruz, providing information on Sphagnum bog vegetation patterns, local extinction of key taxa, and temporal successions in the Galápagos humid highlands. Vegetation change is reconstructed through examination of Holocene sedimentary sequences obtained from three Sphagnum bogs located within volcanic caldera forming the high elevation central ridge system of Santa Cruz Island. Results indicate that these specialized Sphagnum bog ecosystems are dynamic and have undergone considerable changes in vegetation composition, transitioning from diverse hygrophilous herbs and submerged aquatic ecosystems to drier Sphagnum/Pteridium bog systems, during the last 10,000 cal yr BP. Additionally a new aquatic genus previously undocumented on the islands, Elatine, was discovered at two of the study sites, but it is now extinct on the archipelago. Some of the observed vegetation successions may have been driven by climatic shifts occurring within the eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP). Other drivers including anthropogenic change are also considered significant over the last hundred years, placing strain on this naturally dynamic system. This study helps reveal patterns of change in the humid highlands over the last 10,000 cal yr BP regarding vegetation variability, climatic shifts, the historical influence of fire, tortoise disturbance, and recent anthropogenic impacts on the island.

  8. Nutrient stoichiometry in Sphagnum along a nitrogen deposition gradient in highly polluted region of Central-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Jiroušek, Martin; Hájek, Michal; Bragazza, Luca

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the variation of N:P and N:K ratio in ombrotrophic Sphagnum plants along a gradient of atmospheric N deposition from 1 to 2.5 g m(-2) year(-1) in Central-East Europe. The N:P and N:K ratio in Sphagnum capitula increased significantly along the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum species from the Cuspidata section were characterised by significantly lower ratios at low N deposition. When we compared the observed N:P ratios in Sphagnum plants with the values reported in a previous European-wide study, we found a correspondence in nutrient stoichiometry only for a few bogs: higher P concentration in Sphagnum capitula caused a lower N:P ratio in most of the study bogs so that Sphagnum plants still seem N-limited despite their N saturation. Interaction between summer water table decrease and aerial liming of surrounding forests is proposed as an explanation for this discrepancy. Local forestry practice interacting with climate thus alter N:P stoichiometry of Sphagnum along the N deposition gradient.

  9. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia.

  10. Degradation of drained peat soils in Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambalov, N. N.

    2009-04-01

    According to Belarusian classification, the drained peat soils with peat layer less then 30 cm and containing organic substance less then 50% are degraded soils. Degraded peat soils made up 190.2 thousand hectares in 2001 from a total area of 1062,2 thousand hectares of drained peat soils for agriculture in Belarus, but the process of degradation is prolonging now and it is expected, that their area will be extended additionally on 12 % till 2020. The degradation of peat soils is most widespread in the region of Polesie, where the area of degraded soils makes up already several thousand hectares in some administrative districts. The degradation of peat soils takes place jet locally on the comparatively not big plots but on the very many places. There is the threat of joining up of the existing now spots of degraded soils in the near future, and the new spots of degraded soils will appear in a very big amount as well. The large tracts of land will appear in the nearest 20-30 years and may be earlier. The degradation of drained peat soils proceeds step by step, and three morphological groups of new soils are forming depending on degree of humification of organic matter, namely: raw humic, humus-fibrous and humus peat soils. The complicated soil complexes with many alternating soil plots containing organic substance both more than 50 % and from 2 till 50 % are forming within one field in result of degradation. For the reason given above a rather not uniform structure of soil cover with unsatisfactory micro relief, big differences of aquatic, thermal and nutritious regimes is forming on agricultural fields, that leads to the substantial decrease of their productivity. In this connection big expanses will require to the rearrangement of drainage systems and leveling of soil fertility within every such field. A fertility of drained peat soils with the depth of peat layer more then 1 m has been estimated as 69 points, with the depth of peat layer 0.3-0.5 m as 62 points

  11. Inventory of peat resources, Aitkin County, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this report is the Minnesota Peat Inventory Project (MPIP) reconnaissance-level peatland survey of Aitkin County, which contains 170,050 ha (420,160 ac) of peatland. The main objectives of this study were to map the resource and to determine the quality, quantity, and energy potential of peat in the county. The report consists of (1) a text that discusses the resource and the survey; and (2) a map of the peat resources in Aitkin County. Over 700 sites were visited by the MPIP to determine peat type and depth. Samples were obtained from 188 selected representative sites for MPIP laboratory analysis. Peatlands cover 170,050 ha (420,160 ac) or 33% of the total area of Aitkin County. Total oven-dried tons of peat amount to 246,414,000 metric tons (276,237,000 US short tons). The peatlands meeting the DOE criteria for fuel-grade peat cover 30,390 ha (75,080 ac) or 18% of the county's lands is 98,134,000 oven-dried metric tons (110,012,000 oven-dried US short tons). These peatlands cover at least 80 contiguous acres and are composed of peat that (1) has an average energy value of 8,874 Btu/lb (moisture-free), (2) has an average ash content of 10.6%, and (3) is at least 150 cm (5 ft) deep. The estimated potential energy of these peat deposits is 1.97 x 10/sup 15/ Btu (1.97 quads of energy) if all three peat types, fibric, hemic, and sapric, in deposits greater than 150 cm deep are considered.

  12. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

  13. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  14. Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.

    PubMed Central

    Page, S E; Rieley, J O; Shotyk, W; Weiss, D

    1999-01-01

    The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region. PMID:11605630

  15. Influence of peat-bog fire on physical properties of peat-mull soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabryla, J.; Lipka, K.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years in Poland disseminated the curse of grassland (either peat meadows) burning. Peat-bogs drained long time ago, where peat-mull soils occur are subjected on fire in particular, because they are often dried. After burned peat remain pits various depth and land irregularity. The aim of the work is morphological characteristics of soil profiles and comparison of chosen physical properties of peat-mull soils on former fire and adjacent area. Research was carried out on the mid-forest peat-bog Wielkie Bloto in Puszcza Niepolomicka. The method used in the work is routinely accepted in soil science. The results show that values of ash content, density and moisture are higher than the ones for soils of adjacent areas. In top stratum of post fire soils bulk density is lower in comparison with upper layers of adjacent soils. Contractility of soils degraded by fire is lower than for soils of adjacent areas.

  16. Peat deposits of the Carolina Bays of North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-11-01

    Of the approximately 500 Carolina Bays larger than 100 acres (3,000 ft. long) in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 96 contained at least 1 ft of peat. The 96 bays have a total of 35,000 acres of peatland containing 15 millions tons of moisture-free peat. Of these 96 bays, 43 have peat greater than 4 ft thick totaling 8,000 acres with 8 million tons of peat. The largest single deposit of peat greater than 4 ft thick contains 1.1 million tons in a 1,000 acre area. Two main types of peat are present: (1) a black, fine-grained, highly decomposed peat, and (2) a brownish, decomposed somewhat fibrous peat usually found at the base of the thicker peats. An average peat has 84% moisture, 6% ash, 0.2% sulfur, and a heating value of 10,000 Btu/lb.

  17. Influence of peat formation conditions on the transformation of peat deposit organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, O. V.; Strelnikova, E. B.; Preis, Yu I.; Duchko, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper studies the individual composition of n-alkanes, polycycloaromatic hydrocarbons, steroids, bi-, tri-, and pentacyclic terpenoids of two peat deposits of rich fen Kirek located in Western Siberia. Considering the individual n-alkanes concentrations, some indexes were calculated to estimate the humidity during peat formation. It was shown that the pH of peat medium primarily affects steroids, tri- and pentacyclic terpenoids transformations.

  18. Metal sorption by peat and algae treated peat: kinetics and factors affecting the process.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Elena; Gjengedal, Elin

    2011-10-01

    The article presents a new approach that can be used for the purification of water contaminated by heavy metals. The treatment of peat with microalgae showed to be an effective way of increasing metal uptake by peat. Metal sorption was studied for a multimetal solution containing Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Cu and Pb were found to be the metals having the highest affinity to peat. Water hardness has a strong effect on the uptake of borderline metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Cd) from a solution. The use of algae for peat treatment resulted in less time to reach an equilibrium (24 h vs. 72 h for pure peat), and the effect of water hardness (Ca²⁺) on metal uptake was considerably reduced. Both peat and algal-treated peat were able to take up metals from rather acidic solutions (pH 3.0). pH had less influence on the metal uptake compared with water hardness. The affinity of heavy metals to peat was the following: Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd>Zn>Co. It slightly changed to Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd≈Co≈Zn when the combined sorbent, peat treated with microalga, was applied.

  19. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    PubMed

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation.

  20. The effect of pore structure on ebullition from peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jorge A.; Baird, Andy J.; Coulthard, Tom J.

    2016-06-01

    The controls on methane (CH4) bubbling (ebullition) from peatlands are uncertain, but evidence suggests that physical factors related to gas transport and storage within the peat matrix are important. Variability in peat pore size and the permeability of layers within peat can produce ebullition that ranges from steady to erratic in time and can affect the degree to which CH4 bubbles bypass consumption by methanotrophic bacteria and enter the atmosphere. Here we investigate the role of peat structure on ebullition in structurally different peats using a physical model that replicates bubble production using air injection into peat. We find that the frequency distributions of number of ebullition events per time and the magnitude of bubble loss from the physical model were similar in shape to ebullition from peatlands and incubated peats. This indicates that the physical model could be a valid proxy for naturally occurring ebullition from peat. For the first time, data on bubble sizes from peat were collected to conceptualize ebullition, and we find that peat structure affects bubble sizes. Using a new method to measure peat macrostructure, we collected evidence that supports the hypothesis that structural differences in peat determine if bubble release is steady or erratic and extreme. Collected pore size data suggest that erratic ebullition occurs when large amounts of gas stored at depth easily move through shallower layers of open peat. In contrast, steady ebullition occurs when dense shallower layers of peat regulate the flow of gas emitted from peat.

  1. Complexity Analysis of Peat Soil Density Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampurno, Joko; Diah Faryuni, Irfana; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    The distributions of peat soil density have been identified using fractal analysis method. The study was conducted on 5 peat soil samples taken from a ground field in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, at the coordinates (0 ° 4 '2:27 "S, 109 ° 18' 48.59" E). In this study, we used micro computerized tomography (pCT Scanner) at 9.41 micro meter per pixel resolution under peat soil samples to provide 2-D high-resolution images L1-L5 (200 200 pixels) that were used to detect the distribution of peat soil density. The method for determining the fractal dimension and intercept was the 2-D Fourier analysis method. The method was used to obtain the log log-plot of magnitude with frequency. Fractal dimension was obtained from the straight regression line that interpolated the points in the interval with the largest coefficient determination. Intercept defined by the point of intersection on the -axis. The conclusion was that the distributions of peat soil density showing the fractal behaviour with the heterogeneity of the samples from the highest to the lowest were L5, L1, L4, L3 and L2. Meanwhile, the range of density values of the samples from the highest to the lowest was L3, L2, L4, L5 and L1. The study also concluded that the behaviour of the distribution of peat soil density was a weakly anisotropic.

  2. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  3. Drainage and land use impacts on changes in selected peat properties and peat degradation in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshari, G. Z.; Afifudin, M.; Nuriman, M.; Gusmayanti, E.; Arianie, L.; Susana, R.; Nusantara, R. W.; Sugardjito, J.; Rafiastanto, A.

    2010-11-01

    Degradation of tropical peats is a global concern due to large Carbon emission and loss of biodiversity. The degradation of tropical peats usually starts when the government drains and clears peat forests into open peats used for food crops, oil palm and industrial timber plantations. Major properties of tropical peat forests are high in Water Contents (WC), Loss on Ignition (LOI) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC), and low in peat pH, Dry Bulk Density (DBD), and Total Nitrogen (TN). In this study, we investigated impacts of drainage and land use change on these properties. We collected peat samples from peat forests, logged over peat forest, industrial timber plantation, community agriculture, and oil palms. We used independent t-tests and oneway ANOVA to analyze mean differences of the research variables. We found that peat pH, DBD, and TN tend to increase. A significant decrease of C/N ratio in oil palm and agriculture sites importantly denotes a high rate of peat decompositions. Water contents, LOI, and TOC are relatively constants. We suggest that changes in pH, DBD, TN and atomic C/N ratio are important indicators for assessing tropical peat degradation. We infer that land use change from tropical peat forests into cleared and drained peats used for intensive timber harvesting, oil palms and industrial timber plantations in Indonesia has greatly degraded major ecological function of tropical peats as Carbon storage.

  4. A Holocene record of climate, vegetation change and peat bog development, east Otago, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    1999-05-01

    A Holocene record of pollen, macrofossils, testate amoebae and peat humification is presented from a small montane bog. Sediment accumulation began before 9000 yr BP, but peat growth not until ca. 7000 BP. From 12 000 to 7000 yr BP, a shrub-grassland dominated under a dry climate, with increasing conifer forest and tall scrub from ca. 9600 yr BP. At 7000 yr BP a dense montane-subalpine low conifer forest established under a moist, cool climatic regime. Between 7000 and 700 yr BP the bog surface was shrubby, tending to be dry but with highly variable surface wetness. The catchment was affected by major fire at least four times between 4000 and 1000 yr BP. Both fire and bog surface wetness may have been linked to ENSO-caused variations in rainfall. Cooler, cloudier winters and disturbance by fire promoted the expansion of the broadleaf tree Nothofagus menziesii between 4000 yr BP and 1300 yr BP at the expense of the previous conifer forest-scrub vegetation. Polynesian fires (ca. 700 yr BP) reduced the vegetation to tussock grassland and bracken. Deforestation did not markedly affect the hydrology of the site. European pastoralism since ad 1860 has increased run-off and rising water tables in the bog have led to a Sphagnum-dominated cover.

  5. Laboratory simulation of the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in oil-contaminated high-moor peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolpeshta, I. I.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Erkenova, M. I.; Sokolova, T. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Lysak, L. V.; Lobanenkov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    A model experiment has been performed on the successive aerobic and anaerobic degradation of oil products in samples of oil-contaminated peat sampled from a pine-subshrub-sphagnum bog near the Sutormin oilfield pipeline in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district. During the incubation of oil-contaminated peat with lime and mineral fertilizers under complete flooding, favorable conditions are created for the aerobic oxidation of oil products at the beginning of the experiment and, as the redox potential decreases, for the anaerobic degradation of oil products conjugated with the reduction of N5+ and S+6 and methanogenesis. From the experimental data on the dynamics of the pH; Eh; and the NO{3/-}, NO{2/-}, and SO{4/2-} concentrations in the liquid phase of the samples, it has been found that denitrifiers significantly contributed to the biodegradation of oil products under the experimental conditions. After the end of the experiment, the content of oil products in the contaminated samples decreased by 21-26%.

  6. Initiation of Sphagnum moss hummocks in bogs and the presence of vascular plants: Is there a link?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Karofeld, Edgar; Mercier, Caroline

    2011-07-01

    Establishment of specific vascular plants and Sphagnum species, as well as asymmetrical competition and facilitation between the two types of plants are apparently important in the development of microtopography in peatlands. To determine whether peatland vascular plants can facilitate the initiation of Sphagnum hummocks, and consequently the differentiation of bog microtopography, we investigated the effects of vascular plant life form and structure on Sphagnum stem length and biomass. We showed that Sphagnum stem length and biomass were enhanced by low density of vascular plants and other introduced structures, which thus favoured hummock formation. Dense covers of vascular plants also promoted moss height growth, but the Sphagnum stems were etiolated and fluffy, their densities were too low and biomass was too small to initiate clear hummocks. We also showed that vascular plants contributed to microhabitats with stable temperatures and high relative humidity favourable to Sphagnum growth. Stress-gradient hypothesis, predicting that the relative frequencies of facilitation and competition events will vary inversely along abiotic stress gradients, could explain the nature of the interaction between mosses and vascular plants. At the onset of microstructures formation in peatlands, abiotic stress is probably more important and facilitation events could be frequent. Microclimatic effects of vascular plants may be essential for Sphagnum growth. Then, the presence of ericaceous shrubs or young trees enhances the microtopography by physically reinforcing the hummocks. During accentuation of microtopography, the positive interactions between Sphagnum mosses and vascular plants may be replaced by competition as abiotic stress declines. This study introduces new evidence for the role of vascular plants in the formation and maintenance of hummocks, especially under drier growing conditions.

  7. [Effect of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum on the structure and physiological state of bacterial communities].

    PubMed

    Dobrovol'skaya, T G; Golovchenko, A V; Yakushev, A V; Manucharova, N A; Yurchenko, E N

    2014-01-01

    The microcosm method was used to demonstrate an increase in bacterial numbers and drastic changes in the taxonomic structure of saprotrophic bacteria as a result of mechanical grinding of Sphagnum moss. Ekkrisotrophic agrobacteria predominant in untreated moss were replaced by hydrolytic bacteria. Molecular biological approaches revealed such specific hydrolytic bacteria as Janthinobacterium agaricum and Streptomyces purpurascens among the dominant taxa. The application of kinetic technique for determination of the physiological state of bacteria in situ revealed higher functional diversity of hydrolytic bacteria in ground moss than in untreated samples. A considerable decrease of the C/N ratio in ground samples of living Sphagnum incubated using the microcosm technique indicated decomposition of this substrate.

  8. The preferential growth of branched GDGT source microorganisms under aerobic conditions in peat revealed by stable isotope probing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Arnaud; Meador, Travis B.; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Könneke, Martin; Derenne, Sylvie; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (brGDGTs) membrane lipids are widely distributed in aquatic and terrestrial environments and are being increasingly used as temperature proxies. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the microorganisms that produce these lipids, which are found in especially high abundance in the anaerobic horizons of peat bogs. We initiated stable isotope probing incubations of peat samples from a Sphagnum-dominated peatland (Jura Mountains, France) to measure the incorporation of (D)-D2O and 13C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into brGDGTs, and thus gauge the activity, growth, and turnover times of their source organisms. Peat samples were collected from two adjacent sites with contrasting humidity levels (hereafter called "fen" and "bog" sites). For each site, samples from the surficial aerobic layer (acrotelm) and deeper anaerobic layer (catotelm) were collected and were incubated under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions for the acrotelm samples and only anaerobic conditions for the catotelm. The incubations were performed at 12 ° C, consistent with the mean summer air temperature at the sampling site. After two months of incubation, there was no incorporation of 13C label in brGDGTs for samples incubated under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, showing that brGDGT-producing bacteria are heterotrophic microorganisms, as previously observed in organo-mineral soils (Weijers et al., 2011). Similarly, little to no deuterium incorporation was observed for brGDGTs isolated from anaerobically-incubated deep samples. In contrast, in the aerobic incubations of acrotelm samples from bog and fen, the weighted average δD of brGDGT core lipids (CLs) increased by up to 3332‰ and 933‰ after two months, respectively, indicating that fresh brGDGT CLs were biosynthesized at the peat surface. D incorporation into brGDGT CLs converted to production rates ranging from 30-106 ng cm-3y-1 in the aerobic acrotelm from bog and fen

  9. Sphagnum as an Indicator of Wetland Hydrology in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    et al. 1983). Some Sphagnum species occupy niches on or near the wetland boundary with greater frequency than other bryophytes (Lichvar et al. 2009...ERDC/CRREL TN-10-2 3 3 Desiccation Tolerance and Avoidance Strategies Bryophytes obtain moisture from a variety of sources, including...USACE 2008). Second, bryophytes are physiologically active only when hydrated. During dry periods, they become dormant, resuming normal

  10. Sources of variability in peat composition and the role of peat age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    During peat formation decaying plant material undergoes partial decomposition that continuously transform its organic matter. As part of this transformation, aromatic moieties such as plant-borne polyphenols are considered to accumulate relative to more labile compounds such as carbohydrates. Here, 13C CPMAS-NMR data from 71 peat samples from sites across Europe (61°48' N - 46°49' N) are analyzed for their variability. Sites differ in their degree of peat disturbance and range from natural to long-term drained and thus strongly degraded. Application of a molecular mixing model to the NMR data indicated that, on average, peat consists by 27, 22, 21, 18, and 11 % of carbohydrates, aliphatics, aromatics, proteins, and char, respectively. Compositional variability was most pronounced for aromatics and carbohydrates. So far, half of the samples was age-dated using 14C. Calibrated 14C ages in the data set range from recent to c. 10000 years BP. Relationships between peat composition and age were non-linear and highly significant. Aromatic moieties accumulated with increasing peat age whereas O-containing moieties relatively declined, in line with a decrease in molar O/C ratios. The relative accumulation of aromatics was 250 % during 10000 years whereas O-containing moieties declined relatively by 65 %. About half of this selective accumulation and degradation occurred during the first 2000 years of peat accumulation, thereby reflecting higher microbial transformation rates during initial phases of built-up. Char content increased with peat age, possibly indicating selective preservation of char during peat formation. C/N ratios correlated significantly but bi-modal with age. The analysis shows that peat age is a reliable proxy for organic matter transformation in peatlands. Because rates and degree of transformation are derived from multiple sites, the found relationships seem to reveal a general pattern, at least for the studied boreal and temperate systems.

  11. [Niches of seven bryophyte species in Hani peat land of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Bu, Zhao-jun; Wang, Sheng-zhong; Li, Hong-kai; Zhao, Hong-yan

    2009-03-01

    Based on field investigation and by using Levins and Pianka formula, the niches of seven bryophyte species in Hani Peatland of Changbai Mountains were studied. The results showed that the average niche breadth in nine environmental factors (total nitrogen, total phosphorous, K+ and Ca2+ in peat, pH,and electrical conductivity of surface water, tree coverage, shrub coverage, and depth to water table) of the seven species decreased in the order of Aulacomnium palustre > Sphagnum fallax > S. magellanicum > S. capillifolium = Polytrichum juniperinum > S. palustre > S. fuiscum. S. fuscum tended to be niche-specific species, while A. palustre tended to be niche-general species. Among the nine environmental factors, surface water electrical conductivity had the highest mean overlap value, while depth to water table, tree coverage, surface water pH, and shrub coverage had the lowest one, being the main environmental factors affecting the distribution of bryophytes. Most bryophyte species differentiated in their niches in the factors of depth to water table, tree coverage, surface water pH, and shrub coverage; while a few bryophyte species had higher overlap value in all of the test environmental factors due to their collaboration relationships in water use. This higher overlap value could offer indirect evidence of interspecific competition of bryophytes.

  12. Chemical properties of peat used in balneology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szajdak, L.; Hładoń, T.

    2009-04-01

    The physiological activity of peats is observed in human peat-bath therapy and in the promotion of growth in some plants. Balneological peat as an ecologically clean and natural substance is perceived as being more 'human friendly' than synthetic compounds. Poland has a long tradition of using balneological peat for therapeutic purposes. Balneological peat reveals a physical effect by altering temperature and biochemical effects through biologically active substances. It is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases that are quite common in Poland. Peat represents natural product. Physico-chemical properties of peat in particular surface-active, sorption and ion exchanges, defining their biological function, depend mainly on the chemical composition and molecular structure of humic substances representing the major constituent of organic soil (peat). The carbon of organic matter of peats is composed of 10 to 20% carbohydrates, primarily of microbial origin; 20% nitrogen-containing constituents, such as amino acids and amino sugars; 10 to 20% aliphatic fatty acids, alkanes, etc.; with the rest of carbon being aromatic. For balneology peat should be highly decomposed (preferably H8), natural and clean. The content of humic acids should exceed 20% of dry weight, ash content will be less than 15 15% of dry weight, sulphur content less than 0.3% of dry weight and the amount of water more than 85%. It will not contain harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Humic substances (HS) of peat are known to be macromolecular polydisperse biphyllic systems including both hydrophobic domains (saturated hydrocarbon chains, aromatic structural units) and hydrophilic functional groups, i. e having amphiphilic character. Amphiphilic properties of FA are responsible for their solubility, viscosity, conformation, surfactant-like character and a variety of physicochemical properties of considerable biologically practical significance. The chemical composition of peats depends

  13. Fiber Effects on Compressibility of Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, N. N.; Bakar, I.; Razali, S. N. M.; Wahab, N.

    2016-07-01

    Fibers found in the soil, especially in peaty soil play an important role in the determination of soil compressibility. Peat soils are the results from the decomposition of organic matter and the type of peat can be classified based on the fibrous material in the soil. In the engineering field, peat soil was mostly known as soils that has a serious settlement with high compressibility index. From the previous research, fibers in the soil were influenced in compressibility in terms of size, shape, fibric, soil arrangement and etc. Hence, this study attempts the determination of fibers effects on the compressibility of peat using a 1-D oedometer consolidation test. The reconstituted peat samples of different particle sizes were used to determine the consolidation parameters and the results obtained from reconstituted samples were also compared with the undisturbed sample. 1-D oedometer consolidation tests were performed on the samples by using the load increment method. The results shows, the higher particle size (R3.35), give higher moisture content (w = 401.20%) and higher initial void ratio (eo = 5.74). In settlement prediction, the higher the fiber content will results the higher the compression index, therefore, it will cause high of settlement.

  14. Long-period astronomically forced peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Luis; Garcés, Miguel; Cabrera, Lluís; Sáez, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Organic matter sequestration by peat accumulation constitutes a primary sink for carbon in the global carbon cycle. Disclosing the processes that control the formation and storage of peat at time scales ranging from 103-106 years is a non-solved issue important for understanding the global climate system. We analyzed a 7 million years long terrestrial record of Late Oligocene age from the coal-bearing As Pontes Basin in Northwestern Spain. Biochronological constraints were included in order to refine a former magnetostratigraphy, giving rise a robust age model. This data was used to perform a cyclostratigraphic analysis. The obtained results show that minima in the 405-kyr and 2.4-Myr eccentricity cycles play a key role in peat formation. Such nodes exhibit reduced precession amplitudes, thus avoiding extremes in seasons and seasonal contrast for a prolonged period of time. In the As Pontes Basin, this orbital configuration is associated with a decrease in siliciclastic sedimentation and enhanced peat formation. Feedbacks between equilibrium landscapes and ecosystem stability will lead to a deceleration of weathering and erosion rates in catchment areas and to minimize and stabilize the sediment flux along the sediment routing system. Mid-latitude peat burial could contribute to disturb the carbon cycle by removing (atmospheric) carbon at times of minimum eccentricity.

  15. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Immunomodulative properties of humic peat preparations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepchenko, L. M.; Syedykh, N. J.

    2010-05-01

    It is proved, that the humic peat preparations promote the resistance of plants, animals and poultry to the influence of both abyotyc and byotyc extreme factors of external environment, to action. It was shown by us before, that biologically active compounds from peat promote stability against different diseases of agricultural animals and poultry. We conducted researches of humic preparations influence (hydrohumate and oxyhumate) on several indexes of immunoreactivity of the organisms of chickens broilers, ostriches, cows and laboratory rats. It is found out, that adding of humic preparations to forage or drinking water results in the normalization of immunity indexes; in particular, leucocytes level, in the increase of the level of some classes of immunoglobuline in blood, of haemoglobin level, T- and B-lymphocytes level, as well as common unspecific resistance - lyzocymic, phagocytic and bactericidic activity. These results allow to suggest that the peat humic preparations show immunomodulative activity, influencing both on humoral and cel immunity links.

  17. Alternative to peat for Agaricus brasiliensis yield.

    PubMed

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed.

  18. Oxidative ratio (OR) of UK peats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, G. D.; Worrall, F.; Masiello, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils (Histosols) from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Initial results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.94 and 1.1 with a median value of 1.05 which similar to the median value of World soils but the range is at the more reduced end. There was significant variation between peat cores, even between peat cores on the same site and the peat showed significant reduction in OR with depth in the core.

  19. The role of common upland vegetation on gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred

    2010-05-01

    The most important control upon the carbon dynamics of any peatland is vegetation. However there is a gap in the literature with respect to comparative, in-situ studies of common upland vegetation types on peat bogs from a carbon cycling perspective. Where studies exist they tend to be narrowly focused (i.e. on one or two species or a small geographical area) or are laboratory manipulation studies. This study set out to compare gaseous CO2 exchange, in situ, across a broad (geographic) range of sites dominated by differing, common, upland vegetation types. The vegetation types studied were; Calluna vulgaris, Sphagnum spp., Eriophorum (E. angustifolium + E. vaginatum), Molinia caerulea and areas revegetated with a lawn grass mixture that was used for restoration (Festuca spp, Deschampsia spp. and Agrostis spp.).The primary aim of the study was to assess the carbon cycling potential of the common upland vegetation types, in order to produce clearer evidence as to which upland species produce the most efficient carbon sinks. The study was carried out in the South Pennines and Peak District of England. All readings were taken from upland-blanket peat bogs, as this type of bog accounts for 87% of the UK's peatlands, and therefore the results of this study can have the widest possible applicability to the rest of the UK's peat reserves. NEE and NER measurements were taken with a PP Systems EMG-4 infra-red gas analyzer. PAR and air temperature readings were taken along side water table and soil pore water samples from every site. Each site was visited monthly for at least 12 months and between 3-9 replicates were recorded per site. The results of this study will deal with the effects vegetation has on NER, GPP and NEE, focusing on which vegetation types make the most efficient gaseous carbon sinks. Moreover the effect of vegetation on water table levels and water quality will be discussed. Finally a consideration of how the age of Calluna vulgaris affects the parameters

  20. Long-term hydrological dynamics and fire history over the last 2000 years in CE Europe reconstructed from a high-resolution peat archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Łokas, Edyta; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-03-01

    Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland are currently influenced by climatic and anthropogenic factors that lead to peat desiccation and susceptibility to fire. Little is known about the response of Sphagnum peatland testate amoebae (TA) to the combined effects of drought and fire. To understand the relationships between hydrology and fire dynamics, we used high-resolution multi-proxy palaeoecological data to reconstruct 2000 years of mire history in northern Poland. We employed a new approach for Polish peatlands - joint TA-based water table depth and charcoal-inferred fire activity reconstructions. In addition, the response of most abundant TA hydrological indicators to charcoal-inferred fire activity was assessed. The results show four hydrological stages of peatland development: moderately wet (from ˜35 BC to 800 AD), wet (from ˜800 to 1390 AD), dry (from ˜1390 to 1700 AD) and with an instable water table (from ˜1700 to 2012 AD). Fire activity has increased in the last millennium after constant human presence in the mire surroundings. Higher fire activity caused a rise in the water table, but later an abrupt drought appeared at the onset of the Little Ice Age. This dry phase is characterized by high ash contents and high charcoal-inferred fire activity. Fires preceded hydrological change and the response of TA to fire was indirect. Peatland drying and hydrological instability was connected with TA community changes from wet (dominance of Archerella flavum, Hyalosphenia papilio, Amphitrema wrightianum) to dry (dominance of Cryptodifflugia oviformis, Euglypha rotunda); however, no clear fire indicator species was found. Anthropogenic activities can increase peat fires and cause substantial hydrology changes. Our data suggest that increased human fire activity was one of the main factors that influenced peatland hydrology, though the mire response through hydrological changes towards drier conditions was delayed in relation to

  1. Properties and structure of raised bog peat humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-10-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic components of soil, peat and natural waters, and their structure and properties differ very much depending on their source. The aims of this study are to characterize humic acids (HAs) from raised bog peat, to evaluate the homogeneity of peat HAs within peat profiles, and to study peat humification impact on properties of HAs. A major impact on the structure of peat HAs have lignin-free raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin). On diagenesis scale, peat HAs have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter, and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, while thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge as a result of abiotic synthesis. However, in comparison with soil, aquatic and other HAs, aromaticity of peat HAs is much lower. Comparatively, the raised bog peat HAs are at the beginning of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups change depending on the peat age and decomposition degree from where HAs have been isolated, and carboxylic acidity of peat HAs increases with peat depth and humification degree.

  2. How do climate and human impact affect Sphagnum peatlands under oceanic-continental climatic conditions? 2000 years of fire and hydrological history of a bog in Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Tinner, Willy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Kołaczek, Piotr; Słowiński, Michał; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-05-01

    Climate change affects many natural processes and the same applies to human impact For instance climate change and anthropogenic activities may cause increased fire activity or change peatland dynamics. Currently it is still unknown how Sphagnum peatlands in the oceanic-continental transition zone of Poland may respond to combined effects of heat waves, drought and fire. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the last 2000 years palaeohydrology and fire history at Linje bog in Northern Poland. The main task was to determine the drivers of fire episodes, particularly to identify climatic and anthropogenic forcing. A two-meter peat core was extracted and subsampled with a high resolution. Micro- and macroscopic charcoal analyses were applied to determine past fire activity and the results compared with palaeohydrological reconstructions based on testate amoeba analysis. Palynological human indicators were used to reconstruct human activity. A depth-age model including 20 14C dates was constructed to calculate peat accumulation rates and charcoal influx. We hypothesised that: 1) fire frequency in Northern Poland was determined by climatic conditions (combination of low precipitation and heat waves), as reflected in peatland water table, and that 2) past fire episodes in the last millennium were intensified by human activity. Furthermore climate may have influenced human activity over harvest success and the carrying capacity. Our study shows that fire was important for the studied ecosystem, however, its frequency has increased in the last millennium in concomitance with land use activities. Landscape humanization and vegetation opening were followed by a peatland drying during the Little Ice Age (from ca. AD 1380). Similarly to other palaeoecological studies from Poland, Linje peatland possessed an unstable hydrology during the Little Ice Age. Increased fire episodes appeared shortly before the Little Ice Age and most severe fires were present in the time when

  3. The Limits to Peat Bog Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clymo, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Not less than 2% of the Earth's land surface is peat-covered, so it is important to try to understand the dynamics of peat accumulation. Peat-forming systems (mires) accumulate peat because conditions within them impede the decay of the plant material produced by their surface vegetation. This paper concerns the rate of peat production and some unexpected consequences of the processes of decay. These consequences are likely to be of interest to those concerned with mire ecology and with the history of vegetation during Flandrian times. Most peat-forming systems consist of two layers: an upper 10-50 cm deep aerobic layer of high hydraulic conductivity, the acrotelm, in which the rate of decay is relatively high; and a thicker, usually anaerobic, lower layer, the catotelm, of low conductivity and with a much lower rate of decay. Plant structure at the base of the acrotelm collapses as a consequence of aerobic decay, and the hydraulic conductivity consequently decreases. As long as precipitation continues the water table therefore rises to this level, thus engulfing material at the base of the acrotelm. The rate, p_c, of this input to the catotelm is exactly analogous to the rate, p_a, of input to the acrotelm i.e. of primary productivity of the vegetation. During passage through the acrotelm the peat becomes richer in the more slowly decaying components. The depth of, and the time for transit through, the acrotelm thus control p_c. The catotelm, however, usually forms much the largest part of the peat mass. Selective decay may continue in the catotelm. The specific composition of the peat thus becomes a progressively poorer indicator of the surface vegetation that formed it, and to a degree that is not generally realized: reconstructions of the past surface vegetation may become very inaccurate. If p_c were constant and there were no decay in the catotelm then for the centre of a peat bog the profile of age against depth (measured as cumulative mass below the surface

  4. Light-stress avoidance mechanisms in a Sphagnum-dominated wet coastal Arctic tundra ecosystem in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zona, D; Oechel, Walter C; Richards, James H; Hastings, Steven; Kopetz, Irene; Ikawa, Hiroki; Oberbauer, Steven

    2011-03-01

    The Arctic experiences a high-radiation environment in the summer with 24-hour daylight for more than two months. Damage to plants and ecosystem metabolism can be muted by overcast conditions common in much of the Arctic. However, with climate change, extreme dry years and clearer skies could lead to the risk of increased photoxidation and photoinhibition in Arctic primary producers. Mosses, which often exceed the NPP of vascular plants in Arctic areas, are often understudied. As a result, the effect of specific environmental factors, including light, on these growth forms is poorly understood. Here, we investigated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at the ecosystem scale, net Sphagnum CO2 exchange (NSE), and photoinhibition to better understand the impact of light on carbon exchange from a moss-dominated coastal tundra ecosystem during the summer season 2006. Sphagnum photosynthesis showed photoinhibition early in the season coupled with low ecosystem NEE. However, later in the season, Sphagnum maintained a significant CO2 uptake, probably for the development of subsurface moss layers protected from strong radiation. We suggest that the compact canopy structure of Sphagnum reduces light penetration to the subsurface layers of the moss mat and thereby protects the active photosynthetic tissues from damage. This stress avoidance mechanism allowed Sphagnum to constitute a significant percentage (up to 60%) of the ecosystem net daytime CO2 uptake at the end of the growing season despite the high levels of radiation experienced.

  5. Development of a new peat-based oil sorbent using peat pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Klavins, Maris; Porshnov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The growing use and transport of crude oil and oil products has led to increasing numbers of oil spillages of various scales. Oil sorbents have been extensively used for remediation of the consequences of such accidents. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible use of peat and its thermal treatment products for oil sorption. Peat as an oil sorbent has poor buoyancy characteristics, relatively low oil sorption capacity and low hydrophobicity. However, thermal treatment (low-temperature pyrolysis and synthesis of peat-based activated coal) helps to significantly improve its sorptive characteristics. Peat is a potential material for oil sorption because it has such advantages as low cost, biodegradability and relatively high parameters of specific surface area and porosity. The processes and structural changes taking place during low-temperature pyrolysis have been studied by means of IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Feasibility of a peat biogasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buivid, M. G.; Wise, D. L.; Rader, A. M.; McCarty, P. L.; Owen, W. F.

    1980-07-01

    The feasibility of a two-stage biogasification process for the conversion of peat reserves, the energy content of which in the United States is greater than that of uranium, shale oil or petroleum and natural gas combined, into pipeline-quality methane is investigated. Samples of wet-harvested reed-sedge peat were pretreated in alkaline and nonalkaline conditions in the presence and absence of oxidation in order to determine the most favorable conditions for the conversion of cellulosic and lignaceous fractions to water-soluble, fermentable compounds, and the resulting products were subjected to anaerobic fermentation to methane. Conversion efficiencies obtained reveal that up to 26% of the initial heat content of peat was converted to methane when alkaline heat pretreatment was employed. Analysis of the process parameters by a computer model to determine equipment sizes, mass and energy balances and costs indicates that for a 79,200 GJ/day plant the total capital requirement would be $323,000,000, annual operating costs would be $44,000,000 and average SNG cost would be $3.16/GJ, assuming a 90% stream factor with a delivered peat slurry costing $0.0033/kg.

  7. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10 600 tonnes km−2 year−1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year−1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m−2 s−1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  8. Equivalent weight of humic acid from peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    By means of discontinuous titration, the equivalent weight of humic acid isolated from a peat was found to increase from 144 to 183 between the third and fifty-second day after the humic acid was dissolved. Infra-red studies showed that the material had probably condensed with loss of carbonyl groups. ?? 1960.

  9. INFLUENCE OF PEAT ON FENTON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A diagnostic probe was used to estimate the activity of Fenton-derived hydroxyl radicals (@OH), reaction kinetics, and oxidation efficiency in batch suspensions comprised of silica sand, crushed goethite ("-FeOOH) ore, peat, and H2O2 (0.13 mM). A simple method of kinetic analysi...

  10. Peat resource estimation in Minnesota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) completed and published reconnaissance-level investigations for four areas in Minnesota. Approximately 1,061,000 ha (2,622,000 ac) of peatland were surveyed in Aitkan, northern Beltrami Koochiching Lake of the Woods, and southwestern St. Louis counties. Within these areas, approximately 812,000 ha (2,007,000 ac) of peatland are administratively available. And, based on DOE's criteria, approximately 276,000 ha (681,900 ac) of peatland are fuel-grade resources. Calculated in terms of the higher heating value, the energy value of these deposits is 16.47 quads. Reconnaissance investigations were completed for Carlton and Itasca counties and portions of Cass, Lake, and St. Louis counties, but because of the minimal interest in fuel peat, reports were not published. These investigations examined approximately 346,600 ha (856,500 ac) of peatland, of which 191,940 ha (474,280 ac) are administratively available. The results of the investigations are recorded on file maps and stored in the state's computer system. The DNR completed four detailed investigations at peatland sites thought to have high fuel peat potential. As a pilot project, peat sods were produced from the Fens Peatland. Peatland surveys for Boise Cascade, International Falls and the Hibbing Public Utility have produced encouraging results in conjunction with modeling that projected fuel costs. The cost of milled peat production in Minnesota can be competitive with the cost of western coal in certain production scenarios. The principles in the study have plans to continue engineering studies on conversion to fuel peat. 32 refs., 5 figs. 17 tabs.

  11. The Cultivation of Arabidopsis for Experimental Research Using Commercially Available Peat-Based and Peat-Free Growing Media.

    PubMed

    Drake, Tiffany; Keating, Mia; Summers, Rebecca; Yochikawa, Aline; Pitman, Tom; Dodd, Antony N

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research involving Arabidopsis thaliana often involves the quantification of phenotypic traits during cultivation on compost or other growing media. Many commercially-available growing media contain peat, but peat extraction is not sustainable due to its very slow rate of formation. Moreover, peat extraction reduces peatland biodiversity and releases stored carbon and methane into the atmosphere. Here, we compared the experimental performance of Arabidopsis on peat-based and several types of commercially-available peat-free growing media (variously formed from coir, composted bark, wood-fibre, and domestic compost), to provide guidance for reducing peat use in plant sciences research with Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis biomass accumulation and seed yield were reduced by cultivation on several types of peat-free growing media. Arabidopsis performed extremely poorly on coir alone, presumably because this medium was completely nitrate-free. Some peat-free growing media were more susceptible to fungal contamination. We found that autoclaving of control (peat-based) growing media had no effect upon any physiological parameters that we examined, compared with non-autoclaved control growing media, under our experimental conditions. Overall, we conclude that Arabidopsis performs best when cultivated on peat-based growing media because seed yield was almost always reduced when peat-free media were used. This may be because standard laboratory protocols and growth conditions for Arabidopsis are optimized for peat-based media. However, during the vegetative growth phase several phenotypic traits were comparable between plants cultivated on peat-based and some peat-free media, suggesting that under certain circumstances peat-free media can be suitable for phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis.

  12. The Cultivation of Arabidopsis for Experimental Research Using Commercially Available Peat-Based and Peat-Free Growing Media

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tiffany; Keating, Mia; Summers, Rebecca; Yochikawa, Aline; Pitman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research involving Arabidopsis thaliana often involves the quantification of phenotypic traits during cultivation on compost or other growing media. Many commercially-available growing media contain peat, but peat extraction is not sustainable due to its very slow rate of formation. Moreover, peat extraction reduces peatland biodiversity and releases stored carbon and methane into the atmosphere. Here, we compared the experimental performance of Arabidopsis on peat-based and several types of commercially-available peat-free growing media (variously formed from coir, composted bark, wood-fibre, and domestic compost), to provide guidance for reducing peat use in plant sciences research with Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis biomass accumulation and seed yield were reduced by cultivation on several types of peat-free growing media. Arabidopsis performed extremely poorly on coir alone, presumably because this medium was completely nitrate-free. Some peat-free growing media were more susceptible to fungal contamination. We found that autoclaving of control (peat-based) growing media had no effect upon any physiological parameters that we examined, compared with non-autoclaved control growing media, under our experimental conditions. Overall, we conclude that Arabidopsis performs best when cultivated on peat-based growing media because seed yield was almost always reduced when peat-free media were used. This may be because standard laboratory protocols and growth conditions for Arabidopsis are optimized for peat-based media. However, during the vegetative growth phase several phenotypic traits were comparable between plants cultivated on peat-based and some peat-free media, suggesting that under certain circumstances peat-free media can be suitable for phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis. PMID:27088495

  13. Photosynthetic performance in Sphagnum transplanted along a latitudinal nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Granath, Gustaf; Strengbom, Joachim; Breeuwer, Angela; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Rydin, Håkan

    2009-04-01

    Increased N deposition in Europe has affected mire ecosystems. However, knowledge on the physiological responses is poor. We measured photosynthetic responses to increasing N deposition in two peatmoss species (Sphagnum balticum and Sphagnum fuscum) from a 3-year, north-south transplant experiment in northern Europe, covering a latitudinal N deposition gradient ranging from 0.28 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the north, to 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1) in the south. The maximum photosynthetic rate (NP(max)) increased southwards, and was mainly explained by tissue N concentration, secondly by allocation of N to the photosynthesis, and to a lesser degree by modified photosystem II activity (variable fluorescence/maximum fluorescence yield). Although climatic factors may have contributed, these results were most likely attributable to an increase in N deposition southwards. For S. fuscum, photosynthetic rate continued to increase up to a deposition level of 1.49 g N m(-2) year(-1), but for S. balticum it seemed to level out at 1.14 g N m(-2) year(-1). The results for S. balticum suggested that transplants from different origin (with low or intermediate N deposition) respond differently to high N deposition. This indicates that Sphagnum species may be able to adapt or physiologically adjust to high N deposition. Our results also suggest that S. balticum might be more sensitive to N deposition than S. fuscum. Surprisingly, NP(max) was not (S. balticum), or only weakly (S. fuscum) correlated with biomass production, indicating that production is to a great extent is governed by factors other than the photosynthetic capacity.

  14. Spatial Genetic Structure of the Abundant and Widespread Peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.

    PubMed Central

    Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Shaw, A. Jonathan; Yousefi, Narjes; Stenøien, Hans K.

    2016-01-01

    Spore-producing organisms have small dispersal units enabling them to become widespread across continents. However, barriers to gene flow and cryptic speciation may exist. The common, haploid peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum occurs in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere, and is commonly used as a model in studies of peatland ecology and peatmoss physiology. Even though it will likely act as a rich source in functional genomics studies in years to come, surprisingly little is known about levels of genetic variability and structuring in this species. Here, we assess for the first time how genetic variation in S. magellanicum is spatially structured across its full distribution range (Northern Hemisphere and South America). The morphologically similar species S. alaskense was included for comparison. In total, 195 plants were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. Sequences from two plastid loci (trnG and trnL) were obtained from 30 samples. Our results show that S. alaskense and almost all plants of S. magellanicum in the northern Pacific area are diploids and share the same gene pool. Haploid plants occur in South America, Europe, eastern North America, western North America, and southern Asia, and five genetically differentiated groups with different distribution ranges were found. Our results indicate that S. magellanicum consists of several distinct genetic groups, seemingly with little or no gene flow among them. Noteworthy, the geographical separation of diploids and haploids is strikingly similar to patterns found within other haploid Sphagnum species spanning the Northern Hemisphere. Our results confirm a genetic division between the Beringian and the Atlantic that seems to be a general pattern in Sphagnum taxa. The pattern of strong genetic population structuring throughout the distribution range of morphologically similar plants need to be considered in future functional genomic studies of S. magellanicum. PMID:26859563

  15. Peat resources of North Carolina. A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    This progress report has a summary of the final report on the Light Ground Pocosin work. It is the description of the location of peat deposits, the types of peat found, and their composition and heating values. On other pocosin peat, field data are still being collected on the Pamlimarle peninsula, Dismal Swamp, and Croatan Forest. Preliminary estimates show that there are 360 square miles containing 210 million tons of moisture-free peat in the Pamlimarle peninsula, which is the largest peat reserve in North Carolina. Most of this peat is moderately to highly decomposed with low ash content and with heating values averaging over 10,000 Btu/lb. The Dismal Swamp has about 100 square miles of peatland containing 50 to 75 million tons of moisture-free peat with average thickness of 4 to 5 ft. The Croatan Forest is estimated to have 40 to 50 square miles of peatland containing 25 to 30 million tons of moisture-free peat with an average thickness of 4 to 5 ft. Limited field work has discovered some peat deposits of unknown extent along the lower parts of the Chowan, Roanoke, and Cape Fear rivers. Floodplain peats are often covered by several feet of alluvial sand and mud and often grade laterally into alluvial sand and clays. Ash content is higher than in the pocosin peats. Preliminary work on Carolina Bay Peats shows that many of these bays contain high quality peat up to a maximum thickness of 15 ft. Ash content averages about 4%, and the heating value averages about 10,000 Btu/lb. New figures in this report are two graphs which show the relation of moisture content to bulk density, and the relation of bulk density to depth of selected peats.

  16. Peat resources of North Carolina. A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.

    1980-10-01

    This progress report has a summary of the final report on the Light Ground Pocosin work. It is the description of the location of peat deposits, the types of peat found, and their composition and heating values. On other pocosin peat, field data are still being collected on the Pamlimarle Peninsula, Dismal Swamp, and Croatan Forest. Preliminary estimates show that there are 360 square miles containing 210 million tons of moisture-free peat in the Pamlimarle peninsula, which is the largest peat reserve in North Carolina. Most of this peat is moderately to highly decomposed with low ash content and with heating values averaging over 10,000 Btu/lb. The Dismal Swamp has about 100 square miles of peatland conaining 50 to 75 million tons of moisture-free peat with average thickness of 4 to 5 ft. The Croatan Forest is estimated to have 40 to 50 square miles of peatland containing 25 to 30 million tons of moisture-free peat with an average thickness of 4 to 5 ft. Limited field work has discovered some peat deposits of unknown extent along the lower parts of the Chowan, Roanoke, and Cape Fear rivers. Floodplain peats are often covered by several feet of alluvial sand and mud and often grade laterally into alluvial sand and clays. Ash content is higher than in the pocosin peats. Preliminary work on Carolina Bay Peats shows that many of these bays contain high quality peat up to a maximum thickness of 15 ft. Ash content averages about 4%, and the heating value averages about 10,000 Btu/lb. New figures in this report are two graphs which show the relation of moisture content to bulk density, and the relation of bulk density to depth of selected peats.

  17. Seasonal changes in Sphagnum peatland testate amoeba communities along a hydrological gradient.

    PubMed

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Słowińska, Sandra; Słowiński, Michał; Muszak, Witold; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Testate amoebae are an abundant and functionally important group of protists in peatlands, but little is known about the seasonal patterns of their communities. We investigated the relationships between testate amoeba diversity and community structure and water table depth and light conditions (shading vs. insolation) in a Sphagnum peatland in Northern Poland (Linje mire) in spring and summer 2010. We monitored the water table at five sites across the peatland and collected Sphagnum samples in lawn and hummock micro-sites around each piezometer, in spring (3 May) and mid-summer (6 August) 2010. Water table differed significantly between micro-sites and seasons (Kruskal-Wallis test, p=0.001). The community structure of testate amoebae differed significantly between spring and summer in both hummock and lawn micro-sites. We recorded a small, but significant drop in Shannon diversity, between spring and summer (1.76 vs. 1.72). Strongest correlations were found between testate amoeba communities and water table lowering and light conditions. The relative abundance of mixotrophic species Hyalosphenia papilio, Archerella flavum and of Euglypha ciliata was higher in the summer.

  18. Vertical micro-distribution and response to nitrogen deposition of testate amoebae in Sphagnum.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Edward A D; Gilbert, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the existence of a vertical micro-distribution of testate amoebae in the first centimeters of Sphagnum and their response to nutrient enrichment. In order to test the response of testate amoebae to depth and N addition in dry moss carpets recolonizing cutover peatlands, we sampled Sphagnum that had received 0, 1, 3, or 10g N m(-2) yr(-1) for three years. The mosses were cut into three segments: 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm and analyzed for testate amoebae. The overall diversity (22 taxa) was high considering the dryness of the site, but the species richness of individual samples was low (mean 6.6). The presence of several species characteristic of wetter conditions suggests that they have a broader tolerance than usually believed and/or have a high colonization potential. Species richness increased with depth. Assulina muscorum was most abundant in the top segment, while Phryganella acropodia, Heleopera rosea and Nebela militaris were most abundant in the deepest segment. Neither the metabolism type nor the shell characteristics significantly explained the vertical distribution of species. There was no overall response of testate amoebae to N, although one species, Bullinularia indica, was significantly more abundant in the fertilized than in the control plots.

  19. Regional patterns of mercury content in snowpack, sphagnum, and fish in northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, T.; Mower, B.; Perry, R.

    1995-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in fish from lakes throughout the northeastern US and eastern Canada, in waters with no known local mercury source. If this mercury originates from anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere, deposition should be higher near population centers or other point sources. The authors surveyed the mercury content of late-season snowpack, sphagnum moss, and fish at locations from southwestern Connecticut to northern Newfoundland to determine if such a pattern existed. Mercury in snow ranged 1.5 to 20 ng/L, and in sphagnum < 24 to 289 ng/g dry wt. Concentrations were generally highest at southwestern sites and lowest at northeastern sites with some exceptions. The highest concentrations in both media were at locations in Rhode Island and New Hampshire, and may reflect local source emissions. Excluding these sites, the range in concentration from south to north is only a factor of two or three. These values are similar to those reported in other areas and reflect the long atmospheric residence time of gaseous elemental mercury. Mercury concentration in fish ranged 0.1 to 1.0 ug/g wet wt. and showed no regional pattern. Rather, fish mercury concentration was affected by fish species and size, being highest in large predatory species such as smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and lowest in small nonpredatory species such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

  20. Trialling a novel peat fuel extraction and reclamation technique: Vegetation recovery and peatland-atmosphere carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Wihelm, Lana P.; Solondz, Danielle M.; Waddington, J. Mike

    2013-04-01

    CO2 flux due to deep water-table drawdown. However, average methane fluxes from the experimental plot (274 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) were highly elevated compared to those from hummocks (18 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) and hollows (44 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) in the reference plot, representing a major drawback to transplanting into an inundated extraction pit. During the first summer immediately after extraction the transplanted moss community appeared healthy, even though many of the vascular plants had been killed. However, by the second year proportional coverage of moss in the experimental plot had declined from 63 % to 41 %, which contrasted with an increase in moss coverage in both hummocks and hollows at the reference plot. Nonetheless, Sphagnum growth in the remaining healthy communities was strong in the second year (156 g m-2 moss) compared to the reference plot (104 g m-2 moss). Our findings indicate that PBR has great potential as a means for extracting peat without causing either i) irreparable damage to plant communities, or ii) elevated CO2 flux. However, these potential advantages must be carefully weighed against the highly elevated CH4 release from the transplant pit.

  1. Metatranscriptomic analysis of arctic peat soil microbiota.

    PubMed

    Tveit, Alexander T; Urich, Tim; Svenning, Mette M

    2014-09-01

    Recent advances in meta-omics and particularly metatranscriptomic approaches have enabled detailed studies of the structure and function of microbial communities in many ecosystems. Molecular analyses of peat soils, ecosystems important to the global carbon balance, are still challenging due to the presence of coextracted substances that inhibit enzymes used in downstream applications. We sampled layers at different depths from two high-Arctic peat soils in Svalbard for metatranscriptome preparation. Here we show that enzyme inhibition in the preparation of metatranscriptomic libraries can be circumvented by linear amplification of diluted template RNA. A comparative analysis of mRNA-enriched and nonenriched metatranscriptomes showed that mRNA enrichment resulted in a 2-fold increase in the relative abundance of mRNA but biased the relative distribution of mRNA. The relative abundance of transcripts for cellulose degradation decreased with depth, while the transcripts for hemicellulose debranching increased, indicating that the polysaccharide composition of the peat was different in the deeper and older layers. Taxonomic annotation revealed that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominating polysaccharide decomposers. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA transcripts of methanogenic Archaea increased substantially with depth. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was the dominating pathway, followed by methanogenesis from formate. The relative abundances of 16S rRNA and mRNA assigned to the methanotrophic Methylococcaceae, primarily Methylobacter, increased with depth. In conclusion, linear amplification of total RNA and deep sequencing constituted the preferred method for metatranscriptomic preparation to enable high-resolution functional and taxonomic analyses of the active microbiota in Arctic peat soil.

  2. Decreasing concentrations of metals in Sphagnum mosses in ombrotrophic mires of the Sudety mountains (SW Poland) since late 1980s.

    PubMed

    Wojtuń, Bronisław; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the evaluation of changes in metal pollution between 1986 until 2011 by Sphagnum species as bioindicators in 100 km part of the Sudety mountains influenced by the former Black Triangle Region. Concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in various Sphagnum species all from ombrotrophic bogs in the Sudety mountains (SW Poland). The tested hypothesis was that overall improvements in pollution control in the former Black Triangle Region between 1986 until recent reduced the amount of metals deposited and accumulated by these plants. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in Sphagnum species were very high in 1986 indicating a heavy pollution of the examined bogs in this period, and significantly higher than in samples collected in 2011. The PCCA ordination showed the similar pattern in all bogs. In 2011 concentration of the Co was significantly higher in hollow species and concentration of Mn was significantly higher in those from hummocks. Differences between hollow/hummock sites were more important than species-specific abilities of Sphagnum mosses to accumulate metals. Species from hollows were better bioindicators of Co and those from hummocks were better bioindicators of Mn pollution.

  3. Oxygen-Isotopic Variability Across the 8.2ka Cold Event in an Ombrotrophic Peat bog on the Bonavista Peninsula, Newfoundland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. J.; Hughes, P. D.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Loader, N. J.; Barber, K. E.

    2005-12-01

    Ombrotrophic (precipitation-fed) peatlands are well established as sources of proxy-climate information through the Holocene (Aaby, 1974; Barber, 1981; Barber et al., 1994, 1998; Hughes et al., 2000; Charman, 2002). Over the past decade, innovative methodological developments have resulted in the production of multi-proxy records where co-registered signals are used to establish the response of bogs to climatic forcing (Blundell & Barber, 2005, Langdon & Barber, in press; Hughes et al., in press). These techniques have utilised changes in the relative abundance of bog taxa, combined with knowledge of their ecology and the degree of decomposition of the peat, to infer the nature of past environmental changes. Despite the success of this methodology, there remains a need for an approach that is better able to quantify the magnitude of observed climatic changes and which is directly comparable with records from lakes, ice cores and marine sediments. Analysis of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in the cellulose of Sphagnum moss offers additional environmentally-sensitive proxies with which to reconstruct isotopic variations in source water (palaeo-precipitation), and hence changes in climate and atmospheric circulation. Sphagnum moss is particularly suited to isotopic analysis by virtue of the comparatively simple pathway that leads from precipitation to cellulose synthesis. We present an oxygen-isotope time series developed from a 2m section of a peat core from Newfoundland (latitude, 49°.150 N, longitude, 53°.583 W). The location of the site on the North east coast of the island makes it particularly sensitive to the atmospheric impact of changes in the nature of the Inner Labrador current, thought to be the conduit that carried the meltwater plume from the Lake Agassiz megaflood (e.g. Keigwin, et al., 2005). The results will be compared with existing multi-proxy data on plant macrofossils, peat humification and testate amoebae derived from the same core

  4. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years.

    PubMed

    Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Cloy, Joanna M; Graham, Margaret C; MacKenzie, Angus B; Cook, Gordon T

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of (210)Pb- and (14)C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 microg m(-2) y(-1) were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 microg m(-2) y(-1), recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27+/-15 microg m(-2) y(-1) during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the (210)Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this study.

  5. Deformation behaviors of peat with influence of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Liu, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Peat is a kind of special material rich in organic matter. Because of the high content of organic matter, it shows different deformation behaviors from conventional geotechnical materials. Peat grain has a non-negligible compressibility due to the presence of organic matter. Biogas can generate from peat and can be trapped in form of gas bubbles. Considering the natural properties of peat, a special three-phase composition of peat is described which indicates the existence of organic matter and gas bubbles in peat. A stress-strain-time model is proposed for the compression of organic matter, and the surface tension effect is considered in the compression model of gas bubbles. Finally, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the deformation behavior of peat considering the compressibility of organic matter and entrapped gas bubbles. The deformation process is the coupling of volume variation of organic matter, gas bubbles and water drainage. The proposed model is used to simulate a series of peat laboratory oedometer tests, and the model can well capture the test results with reasonable model parameters. Effects of model parameters on deformation of peat are also analyzed.

  6. Field methods for measuring hydraulic properties of peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. M.; van der Kamp, G.; Barbour, S. L.; Schmidt, R.

    2006-11-01

    New field techniques were developed and tested to evaluate peat storativity and hydraulic conductivity in a Boreal fen. Enclosed drainage tests and pumping tests were successfully completed in the thawed peat above an impermeable frozen layer and then repeated when the peat was fully thawed. A loading test experiment constrained values of vertical hydraulic conductivity within an order of magnitude for the peat below a depth of 2 m. An inherent advantage of these tests is that volumes of undisturbed peat on the scale of cubic metres may be characterized. Storativity of the fen peat as determined by enclosed drainage tests ranged from about 1.0 at the peat surface to 0.35 at a water table depth of 0.15 m. Laboratory drainage tests of peat cores gave similar, but widely scattered results. Hydraulic conductivity near the surface was as high as 9.0 × 10-3 ms-1 determined with pumping tests and in the range of 10-6 to 10-5 ms-1 below a depth of 2 m, estimated with the loading test. Slug tests gave similar results. Pumping tests, enclosed storativity tests and loading tests are practical large-scale field tests for determining peat properties. Copyright

  7. Age models for peat deposits on the basis of coupled lead-210 and radiocarbon data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowska, Natalia; de Vleeschouwer, François; Sikorski, Jarosław; Sensuła, Barbara; Michczyński, Adam; Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł, Barbara; Palowski, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The study presents three examples of age-model construction based on the results of 210Pb and 14C dating methods applied to peat deposits. The three sites are ombrotrophic peat bogs: the Misten (Belgium), Slowinskie Bloto (N Poland) and Puscizna Mala (S Poland). All sites have been subjected to multiproxy studies aimed at reconstructing paleoenvironment and human activity, covering the last 1500, 1300 and 1800 years, respectively (De Vleeschouwer et al. 2009A, 2009B, in prep., Fialkiewicz-Koziel, ongoing PhD). A detailed comparison between 210Pb and post-bomb 14C results in the Misten bog has also been carried out by Piotrowska et al. (2009). In all cores, the 210Pb activity was calculated using 210Po and 208Po activities after acid-extraction from bulk samples, subsequent deposition on silver discs and measurements by alpha spectrometry. Unsupported 210Pb was detected until 35cm in Slowinskie Bloto, 15cm in the Misten and 19cm in Puscizna Mala. Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model was then applied to compute ages of each 1-cm core interval. For the Misten and Slowinskie Bloto, radiocarbon measurements were performed on selected aboveground plant macrofossils, mainly Sphagnum spp. or Calluna vulgaris, Erica tetralix, and Andromeda polyfolia. Radiocarbon ages were determined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) after acid-alkali-acid wash, combustion, purification of carbon dioxide and graphitisation. For Puscizna Mala bulk samples were dated after chemical preparation of benzene for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or CO2 for gas proportional counting (GPC). Radiocarbon calibration was undertaken using the Intcal04 calibration curve and OxCal 4 software. As a priori information the 210Pb-derived ages were used in a P_Sequence model (Bronk Ramsey, 2008). A number of dates characterized by low agreement with stratigraphical order had to be considered as outliers and rejected from the final age model. For building a continuous age models a non-linear approach

  8. [Oribatid mites (Acariformes, Oribatei) as an index of postpyrogenous changes in podzol and peat soils of boreal forests].

    PubMed

    Kudriasheva, I V; Laskova, L M

    2002-01-01

    Population changes of oribatid mites were studied in a bilberry-moss spruce stand and shrub-peat moss pine stand caused by ground fire. The fire resulted in a drop of population density and changes in the species composition of mites in both forest types. In the case of the spruce stand, the restoration of species composition proceeded parallel to the formation of a bilberry-moss cover and litter and became distinct four years after the fire. In the case of pine stand, the fire enveloped only the peripheral region. After the sphagnum cover burned out, the moor dehydration began and the mineralized organogenic substrate emerged. Here, the oribatid complex was significantly rearranged and the previously dominating moisture-loving species were replaced by the mesophilous-xerophilous species typical predominantly for mineralized soils. This explains why the oribatid species composition in the burned pine stand is more similar to that in the control spruce stand than to that in the control pine stand.

  9. Sedimentary transport and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from managed burning of moorland vegetation on a blanket peat, South Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Vane, Christopher H; Rawlins, Barry G; Kim, Alexander W; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Kendrick, Christopher P; Leng, Melanie J

    2013-04-01

    This study reports the concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from managed burning of moorland vegetation and compares them to PAH in catchment vegetation, underlying peats, head water suspended sediment (HSS), stream water and reservoir sediment cores. Total PAH ranged from 203 to 11,112 μg/kg in the blanket peats, 101-290 μg/kg in the fresh moorland vegetation, 4186 μg/kg at the burnt site, 17,439 μg/kg in the HSS, 56 ng/L in the stream water and 987 to 7346 μg/kg in the reservoir sediments. No total or individual PAH concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines. The perylene content of selected moorland vegetation (sphagnum, heather and bilberry) ranged from 10 to 18% as compared to only 2% for the sediment hosted PAH. A comparison of whole and <250 μm fractions from the burnt surface layer revealed a near threefold increase in PAH concentration in the fine fraction and a change in the PAH distribution such that naphthalene>phenanthrene>2-methylnaphthalene. Elevated total PAH contents were observed close to the blanket peat sediment surface (0-10 cm) and then declined at greater depths. The high PAH content of the HSS was attributed to the high sorption capacity of the organic-rich particles (TOC 25.8% (wt/wt)). The distribution of individual PAH in reservoir cores and HSS was consistent and the results of the principal component analysis and isomeric ratios suggest mainly pyrolytic inputs, from either vegetation burning and coal combustion. A comparison of the reservoir core PAH profiles shows that the source(s) have remained largely unchanged since the reservoir construction in 1929A.D. reflecting consistent moorland management practices.

  10. Comparative studies of Eocene silicified peat and lignite: transition between peat and lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, F.T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Silicified Eocene peats with excellent preserved cellular structures were found in lignite beds in western North Dakota and were comparatively studied. The well preserved plant tissues resemble that of modern Taxodium peat. The most striking difference between silicified peat and lignite is the disappearance of cell cavities when peat is transformed to lignite, a phenomenon caused primarily by compaction rather than cell wall swelling through humification or gelification. The differences between textinite and ulminite can be traced back to the differences between early wood and late wood of the secondary xylem. What appear to be cutinites in lignite are compressed cortex tissues of young plants. Silicified leaf and cortex tissues contain more visible fluorinite exhibiting brilliant fluorescence. Clustering phloem fibers or stone cells give rise to a material resembling resinite but are more akin to huminite A and/or suberinite. They converge to vitrinite when vitrinite reflectance exceeds 0.6%. Alternating banded phloem fibers and phloem parenchyma give rise to alternating layers of huminite A and huminite B. True micrinite does occur in lignite but in limited quantities.

  11. Short period of oxygenation releases latch on peat decomposition.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Karlijn; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Hefting, Mariet M

    2014-05-15

    Extreme summer droughts are expected to occur more often in the future in NW Europe due to climate change. These droughts might accelerate the rate of peat oxidation in drained peat areas, with impacts on soil subsidence, GHG emission and water quality. This study aimed at providing more insight in the oxidation of deep peat layers that had not previously been exposed to air, the so-called secondary decomposition. We incubated two types of peat (eutrophic and oligotrophic), sampled from permanently anoxic peat layers from nature reserves and agricultural peat meadows. Peat samples were incubated for thirteen weeks under anoxic conditions, but were exposed to air for one to eight weeks. The production of CO2 and CH4 was quantified as a proxy for decomposition; concentrations of soluble nutrients and phenolic compounds were also measured. The results showed that oxygenation led to a steep increase in the rate of decomposition, indicated by higher carbon loss rates during and after oxygenation compared to non-oxygenated samples. Carbon loss rates increased more for eutrophic peat (agricultural area: 352%, nature reserve: 182%) than for oligotrophic peat (83% and 159% respectively). Most peat samples investigated showed higher post-oxygenation CO2 and/or CH4 production compared to the anoxic pre-oxygenation period. This indicates that oxygenation stimulates decomposition, even after anoxic conditions have returned. Contrary to the enzymic latch theory, no effects of oxygenation on the concentrations of soluble or condensed phenolic compounds were detected. Soluble nutrient concentrations did not change due to oxygenation either. Noteworthy is the occurrence of pyrite mineralization and associated acidification in eutrophic peat. Thus, low summer water levels, for example due to climate change, should be avoided in order to limit exceptionally high decomposition rates and associated problems such as increasing subsidence rates, greenhouse gas emission, sulfate release

  12. Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Binet, Philippe; Buttler, Alexandre; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Delarue, Frédéric; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Francez, André-Jean; Gilbert, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands.

  13. Evapotranspiration of tropical peat swamp forests.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2015-05-01

    In Southeast Asia, peatland is widely distributed and has accumulated a massive amount of soil carbon, coexisting with peat swamp forest (PSF). The peatland, however, has been rapidly degraded by deforestation, fires, and drainage for the last two decades. Such disturbances change hydrological conditions, typically groundwater level (GWL), and accelerate oxidative peat decomposition. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major determinant of GWL, whereas information on the ET of PSF is limited. Therefore, we measured ET using the eddy covariance technique for 4-6 years between 2002 and 2009, including El Niño and La Niña events, at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The sites were different in disturbance degree: a PSF with little drainage (UF), a heavily drained PSF (DF), and a drained burnt ex-PSF (DB); GWL was significantly lowered at DF, especially in the dry season. The ET showed a clear seasonal variation with a peak in the mid-dry season and a large decrease in the late dry season, mainly following seasonal variation in net radiation (Rn ). The Rn drastically decreased with dense smoke from peat fires in the late dry season. Annual ET forced to close energy balance for 4 years was 1636 ± 53, 1553 ± 117, and 1374 ± 75 mm yr(-1) (mean ± 1 standard deviation), respectively, at UF, DF, and DB. The undrained PSF (UF) had high and rather stable annual ET, independently of El Niño and La Niña events, in comparison with other tropical rainforests. The minimum monthly-mean GWL explained 80% of interannual variation in ET for the forest sites (UF and DF); the positive relationship between ET and GWL indicates that drainage by a canal decreased ET at DF through lowering GWL. In addition, ET was decreased by 16% at DB in comparison with UF chiefly because of vegetation loss through fires.

  14. Origin of lead in eight Central European peat bogs determined from isotope ratios, strengths, and operation times of regional pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Novák, Martin; Emmanuel, Simon; Vile, Melanie A; Erel, Yigal; Véron, Alain; Paces, Tomás; Wieder, R Kelman; Vanecek, Mirko; Stepánová, Markéta; Brízová, Eva; Hovorka, Jan

    2003-02-01

    Lead originating from coal burning, gasoline burning, and ore smelting was identified in 210Pb-dated profiles through eight peat bogs distributed over an area of 60,000 km2. The Sphagnum-dominated bogs were located mainly in mountainous regions of the Czech Republic bordering with Germany, Austria, and Poland. Basal peat 14C-dated at 11,000 years BP had a relatively high 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.193). Peat deposited around 1800 AD had a lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.168-1.178, indicating that environmental lead in Central Europe had been largely affected by human activity (smelting) even before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Five of the sites exhibited a nearly constant 206Pb/207Pb ratio (1.175) throughout the 19th century, resembling the "anthropogenic baseline" described in Northern Europe (1.17). At all sites, the 206Pb/207Pb ratio of peat decreased at least until 1980; at four sites, a reversal to more radiogenic values (higher 206Pb/207Pb), typical of easing pollution, was observed in the following decade (1980-1990). A time series of annual outputs for 14 different mining districts dispersing lead into the environment has been constructed for the past 200 years. The production of Ag-Pb, coal, and leaded gasoline peaked in 1900, 1980, and 1980, respectively. In contrast to other European countries, no peak in annual Pb accumulation rates was found in 1900, the year of maximum ore smelting. The highest annual Pb accumulation rates in peat were consistent with the highest Pb emission rates from coal-fired power plants and traffic (1980). Although maximum coal and gasoline production coincided in time, their isotope ratios were unique. The mean measured 206Pb/207Pb ratios of local coal, ores, and gasoline were 1.19, 1.16, and 1.11, respectively. A considerable proportion of coal emissions, relative to gasoline emisions, was responsible for the higher 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the recent atmosphere (1.15) compared to Western Europe (1.10). As in West European

  15. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  16. Temperature and peat type control CO2 and CH4 production in Alaskan permafrost peats.

    PubMed

    Treat, C C; Wollheim, W M; Varner, R K; Grandy, A S; Talbot, J; Frolking, S

    2014-08-01

    Controls on the fate of ~277 Pg of soil organic carbon (C) stored in permafrost peatland soils remain poorly understood despite the potential for a significant positive feedback to climate change. Our objective was to quantify the temperature, moisture, organic matter, and microbial controls on soil organic carbon (SOC) losses following permafrost thaw in peat soils across Alaska. We compared the carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) emissions from peat samples collected at active layer and permafrost depths when incubated aerobically and anaerobically at -5, -0.5, +4, and +20 °C. Temperature had a strong, positive effect on C emissions; global warming potential (GWP) was >3× larger at 20 °C than at 4 °C. Anaerobic conditions significantly reduced CO2 emissions and GWP by 47% at 20 °C but did not have a significant effect at -0.5 °C. Net anaerobic CH4 production over 30 days was 7.1 ± 2.8 μg CH4 -C gC(-1) at 20 °C. Cumulative CO2 emissions were related to organic matter chemistry and best predicted by the relative abundance of polysaccharides and proteins (R(2) = 0.81) in SOC. Carbon emissions (CO2 -C + CH4 -C) from the active layer depth peat ranged from 77% larger to not significantly different than permafrost depths and varied depending on the peat type and peat decomposition stage rather than thermal state. Potential SOC losses with warming depend not only on the magnitude of temperature increase and hydrology but also organic matter quality, permafrost history, and vegetation dynamics, which will ultimately determine net radiative forcing due to permafrost thaw.

  17. The decomposition of vegetation and soil in marginal peat-forming landscapes: climate simulations to quantify gaseous and dissolved carbon fluxes and the effects on peat accumulation and drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritson, J.; Bell, M.; Clark, J. M.; Graham, N.; Templeton, M.; Brazier, R.; Verhoef, A.; Freeman, C.

    2013-12-01

    Peatlands in the UK represent a large proportion of the soil carbon store, however there is concern that some systems may be switching from sinks to sources of carbon. The accumulation of organic material in peatlands results from the slow rates of decomposition typically occurring in these regions. Climate change may lead to faster decomposition which, if not matched by an equivalent increase in net primary productivity and litter fall, may tip the balance between source and sink. Recent trends have seen a greater flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from peatlands to surface waters and a change in DOM character, presenting challenges to water treatment, for example in terms of increased production of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Peat systems border a large proportion of reservoirs in the UK so uncertainty regarding DOM quantity and quality is a concern for water utilities. This study considered five peatland vegetation types (Sphagnum spp., Calluna vulgaris, Molinea caerulea, peat soil and mixed litter) collected from the Exmoor National Park, UK where it is hypothesised that peat formation may be strongly affected by future changes to climate. A factorial experiment design to simulate climate was used, considering vegetation type, temperature and rainfall amount using a current baseline and predictions from the UKCP09 model. Gaseous fluxes of carbon were monitored over a two month period to quantify the effect on carbon mineralisation rates while 13C NMR analysis was employed to track which classes of compounds decayed preferentially. The DOM collected was characterised using UV and fluorescence techniques before being subject to standard drinking water treatment processes (coagulation/flocculation followed by chlorination). The effect of the experimental factors on DOM amenability to removal and propensity to form DBPs was then considered, with both trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetonitrile (HAN) DBP classes monitored. Initial results have shown a

  18. Acid-shock, aluminium, and presence of Sphagnum aurantiacum: effect on embryological development in the common frog, Rana temporaria and the moor frog, Rana arvalis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, M.; Hogstrand, C.; Dahlberg, A.; Berglind, S.A.

    1987-07-01

    During the last two decades, several effects of acidification have been shown, e.g., enhanced leaching of metals from sediments and soil. Furthermore, an increased growth of Sphagnum aurantiacum frequently occurs in acidified waters. The aim of the present study is to investigate some effects of acidification on the embryological development on two Anurans. The toxicity of aluminium is thought to vary with pH. The highest toxicity of aluminium in the hydroxyl form have been found at pH 5. In the present study a laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the toxicity of Al to frog embryos in water with pH 5.0. In acidified waters Sphagnum and especially S. aurantiacum, is competitive and quickly become established. It has been indicated that frog spawn deposited on Sphagnum show an unusually high mortality and questions have been raised if Sphagnum reinforces the detrimental effects of acidification on Anuran reproduction.

  19. Sulfur contents of peats at the confluence of carbonate and peat-forming depositional systems, southeastern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D. ); Davies, T.D. ); Spackman, W. )

    1993-08-01

    Complex stratigraphic and compositional relationships have been reported by others at sites where coal beds are laterally in contact with marine carbonates (such as in the southern portion of the Illinois basin). These basin edges are important in that they may (1) represent sites of active coal mining, (2) contain important clues as to the development of the basin, and (3) be sources of the dispersed terrestrial organics encountered in nearby marine rocks. This study was undertaken to investigate peat/carbonate relationships in a modern setting, with initial research on sulfur contents relative to stratigraphic/petrographic conditions. Thirty-eight cores were taken along northwest-southeast transects from the mainland to Florida Bay. The most inland cores consist entirely of peat, representing transgression of marine types (mangrove) over freshwater types. Toward the carbonate-rich bay, a more complex stratigraphy exists. Marine carbonates and peats interfinger, with erosional contacts indicating that parts of the peat sequence are missing. At the coastline, most of the peat is replaced by marine carbonate except for thin (1-10 cm) basal (usually overlain by marine carbonates), with the best preserved ranges from 0.6 to 5.0% (dry) at the most inland sites, 2.4 to 7.8% near the coastline, and 1.5 to 5.9% in bay sediments. Total sulfur is higher in marine than freshwater peats, but freshwater peats overlain by marine peats are enriched in sulfur. Freshwater peats beneath marine carbonates are relatively low in sulfur, but are higher if the peat is overlain by a marine peat before being overlain by the carbonate.

  20. Classifications of bog peat sensitivity to anthropogenic impact (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Matveenko, I. A.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Molokov, V. Y.; Khoroshko, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with strength parameters of peats in Western Siberia, evaluates their transformations under the anthropogenic mechanical impact, presents peat classification in terms of sensitivity allowing the forecast of strength loss when destructing their structure in the process of building roads, pipelines. Sensitivity classification also permits predicting roadability for construction design.

  1. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. Peat samples originated from two wildlife reserves located near the coast of North Carolina, U.S. Gas and particula...

  2. Possibilities for detailed dating of peat bog deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.; Ilomets, M.; Koff, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Geochemical and palynological data as well as radiocarbon dating were used to study the peat bog deposits in Niinsarre bog, northeast Estonia. The aim of this study was to establish criteria for determining a detailed chronology, which is important, for example, in studying paleoevents and historical monitoring. In some cases, they can use cumulative pollen data, as well as cumulative chemical and peat bulk density data. Material was gathered for [sup 14]C dating from three parallel samples taken from cores ca. 10--20 cm apart using a Russian peat sampler. Samples for peat bulk density, palynological and chemical measurements were taken from the same cores. To measure peat bulk density, the authors used a continuous sampling method. Sampling frequency was calculated to cover layers formed over 50 yr.

  3. Aerobic and microaerophilic actinomycetes of typical agropeat and peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Gryadunova, A. A.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-02-01

    A high number (from tens of thousands to millions of CFU/g of soil) of actinomycetes and a high diversity of genera were found in typical peat and agropeat soils. Agricultural use increases the number and diversity of the actinomycete complexes of the peat soils. In the peat soils, the actinomycete complex is represented by eight genera: Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, Saccharopolyspora, Saccharomonospora, and Microtetraspora. A considerable share of sporangial forms in the actinomycete complex of the peat soils not characteristic of the zonal soils was revealed. The number of actinomycetes that develop under aerobic conditions is smaller by 10-100 times than that of aerobic forms in the peat soils. Among the soil actinomycetes of the genera Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Streptosporangium, Actinomadura, Microbispora, and Microtetraspora, the microaerophilic forms were found; among the Saccharopolyspora and Saccharomonospora, no microaerophilic representatives were revealed.

  4. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  5. Sphagnum physiology in the context of changing climate: emergent influences of genomics, modelling and host-microbiome interactions on understanding ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Weston, David J; Timm, Collin M; Walker, Anthony P; Gu, Lianhong; Muchero, Wellington; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shaw, A Jonathan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Warren, Jeffrey M; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-09-01

    Peatlands harbour more than one-third of terrestrial carbon leading to the argument that the bryophytes, as major components of peatland ecosystems, store more organic carbon in soils than any other collective plant taxa. Plants of the genus Sphagnum are important components of peatland ecosystems and are potentially vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. However, the response of Sphagnum to rising temperatures, elevated CO2 and shifts in local hydrology have yet to be fully characterized. In this review, we examine Sphagnum biology and ecology and explore the role of this group of keystone species and its associated microbiome in carbon and nitrogen cycling using literature review and model simulations. Several issues are highlighted including the consequences of a variable environment on plant-microbiome interactions, uncertainty associated with CO2 diffusion resistances and the relationship between fixed N and that partitioned to the photosynthetic apparatus. We note that the Sphagnum fallax genome is currently being sequenced and outline potential applications of population-level genomics and corresponding plant photosynthesis and microbial metabolic modelling techniques. We highlight Sphagnum as a model organism to explore ecosystem response to a changing climate and to define the role that Sphagnum can play at the intersection of physiology, genetics and functional genomics.

  6. The potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum peatlands.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Maura E; Booth, Robert K

    2011-07-01

    Testate amoebae are a group of moisture-sensitive, shell-producing protozoa that have been widely used as indicators of changes in mean water-table depth within oligotrophic peatlands. However, short-term environmental variability (i.e., sub-annual) also probably influences community composition. The objective of this study was to assess the potential influence of short-term environmental variability on the composition of testate amoeba communities in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands. Testate amoebae and environmental conditions, including hourly measurements of relative humidity within the upper centimeter of the peatland surface, were examined throughout the 2008 growing season at 72 microsites within 11 peatlands of Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA. Relationships among testate amoeba communities, vegetation, depth to water table, pH, and an index of short-term environmental variability (EVI), were examined using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and correlation analysis. Results suggest that EVI influences testate amoeba communities, with some taxa more abundant under highly variable conditions (e.g., Arcella discoides, Difflugia pulex, and Hyalosphenia subflava) and others more abundant when environmental conditions at the peatland surface were relatively stable (e.g., Archerella flavum and Bullinularia indica). The magnitude of environmental variability experienced at the peatland surface appears to be primarily controlled by vegetation composition and density. In particular, sites with dense Sphagnum cover had lower EVI values than sites with loose-growing Sphagnum or vegetation dominated by vascular plants and/or non-Sphagnum bryophytes. Our results suggest that more environmental information may be inferred from testate amoebae than previously recognized. Knowledge of relationships between testate amoebae and short-term environmental variability should lead to more detailed and refined environmental inferences.

  7. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  8. Impact of mesh tracks and low-ground-pressure vehicle use on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKendrick-Smith, Kathryn; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands are subject to multiple uses including drainage, farming and recreation. Low-ground-pressure vehicle access is desirable by land owners and tracks facilitate access. However, there is concern that such activity may impact peat hydrology and so granting permission for track installation has been problematic, particularly without evidence for decision-making. We present the first comprehensive study of mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on peatland hydrology. In the sub-arctic oceanic climate of the Moor House World Biosphere Reserve in the North Pennines, UK, a 1.5 km long experimental track was installed to investigate hydrological impacts. Surface vegetation was cut and the plastic mesh track pinned into the peat surface. The experimental track was split into 7 treatments, designed to reflect typical track usage (0 - 5 vehicle passes per week) and varying vehicle weight. The greatest hydrological impacts were expected for sections of track subject to more frequent vehicle use and in close proximity to the track. In total 554 dipwells (including 15 automated recording at 15-min intervals) were monitored for water-table depth, positioned to capture potential spatial variability in response. Before track installation, samples for vertical and lateral hydraulic conductivity (Ks) analysis (using the modified cube method) were taken at 0-10 cm depth from a frequently driven treatment (n = 15), an infrequently driven treatment (0.5 passes per week) (n = 15) and a control site with no track/driving (n = 15). The test was repeated after 16 months of track use. We present a spatially and temporally rich water-table dataset from the study site showing how the impacts of the track on water table are spatially highly variable. Water-table depths across the site were shallow, typically within the upper 10 cm of the peat profile for > 75% of the time. We show that mesh track and low-ground-pressure vehicle impacts on water-table depth were small except

  9. Interactions between Nitrogen Fixation and Methane Cycling in Northern Minnesota Peat Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M. J.; Gaby, J. C.; Lin, X.; Morton, P. L.; Kostka, J. E.; Glass, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Peatlands cover only 3% of the Earth's surface, yet store a third of soil carbon. Increasing global temperatures have the potential to change peatlands from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. N is a limiting nutrient in oligotrophic Sphagnum-dominated peatlands and biological N2 fixation likely supplies a significant but unknown fraction of N inputs. Moreover, environmental controls on diazotrophic community composition in N-limited peatlands are poorly constrained. Thus, improved understanding of feedbacks between the CH4 and N cycles is critical for predicting future changes to CH4 flux from peat bogs. We coupled measurements of N2 fixation activity measured by the acetylene (C2H2) reduction assay (ARA) with molecular analyses of expression and diversity of nifH genes encoding the molybdenum (Mo)-containing nitrogenase from two peat bogs in the Marcell Experimental Forest, Minnesota, USA. The top 10 cm of peat was sampled from the high CH4 flux S1 bog and the low CH4 flux Zim bog in April and June 2014. Despite similar N concentrations in the top 10 cm of both bogs (0.5-1.0 μM NO2-+NO3- and 2-3 μM NH4+), the S1 bog displayed variable ARA activity (1-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1) whereas the Zim bog had consistently low ARA activity (<1 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Highest ARA activity was measured in June from S1 bog hollows with higher moisture content incubated without O2 in the light (20-100 nmol C2H4 h-1 g-1). Dissolved Fe (1-25 μM) was higher in hollow vs. hummock samples, and at S1 vs. Zim bog, while dissolved V (4-14 nM) was consistently higher than Mo (1-4 nM), suggesting that alternative V or Fe-containing nitrogenases might be present in these bogs. In contrast, Cu, an essential micronutrient for aerobic methanotrophs, was higher in hummocks (25-48 nM) than hollows (6-17 nM). The facultative methanotroph Methylocella was the dominant diazotroph in the S1 bog based on high throughput next generation sequencing of nifH cDNA amplicons. Given previous

  10. Effects of acidification on macrophyte growth in the HUMEX Lake Skjervatjern, with special emphasis on Sphagnum auriculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Brandrud, T.E.; Johansen, S.W. )

    1994-01-01

    Transplantation experiments for the study of aquatic macrophyte growth and vitality were carried out in the HUMEX Lake Skjervatjern. Plants (preferentially indigenous) were transplanted to plastic pots in the acid-treated (A) basin and the control (B) basin. During the first phase of the experiments in 1991-1992, shortly after start of acidification treatment, the following trends were apparent: (1) The isoetic plants (Isoetes lacustris, Littorella uniflora, and Lobelia dortmanna) showed similar growth and vitality responses in the two Skjervatjern basins. (2) The elodeid species showed a slightly different response in the two basins. Juncus bulbosus exhibited a slightly higher growth rate in the acidified A basin. Myriophyllum alterniflorum died out after less than a growing season in the treated basin A, while a few shoots survived in basin B. (3) The transplanted shoots of submerged Sphagnum auriculatum showed a decreased growth in the acidified basin less than a year after start of treatment. This contrasts the results of other lake acidification studies where submerged Sphagnum mats were found to increase. The decreased growth of Sphagnum auriculatum after treatment seems most probably to be due to the increased SO[sub 4] concentrations, or to increased competition with epiphytic green algae. 43 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Sphagnum N and P Stoichiometry Indicates P-limitation on N2 Fixation in Ombrotrophic Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.; Disney, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation is an important N input in ombrotrophic, nutrient poor and Sphagnum dominated bogs. As an energetically costly process, by which each N2 molecule is fixed to a cost of 16ATP molecules, N2 fixation might be P limited process. In this study we tested whether moss P and N concentrations, and N:P ratios could explain N2 fixation in the top 6cm photosynthetically active Sphagnum moss across eight ombrotrophic bogs along south-north geographical gradient in Ontario and Quebec. Under constant environmental conditions, we incubated subsamples of the surface Sphagnum mosses by using both, acetylene reduction assays (ARA) and 15N2 enriched method to measure N2 fixation rates. Same subsamples were later analyzed for N and P concentrations. Our preliminary data show that the increase of P concentration within moss capitula is related to a significant linear increase of ARA rates (R2=0.18, p<0.0001, N=150). N:P ratios showed a significant negative linear relationship with ARA (R2=0.34, p<0.0001, N=150) indicating that P limitation in the photosynthetically active part of mosses in bogs may also indicate P limitation on microbial N2 fixation

  12. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina A.; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications. PMID:26002894

  13. Do bryophyte shoot systems function like vascular plant leaves or canopies? Functional trait relationships in Sphagnum mosses (Sphagnaceae).

    PubMed

    Rice, Steven K; Aclander, Lynn; Hanson, David T

    2008-11-01

    Vascular plant leaf traits that influence photosynthetic function form the basis of mechanistic models of carbon exchange. Given their unique tissue organization, bryophytes may not express similar patterns. We investigated relationships among tissue, shoot, and canopy traits, and their associations with photosynthetic characteristics in 10 Sphagnum species. Trait relationships were organized around a primary dimension accounting for 43% of variation in 12 traits. There was no significant relationship between nitrogen content of shoot systems and maximum photosynthesis expressed on mass (A(mass)) or area (A(area)) bases due to nitrogen sequestration and storage within the canopy interior. This pattern differs from the distribution of nitrogen in vascular plant canopies. Thus, nitrogen and its relationship to carbon uptake in Sphagnum shoots does not conform to patterns of either vascular plant leaves or canopies. Species that concentrate biomass and nitrogen in the capitulum have enhanced rates of A(mass) and A(area). Consequently, A(area) was positively associated with N(area) of the capitulum only. Overall, water content and carotenoid concentration were the strongest predictors of both A(mass) and A(area) and these were expressed as inverse relationships. The relationships of plant traits in Sphagnum defines a principal trade-off between species that tolerate environmental stress and those that maximize carbon assimilation.

  14. Mining for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase and Polyketide Synthase Genes Revealed a High Level of Diversity in the Sphagnum Bog Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina A; Oberauner-Wappis, Lisa; Peyman, Armin; Amos, Gregory C A; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Sphagnum bog ecosystems are among the oldest vegetation forms harboring a specific microbial community and are known to produce an exceptionally wide variety of bioactive substances. Although the Sphagnum metagenome shows a rich secondary metabolism, the genes have not yet been explored. To analyze nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), the diversity of NRPS and PKS genes in Sphagnum-associated metagenomes was investigated by in silico data mining and sequence-based screening (PCR amplification of 9,500 fosmid clones). The in silico Illumina-based metagenomic approach resulted in the identification of 279 NRPSs and 346 PKSs, as well as 40 PKS-NRPS hybrid gene sequences. The occurrence of NRPS sequences was strongly dominated by the members of the Protebacteria phylum, especially by species of the Burkholderia genus, while PKS sequences were mainly affiliated with Actinobacteria. Thirteen novel NRPS-related sequences were identified by PCR amplification screening, displaying amino acid identities of 48% to 91% to annotated sequences of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Some of the identified metagenomic clones showed the closest similarity to peptide synthases from Burkholderia or Lysobacter, which are emerging bacterial sources of as-yet-undescribed bioactive metabolites. This report highlights the role of the extreme natural ecosystems as a promising source for detection of secondary compounds and enzymes, serving as a source for biotechnological applications.

  15. The total phosphorus budget of a peat-covered catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine S.; Clay, Gareth D.; Burt, Tim P.; Rose, Rob

    2016-07-01

    Although many studies have considered the carbon or greenhouse gas budgets of peat ecosystems, only a few have considered the nutrient budget of peat soils, and this, in turn, has limited the ability of studies to consider the impact of changes in climate and atmospheric deposition on the phosphorus budget of a peat soil. This study considered the total phosphorus (P) budget of an upland peat-covered catchment over the period 1993 to 2012. The study has shown (i) total atmospheric deposition of phosphorus varied from 62 to 175 kg P/km2/yr; (ii) the carbon:phosphorus ratio of the peat profile declines significantly from values in the litter layer (C:P = 1326) to approximately constant at 30 cm depth (C:P = 4240); (iii) the total fluvial flux of phosphorus varied from 49 to 111 kg P/km2/yr, of which between 45 and 77% was dissolved P; and (iv) the total phosphorus sink varied from -5.6 to +71.7 kg P/km2/yr with a median of +29.4 kg P/km2/yr, which is within the range of the estimated long-term accumulation rate of phosphorus in the peat profile of between 3 and 32 kg P/km2/yr. The phosphorus budget of the peat ecosystem relies on rapid recycling near the soil surface, and this means that any vegetation management may critically deprive the ecosystem of this nutrient.

  16. Organic matter loss from cultivated peat soils in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of drained peat soils in agricultural use is an underestimated source of loss of organic matter. Oxidation (biological degradation) of agricultural peat soils causes a loss of organic matter (OM) of 11 - 22 t ha-1 y-1 causing a CO2 emission of 20 - 40 t ha-1 y-1. Together with the associated N2O emissions from mineralized N this totals in the EU to about 98.5 Mton CO2 eq per year. Peat soils are very prone to climate change and it is expected that at the end of this century these values are doubled. The degradation products pollute surface waters. Wind erosion of peat soils in arable agriculture can cause losses of 3 - 30 t ha-1 y-1 peat also causing air pollution (fine organic particles). Subsidence rates are 1 - 2 cm per year which leads to deteriorating drainage effect and make peat soils below sea or inland water levels prone to flooding. Flooding agricultural peat soils is in many cases not possible without high costs, high GHG emissions and severe water pollution. Moreover sometimes cultural and historic landscapes are lost and meadow birds areas are lost. In areas where the possibility to regulate the water table is limited the mitigation options are either to increase biomass production that can be used as bioenergy to substitute some fossil fuel, try to slow down the break-down of the peat by different amendments that inhibit microbial activity, or permanent flooding. The negative effects of wind erosion can be mitigated by reducing wind speed or different ways to protect the soil by crops or fiber sheets. In a newly started project in Sweden a typical peat soil with and without amendment of foundry sand is cropped with reed canary grass, tall fescue and timothy to investigate the yield and greenhouse gas emissions from the different crops and how the sand effect the trafficability and GHG emissions.

  17. Methanotrophic symbionts provide carbon for photosynthesis in peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Raghoebarsing, Ashna A; Smolders, Alfons J P; Schmid, Markus C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Derksen, Jan; Jetten, Mike S M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Lamers, Leon P M; Roelofs, Jan G M; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Strous, Marc

    2005-08-25

    Wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric methane, the second most important greenhouse gas. Methane flux to the atmosphere depends strongly on the climate; however, by far the largest part of the methane formed in wetland ecosystems is recycled and does not reach the atmosphere. The biogeochemical controls on the efficient oxidation of methane are still poorly understood. Here we show that submerged Sphagnum mosses, the dominant plants in some of these habitats, consume methane through symbiosis with partly endophytic methanotrophic bacteria, leading to highly effective in situ methane recycling. Molecular probes revealed the presence of the bacteria in the hyaline cells of the plant and on stem leaves. Incubation with (13)C-methane showed rapid in situ oxidation by these bacteria to carbon dioxide, which was subsequently fixed by Sphagnum, as shown by incorporation of (13)C-methane into plant sterols. In this way, methane acts as a significant (10-15%) carbon source for Sphagnum. The symbiosis explains both the efficient recycling of methane and the high organic carbon burial in these wetland ecosystems.

  18. Peat pyrolysis and the analytical semi-empirical model

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Green, A.E.S.

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis of peat could convert this material into useful fuels and valuable hydrocarbons. A study of peat pyrolysis can also serve as a useful bridge between studies of coal pyrolysis and biomass pyrolysis. Using an analytical model of pyrolysis that has previously been applied to biomass and to coal, we present here the results of applications of this model to a representative peat. The analysis suggests means of organizing and processing rate and yield data that should be useful in applications of pyrolysis for the production of fuels and chemicals.

  19. Speciated organic VOC and PM emissions from peat burns

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting information Tables S3 and S4 list emission factors in g/kg of speciated volatile and particulate organic compounds emitted from peat burning. Peat samples were acquired from Alligator River (AR) and Pocosin Lakes (PL) National Wildlife Refuges. This dataset is associated with the following publication:George , I., R. Black, J. Walker , C. Geron , J. Aurell , M. Hays , W. Preston, and B. Gullett. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 132: 163-170, (2016).

  20. Biochemical processes of oligotrophic peat deposits of Vasyugan Mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Sergeeva, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of peat and mire ecosystems functioning and their rational use is the main problem of biosphere study. This problem also refers to forecasting of biosphere changes results which are global and anthropogenic. According to many scientists' research the portion of mires in earth carbon balance is about 15% of world's stock. The aim of this study is to investigate biochemical processes in oligotrophic deposits in North-eastern part of Vasyugan Mire. The investigations were made on the territory of scientific-research ground (56˚ 03´ and 56˚ 57´ NL, 82˚ 22´ and 82˚ 42´ EL). It is situated between two rivers Bakchar and Iksa (in outskirts of the village Polynyanka, Bakchar region, Tomsk oblast). Evolution of investigated mire massif began with the domination of eutrophic phytocenosis - Filicinae, then sedge. Later transfer into oligotrophic phase was accompanied by formation of meter high-moor peat deposit. The age of three-meter peat deposit reaches four thousand years. Biochemical processes of carbon cycle cover the whole peat deposit, but the process activity and its direction in different layers are defined by genesis and duration of peat formation. So, the number of cellulose-fermenting aerobes in researched peat deposits ranges from 16.8 to 75.5 million CFU/g, and anaerobic bacteria from 9.6 to 48.6 million CFU/g. The high number of aerobes is characteristic for high water levels, organizing by raised bog peats. Their number decreases along the profile in 1.7 - 2 times. The number of microflora in peat deposit is defined by the position in the landscape profile (different geneses), by the depth, by hydrothermic conditions of years and individual months. But microflora activity shows along all depth of peat deposit. We found the same in the process of studying of micromycete complex structure. There was revealed either active component micromycete complex - mycelium, or inert one - spores in a meter layer of peat deposit. If mushrooms

  1. Comparison of heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils amended with peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Seul-Ji; Lee, Myoung-Eun; Chung, Jae Woo

    2016-04-01

    There have been contradictory viewpoints whether soil amendments immobilize or mobilize heavy metals. Therefore, this study evaluated the mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd in contaminated soil (1218 mg Pb per kg, 63.2 mg Cu per kg, 2.8 mg Cd per kg) amended with peat moss (0.22, 0.43, and 1.29% carbon ratio) and peat moss-derived biochar (0.38, 0.75, and 2.26% carbon ratio) at 0.5, 1, 3% levels. The more peat moss added, the stronger both mobility and bioavailability of Pb, Cu, and Cd would be. In contrast, the addition of peat moss-derived biochar significantly reduced both mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals through the coordination of metal electrons to C[double bond, length as m-dash]C (π-electron) bonds and increased pH. Maximum immobilization was observed in 3% peat moss-derived biochar treatment after 10 days of incubation, which was measured at 97.8%, 100%, and 77.2% for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. Since peat moss and peat moss-derived biochar showed conflicting effectiveness in mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals, soil amendments should be carefully applied to soils for remediation purposes.

  2. Novel labeling technique illustrates transfer of 15N2 from Sphagnum moss to vascular plants via diazotrophic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.

    2013-12-01

    We used 15N2 gas to trace nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation to vascular plant uptake in an Alberta bog in order to determine if neighboring bog plants acquire recently fixed N from diazotrophs associating with Sphagnum mosses. Recent evidence indicates high rates of N2-fixation in Sphagnum mosses of Alberta bogs (Vile et al. 2013). Our previous work has shown that mosses can assimilate fixed N from associated diazotrophs as evidenced by the high N content of mosses despite minimal inputs from atmospheric deposition, retranslocation, and N mineralization. Therefore, the potential exists for vascular plants to obtain N from ';leaky' tissues of live mosses, however, this phenomenon has not been tested previously. Here we document the potential for relatively rapid transfer to vascular plants of N fixed by Sphagnum moss-associated diazotrophs. We utilized the novel approach of incubating mosses in 15N2 to allow the process of diazotrophic N2-fixation to mechanistically provide the 15N label, which is subsequently transferred to Sphagnum mosses. The potential for vascular bog natives to tap this N was assessed by planting the vascular plants in the labeled moss. Sphagnum mosses (upper 3 cm of live plants) were incubated in the presence of 98 atom % 15N2 gas for 48 hours. Two vascular plants common to Alberta bogs; Picea mariana and Vaccinium oxycoccus were then placed in the labeled mosses, where the mosses served as the substrate. Tissue samples from these plants were collected at three time points during the incubation; prior to 15N2 exposure (to determine natural abundance 15N), and at one and two months after 15N2 exposure. Roots and leaves were separated and run separately on a mass spectrometer to determine 15N concentrations. Sphagnum moss capitula obtained N from N2-fixation (δ15N of -2.43 × 0.40, 122.76 × 23.78, 224.92 × 68.37, 143.74 × 54.38 prior to, immediately after, and at 1 and 2 months after exposure to 15N2, respectively). Nitrogen was

  3. Development of a Waste Water Regenerative System - Using Sphagnum Moss Ion-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeon, M.; Wheeler, R.; Leahy, Jj

    The use of inexpensive, light weight and regenerative systems in an enclosed environment is of great importance to sustained existence in such habitats as the International Space Station, Moon or even Mars. Many systems exist which utilise various synthetic ion exchangers to complete the process of waste water clean-up. These systems do have a very good exchange rate for cations but a very low exchange rate for anions. They also have a maximum capacity before they need regeneration. This research proposes a natural alternative to these synthetic ion-exchangers that utilises one of natures greatest ion-exchangers, that of Sphagnum Moss. Sphagna can be predominantly found in the nutrient poor environment of Raised Bogs, a type of isolated wetland with characteristic low pH and little interaction with the surrounding water table. All nutrients come from precipitation. The sphagna have developed as the bog's sponges, soaking up all available nutrients (both cation & anion) from the precipitation and eventually distributing them to the surrounding flora and fauna, through the water. The goal of this research is to use this ability in the processing of waste water from systems similar to isolated microgravity environments, to produce clean water for reuse in these environments. The nutrients taken up by the sphagna will also be utilised as a growth medium for cultivar growth, such as those selected for hydroponics' systems.

  4. Peatland succession induces a shift in the community composition of Sphagnum-associated active methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Putkinen, Anuliina; Larmola, Tuula; Tuomivirta, Tero; Siljanen, Henri M P; Bodrossy, Levente; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Fritze, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Sphagnum-associated methanotrophs (SAM) are an important sink for the methane (CH4) formed in boreal peatlands. We aimed to reveal how peatland succession, which entails a directional change in several environmental variables, affects SAM and their activity. Based on the pmoA microarray results, SAM community structure changes when a peatland develops from a minerotrophic fen to an ombrotrophic bog. Methanotroph subtypes Ia, Ib, and II showed slightly contrasting patterns during succession, suggesting differences in their ecological niche adaptation. Although the direct DNA-based analysis revealed a high diversity of type Ib and II methanotrophs throughout the studied peatland chronosequence, stable isotope probing (SIP) of the pmoA gene indicated they were active mainly during the later stages of succession. In contrast, type Ia methanotrophs showed active CH4 consumption in all analyzed samples. SIP-derived (13)C-labeled 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed a high diversity of SAM in every succession stage including some putative Methylocella/Methyloferula methanotrophs that are not detectable with the pmoA-based approach. In addition, a high diversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences likely representing cross-labeled nonmethanotrophs was discovered, including a significant proportion of Verrucomicrobia-related sequences. These results help to predict the effects of changing environmental conditions on SAM communities and activity.

  5. Spatial pattern of nucleotide polymorphism indicates molecular adaptation in the bryophyte Sphagnum fimbriatum.

    PubMed

    Szövényi, P; Hock, Zs; Korpelainen, H; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    In organisms with haploid-dominant life cycles, natural selection is expected to be especially effective because genetic variation is exposed directly to selection. However, in spore-producing plants with high dispersal abilities, among-population migration may counteract local adaptation by continuously redistributing genetic variability. In this study, we tested for adaptation at the molecular level by comparing nucleotide polymorphism in two genes (GapC and Rpb2) in 10 European populations of the peatmoss species, Sphagnum fimbriatum with variability at nine microsatellite loci assumed to be selectively neutral. In line with previous results, the GapC and Rpb2 genes showed strikingly different patterns of nucleotide polymorphism. Neutrality tests and comparison of population differentiation based on the GapC and Rpb2 genes with neutrally evolving microsatellites using coalescent simulations supported non-neutral evolution in GapC, but neutral evolution in the Rpb2 gene. These observations and the positions of the replacement mutations in the GAPDH enzyme (coded by GapC) indicate a significant impact of replacement mutations on enzyme function. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of alternate GapC alleles and/or linked genomic regions suggests that they have had differential success in the recolonization of Europe following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  6. Alfred P. Dachnowski and the scientific study of peats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Botanist Alfred Paul Dachnowski (1875–1949) was a major contributor to efforts at mapping organic soils in the United States during the early 20th century. He began his career at The Ohio State University, and spent most of his professional life at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, DC. His work spanned a diversity of topics, including bog ecology and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, the mapping and chemical characterization of peat, and the commercial applications of peat. We present a biography and overview of his work. Dachnowski is best known today for the peat sampler that bears his name. The details of its operation are described here, and its place in modern peat studies is discussed.

  7. Effect of Peat on Physicomechanical Properties of Cemented Brick

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Roslan; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design. PMID:24982941

  8. Effect of peat on physicomechanical properties of cemented brick.

    PubMed

    Islam, Syed Mofachirul; Hashim, Roslan; Islam, A B M Saiful; Kurnia, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.

  9. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Ingrid J.; Black, Robert R.; Geron, Chris D.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Preston, William T.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (∼60%) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. In the fine particle mass (PM2.5), the following organic compound classes were dominant: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for the organic acids in PM2.5 including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12%) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed to 2-3% of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3% of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Total HAP VOC and particulate PAH emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions.

  10. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  11. Evaluation of the VIIRS Land Algorithms at Land PEATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Devadiga, Sadashiva; Ye, Gang; Masuoka, Edward J.; Schweiss, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Land Product Evaluation and Algorithm Testing Element (Land PEATE), a component of the Science Data Segment of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP), is being developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The primary task of the Land PEATE is to assess the quality of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Land data products made by the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS) using the Operational (OPS) Code during the NPP era and to recommend improvements to the algorithms in the IDPS OPS code. The Land PEATE uses a version of the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), NPPDAPS, that has been modified to produce products from the IDPS OPS code and software provided by the VIIRS Science Team, and uses the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team for evaluation of the data records generated by the NPPDAPS. Land PEATE evaluates the algorithms by comparing data products generated using different versions of the algorithm and also by comparing to heritage products generated from different instrument such as MODIS using various quality assessment tools developed at LDOPE. This paper describes the Land PEATE system and some of the approaches used by the Land PEATE for evaluating the VIIRS Land algorithms during the pre-launch period of the NPP mission and the proposed plan for long term monitoring of the quality of the VIIRS Land products post-launch.

  12. Impact of catchment degree on peat properties in peat deposits of eutrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inisheva, L. I.; Golubina, O. A.; Rodikova, A. V.; Shinkeeva, N. A.; Bubina, A. B.

    2010-05-01

    Fundamental works of many investigators show that according to the biophysical properties peat deposit (PD) is divided into 2 layers: active and inert. It is interesting to analyze the supposed changes in PD of eutrophic bog according to different data (physical, chemical and biological). The researches were carried out at two plots of one bog (points 1 and 2, positions 56° 21' NL, 84° 47' EL, Russia, Siberia). Agricultural afforestation (pine planting) was made at one of them (point 2) 60 years ago. Now this plot is absolutely identical in ground cover to 1 point, but other conditions are significantly changed. In spring bog water level is at the depth of 20cm at 2 point (at 1 point it is near water face), it lows up to 53 cm during summer time (at 1 point - up to 37 cm). According to redox conditions zone of anoxic-oxic conditions reaches meter depth at 2 points. PDs don't significantly differ in activity of ammonifiers but in activity of cellulose-lytic aerobic microflora it follows that it is more active at 2 point in PD active layer. In spite of good aeration, more favorable conditions were created also for anaerobic cellulose-fermenting microflora in PD of 2 point in comparison with 1 one. Activity analysis of denitrifying agents and microflora of other physiological groups also showed high activity of biota at the plot with afforestation amelioration. This fact was confirmed by high coefficient of mineralization. Time of drainage effect created by afforestation amelioration influenced group composition of peat organic matter which builds up PD of examined plots. According to fractional and group composition data fracture of hard-to-hydrolyze organic matters decreased during the process of microflora activating at the plot with afforestation amelioration but FA content increased. Fractional composition of nitrogen showed that content of mineral nitrogen compounds definitely increased. Thus, 60 years of surface drainage influenced composition change of peat

  13. CO2 exchange following peat extraction - a comparison of two paired restored/unrestored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria; Pelletier, Luc; Nugent, Kelly; Rankin, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    Peat extraction is an important industry in parts of Canada and elsewhere globally. The resulting disturbance from drainage and vacuum-harvesting is mitigated through best practices which now incorporate restoration intended to return the peatland's biodiversity and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange to that resembling the pre-disturbance state. We examine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) in two sets of paired peatlands. Within each pair, the extraction year was the same and the sites were treated identically post-extraction in terms of management (blocking drains or leveling as applicable). The first pair is located in the vicinity of Rivière-du-Loup, Québec, Canada and were harvested in 1980. The Bois-des-Bel (BDB) site was restored in 1999 following the methods of Quinty and Rochefort (2003). GHG fluxes have been studied at various points since restoration (e.g. Strack and Zuback, 2013) largely using chamber measurements. The site now hosts a thriving bog ecosystem with Sphagnum, Eriophorum and shrub communities. A site 30 km away near Saint-Alexandre de Kamouraska (SAK) was managed post-harvest as BDB with drains blocked but was left unrestored and now has only sparse Eriophorum with invasive species. The second pair of peatlands represents a newly extracted site near Seba Beach, Alberta, Canada. One field was restored (SBR) in autumn 2012 as per the Québec sites but with ditches infilled when the fields were levelled while the other (SBU) was left unrestored. In the summer of 2013, eddy covariance towers were installed at each location and measured NEE continuously at 10Hz throughout the subsequent periods. BDB and SBR remain operational today while SBU was removed in fall 2014 and SAK in fall 2015. In this presentation, we will focus on the coincident years of operation. After 15 years, BDB has measured NEE in the range of that observed at natural peatlands. A summer sink and winter release lead to annual uptake of CO2. At SAK, the lack of establishment

  14. Re-vegetation processes in cutaway peat production fields in Estonia in relation to peat quality and water regime.

    PubMed

    Orru, Mall; Ots, Katri; Orru, Hans

    2016-12-01

    Eighty-one cutaway peat production fields with a total area of about 9000 ha exist and were studied in Estonia in 2005-2015. Only a very small number of the fields (seven) have been restored-either afforested or used for growing berries. The re-vegetation of Estonian cutaway peat production fields is mainly the result of natural processes, which are generally very slow due to an unfavourable water regime or a too thin remaining peat layer. The fields are mostly covered by cotton grass and birches. Often sparse vegetation covers 15-20% of a peat field, but some fields have turned into heaths or grasslands with plant coverage up to 60%. However, due to changes in environmental (mainly hydrological) conditions and peat characteristics (mainly peat type), these areas can also be new niches for several species. A number of moss species new to or rare in Estonia, e.g. Pohlia elongata, Ephemerum serratum, Campylopus introflexus and Bryum oblongum, were recorded.

  15. Climate variability and long-term expansion of peat lands in Arctic Norway during the late Pliocene (ODP Site 642, Norwegian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Sina; Salzmann, Ulrich; Risebrobakken, Bjorg; De Schepper, Stijn; Pound, Matthew; Bachem, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We present the first high resolution reconstruction of vegetation and climate change in northern Norway between 3.6-3.14 Ma based on pollen assemblages in the marine sediments of ODP Hole 642B, Norwegian Sea (67°N). During the late Pliocene vegetation alternated between cool temperate forests during warmer-than-present intervals and boreal forest similar to today during cooler intervals. The northern boundary of the deciduous to mixed forest zone was displaced at least 4-8° further north and warmest month temperatures were 6-14.5°C higher than present during warm phases. Diverse cool temperate deciduous to mixed forests grew under warm climatic conditions in the lowlands of the Scandinavian mountains during the earliest late Pliocene (c. 3.6-3.47 Ma). A distinct cooling event at c. 3.47 Ma led to the predominance of boreal forest and the development of open, low alpine environments. The cooling culminated around 3.3 Ma, coinciding with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. After c. 3.29 Ma a high variability of climate is indicated by the repeated expansion of forests and peat lands during warmer and cooler periods, respectively. Climate progressively cooled after 3.18 Ma, resembling climatic conditions during MIS M2. A long-term cooling is expressed by an expansion of Sphagnum peat lands that potentially contributed to the decline in atmospheric CO2-concentration at the end of the Piacenzian warm period. Correlations with other Northern Hemisphere records suggest hemisphere-wide effects of climate changes. Late Pliocene vegetation changes will be compared to alkenone-based sea surface temperature reconstructions and dinoflagellate cyst assemblage changes for ODP Hole 642B.

  16. Paenibacillus alba nov., isolated from peat soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2015-06-01

    A white-colored bacterial strain designated J20-6(T) was isolated from peat soil collected in Russia. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the strain J20-6(T) belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, and the closest relatives were Paenibacillus frigoriresistens YIM 016(T) (98.2 %), Paenibacillus alginolyticus DSM 5050T(T) (97.9 %), Paenibacillus chondroitinus DSM 5051(T) (97.4 %), Paenibacillus pocheonensis Gsoil 1138(T) (96.9 %), and Paenibacillus pectinilyticus RCB-08(T) (96.6 %). Cells are gram-positive, motile, facultative aerobic, endospore forming, and rod shaped. The cell wall contains MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major fatty acid is anteiso-C15:0, and the major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine. The DNA G+C content of the strain J20-6(T) was 49.9 mol %. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic data clearly suggest that the strain J20-6(T) belongs to the novel member of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus alba sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is J20-6(T) (=KEMC 7302-005(T) = JCM 18165(T)).

  17. Understanding Peat Bubbles: Biogeochemical-Hydrological Linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, M.

    2009-05-01

    Decomposition of organic matter in peatland ecosystems produces gaseous end-products that can accumulate at depth and result in the build up of free-phase gas below the water table. This free-phase gas, or bubbles, reduces hydraulic conductivity, alters hydrologic and chemical gradients, and affects productivity surface vegetation through its role in peat buoyancy. In terms of greenhouse gas dynamics, these bubbles are likely the dominant subsurface stock of methane (CH4) and release of this CH4 to the atmosphere via ebullition may account for a significant portion of total efflux. Despite the importance of entrapped bubbles for peatland ecohydrological function there is still little known about how the quantity of bubbles varies between peatland types and at smaller scales within a peatland. Profiles of bubbles collected from several locations within four peatlands reveal that bubble volume varies significant among peatlands, between microforms and with depth. Previous studies also suggest that ebullition is spatially and temporally variable. This spatial variability may have important impacts on system ecohydrology and should be incorporated in models of peatland hydrology and development. This requires the difficult task of mapping bubble volume in three dimensions and over large areas. The potential for geophysical methods and the use of surface features to address this task will be discussed.

  18. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance in Sphagnum moss at varying water contents.

    PubMed

    Van Gaalen, K Eric; Flanagan, Lawrence B; Peddle, Derek R

    2007-08-01

    Moss samples from the Fluxnet-Canada western peatland flux station in the Boreal Region of Alberta were measured in the laboratory to obtain the net photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll fluorescence of the moss under controlled environmental conditions, including the regulation of moss water content, simultaneously with measurements of moss spectral reflectance. One objective was to test whether the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) detected changes in moss photosynthetic light-use efficiency that were consistent with short-term (minutes to hours) changes in xanthophyll cycle pigments and associated changes in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), as recorded by chlorophyll fluorescence. The rate of net photosynthesis was strongly inhibited by water content at values exceeding approximately 9 (fresh weight/dry weight) and declined as the water content fell below values of approximately 8. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements of maximum photosystem II efficiency generally remained high until the water content was reduced from the maximum of about 20 to values of approximately 10-11, and then declined with further reductions in moss water content. A significant linear decline in NPQ was observed as moss water content was reduced from maximum to low water content values. There was a strong negative correlation between changes in NPQ and PRI. These data suggest that PRI measurements are a good proxy for short-term shifts in photosynthetic activity in Sphagnum moss. A second objective was to test how accurately the water band index (WBI, ratio of reflectance at 900 and 970 nm) recorded changes in moss water content during controlled laboratory studies. Strong linear relationships occurred between changes in moss water content and the WBI, although the slopes of the linear relationships were significantly different among sample replicates. Therefore, WBI appeared to be a useful tool to determine sample-specific water content without destructive measurements.

  19. Effects of experimental lead pollution on the microbial communities associated with Sphagnum fallax (Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Viet, H; Gilbert, D; Mitchell, E A D; Badot, P-M; Bernard, N

    2007-08-01

    Ecotoxicological studies usually focus on single microbial species under controlled conditions. As a result, little is known about the responses of different microbial functional groups or individual species to stresses. In an aim to assess the response of complex microbial communities to pollution in their natural habitat, we studied the effect of a simulated lead pollution on the microbial community (bacteria, cyanobacteria, protists, fungi, and micrometazoa) living on Sphagnum fallax. Mosses were grown in the laboratory with 0 (control), 625, and 2,500 microg L(-1) of Pb(2+) diluted in a standard nutrient solution and were sampled after 0, 6, 12, and 20 weeks. The biomasses of bacteria, microalgae, testate amoebae, and ciliates were dramatically and significantly decreased in both Pb addition treatments after 6, 12, and 20 weeks in comparison with the control. The biomass of cyanobacteria declined after 6 and 12 weeks in the highest Pb treatment. The biomasses of fungi, rotifers, and nematodes decreased along the duration of the experiment but were not significantly affected by lead addition. Consequently, the total microbial biomass was lower for both Pb addition treatments after 12 and 20 weeks than in the controls. The community structure was strongly modified due to changes in the densities of testate amoebae and ciliates, whereas the relative contribution of bacteria to the microbial biomass was stable. Differences in responses among the microbial groups suggest changes in the trophic links among them. The correlation between the biomass of bacteria and that of ciliates or testate amoebae increased with increasing Pb loading. We interpret this result as an effect on the grazing pathways of these predators and by the Pb effect on other potential prey (i.e., smaller protists). The community approach used here complements classical ecotoxicological studies by providing clues to the complex effect of pollutant-affecting organisms both directly and indirectly

  20. Peat fires and air quality: volatile organic compounds and particulates.

    PubMed

    Blake, D; Hinwood, A L; Horwitz, P

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous localized peat deposits on the Swan Coastal Plain, an urban and rural bioregion otherwise dominated by wetland ecosystems in southwestern Australia. Hydrological change is significant in the bioregion: urban development encroaches on wetlands, groundwater extraction provides the city population with most of its water, and rainfall declines will not recharge aquifers in the future. The wetland processes which contribute to the formation of these peat deposits have therefore changed and are becoming vulnerable to fire events with residents increasingly exposed to peat smoke. There is an imperative to characterise this peat smoke to determine if exposures are harmful or toxic, and opportunities to do so in this setting arise due to the absence of bushfire smoke which has confounded other international studies. We have measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate concentrations from an opportunistic assessment of two peat fires. SUMMA canister grab samples and a portable GCMS were used to determine the VOCs with high 1h benzene concentrations of 16 and 30 ppm v/v. PM10 and PM2.5 particulate data were collected using an Osiris continuous analyser with 24h concentrations recorded at varying time periods (within a 5 months timeframe) ranging from 1h maximums of between 23-37 microgm(-3) for PM10 and 50.5-106 microgm(-3) for PM2.5. While the 24h averages were generally below national air quality standards, elevated 1h concentrations were observed on numerous occasions and on most days. Given the proximity of residential development to many peat deposits, a drying climate and the increased risk of arson in peri-urban environments, the health impacts of exposure to peat smoke need to be determined and if necessary measures developed to prevent exposure (which would include maintaining wetland sediment integrity so as to reduce its vulnerability to fire).

  1. RETENTION TIME EFFECT ON METAL REMOVAL BY PEAT COLUMNS

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E

    2007-02-28

    The potential use of a peat bed to treat the H-12 Outfall discharge to bring it to new compliance limits was previously investigated and reported utilizing a 7 hour retention time. The influence of retention time (contact time) of water with peat moss on the removal of copper from the water was investigated under laboratory conditions using vertical flow peat moss columns. Reduction of the necessary retention time has a large influence on the design sizing of any peat bed that would be constructed to treat the H-12 discharge on a full scale basis. Retention times of 5 hours, 3 hours and 1 hour were tested to determine the copper removal by the peat columns using vertical flow. Water samples were collected after 4, 8, 12, and 16 water volumes had passed through the columns and analyzed for a suite of metals, with quantitative emphasis on copper. Laboratory results indicated that copper removal was very high at each of the 3 retention times tested, ranging from 99.6 % removal at 5 and 3 hours to 98.8% removal at 1 hour. All these values are much lower that the new compliance limit for the outfall. The results also indicated that most divalent metals were removed to their normal reporting detection limit for the analytical methods used, including zinc. Lead levels in the H-12 discharge used in this study were below PQL in all samples analyzed. While each of the retention times studied removed copper very well, there were indications that 1 hour is probably too short for an operational, long-term facility. At that retention time, there was about 6% compaction of the peat in the column due to the water velocity, and this may affect long term hydraulic conductivity of the peat bed. At that retention time, copper concentration in the effluent was higher than the other times tested, although still very low. Because of the potential compacting and somewhat reduced removal efficiency at a 1 hour retention time, it would be prudent to design to at least a 3 hour retention

  2. Community heterogeneity of Early Pennsylvanian peat mires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Stevanovic-Walls, I. M.; Ware, W.N.; Greb, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    Reconstructions of Pennsylvanian coal swamps are some of the most common images of late Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems. All reconstructions to date are based on data from either time-averaged permineralized peats or single-site collections. An erect, in situ Early Pennsylvanian forest preserved above the Blue Creek Coal, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, was sampled in 17 localities over an area of >0.5 km2, resulting in the first temporally and spatially constrained Pennsylvanian mire data set. This three-tiered forest was heterogeneous. Lycopsid and calamitean trees composed the canopy, and lepidodendrids, Lepidophloios, and sigillarians grew together at most sites. More juvenile than mature lycopsid biomass occurs in the forest-floor litter, indicating a mixed-age, multicohort canopy. Pteridophytes (tree fern) and pteridosperms (seed fern) dominated as understory shrubs, whereas sphenophyllaleans, pteridophytes, and pteridosperms composed the ground-cover and liana tier. The proportion of canopy, understory, and ground-cover biomass varied across the forest. Low proportions of ground-cover and liana taxa existed where canopy fossils accounted for >60% of the litter. There is a distinct spatial clustering of sites with more or less understory (or ground cover) where canopy contribution was <60%. Where canopy biomass was low (<50%), understory shrubs contributed more biomass, indicative of light interception and/or competition strategies. Sphenopteris pottsvillea, a ubiquitous ground-cover plant, is abundant in all sites except one, where pteridosperm creepers and lianas dominate the litter, interpreted to indicate total suppression of other ground-cover growth. Ecological wet-dry gradients identified in other Pennsylvanian swamps do not exist in the Blue Creek mire, with the interpreted wettest (Lepidophloios), driest (Sigillaria), and intermediate (Lepidodendron sensu latu) taxa coexisting in most assemblages. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  3. Magnitude and timing of peat-to-coal compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nadon, G.C.

    1998-08-01

    The peat-to-coal transition is commonly assumed to be accompanied by compaction that decreases the thickness of the organic deposit to values of 10% or less of the original peat thickness. Decompaction modeling using such values for coal seams in contact with penecontemporaneous channel sandstones leads to impossible depositional geometries for the sandstones, which have a final thickness that is 90% of their original thickness. Similarly, decompaction modeling of the fragments of organic material within channel lags using the assumed large peat compaction value results in the destruction of the associated sedimentary structures, such as trough cross-beds. Dinosaur tracks in the roofs of coal mines show a shallow depth of penetration and a preservation of foot morphology that is not possible unless the peat the animals walked upon was very firm. These data confirm the macroscopic observations from coal balls that the compaction associated with the peat-to-coal transformation is minimal. Equally important, the data also show that most of the compaction occurs essentially at the surface and not at the depths where coalification takes place.

  4. Afobazole protects rats exposed to peat smoke in utero.

    PubMed

    Gorbatova, D M; Litvinova, S A; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2015-03-01

    Female outbred albino rats were daily subjected to forced inhalations of peat smoke (4 cores packed with a mixture of peat (70%) and wood pulp (30%); 0.46 g, pH at least 5.5, core burning time 6 min,; total exposure 44 min) per se and in combination with oral afobazole (anxiolytic) in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg on days 1-20 of pregnancy. Some groups of females received oral afobazole (200 mg/kg) after delivery, due to which their newborn rats received the drug in doses of 1-10 mg/kg with maternal milk on days 1-20 of life. Exposure to peat smoke inhibited body weight gain in the progeny on days 5-60 of life. Afobazole treatment during the pre- and postnatal periods prevented this effect. Open field testing showed that exposure to peat smoke prolonged the motor activity in the progeny and impaired the loss of orientation and exploratory behavior during repeated testing. Oral afobazole (1 and 10 mg/kg) during the prenatal and/or postnatal period (with maternal milk) prevented the effects of peat smoke.

  5. Analyzing peat pyrolysis by in-situ FTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Fen, J.; Li, W.Y.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.

    1997-12-31

    Coal pyrolysis is complex process that includes many small reactions. Being complicated, it is difficult to study the pyrolysis mechanism with high rank coal directly. Peat is a rudimentary coal which has the most simple structure with lower polymerization. Some researchers think that the key to understanding coal structure is in an appreciation of the molecular components of the original peat swamp and how these might be modified. It is generally agreed that the chemical diversity of various coals will affect rate of coal combustion through the devolatilization process. Upon heating, some of the chemical bonds in coal undergo cracking and result in the release of light gases and the production of tar. Through analysis of peat which is best model compound of coal, some basic step reactions of coal can be understood. The objective of this study is to analyze peat pyrolysis using a in-situ pyrolysis-FTIR and to establish the pyrolysis model. The results show that during rapid peat pyrolysis, all the functional groups produced have almost the same activity energy; the difference among them is the degree of reaction.

  6. Models of the geomorphology, hydrology, and development of domed peat bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, R.B.

    1994-12-01

    Because peat accumulates only beneath the water table, the shape of a peat body should reflect the shape of its water table and thus the hydrology of the peat body. Three different models successfully reproduce the observed peat dome morphology, including a central bog plain. In the first model, the bog plain develops because peat accumulation is limited by anaerobic decay of peat beneath the water table. With certain simplifying assumptions, an analytic solution for this model can be obtained. The other two models are more easily investigated numerically. In the first model, the initial peat accumulation rate is limited only by plant growth and decay and is the maximum rate observed during peat dome development. As a peat dome expands laterally, peat accumulation slows because the water table ceases to rise fast enough to preserve all the available plant material. Eventually, anaerobic decay beneath the water table matches the rate of peat addition to the top of the peat body, and net peat accumulation ceases. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Suggested protocol for collecting, handling and preparing peat cores and peat samples for physical, chemical, mineralogical and isotopic analyses.

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Le Roux, Gaël; Cheburkin, Andriy; Chen, Bin; Frank, Jutta; Goodsite, Michael E; Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Noernberg, Tommy; Rausch, Nicole; Rheinberger, Stefan; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Sapkota, Atindra; Scholz, Christian; Shotyk, William

    2004-05-01

    For detailed reconstructions of atmospheric metal deposition using peat cores from bogs, a comprehensive protocol for working with peat cores is proposed. The first step is to locate and determine suitable sampling sites in accordance with the principal goal of the study, the period of time of interest and the precision required. Using the state of the art procedures and field equipment, peat cores are collected in such a way as to provide high quality records for paleoenvironmental study. Pertinent field observations gathered during the fieldwork are recorded in a field report. Cores are kept frozen at -18 degree C until they can be prepared in the laboratory. Frozen peat cores are precisely cut into 1 cm slices using a stainless steel band saw with stainless steel blades. The outside edges of each slice are removed using a titanium knife to avoid any possible contamination which might have occurred during the sampling and handling stage. Each slice is split, with one-half kept frozen for future studies (archived), and the other half further subdivided for physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses. Physical parameters such as ash and water contents, the bulk density and the degree of decomposition of the peat are determined using established methods. A subsample is dried overnight at 105 degree C in a drying oven and milled in a centrifugal mill with titanium sieve. Prior to any expensive and time consuming chemical procedures and analyses, the resulting powdered samples, after manual homogenisation, are measured for more than twenty-two major and trace elements using non-destructive X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. This approach provides lots of valuable geochemical data which documents the natural geochemical processes which occur in the peat profiles and their possible effect on the trace metal profiles. The development, evaluation and use of peat cores from bogs as archives of high-resolution records of atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and trace

  8. To what extent do food preferences explain the trophic position of heterotrophic and mixotrophic microbial consumers in a Sphagnum peatland?

    PubMed

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Meyer, Caroline; Dupuy, Christine; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Metian, Marc; Chatelain, Auriel P; Gilbert, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Although microorganisms are the primary drivers of biogeochemical cycles, the structure and functioning of microbial food webs are poorly studied. This is the case in Sphagnum peatlands, where microbial communities play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Here, we explored the structure of the microbial food web from a Sphagnum peatland by analyzing (1) the density and biomass of different microbial functional groups, (2) the natural stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) signatures of key microbial consumers (testate amoebae), and (3) the digestive vacuole contents of Hyalosphenia papilio, the dominant testate amoeba species in our system. Our results showed that the feeding type of testate amoeba species (bacterivory, algivory, or both) translates into their trophic position as assessed by isotopic signatures. Our study further demonstrates, for H. papilio, the energetic benefits of mixotrophy when the density of its preferential prey is low. Overall, our results show that testate amoebae occupy different trophic levels within the microbial food web, depending on their feeding behavior, the density of their food resources, and their metabolism (i.e., mixotrophy vs. heterotrophy). Combined analyses of predation, community structure, and stable isotopes now allow the structure of microbial food webs to be more completely described, which should lead to improved models of microbial community function.

  9. An ecologic study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    The role of groundwater and surface runoff in controlling the water chemistry and development of peat landforms in northern Minnesota are described. The LANDSAT imagery taken duing spring break-up are particularly valuable in identifying potential zones of groundwater discharge. The vascular floras of raised bogs in eastern North Americas demonstrating the remarkabe uniformity of the ombrotrophic flora over broad geographic regions are described. The evolution of peat landforms in the major boreal peatlands of eastern America is examined. The LANDSAT imagery is used to determine the area of patterned to featureless peatlands, the area of ombrotrophic bog relative to minerotrophic fen, and the relative size and degree of streamlining of island landforms entirely composed of peat. Such measurements can be used to assess the role of climate, time, and hydrology in controlling the formation of peatland patterns across broad geographic regions.

  10. Processes in the pore waters of peat deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Levshenko, T.V.; Efremova, A.G.; Galkina, Z.M.; Surkova, T.E.; Tolstov, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of the waters of modern peat bogs that have developed in the intracontinental regions under the conditions of bogs of the high-moor, mixed, and lowmoor types have been investigated for the case of a number of peat deposits of the Smolensk, Volgorad, and Pskov provinces. During the work the pH of the deposits and the C1-, Alk, SO/sup 2/-, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K- contents of the pore water of modern peat beds were studied. The thickness of the deposits studied amounted to 5-7 m. Samples were taken every 0.5 m in depth. The water was separated from the deposits by pressing out.

  11. Persistent high temperature and low precipitation reduce peat carbon accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bragazza, Luca; Buttler, Alexandre; Robroek, Bjorn J M; Albrecht, Remy; Zaccone, Claudio; Jassey, Vincent E J; Signarbieux, Constant

    2016-12-01

    Extreme climate events are predicted to become more frequent and intense. Their ecological impacts, particularly on carbon cycling, can differ in relation to ecosystem sensitivity. Peatlands, being characterized by peat accumulation under waterlogged conditions, can be particularly sensitive to climate extremes if the climate event increases soil oxygenation. However, a mechanistic understanding of peatland responses to persistent climate extremes is still lacking, particularly in terms of aboveground-belowground feedback. Here, we present the results of a transplantation experiment of peat mesocosms from high to low altitude in order to simulate, during 3 years, a mean annual temperature c. 5 °C higher and a mean annual precipitation c. 60% lower. Specifically, we aim at understanding the intensity of changes for a set of biogeochemical processes and their feedback on carbon accumulation. In the transplanted mesocosms, plant productivity showed a species-specific response depending on plant growth forms, with a significant decrease (c. 60%) in peat moss productivity. Soil respiration almost doubled and Q10 halved in the transplanted mesocosms in combination with an increase in activity of soil enzymes. Spectroscopic characterization of peat chemistry in the transplanted mesocosms confirmed the deepening of soil oxygenation which, in turn, stimulated microbial decomposition. After 3 years, soil carbon stock increased only in the control mesocosms whereas a reduction in mean annual carbon accumulation of c. 30% was observed in the transplanted mesocosms. Based on the above information, a structural equation model was built to provide a mechanistic understanding of the causal connections between peat moisture, vegetation response, soil respiration and carbon accumulation. This study identifies, in the feedback between plant and microbial responses, the primary pathways explaining the reduction in carbon accumulation in response to recurring climate extremes in

  12. Sketch maps, sections and laboratory analyses of peat resources in deposits of southern and western Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia Clermont; Mullen, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    Peat deposits in southern and western Maine were investigated for their estimated potential as peat resources suitable for energy, horticultural, and agricultural uses. Fifty-six sketch maps illustrate the areal extent, thickness, and amount of commercial-quality peat. The total yield is estimated at 27,736,400 short tons air-dried peat. Ash content is generally less than 11 percent and BTU ranges from 8,063 to 10,076.

  13. Investigation of occupational radiation exposures to NORM at an Irish peat-fired power station and potential use of peat fly ash by the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Organo, C; Lee, E M; Menezes, G; Finch, E C

    2005-12-01

    Annually, approximately 15% of Ireland's electricity requirement is provided through the combustion of 3 x 10(6) tonnes of peat. While the literature on coal-fired power generation is quite abundant, studies on the peat-fired power generation industry from a radiological point of view are scarce. A study of the largest Irish peat-fired power plant was initiated to review the potential occupational radiation exposures arising from the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at different stages of the industrial process and to investigate any radiological health consequences that may arise should peat fly ash be used as a component of building materials. Ambient gamma dose rate measurements, radon measurements, quantification of the occupational exposure from inhalation of airborne particles (personal air sampling) and gamma spectrometry analysis of peat, peat ash and effluent samples from the ash ponds were undertaken. The results indicate that the radiation dose received by any worker involved in the processing of the peat and the handling of the ash resulting from peat combustion does not exceed 150 microSv per annum. Regulatory control of the peat-fired power generation is therefore unnecessary according to the Irish legislation with regards to NORM. The potential use of peat fly ash as a by-product in the building industry was also found to have a negligible radiological impact for construction workers and for members of the public.

  14. Using peat for energy: Potential environmental restraints. Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. M.; Voorhees, L. D.; Mulholland, P. J.

    Serious consideration is being given to using peat as an energy resource in Minnesota, North Carolina, Florida, and some New England States. Potential environmental constraints for using peat as an energy resource are associated with disruption of important regional wetland ecosystems. Mining peatlands may significantly modify ground and surface water hydrology, degrade water quality in downstream receiving systems, contribute to the deterioration of local air quality, disrupt or eliminate plant and animal populations having specialized requirements and limited distributions, and destroy unique wetland ecosystems representing important scientific and educational resources. Careful selection of peatlands to be developed and application of appropriate mitigation and monitoring programs will be necessary to offset these impacts.

  15. Application of microwave digestion to the analysis of peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papp, C.S.E.; Fischer, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    A microwave digestion technique for the dissolution of peat is described and compared with a dry ashing method and a nitric - perchloric - hydrofluoric acid wet digestion. Peat samples with different organic matter contents were used and Ca, Mg, Fe, AI, Na, K, Mn, Zn, Cu and Li were determined by atomic absoprtion spectrometry. The results obtained using the three dissolution techniques were in good agreement. The microwave method has the advantage of digesting the samples in less than 2 h and uses less acid than the conventional wet digestion method. Keeping the volume of the acid mixture as small as possible minimises contamination and leads to lower blank values.

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Pectobacterium atrosepticum Bacteriophage Peat1

    PubMed Central

    Kalischuk, Melanie; Hachey, John

    2015-01-01

    Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a common phytopathogen causing significant economic losses worldwide. To develop a biocontrol strategy for this blackleg pathogen of solanaceous plants, P. atrosepticum bacteriophage Peat1 was isolated and its genome completely sequenced. Interestingly, morphological and sequence analyses of the 45,633-bp genome revealed that phage Peat1 is a member of the family Podoviridae and most closely resembles the Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage KP34. This is the first published complete genome sequence of a phytopathogenic P. atrosepticum bacteriophage, and details provide important information for the development of biocontrol by advancing our understanding of phage-phytopathogen interactions. PMID:26272557

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Pectobacterium atrosepticum Bacteriophage Peat1.

    PubMed

    Kalischuk, Melanie; Hachey, John; Kawchuk, Lawrence

    2015-08-13

    Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a common phytopathogen causing significant economic losses worldwide. To develop a biocontrol strategy for this blackleg pathogen of solanaceous plants, P. atrosepticum bacteriophage Peat1 was isolated and its genome completely sequenced. Interestingly, morphological and sequence analyses of the 45,633-bp genome revealed that phage Peat1 is a member of the family Podoviridae and most closely resembles the Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteriophage KP34. This is the first published complete genome sequence of a phytopathogenic P. atrosepticum bacteriophage, and details provide important information for the development of biocontrol by advancing our understanding of phage-phytopathogen interactions.

  18. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  19. Mercury methylation in Sphagnum moss mats and its association with sulfate-reducing bacteria in an acidic Adirondack forest lake wetland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Adatto, Isaac; Montesdeoca, Mario R; Driscoll, Charles T; Hines, Mark E; Barkay, Tamar

    2010-12-01

    Processes leading to the bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) in northern wetlands are largely unknown. We have studied various ecological niches within a remote, acidic forested lake ecosystem in the southwestern Adirondacks, NY, to discover that mats comprised of Sphagnum moss were a hot spot for mercury (Hg) and MeHg accumulation (190.5 and 18.6 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). Furthermore, significantly higher potential methylation rates were measured in Sphagnum mats as compared with other sites within Sunday Lake's ecosystem. Although MPN estimates showed a low biomass of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 2.8 × 10⁴ cells mL⁻¹ in mat samples, evidence consisting of (1) a twofold stimulation of potential methylation by the addition of sulfate, (2) a significant decrease in Hg methylation in the presence of the sulfate reduction inhibitor molybdate, and (3) presence of dsrAB-like genes in mat DNA extracts, suggested that SRB were involved in Hg methylation. Sequencing of dsrB genes indicated that novel SRB, incomplete oxidizers including Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfovibrio spp., and syntrophs dominated the sulfate-reducing guild in the Sphagnum moss mat. Sphagnum, a bryophyte dominating boreal peatlands, and its associated microbial communities appear to play an important role in the production and accumulation of MeHg in high-latitude ecosystems.

  20. Differential hydrogen isotopic ratios of Sphagnum and vascular plant biomarkers in ombrotrophic peatlands as a quantitative proxy for precipitation—evaporation balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan; Booth, Robert K.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Pendall, Elise G.; Huang, Yongsong

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a new approach to quantitatively reconstruct past changes in evaporation based on compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios of vascular plant and Sphagnum biomarkers in ombrotrophic peatland sediments. We show that the contrast in H isotopic ratios of water available to living Sphagnum (top 20 cm) and in the rooting zone of peatland vascular plants can be used to estimate "ƒ"—the fraction of water remaining after evaporation. Vascular plant leaf waxes record H isotopic ratios of acrotelm water, which carries the D/H ratio signature of precipitation and is little affected by evaporation, whereas the Sphagnum biomarker, C 23n-alkane, records H isotopic ratios of the water inside its cells and between its leaves, which is strongly affected by evaporation at the bog surface. Evaporation changes can then be deduced by comparing H isotopic ratios of the two types of biomarkers. We calibrated D/H ratios of C 23n-alkane to source water with lab-grown Sphagnum. We also tested our isotopic model using modern surface samples from 18 ombrotrophic peatlands in the Midwestern United States. Finally, we generated a 3000-year downcore reconstruction from Minden Bog, Michigan, USA. Our new record is consistent with records of other parameters from the same peatland derived from different proxies and allows us to differentiate precipitation supply and evaporative loss.

  1. Stable Isotope Probing of Peat and Forest Floor Amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quideau, Sylvie; Béasse, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In Alberta, Canada, land reclamation efforts utilize peat as an organic amendment to help reclaim decommissioned oil sands mine sites to upland boreal forests. This study investigates the rhizosphere microbial communities of two pioneer species, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a species not known for strong associations with the soil microbial community, and alder (Alnus crispa Ait.), a species well known for mutualism with actinomycetes. Specifically, the objective was to determine how different organic amendments (peat versus forest floor) influenced the rhizosphere microbial communities and how this could be linked to plant growth. Seedlings were grown for 20 weeks in forest floor material, peat, and a combination of both. They were pulse labelled with 13CO2 (g) and subsequently harvested for plant growth measurements. While analysis of plant growth attributes did not indicate any effect of the organic amendment on aspen growth, alder reported significantly less growth in peat treatments. The rhizosphere soils were extracted for compound-specific analysis of δ13C in microbial phospholipid fatty acids. Stable isotope probing showed greater carbon flow between trees and their rhizosphere communities when seedlings were grown in forest floor material.

  2. Ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, Paul H.

    1989-01-01

    Over 20 percent of the land surface of Canada and Alaska is covered by peatlands, which may be defined as any waterlogged ecosystem with a minimum thickness of 20 cm of organic matter in the soil. Past investigations have demonstrated the value of aerial photographs in identifying the major vegetation types and analyzing the biotic and hydrogeologic processes that control the development of these peatlands. In the present study, LANDSAT TM imagery was used in conjunction with field studies to determine the utility of this satellite sensor for detecting these important processes. Although the vegetation landforms within these major peat basins are visible on aerial photographs, LANDSAT TM imagery provides essential new evidence for their analysis. Spectral data from the LANDSAT TM system provides: (1) synoptic views of the patterns across large portions of these peat basins, indicating important physiographic controls on peatland development, (2) more sensitive detection of the major vegetation types, allowing rapid quantitative estimates to be made of their distribution and aerial extent, (3) discrimination of bog areas with potentially rapid or slow rates of peat accumulation, (4) identification of discharge zones for groundwater, which apparently represents the most important source of alkalinity in these peat basins, and (5) detection of flow patterns in water tracks that appear nearly uniform on standard aerial photographs.

  3. Health burden from peat wildfire in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    In June 2008, a wildfire smoldering through rich peat deposits in the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge produced massive amounts of smoke and exposed a largely rural North Carolina area to air pollution in access of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In this talk, w...

  4. Classifying and mapping wetlands and peat resources using digital cartography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Emery, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Digital cartography allows the portrayal of spatial associations among diverse data types and is ideally suited for land use and resource analysis. We have developed methodology that uses digital cartography for the classification of wetlands and their associated peat resources and applied it to a 1:24 000 scale map area in New Hampshire. Classifying and mapping wetlands involves integrating the spatial distribution of wetlands types with depth variations in associated peat quality and character. A hierarchically structured classification that integrates the spatial distribution of variations in (1) vegetation, (2) soil type, (3) hydrology, (4) geologic aspects, and (5) peat characteristics has been developed and can be used to build digital cartographic files for resource and land use analysis. The first three parameters are the bases used by the National Wetlands Inventory to classify wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. The fourth parameter, geological aspects, includes slope, relief, depth of wetland (from surface to underlying rock or substrate), wetland stratigraphy, and the type and structure of solid and unconsolidated rock surrounding and underlying the wetland. The fifth parameter, peat characteristics, includes the subsurface variation in ash, acidity, moisture, heating value (Btu), sulfur content, and other chemical properties as shown in specimens obtained from core holes. These parameters can be shown as a series of map data overlays with tables that can be integrated for resource or land use analysis.

  5. The effects of salinization on aerobic and anaerobic decomposition and mineralization in peat meadows: the roles of peat type and land use.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Karlijn; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Hefting, Mariet M

    2014-10-01

    Peat soils comprise a large part of the western and northern Netherlands. Drainage for agriculture has caused increased soil aeration which has stimulated decomposition and, hence, soil subsidence, currently amounting to 1-2 cm/yr. River water is supplied to these peat areas in summer to prevent drying out of the peat soils. Saltwater intrusion and evaporation make this surface water slightly brackish during drought periods. In addition, brackish seepage can surface more easily during such dry periods. We performed an incubation experiment in which the effects of salinization on aerobic decomposition and mineralization of shallow peat samples and anaerobic decomposition and mineralization of deep peat samples were studied. We considered four different types of peat samples: peat sampled in agricultural peat meadows and in nature reserves, originally formed under either eutrophic or oligotrophic conditions. The aerobic decomposition was approximately reduced by 50% after salinization, whereas the anaerobic decomposition rates remained unchanged. Remarkably, the response to salinization did not differ between the peat types and land uses. Ammonium concentrations increased while nitrate concentrations decreased after salinization, probably as a result of reduced nitrification. Especially in the oligotrophic peat, ammonium concentrations increased substantially. Phosphate concentrations increased, possibly caused by changes in desorption and adsorption processes due to higher ion concentrations. DOC concentrations decreased in the brackish samples due to precipitation. Furthermore, the eutrophic peat samples showed increasing sulfate concentrations, both in oxic and anoxic incubations, which was attributed to pyrite oxidation. Independently of salinization, nitrification rates were higher in the agricultural, fertilized, peat soils. In conclusion, while salinization might reduce subsidence rates, it will have adverse effects on water quality.

  6. Emission Factor from Small Scale Tropical Peat Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, W.; Damanhuri, E.; Lestari, P.; Dewi, K.

    2017-03-01

    Peatfire in Indonesia recently had become an important issue regarding its global warming impact of green house gases emitted. Emission factor is one of important variables to determine total emission of carbon released by peatfire. But currently there were only a few studies about Indonesian peat fire emission factors. The previous studies of Indonesian peat fire emission factor reported the results from a very limited number of samples and during smoldering combustion stages only. Therefore this study attempts to quantify carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission factors from laboratory peat combustion based on higher number of samples and taken both of combustion stages (flaming and smoldering) into consideration. Peats were sampled from five different districts in Pontianak, West Kalimantan. Ultimate analysis showed that pure peat composed of relatively high carbon content (52.85 – 59.43% dry basis). Laboratory experiments were carried out by burning small amout of peats in a mini furnace and measuring their CO2 and CH4 emission concentration during flaming and smoldering. CO2, CO and CH4 average emission factors and their related average MCE for flaming were found to be 2,088 ± 21 g/kg (n = 17), 3.104 ± 7.173 g/kg (n = 17), 0.143 ± 0.132 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.998 ± 0.005 (n = 17), respectively, while for smoldering were 1,831 ± 131 g/kg (n = 17), 138 ± 72 g/kg (n = 17), 17 ± 12 g/kg (n = 17) and 0.894 ± 0.055 g/kg (n = 17), respectively. This emission factors based on the laboratory combustion experiment can be conveniently used to estimate CO2 and CH4 emission from Indonesian peat fire. Equation models to correlate between MCE and emission factors for both flaming and smoldering were developed. MCE and CO2 emission factor during flaming was relatively higher than smoldering. On the contrary, CO and CH4 emission factors were relatively smaller during flaming than smoldering.

  7. Untangling climatic and autogenic signals in peat records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Baird, Andrew J.; Young, Dylan M.; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Raised bogs contain potentially valuable information about Holocene climate change. However, autogenic processes may disconnect peatland hydrological behaviour from climate, and overwrite and degrade climatic signals in peat records. How can genuine climate signals be separated from autogenic changes? What level of detail of climatic information should we expect to be able to recover from peat-based reconstructions? We used an updated version of the DigiBog model to simulate peatland development and response to reconstructed Holocene rainfall and temperature reconstructions. The model represents key processes that are influential in peatland development and climate signal preservation, and includes a network of feedbacks between peat accumulation, decomposition, hydraulic structure and hydrological processes. It also incorporates the effects of temperature upon evapotranspiration, plant (litter) productivity and peat decomposition. Negative feedbacks in the model cause simulated water-table depths and peat humification records to exhibit homeostatic recovery from prescribed changes in rainfall, chiefly through changes in drainage. However, the simulated bogs show less resilience to changes in temperature, which cause lasting alterations to peatland structure and function and may therefore be more readily detectable in peat records. The network of feedbacks represented in DigiBog also provide both high- and low-pass filters for climatic information, meaning that the fidelity with which climate signals are preserved in simulated peatlands is determined by both the magnitude and the rate of climate change. Large-magnitude climatic events of an intermediate frequency (i.e., multi-decadal to centennial) are best preserved in the simulated bogs. We found that simulated humification records are further degraded by a phenomenon known as secondary decomposition. Decomposition signals are consistently offset from the climatic events that generate them, and decomposition

  8. Biological activity and biodegradation of organic matter in sandy peat soils

    SciTech Connect

    Zimenko, T.G.; Bambalov, N.N.; Belkovskii, V.I.; Gavrilkina, N V.

    1986-11-01

    Various techniques for sandy reclaimed peat soils act differently on the microbiochemical processes responsible for peat biodegradation. Mixing the upper layer of peat with sand increases its biogenicity and intensifies biodegradation. These processes are greatly inhibited by creating a mineral screen (sand without mixing) on the surface of the peat soil. Deep reclamational tilling of thin peatbogs, which produces from the underlying mineral substrate a thicker (20-25 cm) organic-mineral plowed layer, ensures a high biological activity and fertility of the new soil. Mixing the peat layer into the soil profile by tilling promotes its preservation from rapid biodegradation.

  9. Peat bogs offer a reliable, local source of fuel in several states

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.

    1981-10-01

    With total estimated US peat resources equivalent to the energy content of 240-billion bbl of oil, peat could be a significant energy resource even if only a fraction of it can be recovered. Resource estimates include only those areas (mostly in eight states) with at least 80 acres/sq mi of peat, where the deposits are at least 4 ft deep. Peat fuel properties, new equipment for peat harvesting and dewatering, and modern combustion technology are described. Conversion to synthetic fuels looks promising.

  10. Nutrient load can lead to enhanced CH4 fluxes through changes in vegetation, peat surface elevation and water table depth in ombrotrophic bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutinen, Sari; Bubier, Jill; Larmola, Tuula; Humphreys, Elyn; Arnkil, Sini; Roy, Cameron; Moore, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has led to nutrient enrichment in wetlands, particularly in temperate areas, affecting plant community composition, carbon (C) cycling, and microbial dynamics. It is vital to understand the temporal scales and mechanisms of the changes, because peatlands are long-term sinks of C, but sources of methane (CH4), an important greenhouse gas. Rainwater fed (ombrotrophic) bogs are considered to be vulnerable to nutrient loading due to their natural nutrient poor status. We fertilized Mer Bleue Bog, a Sphagnum moss and evergreen shrub-dominated ombrotrophic bog near Ottawa, Ontario, now for 11-16 years with N (NO3 NH4) at 0.6, 3.2, and 6.4 g N m-2 y-1 (~5, 10 and 20 times ambient N deposition during summer months) with and without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Treatments were applied to triplicate plots (3 x 3 m) from May - August 2000-2015 and control plots received distilled water. We measured CH4 fluxes with static chambers weekly from May to September 2015 and peat samples were incubated in laboratory to measure CH4 production and consumption potentials. Methane fluxes at the site were generally low, but after 16 years, mean CH4 emissions have increased and more than doubled in high nitrogen addition treatments if P and K input was also increased (3.2 and 6.4 g N m-2yr-1 with PK), owing to drastic changes in vegetation and soil moisture. Vegetation changes include a loss of Sphagnum moss and introduction of new species, typical to minerogenic mires, which together with increased decomposition have led to decreased surface elevation and to higher water table level relative to the surface. The trajectories indicate that the N only treatments may result in similar responses, but only over longer time scales. Elevated atmospheric deposition of nutrients to peatlands may increase loss of C not only due to changes in CO2 exchange but also due to enhanced CH4 emissions in peatlands through a complex suite of feedbacks and interactions

  11. Advancement of peat hydrogasification. Final report, July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Garey, M.P.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1983-07-01

    This final technical report summarizes the results of a preliminary conceptual commercial-scale peat hydrogasification plant study performed for the US Department of Energy by the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International and its subcontractor, the C.E. Lummus Company. The plant design is based on the Rockwell single-stage, entrained flow, short-residence-time hydrogasifier in which peat and hot hydrogen are reacted to produce SNG and a high-value co-product liquid, predominantly chemical-grade benzene. The overall design objective was to integrate the Rockwell hydrogasifier with a combination of unit operations and plant subsystems to yield an effective and economic plant for producing 250 billion Btu per stream day of pipeline quality SNG from peat. The report is divided into two parts. Part I contains a summary of the work performed by Rockwell in support of the Lummus plant design effort. Rockwell provided to Lummus correlations of reactor performance data, cost and design information pertaining to the reactor train, specifications of equipment requirements for the peat drying and pulverization system, and preliminary material balances for an alternate plant design based upon the use of a partial oxidation gasifier system for hydrogen generation. Lummus performed the major part of this study. Their final report to Rockwell is presented in its entirety as Part II of this document. Included are the design and economic bases for the commercial-scale plant concept, detailed descriptions of the selected process configurations, and preliminary order of magnitude estimates for the capital requirements, the net annual operating costs, and an average cost of gas for the proposed plant design. The Lummus section and a review article on peat have been entered separately. (LTN)

  12. [Extraction of Cd by ramie from soils as affected by applications of chelators and peat].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Ping; Zong, Liang-Gang; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Wei-Xing; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Ya-Hua

    2009-09-15

    Pot experiments were performed to study the effectiveness of chelators (EDTA, citric acid) and peat in enhancing phyremediation of heavy metal Cd by ramie. The results showed that peat increased the ramie's biomass by improving soil's physical and chemical properties, and the relative yields of peat alone, chelators(EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat were 1.23, 1.13 and 1.41 respectively. So the combination of citric acid and peat was more useful for growth of the ramie. As far as improving Cd uptake was concerned, it seemed that the combination of chelators with peat significantly promoted Cd uptake by the plant, and the percent of changeable Cd in soil were 61.6% and 58.3% . In addition, it had better bioaccumulation effects to combine with chelators and peat, of which Cd bioaccumulation coefficients were 1.33 and 1.32, compared to 1.11, 1.11 and 1.05 in application of peat, EDTA and citric acid respectively. What's more, cadmium removal rates in soil were up to 1.13% and 1.22% respectively in applications of two kinds of chleators (EDTA, citric acid) combined with peat. Therefore, it had better effects of phytoremediation to accumulate more cadmium amounts by combining with citric acid and peat because of more biomass. In conclusion, the phytoremediation by ramie can be more effective when chelators and peat were combined and added to soils.

  13. The role of peat double porosity on groundwater-surface water interaction in a drained fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, P. M.; Ala-aho, P.; Ronkanen, A.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater discharge from an esker aquifer to a fen was studied to understand relevant hydrological processes for surface-groundwater interaction in an esker-peatland hillslope. Piezometric levels of the peat layer and esker sand layer were continuously monitored and compared to climate data. Groundwater exfiltration points were spatially mapped and related to peat depth. The study showed a clear interaction between fen surface water and sand esker groundwater although the hydraulic conductivity of peat was low and the peat depth thick. In the artesian aquifer beneath the fen, the piezometric head showed a clear response to precipitation and evapotranspiration. Wetting of the peat is rapidly seen as pressure increase in the confined aquifer. This provides new information on hydraulics of wetlands found in aquifer discharge areas. Groundwater exfiltrated through thick peat layers in vertical preferential point discharges demonstrating how double porosity provides flow through the peat layer with low hydraulic conductivity in the peat matrix. The "pipe flow" channels were found in the deep peat area in the transition zones from deep peat to shallow peat. Diffuse seepage through the ditch bottom was found where ditches cut into the sand layer. Increased discharge through the ditch bed reduced the flow resistance at the aquifer boundary which can lower the groundwater level in the esker. The results show new processes in the groundwater discharge zone that are useful for groundwater modeling and policy development for future groundwater protection.

  14. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  15. Sketch maps showing areal extent, thickness and amount of commercial-quality peat in deposits of southern and western Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, C.C.; Mullen, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    Peat deposits in southern and western Maine were investigated for their estimated potential as peat resources suitable for energy, horticultural, and agricultural uses. Fifty-six sketch maps illustrate the areal extent, thickness, and amount of commercial-quality peat. The total yield is estimated at 27,736,400 short tons air-dried peat.

  16. A new soil mechanics approach to quantify and predict land subsidence by peat compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, Kay; Erkens, Gilles; Zwanenburg, Cor

    2016-10-01

    Land subsidence threatens many coastal areas. Quantifying current and predicting future subsidence are essential to sustain the viability of these areas with respect to rising sea levels. Despite its scale and severity, methods to quantify subsidence are scarce. In peat-rich subsidence hot spots, subsidence is often caused by peat compression. We introduce the standard Cone Penetration Test (CPT) as a technique to quantify subsidence due to compression of peat. In a test in the Holland coastal plain, the Netherlands, we found a strong relationship between thickness reduction of peat and cone resistance, due to an increase in peat stiffness after compression. We use these results to quantify subsidence of peat in subsiding areas of Sacramento-San Joaquin delta and Kalimantan, and found values corresponding with previously made observations. These results open the door for CPT as a new method to document past and predict future subsidence due to peat compression over large areas.

  17. Louisiana peat resources. Final technical report, 1 April 1981-15 April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Kosters, E.C.; Bailey, A.

    1983-08-01

    Five peat prospect areas - Gueydan, Avery Island, Sale-Cypremort, Barataria, and Lake Pontchartrain - are representative of different types of South Louisiana peat deposits. Together, the prospects are estimated to contain about 20 x 10/sup 6/ metric tons of peat. Because these areas occupy only a small portion of the deltaic and chenier plains, there is potentially much more peat present in South Louisiana. Approximately 2000 samples, taken from about 200 auger holes and vibracores, were analyzed. Average values of Louisiana peat are 90% moisture, 80% organic matter (20% ash), a bulk density of 0.12 g/cm/sup 3/, and a Btu of 8515. The relationships between percent moisture and organic matter and between bulk density and depth indicate that compaction during the first few thousand years was minimal. Freshwater peats contain primarily kaolinite and quartz, whereas marine-influenced peats contain kaolinite, quartz, and water-soluble salts.

  18. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. Second quarterly report (year 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Dr., A. D.; Tisdale, M.; Andrejko, M.; Corvinus, D.; Knight, Richard A.; Olsen, N. K.; Vigerstad, Dr., T. J.

    1981-04-01

    The objectives of this program are to assess the magnitude of the resources and locate areas of highest potential for peat deposits in South Carolina. The energy potential of these peat resources is also being evaluated. This report presents the results of progress made during the last quarter in: assessing data and prioritizing peat areas to be surveyed; procurement of equipment and supplies; and preliminary peat resource assessment. A summary of the results of all new field surveys conducted during the quarter is included. Approximate locations of potential major peat deposits have been identified. Preliminary sampling studies indicate that Pigeon Bay may have the thickest and best quality peat in Berkeley County. Probes indicate peats up to 12 feet thick are located near the Black River in Georgetown County. Samples from areas designated as organic soils by the USDA were analyzed for moisture, organic, and ash content. (DMC)

  19. Effects of peat fires on the characteristics of humic acid extracted from peat soil in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yustiawati; Kihara, Yusuke; Sazawa, Kazuto; Kuramitz, Hideki; Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Wulandari, Linda; Hendri I; Tanaka, Shunitz

    2015-02-01

    When peat forest fires happen, it leads to burn soil and also humic acids as a dominant organic matter contained in peat soil as well as the forest. The structure and properties of humic acids vary depending on their origin and environment, therefore the transformation of humic acid is also diverse. The impacts of the peat fires on peat soil from Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were investigated through the characterization of humic acids, extracted from soil in burnt and unburnt sites. The characterization of humic acids was performed by elemental composition, functional groups, molecular weight by HPSEC, pyrolysate compounds by pyrolysis-GC/MS, fluorescence spectrum by 3DEEM spectrofluorometer, and thermogravimetry. The elemental composition of each humic substance indicated that the value of H/C and O/C of humic acids from burnt sites were lower than that from unburnt sites. The molecular weight of humic acids from burnt sites was also lower than that from unburnt sites. Pyrolysate compounds of humic acids from unburnt sites differed from those of humic acids from burnt soil. The heating experiment showed that burning process caused the significant change in the properties of humic acids such as increasing the aromaticity and decreasing the molecular weight.

  20. Comparison of dry and living Sphagnum palustre moss samples in determining their biocumulative capability as biomonitoring tools.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Karolina; Astel, Aleksander; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan; Biziuk, Marek; Bode, Peter; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2007-07-01

    Dry and living Sphagnum palustre moss samples were compared in parallel in order to study their biocumulative capability as biomonitoring tools. The two biomonitoring forms were used and compared to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of both preparation approaches and to choose the most suitable tool. The study was performed in an urban area to identify the main pollution sources. Cluster Analysis and Principal Components Analysis were used in order to identify specific element profiles attributed to various sources impacting both dry and living plant composition. A large number of tracer elements were initially tested by multivariate statistical data treatment but it turned out that a much smaller number of them could be used in modeling. Consequently, future monitoring can be performed using fewer tracers without losing significant information. Environmetric results were compared with absolute concentration levels of the indicated tracer elements and also compared at various locations. The contribution of pollution sources to the total concentration of elements in biomonitors was determined.

  1. Active Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow Moss Biomonitoring of an Industrial Site in Romania: Temporal Variation in the Elemental Content.

    PubMed

    Culicov, Otilia A; Zinicovscaia, Inga; Duliu, O G

    2016-05-01

    The moss-bag transplant technique was used to investigate the kinetics of the accumulation of 38 elements in Sphagnum girgensohni moss samples in the highly polluted municipality of Baia Mare, Romania. The moss samples collected from the unpolluted Vitosha Mountain Natural Reserve, Bulgaria, were analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of exposure, respectively. The ANOVA method was used to assay the statistical significance of the observed changes in elemental content, as determined by neutron activation analysis. The content of Zn, Se, As, Ag, Cd, and Sb increased steadily, while that of physiologically active K and Cl, as well as Rb and Cs, decreased exponentially. The study showed that an adequate application of the moss transplant technique in an urban environment should consider the exposure time as a critical parameter, since particular elements are depleted in the moss at sites with high atmospheric loading of metals.

  2. What controls the oxidative ratio of UK peats? A multi-site study of elemental CHNO concentrations in peat cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth; Worrall, Fred; Masiello, Carrie

    2013-04-01

    The oxidative ratio (OR) is the amount of CO2 sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere for each mol of O2 produced. The OR governs the effectiveness of a terrestrial biome to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and it has been used to calculate the balance of terrestrial and oceanic carbon sinks across the globe. However, few studies have investigated the controls of the variability in OR. What factors affect OR - climate? Soil type? Vegetation type? N deposition? Land use? Land use change? Small shifts in OR could have important implications in the global partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere, biosphere, and oceans. This study looks at peat soils from a series of sites representing a climatic transect across the UK. Duplicate peat cores were taken, along with samples of above-ground vegetation and litter, from sites in northern Scotland (Forsinard), southern Scotland (Auchencorth), northern England (Moor House; Thorne Moor) through the Welsh borders (Whixhall Moss) and Somerset levels (Westhay Moor) to Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor in the south west of England. Sub-samples of the cores were analysed for their CHNO concentrations using a Costech ECS 4010 Elemental combustion system. Using the method of Masiello et al. (2008), OR values could be calculated from these elemental concentrations. Results show that OR values of UK peats varied between 0.82 and 1.27 with a median value of 1.08 which is within the range of world soils. There were significant differences in OR of the peat between sites with the data falling into two broad groupings - Group 1: Forsinard, Auchencorth, Dartmoor and Bodmin Moor; Group 2: Moor House, Thorne Moor, Westhay Moor, Whixhall Moss. Whilst there were significant changes (p < 0.05) in elemental ratios with increasing peat depth (increasing C:N ratio and decreasing O:C ratio) there was no significant difference overall in OR with depth. This paper will explore some of the possible controlling factors on these ratios. Local

  3. Effects of spatial heterogeneity in moisture content on the horizontal spread of peat fires.

    PubMed

    Prat-Guitart, Nuria; Rein, Guillermo; Hadden, Rory M; Belcher, Claire M; Yearsley, Jon M

    2016-12-01

    The gravimetric moisture content of peat is the main factor limiting the ignition and spread propagation of smouldering fires. Our aim is to use controlled laboratory experiments to better understand how the spread of smouldering fires is influenced in natural landscape conditions where the moisture content of the top peat layer is not homogeneous. In this paper, we study for the first time the spread of peat fires across a spatial matrix of two moisture contents (dry/wet) in the laboratory. The experiments were undertaken using an open-top insulated box (22×18×6cm) filled with milled peat. The peat was ignited at one side of the box initiating smouldering and horizontal spread. Measurements of the peak temperature inside the peat, fire duration and longwave thermal radiation from the burning samples revealed important local changes of the smouldering behaviour in response to sharp gradients in moisture content. Both, peak temperatures and radiation in wetter peat (after the moisture gradient) were sensitive to the drier moisture condition (preceding the moisture gradient). Drier peat conditions before the moisture gradient led to higher temperatures and higher radiation flux from the fire during the first 6cm of horizontal spread into a wet peat patch. The total spread distance into a wet peat patch was affected by the moisture content gradient. We predicted that in most peat moisture gradients of relevance to natural ecosystems the fire self-extinguishes within the first 10cm of horizontal spread into a wet peat patch. Spread distances of more than 10cm are limited to wet peat patches below 160% moisture content (mass of water per mass of dry peat). We found that spatial gradients of moisture content have important local effects on the horizontal spread and should be considered in field and modelling studies.

  4. South Florida wetlands ecosystem; biogeochemical processes in peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William; ,

    1996-01-01

    The South Florida wetlands ecosystem is an environment of great size and ecological diversity (figs. 1 and 2). The landscape diversity and subtropical setting of this ecosystem provide a habitat for an abundance of plants and wildlife, some of which are unique to South Florida. South Florida wetlands are currently in crisis, however, due to the combined effects of agriculture, urbanization, and nearly 100 years of water management. Serious problems facing this ecosystem include (1) phosphorus contamination producing nutrient enrichment, which is causing changes in the native vegetation, (2) methylmercury contamination of fish and other wildlife, which poses a potential threat to human health, (3) changes in the natural flow of water in the region, resulting in more frequent drying of wetlands, loss of organic soils, and a reduction in freshwater flow to Florida Bay, (4) hypersalinity, massive algal blooms, and seagrass loss in parts of Florida Bay, and (5) a decrease in wildlife populations, especially those of wading birds. This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project focuses on the role of organic-rich sediments (peat) of South Florida wetlands in regulating the concentrations and impact of important chemical species in the environment. The cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in peat is an important factor in the regulation of water quality in the South Florida wetlands ecosystem. These elements are central to many of the contamination issues facing South Florida wetlands, such as nutrient enrichment, mercury toxicity, and loss of peat. Many important chemical and biological reactions occur in peat and control the fate of chemical species in wetlands. Wetland scientists often refer to these reactions as biogeochemical processes, because they are chemical reactions usually mediated by microorganisms in a geological environment. An understanding of the biogeochemical processes in peat of South Florida wetlands will provide a basis for evaluating the

  5. Regional Haze Evolved from Peat Fires - an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqi; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This work provides an overview of haze episodes, their cause, emissions and health effects found in the scientific literature. Peatlands, the terrestrial ecosystems resulting from the accumulation of partially decayed vegetation, become susceptible to smouldering fires because of natural droughts or anthropogenic-induced drainages. Once ignited, smouldering peat fires persistently consume large amounts of soil carbon in a flameless form. It is estimated that the average annual carbon gas emissions (mainly CO2 and CO) from peat fires are equivalent to 15% of manmade emissions, representing influential perturbation of global carbon circle. In addition to carbon emissions, smouldering peat fires emit substantial quantities of heterogeneous smoke, which is responsible for haze phenomena, has not yet been fully studied. Peat-fire-derived smoke is characterized by high concentration of particulate matter (PM), ranging from nano-scale ultrafine fraction (PM1, particle diameter < 1 μm) to micro-scale fine (PM2.5, particle diameter < 2.5 μm) and coarse fraction (PM10, particle diameter < 10 μm). The dispersal of the smoke could be blocked due to the stagnant weather condition, and then low buoyant smoke plume could accumulate and migrate long distances, leading to regional haze. Apart from air quality deterioration, haze leads to severe reduction in visibility, which strongly affects local transportation, construction, tourism and agriculture-based industries. For example, an unprecedented peatland mega-fire burst on the Indonesian islands Kalimantan and Sumatra during the 1997 El-Niño event, resulting in transboundary smoke-haze disaster. Severe haze events continue to appear in Southeast Asia every few years due to periodical peat fires in this region. In addition, smouldering peat fires have been frequently reported in tropical, temperate and boreal regions (Botswana in 2000, North America in 2004, Scotland in 2006 and Central Russia in 2010 et al.), peat

  6. Strong Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Light Absorption from Peat Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, M. S.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Yatavelli, R. L. N.; Chen, L. W. A. A.; Knue, J.; Samburova, V.; Watts, A.; Moosmüller, H.; Arnott, W. P.; Wang, X.; Zielinska, B.; Chow, J. C.; Watson, J. G.; Tsibart, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, organic soils and peats may store as much as 600 Gt of terrestrial carbon, representing 20 - 30% of the planet's terrestrial organic carbon mass. This is approximately the same carbon mass as that contained in Earth's atmosphere, despite peatlands occupying only 3% of its surface. Effects of fires in these ecosystems are of global concern due to their potential for enormous carbon release into the atmosphere. The implications for contributions of peat fires to the global carbon cycle and radiative forcing scenarios are significant. Combustion of peat mostly takes place in the low temperature, smoldering phase of a fire. It consumes carbon that may have accumulated over a period of hundreds to thousands of years. In comparison, combustion of aboveground biomass fuels releases carbon that has accumulated much more recently, generally over a period of years or decades. Here, we report our findings on characterization of emissions from laboratory combustion of peat soils from three locations representing the biomes in which these soils occur. Peat samples from Alaska and Florida (USA) and Siberia (Russia) were burned at two different fuel moisture levels. Burns were conducted in an 8-m3 volume combustion chamber located at the Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV, USA. We report significant brown carbon production from combustion of all three peat soils. We used a multispectral (405, 532, 781 nm) photoacoustic instrument equipped with integrating nephelometer to measure the wavelength-dependent aerosol light absorption and scattering. Absorption Ångström exponents (between 405 and 532 nm) as high as ten were observed, revealing strongly enhanced aerosol light absorption in the violet and blue wavelengths. Single scattering albedos (SSA) of 0.94 and 0.99 were observed at 405 and 532 nm, respectively, for the same sample. Variability of these optical parameters will be discussed as a function of fuel and combustion conditions. Other real-time measurements

  7. Reduction of trichloroethylene and nitrate by zero-valent iron with peat.

    PubMed

    Min, Jee-Eun; Kim, Meejeong; Pardue, John H; Park, Jae-Woo

    2008-02-01

    The feasibility of using zero-valent iron (ZVI) and peat mixture as in situ barriers for contaminated sediments and groundwater was investigated. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)), redox sensitive contaminants were reduced by ZVI and peat soil mixture under anaerobic condition. Peat was used to support the sorption of TCE, microbial activity for biodegradation of TCE and denitrification while TCE and nitrate were reduced by ZVI. Decreases in TCE concentrations were mainly due to ZVI, while peat supported denitrifying microbes and further affected the sorption of TCE. Due to the competition of electrons, nitrate reduction was inhibited by TCE, while TCE reduction was not affected by nitrate. From the results of peat and sterilized peat, it can be concluded that peat was involved in both dechlorination and denitrification but biological reduction of TCE was negligible compared to that of nitrate. The results from hydrogen and methane gas analyses confirmed that hydrogen utilization by microbes and methanogenic process had occurred in the ZVI-peat system. Even though effect of the peat on TCE reduction were quantitatively small, ZVI and peat contributed to the removal of TCE and nitrate independently. The 16S rRNA analysis revealed that viable bacterial diversity was narrow and the most frequently observed genera were Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp.

  8. Experimental warming differentially affects microbial structure and activity in two contrasted moisture sites in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Frédéric; Buttler, Alexandre; Bragazza, Luca; Grasset, Laurent; Jassey, Vincent E J; Gogo, Sébastien; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on the impact of climate warming have indicated that peat decomposition/mineralization will be enhanced. Most of these studies deal with the impact of experimental warming during summer when prevalent abiotic conditions are favorable to decomposition. Here, we investigated the effect of experimental air warming by open-top chambers (OTCs) on water-extractable organic matter (WEOM), microbial biomasses and enzymatic activities in two contrasted moisture sites named Bog and Fen sites, the latter considered as the wetter ones. While no or few changes in peat temperature and water content appeared under the overall effect of OTCs, we observed that air warming smoothed water content differences and led to a decrease in mean peat temperature at the warmed Bog sites. This thermal discrepancy between the two sites led to contrasting changes in microbial structure and activities: a rise in hydrolytic activity at the warmed Bog sites and a relative enhancement of bacterial biomass at the warmed Fen sites. These features were not associated with any change in WEOM properties namely carbon and sugar contents and aromaticity, suggesting that air warming did not trigger any shift in OM decomposition. Using various tools, we show that the use of single indicators of OM decomposition can lead to fallacious conclusions. Lastly, these patterns may change seasonally as a consequence of complex interactions between groundwater level and air warming, suggesting the need to improve our knowledge using a high time-resolution approach.

  9. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders: The soil is a major sulfate source through peat and pyrite oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; van der Geest, Harm G.; de Klein, Jeroen J. M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Verhoeven, Jos T. A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species. Potential limitation of these plants to areas with low sulfate was analyzed with a spatial match-up of two large databases. The peat polders are generally used for dairy farming or nature conservation, and have considerable areas of shallow surface water (mean 16%, range 6-43%). As a consequence of continuous drainage, the peat in these polders mineralizes causing subsidence rates generally ranging between 2 and 10 mm y-1. Together with pyrite oxidation, this peat mineralization the most important internal source of sulfate, providing an estimated 96 kg SO4 ha-1 mm-1 subsidence y-1. External sources are precipitation and water supplied during summer to compensate for water shortage, but these were found to be minor compared to internal release. The most important output flux is discharge of excess surface water during autumn and winter. If only external fluxes in and out of a polder are evaluated, inputs average 37 ± 9 and exports 169 ± 17 kg S ha-1 y-1. During summer, when evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, sulfate accumulates in the unsaturated zone, to be flushed away and drained off during the wet autumn and winter. In some polders, upward seepage from early Holocene, brackish sediments can be a source of sulfate. Peat polders export sulfate to the regional water system and the sea during winter drainage. The available sulfate probably only plays a minor role in the oxidation of peat: we estimate that this is less than 10% whereas aerobic mineralization is the most important. Most surface waters in these polders have high sulfate concentrations, which generally decline during the growing season when aquatic sediments are a sink. In the sediment, this sulfur is

  10. Peat Formation on Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island), subtropical eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Tibby, John; Barr, Cameron; Weerensena, Chagi; Gontz, Allen; Petherick, Lynda

    2016-04-01

    Minjerribah (North Stradbroke Island) is the second largest sand island in the world and contains extensive peat dominated wetlands, comprising ~20% of the total area of the island. These wetland systems include large areas of estuarine swamps [mainly mangrove forest (~16% of the island's wetland area)], freshwater swamps [both herb (~58% of the island's wetland area) and tree dominated (~20% of the island's wetland area)] and numerous lake systems [both perched and window lakes (~2% of the island's wetland area)]. This presentation will examine peat formation processes at four wetland sites: a late Holocene prograding beach system (Flinders Beach); a 150,000 year lacustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 1), as well as a late Holocene lacustrine/palustrine system (Welsby Lagoon 2); and a late Quaternary lacustrine/palustrine system (Tortoise Lagoon), as well as discussing broader environmental characteristics of Minjerribah's nationally and internationally important wetland systems.

  11. The sorption of Zectran on bottom sediments and peat moss

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, E.W.; Faust, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    A modified analytical method employed to determine the insecticide Zectran in natural waters frequently has resulted in erroneous data. The errors have been attributed to interferences from particulate matter in these waters. In order to evaluate analytical interferences due to sorption of Zectran on particulates, a series of experiments was performed using bottom sediments and a peat moss in contact with aqueous solutions of zectran at a pH values of 6.0 and 20 degrees C. Isotherm studies confirmed that Zectran sorption occurs in a direct relation to the amount of chemically oxidizable carbon present in the bottom sediments or peat moss. However, the extent of sorption was limited, which suggested that particulates may not be the primary interference in the modified analytical method.

  12. [The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated.

  13. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical composition of peat depends on the geobotanical conditions of its formation and on the depth of sampling. The evolution of hydrogenic peat soils is closely related to the genesis of peat and to the changes in water conditions. Due to a number of factors including oscillation of ground water level, different redox potential, changes of aerobic conditions, different plant communities, and root exudes, and products of the degradation of plant remains, peat-moorsh soils may undergo a process of secondary transformation conditions (Sokolowska et al. 2005; Szajdak et al. 2007). Phenol oxidase is one of the few enzymes able to degrade recalcitrant phenolic materials as lignin (Freeman et al. 2004). Phenol oxidase enzymes catalyze polyphenol oxidation in the presence of oxygen (O2) by removing phenolic hydrogen or hydrogenes to from radicals or quinines. These products undergo nucleophilic addition reactions in the presence or absence of free - NH2 group with the eventual production of humic acid-like polymers. The presence of phenol oxidase in soil environments is important in the formation of humic substances a desirable process because the carbon is stored in a stable form (Matocha et al. 2004). The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites of investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbechy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: cartel (0-50cm) and cattle (50-100cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the phenol oxidize activity in two layers of the four different peat-moors soils used as meadow. The phenol oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring quinone formation at λmax=525 nm with catechol as substrate by method of Perucci

  14. Petrified peat from a permian coal bed in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Petrified plant remains that composed a Permian peat deposit occur at a coal horizon in a local area of Mount Augusta near the Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica. This discovery is the first in the entire Gondwana area that yields plant materials as exquisitely preserved as the materials of the well-known coal-ball localities of the Northern Hemisphere. A sampling of anatomical details is illustrated.

  15. Modelling uncertainty of carbon stocks changes in peats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Aalders, Inge; Morrice, Jane; Hough, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Scotland with increased risk of release of the stored carbon. It is therefore important to model the loss of carbon in peat areas with estimation of the damage potential. The presented approach has the potential to provide important information for the assessment of carbon stocks over large areas, but also in case of changes of land use, such as construction of wind farms. The provided spatial uncertainty is important for including the results in further environmental and climate-change models and for decision making in order to provide alternatives and prioritisation. In this study, main peat properties (i.e. depth, water content, bulk density and carbon content) were modelled using a hybrid GAM-geostatistical 3D approach that allows full uncertainty propagation. The approach used involves 1) modelling the trend with full 3D spatial correlation, i.e., exploiting the values of the neighbouring pixels in 3D-space, and 2) 3D kriging as spatial component. The uncertainty of the approach is assessed with iterations in both steps of the process. We studied the difference between local estimates obtained with the present method and local estimates obtained assuming the global average value across the test area for Carbon content and bulk density. To this end, virtual pits with a surface area of 30x30 m were excavated for the whole peat depth at randomly selected locations. Calculated uncertainty was used to estimate credible intervals of C loss. In this case the estimates obtained with the proposed approach are higher that what would be obtained by assuming spatial homogeneity and using just average values across the area. This has implications for environmental decision making and planning as, in this case, it is likely that more carbon would be lost than estimated using traditional approaches.

  16. Hydrological modeling in swelling/shrinking peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporese, M.; Ferraris, S.; Putti, M.; Salandin, P.; Teatini, P.

    2006-06-01

    Peatlands respond to natural hydrologic cycles of precipitation and evapotranspiration with reversible deformations due to variations of water content in both the unsaturated and saturated zone. This phenomenon results in short-term vertical displacements of the soil surface that superimpose to the irreversible long-term subsidence naturally occurring in drained cropped peatlands because of bio-oxidation of the organic matter. These processes cause changes in the peat structure, in particular, soil density and void ratio. The consequential changes in the hydrological parameters need to be incorporated in water flow dynamical models. In this paper, we present a new constitutive relationship for the soil shrinkage characteristic (SSC) in peats by describing the variation of porosity with moisture content. This model, based on simple physical considerations, is valid for both anisotropic and isotropic three-dimensional peat deformations. The capability of the proposed SSC to accurately describe the deformation dynamics has been assessed by comparison against a set of laboratory experimental results recently published. The constitutive relationship has been implemented into a Richards' equation-based numerical code and applied for the simulation of the peat soil dynamics as observed in a peatland south of the Venice Lagoon, Italy, in an ad hoc field experiment where the relevant parameters are continuously measured. The modeling results match well a large set of field data encompassing a period of more than 50 days and demonstrate that the proposed approach allows for a reliable reproduction of the soil vertical displacement dynamics as well as the hydrological behavior in terms of, for example, water flow, moisture content, and suction.

  17. Alkylation of lignites and peat in low-temperature plasma

    SciTech Connect

    L.I. Shchukin; S.I. Zherebtsov; M.V. Kornievich; O.A. Skutina

    2007-02-15

    The alkylation of lignites and peat was carried out at 50-270{sup o}C in different plasmas. The degree of conversion determined as the yield of the alcohol-benzene extract increases on passing from methane to alcohol plasma. The dependence of the extract yield on the plasma temperature, treatment time, and sample grinding degree was studied. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Carbon and Water Cycles in a New Zealand Peat Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D.; Smith, J.

    2001-12-01

    Peat soils represent globally significant stores of carbon and an understanding of carbon exchange processes between peat wetland ecosystems and the atmosphere is important for understanding the effects of, and impacts upon, global climate change. Eddy covariance measurements of CO2, water vapour and energy fluxes were made during 1999 and 2000 at a remnant oligotrophic raised peat bog in North Island, New Zealand. The bog's hydrology has been modified by drainage of surrounding agricultural land, so that the water table is relatively deep compared to that of unmodified bogs in the region. Vegetation is dominated by two indigenous species of rush-like vascular plants belonging to the Southern hemisphere family Restionaceae. Maximum daytime CO2 fluxes were commonly -9 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 and averaged -1.3 {μ }mol m-2 s-1 over the 24-hour period in summertime. The ecosystem was a sink of atmospheric carbon for most of the year, with wintertime characterised by 12--15 weeks of carbon neutrality or slight carbon loss. Average carbon uptake by the ecosystem was 196 gC m-2 yr-1 for the two-year period. Modelling suggests that the key factor determining inter-annual variability of the carbon budget is seasonal soil temperature, whereas ecosystem respiration is relatively insensitive to the position of the lowered water table. The bog vegetation acts as a major control over water vapour loss and energy partitioning favors sensible heat production with mean summertime Bowen ratios of approximately 2.0. Water use efficiency was highest in the morning, indicating that the vegetation maximizes CO2 assimilation while the saturation vapour pressure deficit and transpiration rates are low. The dense canopy structure also restricts penetration of solar radiation to the peat surface, which minimizes evaporation and soil respiration.

  19. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  20. State of New York peat-resource inventory. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    A comprehensive peat resource inventory of New York State has been prepared based on airphoto interpretation supported by field reconnaissance and detailed surveys of certain selected peatlands. The entire state, with the exception of the Adirondack Park and a number of other protected areas, was included in the study. A total of 872 peatlands were identified, of which 235 individual deposits were judged usable for peat mining, based on criteria presented within the text, and then mapped using airphotos. The study shows that the state has over 145,910 acres of peatland containing an estimated 336 million tons of peat (at 50% moisture content) located in deposits which may be technically mineable. However, various other factors, such as ownership, location in park or wildlife management holdings, and existing uses, may exclude some of the otherwise potential deposits from possible use. Section 1 of Volume 2 contains all the bore hole logs compiled in the field during the detailed and reconnaissance surveys. This data was not included in the main report due to bulkiness and the fact that the data can be regarded as semi-raw field information which has been used as a partial basis for the resource calculations, included in Volume 1. The details on the information codes contained in the bore hole logs are explained in Section 3, Volume 1, pages 3-6.

  1. Peat resource estimation in Minnesota. Third quarter report, FY1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources has been surveying organic soil deposits to determine the location of fuel-grade peat since October 1, 1979, when the US Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute awarded Minnesota a grant for peat resource estimation. The survey determines the type, quantity, and energy potential of peatlands by field mapping and laboratory characterization. The focus of the project is an eight-county study area (Aitkin, Beltrami, Carlton, Cass, Itasca, Koochiching, Lake of the Woods, and St. Louis counties) that contain over half of Minnesota's six or seven million acres of peatland. Approximately one million acres of the state's total peatland acreage are currently available for state lease. The Koochiching County survey (1,147,560 acres of peatland), the Aitkin County survey (420,560 acres of peatland), and the survey of an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties (775,400 acres of peatland) have been completed, and the reports have been published. A reconnaissance-level peatland survey of southwest St. Louis County was completed, and a report was published with state funding. Our staff is continuing the redrafting of the Carlton County Peat Resource Map to correct registration errors. We expect the redrafted version of map to be completed in the fourth quarter. The computerized version of the map will be started when the redrafting is complete.

  2. Contribution of peat fires to the 2015 Indonesian fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Johannes W.; Heil, Angelika; Wooster, Martin J.; van der Werf, Guido R.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia experienced widespread fires and severe air quality degradation due to smoke during September and October 2015. The fires are thought to have originated from the combination of El-Niño-induced drought and human activities. Fires ignited for land clearing escaped into drained peatlands and burned until the onset of the monsoonal rain. In addition to the health impact, these fires are thought to have emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, e.g. more than Japan over the entire year. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) has detected and quantified the fires with the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) and the smoke dispersion with the Chemistry-Integrated Forecasting System (C-IFS) in near real time. GFAS and C-IFS are constrained by satellite-based observations of fire and smoke constituents, respectively. The distinction between peat and above-ground fires is a crucial and difficult step in fire emission estimation as it introduces errors of up to one order of magnitude. Here, we quantify the contribution of peat fires to the total emission flux of the 2015 Indonesian fires by (1) using an improved peat map in GFAS and (2) analysing the observed diurnal cycle of the fire activity as represented in a new development for GFAS. Furthermore, we link the fires occurrence to economic activity by analysing the coincidence with concessions for palm oil plantations and other industrial forest uses.

  3. Biofiltration of isopentane in peat and compost packed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Govind, R.

    1997-05-01

    Commercially available biofiltration systems have used natural bioactive materials in packed beds due to low media cost and easy availability. Detailed understanding and modeling of biofiltration systems are lacking in existing literature. Experimental studies on the isopentane treatment in air using peat- and compost-packed beds were conducted with inlet isopentane concentrations of 360 to 960 ppmv, and empty-bed gas-phase residence times of 2 to 10 min. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were achieved at low contaminant concentrations (<500 ppmv) and large empty-bed gas-phase residence times (>8 min). For both peat and compost biofilters, there was an optimal water content that gave the highest removal efficiency. For higher water content, mass transfer of isopentane through the liquid phase controlled the biofiltration removal efficiency. At low water content, irreversible changes in the bioactivity of peat and compost occurred, resulting in an irrecoverable loss of removal efficiency. Increases in biofilter bed temperature from 25 to 40 C improved the removal efficiency. A mathematical model incorporating the effect of water content and temperature was developed to describe the packed-bed biofilter performance. Model predictions agreed closely with experimental data.

  4. Characterization of peat structure using X-ray computed tomography and its control on the ebullition of biogenic gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettridge, Nicholas; Binley, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    The structural arrangement of peat constituents controls the hydrological and thermal properties of peat. However, the importance of these structural characteristics on other physical processes within a peatland has not been fully assessed. Here, we evaluate the importance of peat structure on its ability to entrain biogenic gas bubbles and control ebullition, an important transport mechanism for methane. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was applied to characterize the structure of a range of peats at varying levels of decomposition. The structural properties of the peat were quantified from a vector representation of the CT images, and the potential of each sample to entrain biogenic gas bubbles was quantified using a rule-based Monte Carlo model that calculates the tortuosity of bubbles pathways through the peat. Sixty-six percent of the variability in the trapping potential of the peat results from porosity variations and 34% from structural variations between samples. A metric that represents this structural control was not identified for all peat types because of difficulties adequately representing some peats as a vector network. However, for S. magellanicum peat we were able to establish that the influence of peat structure on the entrainment of gas bubbles is characterized by ?v, the average vector length of the stems and branches. Peat characterized by longer structural components (larger ?v) enhances the entrainment of gas bubbles. Our findings demonstrate the need to incorporate some representation of the peat structure in numerical models of biogenic gas transport in peat.

  5. Peat: a natural repository for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.D.

    1985-12-01

    A study has been initiated to evaluate the possibility of using peat as a natural repository for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. One aspect of this study was to determine the retentive properties of the peat through measurements of the distribution coefficients (K/sub d/) for Am-241, Ru-106, Cs-137, Co-57, and Sr-85 in two layers of mountain top peat bogs from Lefgren's, NY, and Spruce Flats, PA. These K/sub d/ values were then compared to literature values of various sediment/water systems at similar environmental conditions. Am-241, Ru-106, Co-57, and Sr-85 attained distribution coefficients in the organic rich layers of the bogs two orders of magnitude greater than those obtained previously at pH 4.0. Although, the Cs-137 sorbed strongly to the inorganic rich layer of the Spruce Flats, PA, bog, the K/sub d/ values obtained for this isotope were, again, comparable or higher than those reported previously at pH 4.0, indicating the greater retentive properties of the peat. A chromatographic ''theoretical plate'' model was used to describe the field migration of Cs-137. The advection and diffusion coefficients were higher in the Lefgren's Bog, NY, than those obtained for the Spruce Flats Bog, PA. These field data were substantiated by the lower Cs-137 K/sub d/ values determined in the laboratory for the Lefgren's Bog, NY, compared to the Spruce Flats Bog. Although this model gave a good indication of the field migration, it neglected the process of sorption as defined by the sorption isotherm. Based on the time series data on distribution ratio measurements, a Cameron-Klute type of sorption isotherm was indicated, with rapid equilibrium initially superimposed onto a slower first order linear reversible equilibrium. This sorption isotherm can then be used in the final form of a model to describe the migration of radionuclides in a peat bog. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K.

  7. Flourish or flush: effects of simulated extreme rainfall events on Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden).

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Keuper, Frida; Aerts, Rien; Beyens, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Extreme precipitation events are recognised as important drivers of ecosystem responses to climate change and can considerably affect high-latitude ombrotrophic bogs. Therefore, understanding the relationships between increased rainfall and the biotic components of these ecosystems is necessary for an estimation of climate change impacts. We studied overall effects of increased magnitude, intensity and frequency of rainfall on assemblages of Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in a field climate manipulation experiment located in a relatively dry subarctic bog (Abisko, Sweden). The effects of the treatment were estimated using abundance, species diversity and structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that increased rainfall reduced the mean abundance and species richness of living testate amoebae. Besides, the treatment affected species structure of both living and empty shell assemblages, reducing proportions of hydrophilous species. The effects are counterintuitive as increased precipitation-related substrate moisture was expected to have opposite effects on testate amoeba assemblages in relatively dry biotopes. Therefore, we conclude that other rainfall-related factors such as increased infiltration rates and frequency of environmental disturbances can also affect testate amoeba assemblages in Sphagnum and that hydrophilous species are particularly sensitive to variation in these environmental variables.

  8. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  9. Peat resource estimation in South Carolina. First quarterly report (year 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Dr., A. D.; Tisdale, M.; Holmes, M.; Corvinus, D.; Andrejko, M.; Olson, N. K.; Vigerstad, Dr., T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to assess the magnitude of the resources and areas of highest potential for peat deposits in South Carolina and evaluate the energy potential of these peat resources. This report presents the results of progress made in: data analysis of areas to be surveyed; sampling procedures and strategy; procurement of equipment and supplies; and preliminary peat resource assessment stuies. (DMC)

  10. Substrate quality and nutrient availability influence CO2 production from tropical peat decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swails, E.; Jaye, D.; Verchot, L. V.; Hergoualc'h, K.; Wahyuni, N. S.; Borchard, N.; Lawrence, D.

    2015-12-01

    In Indonesia, peatlands are a major and growing source of greenhouse gas emissions due to increasing pressure from oil palm and pulp wood plantations. We are using a combination of field measures, laboratory experiments, and remote sensing to investigate relationships among land use, climatic factors and biogeochemical controls, and their influence on trace gas fluxes from tropical peat soils. Analysis of soils collected from peat sites on two major islands indicated substantial variation in peat substrate quality and nutrient content among land uses and geographic location. We conducted laboratory incubations to test the influence of substrate quality and nutrient availability on CO2 production from peat decomposition. Differences in peat characteristics attributable to land use change were tested by comparison of forest and oil palm peat samples collected from the same peat dome in Kalimantan. Regional differences in peat characteristics were tested by comparison of samples from Sumatra with samples from Kalimantan. We conducted additional experiments to test the influence of N and P availability and labile carbon on CO2 production. Under moisture conditions typical of oil palm plantations, CO2 production was higher from peat forest samples than from oil palm samples. CO2 production from Sumatra and Kalimantan oil palm samples was not different, despite apparent differences in nutrient content of these soils. N and P treatments representative of fertilizer application rates raised CO2 production from forest samples but not oil palm samples. Labile carbon treatments raised CO2 production in all samples. Our results suggest that decomposition of peat forest soils is nutrient limited, while substrate quality controls decomposition of oil palm soils post-conversion. Though fertilizer application could accelerate peat decomposition initially, fertilizer application may not influence long-term CO2 emissions from oil palm on peat.

  11. Thermal properties of degraded lowland peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Soil thermal properties, i.e.: specific heat capacity (c), thermal conductivity (K), volumetric heat capacity (C) govern the thermal environment and heat transport through the soil. Hence the precise knowledge and accurate predictions of these properties for peaty soils with high amount of organic matter are especially important for the proper forecasting of soil temperature and thus it may lead to a better assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions created by microbiological activity of the peatlands. The objective of the study was to develop the predictive models of the selected thermal parameters of peat-moorsh soils in terms of their potential applicability for forecasting changes of soil temperature in degraded ecosystems of the Middle Biebrza River Valley area. Evaluation of the soil thermal properties was conducted for the parameters: specific heat capacity (c), volumetric heat capacities of the dry and saturated soil (Cdry, Csat) and thermal conductivities of the dry and saturated soil (Kdry, Ksat). The thermal parameters were measured using the dual-needle probe (KD2-Pro) on soil samples collected from seven peaty soils, representing total 24 horizons. The surface layers were characterized by different degrees of advancement of soil degradation dependent on intensiveness of the cultivation practises (peaty and humic moorsh). The underlying soil layers contain peat deposits of different botanical composition (peat-moss, sedge-reed, reed and alder) and varying degrees of decomposition of the organic matter, from H1 to H7 (von Post scale). Based on the research results it has been shown that the specific heat capacity of the soils differs depending on the type of soil (type of moorsh and type of peat). The range of changes varied from 1276 J.kg-1.K-1 in the humic moorsh soil to 1944 J.kg-1.K-1 in the low decomposed sedge-moss peat. It has also been stated that in degraded peat soils with the increasing of the ash content in the soil the value of specific heat

  12. Hydroclimatic shifts recorded in peat archive from Rąbień mire (Central Poland) - better understanding of past climate changes using multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Okupny, Daniel; Słowińska, Sandra; Borówka, Ryszard; Kittel, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological changes are main drivers of the processes occurring in the peatland ecosystem, e.g. organic matter accumulation and decomposition. Hydroclimatic changes in mires are caused by various non-climatic factors, such as hydroseral succession or land use changes. Central Europe, namely Poland, is characterized by a transitional climate with influence o both continental and Atlantic air masses, which makes a this region a very sensitive to climate change. Here we explore a potential of multidisciplinary approach in reconstruction of past climate change and particularly hydroclimatic conditions which control in Sphagnum peatland ecosystem. We reconstructed 3300 years (between 3,500 BC and 200 BC) history of development of Rąbień mire using several biotic proxies (pollen, plant macrofossils, testate amoebae, Cladocera, Chironomidae) and geochemistry. Study site - Rąbień mire (area 42 ha) is located in central Poland and it is protected nature reserve. The origin of the mire depression is connected with the development of the thermokarst basin isolated by dunes. Rąbień mire is limnogenic, i.e. formed by the process of terrestrialisation of a water body and thickness of biogenic deposits is 6.2 m (440 cm of lacustrine sediment and 180 cm of peat). Our results demonstrate the high potential of Rąbień peat record for reconstructing the palaeohydrological dynamics. The studied time interval is characterized by two pronounced dry periods: ~2,500 to ~1,700 cal. BC and ~800 to ~600 cal. BC, and two periods of significant increases in water table: ~1,100 to ~800 cal. BC and ~600 to ~250 cal. BC. The timing of the wet shift at 600 cal. BC corresponds to wet periods in different sites from Central and Eastern Europe. Our investigation reveals a complex pattern of proxies, what might be linked to the past atmospheric circulation patterns. Extreme hydroclimatic conditions most possibly had a direct impact on the functioning of peatland ecosystems. What has been

  13. Inventory of peat resources: an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Minnesota Peat Inventory Project's (MPIP) reconnaissance-level survey of an area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods counties. Peatlands cover about 314,000 hectares (775,000 acres) of this area and constitute about 12 percent of the state's total peat resource. The survey identifies the location and amount of fuel-grade and horticultural peat in the two county area. The report provides a general discussion of peatlands and describes the field and laboratory procedures of this peatland survey and presents a map of the peat resources in the surveyed area. 28 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  14. Peat deposits in Panama: Their potential for use in energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Thayer, G.; Cohen, A.D.; Allen, A.

    1986-12-01

    A major peak bog has been discovered in the Changuinola area of Panama. The bog averages 8-m deep, is thought to be 82 km/sup 2/, in area and the peat has an ash content of about 4%. It is estimated that this size peat bog could support a 30-MW power plant for 360 years. Preliminary cost estimates for using the peat in an electrical power plant give an estimated cost of electricity of 0.09$US/kWh if wet mining is used and 0.079$US/kWh if milled peat is used. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Prenatal effects of peat combustion products and afobazole correction thereof in the rat progeny.

    PubMed

    Gorbatova, D M; Nemova, E P; Solomina, A S; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2015-03-01

    Female outbred albino rats were daily subjected to forced inhalations of peat smoke (4 cores packed with a mixture of peat (70%) and wood pulp (30%); 0.46 g, pH ≥ 5.5) per se and in combination with oral afobazole (anxiolytic) on days 1-20 of pregnancy. Exposure to peat smoke inhibited body weight gain in pregnant rats, caused an increase of postimplantation deaths, reduction of fetal weights, and an increase in the number of hematomas and hemorrhages in fetuses. Afobazole in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg reduced significantly the untoward effects of peat smoke on fetal development.

  16. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 6. Peat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The requirements and potential for development of US peat resources for energy use are reviewed. Factors analyzed include the occurrence and properties of major peat deposits; technologies for extraction, dewatering, preparation, combustion, and conversion of peat to solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels; environmental, regulatory, and market constraints; and research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) needs. Based on a review of existing research efforts, recommendations are made for a comprehensive national RD and D program to enhance the use of peat as an energy source.

  17. Feedstock characteristics and preparation for peat gasification. Annual report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.; Aspinall, F.; Loftons, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    The report describes the work conducted to prepare updated peat resource maps and to conduct quantitative economic and environmental assessments of a few selected peat harvesting, dewatering, and beneficiation alternatives. In the task on peat resources, maps of seven states (Florida, Illinois, Maine, Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin) have been completed. A number of peat harvesting system designs have been ranked according to their technical merits. A preliminary economic comparison of four peat dewatering systems has been made. A description of a beneficiation (wet-carbonization) process and a preliminary economic estimate for producing beneficiated peat is presented. Recent developments in both thermal and biological conversion of peat to substitute natural gas (SNG) are described. The major air and water pollution emission rates from a peat gasification plant producing 250 billion Btu/day of SNG have been estimated. Detailed environmental scenarios have been prepared for three peat bogs typical of those in the Upper Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast United States. Preliminary cost estimates for harvested peatland reclamation options have been made.

  18. The morphology of peat bog surfaces on Hermansenøya, NW Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    This article analyses the surface morphology of the arctic peat bogs occurring on Hermansenøya, a small island in the Forlandsundet, NW Svalbard. Six small, shallow peat bogs on the island show different microrelief features formed by ice-segregation as well as thermokarst and thermo-erosion processes. On the peat bogs the following forms have been identified: aggradational, associated with the growth of different types of ground ice (frost peat mounds, peat plateaus, polygonal peat plateaus, networks of ice-wedge polygons); and degradational, associated with thermokarst (symmetrically developed residual peat mounds and the furrows in between) and thermo-erosion (channels of niveo-fluvial streams). Some importance can also be attributed to aeolian processes, i.e. snow drifting from the tops of convex relief features for aggradational forms. Lack of insulating snow cover significantly increases frost penetration depth, promoting cryosuction and/or ice growth at the base of a frozen core. The oldest preserved forms and structures, frost peat mounds with an ice-peat core and ice-wedge polygons, developed during climatic cooling at the turn of the Subboreal and Subatlantic (c. 3.0-2.5 ka BP). Thermokarst mounds are younger, associated with warmer periods after the Little Ice Age (the warmer 1920s). Channels of niveo-fluvial streams are being shaped today.

  19. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from small-scale peat fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, I. J.; Black, R.; Walker, J. T.; Hays, M. D.; Tabor, D.; Gullett, B.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution emitted from peat fires can negatively impact regional air quality, visibility, climate, and human health. Peat fires can smolder over long periods of time and, therefore, can release significantly greater amounts of carbon into the atmosphere per unit area compared to burning of other types of biomass. However, few studies have characterized the gas and particulate emissions from peat burning. To assess the atmospheric impact of peat fires, particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were quantified from controlled small-scale peat fire experiments. Major carbon emissions (i.e. CO2, CO, methane and total hydrocarbons) were measured during the peat burn experiments. Speciated PM mass was also determined from the peat burns from filter and polyurethane foam samples. Whole air samples were taken in SUMMA canisters and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 82 trace VOCs. Additional gaseous carbonyl species were measured by sampling with dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated cartridges and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. VOCs with highest observed concentrations measured from the peat burns were propylene, benzene, chloromethane and toluene. Gas-phase carbonyls with highest observed concentrations included acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone. Emission factors of major pollutants will be compared with recommended values for peat and other biomass burning.

  20. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area.

    PubMed

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67-39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01-1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20-60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40-60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20-60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe.

  1. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area

    PubMed Central

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67–39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01–1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20–60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40–60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20–60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe. PMID:27684377

  2. Cultivation and detection of endophytic aerobic methanotrophs isolated from Sphagnum species as a perspective for environmental biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enriched cultures of microorganisms are an essential step in the production of inoculum of these organisms for biotechnology and bioengineering. The potential application of methanotrophic microorganisms for removal of methane produced from landfills and coal mines as well as biodegradation of toxic compounds has been widely studied. Therefore, searching for new sources of methanotrophs can contribute to increasing the possibilities of biotechnology and bioengineering. Enrichment cultures of endophytic methanotrophs from Sphagnum sp. were initiated in NMS medium, a most widely used medium for cultivation of methanotrophic bacteria from various environments proposed in 1970 by Whittenbury. Incubation was carried out at 10, 20, 30, and 37°C with vigorous shaking on a shaker (180 rpm). The source of carbon and energy for endophytes were methane at the concentration range between 1-20%. It appeared that the consortium of endophytic bacteria grew only at the temperature of 20 and 30°C. During the culture of endophytes, the measurements of gas concentration showed a steady loss of methane and oxygen, as well as accumulation of carbon dioxide as a CH4 oxidation product. The use of FISH has made characterization of endophytic consortia possible. It turned out that the population of endophytes consists of type I and II methanotrophs as well as associated non-methanotrophic bacteria. Furthermore, we determined the potential of the examined bacteria for methane oxidation, which ranged up to 4,7 μMCH4 per ml of the population of endophytes per day. PMID:25401064

  3. Microform-related community patterns of methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs are site specific.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Kotiaho, Mirkka; Robinson, Devin; Merilä, Päivi; Fritze, Hannu; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2015-09-01

    Vegetation and water table are important regulators of methane emission in peatlands. Microform variation encompasses these factors in small-scale topographic gradients of dry hummocks, intermediate lawns and wet hollows. We examined methane production and oxidization among microforms in four boreal bogs that showed more variation of vegetation within a bog with microform than between the bogs. Potential methane production was low and differed among bogs but not consistently with microform. Methane oxidation followed water table position with microform, showing higher rates closer to surface in lawns and hollows than in hummocks. Methanogen community, analysed by mcrA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and dominated by Methanoregulaceae or 'Methanoflorentaceae', varied strongly with bog. The extent of microform-related variation of methanogens depended on the bog. Methanotrophs identified as Methylocystis spp. in pmoA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly showed effect of bog, and microform patterns were stronger within individual bogs. Our results suggest that methane-cycling microbes in boreal Sphagnum bogs with seemingly uniform environmental conditions may show strong site-dependent variation. The bog-intrinsic factor may be related to carbon availability but contrary to expectations appears to be unrelated to current surface vegetation, calling attention to the origin of carbon substrates for microbes in bogs.

  4. Adsorption/desorption of arsenic by tropical peat: influence of organic matter, iron and aluminium.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lílian Karla; Melo, Camila Almeida; Goveia, Danielle; Lobo, Fabiana Aparecida; Armienta Hernández, Maria Aurora; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rosa, André Henrique

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of arsenic species (As(III) and As(V)) with tropical peat. Peat samples collected in Brazil were characterized using elemental analysis and 13C NMR. Adsorption experiments were performed using different concentrations of As with peat in natura and enriched with Fe or Al, at three different pH levels. Peat samples, in natura or enriched with metals, were analysed before and after adsorption processes using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated, and the data were fitted using the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The results showed that interaction between As and peat was dependent on the levels of organic matter (OM) and the metals (Fe and Al). As(III) was not adsorbed by in natura peat or Al-enriched peat, although small amounts of As(III) were adsorbed by Fe-enriched peat. Adsorption of As(V) by the different peat samples ranged from 21.3 to 52.7 μg g(-1). The best fit to the results was obtained using the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the adsorption of As(V) could be described by the Freundlich isotherm model. The results showed that Fe-enriched peat was most effective in immobilizing As(V). FTIR analysis revealed the formation of ternary complexes involving As(V) and peat enriched with metals, suggesting that As(V) was associated with Al or Fe-OM complexes by metal bridging.

  5. Physiological changes in rhizobia after growth in peat extract may be related to improved desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Casteriano, Andrea; Wilkes, Meredith A; Deaker, Rosalind

    2013-07-01

    Improved survival of peat-cultured rhizobia compared to survival of liquid-cultured cells has been attributed to cellular adaptations during solid-state fermentation in moist peat. We have observed improved desiccation tolerance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum CB1809 after aerobic growth in water extracts of peat. Survival of TA1 grown in crude peat extract was 18-fold greater than that of cells grown in a defined liquid medium but was diminished when cells were grown in different-sized colloidal fractions of peat extract. Survival of CB1809 was generally better when grown in crude peat extract than in the control but was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) and was strongly dependent on peat extract concentration. Accumulation of intracellular trehalose by both TA1 and CB1809 was higher after growth in peat extract than in the defined medium control. Cells grown in water extracts of peat exhibit morphological changes similar to those observed after growth in moist peat. Electron microscopy revealed thickened plasma membranes, with an electron-dense material occupying the periplasmic space in both TA1 and CB1809. Growth in peat extract also resulted in changes to polypeptide expression in both strains, and peptide analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated increased expression of stress response proteins. Our results suggest that increased capacity for desiccation tolerance in rhizobia is multifactorial, involving the accumulation of trehalose together with increased expression of proteins involved in protection of the cell envelope, repair of DNA damage, oxidative stress responses, and maintenance of stability and integrity of proteins.

  6. Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2013-04-01

    Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

  7. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Palmer, Sheila M.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian; Brown, Lee E.

    2015-08-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flow paths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied 10 blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments, we studied plots where the last burn occurred ˜2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7), or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at similar topographic wetness index locations in the control catchments. Plots subject to prescribed vegetation burning had significantly deeper water tables (difference in means = 5.3 cm) and greater water table variability than unburnt plots. Water table depths were significantly different between burn age classes (B2 > B4 > B7 > B10+) while B10+ water tables were not significantly different to the unburnt controls. Overland flow was less common on burnt peat than on unburnt peat, recorded in 9% and 17% of all runoff trap visits, respectively. Storm lag times and hydrograph recession limb periods were significantly greater (by ˜1 and 13 h on average, respectively) in the burnt catchments overall, but for the largest 20% of storms sampled, there was no significant difference in storm lag times between burnt and unburnt catchments. For the largest 20% of storms, the hydrograph intensity of burnt catchments was significantly greater than those of unburnt catchments (means of 4.2 × 10-5 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1, respectively), thereby indicating a nonlinear streamflow response to prescribed burning. Together, these results from plots to whole river catchments indicate that prescribed vegetation burning has important effects on blanket peatland hydrology at a range of spatial scales.

  8. The adsorption of lead and copper from aqueous solution on modified peat-resin particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Q Y; Lu, P; Yang, L Z

    2004-01-01

    Raw peat was modified with sulfuric acid, then mixed modified with resin to prepare the modified peat-resin particles. Using the batch experimental systems, the removal of heavy metals (copper and lead) on the modified peat-resin particles was investigated. The data of the adsorption isotherm could be fitted by the Langmuir equation well. The adsorption rate of heavy metals on modified peat-resin particles was very swift. The removal processes of heavy metals on modified peat-resin particles could be well described by pseudo-second order model. The adsorption rate of lead was affected by the initial heavy metal concentration, initial pH, particle size, agitation speed and particle mass. In the adsorption of heavy metals (lead and copper) on the modified peat-resin particles, ion exchange was the major reaction mechanism. Desorption data showed that the lead adsorbed by modified peat-resin particle could be desorbed by 0.5 N or 1.0 N HNO3. The desorption rate was swift. The experiments indicated that the modified peat-resin particles have great potential for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

  9. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of peat wildfire particulate matter and the predictive utility of precision cut lung slices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Emissions from a large peat fire in North Carolina were associated with increased hospital admissions for asthma and the rate of heart failure in the exposed population. Peat fires often produce larger amounts of smoke and last longer than forest fires, however few st...

  10. Peat-assisted phytoremediation of waste foundry sands: plant growth, metal accumulation and fertility aspects.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Fábio N; Sígolo, Joel B; Figueira, Antonio V

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the potential of peat additions to improve plant growth and fertility and to reduce plant metal uptake in waste foundry sands (WFS) landfills. The WFS contains 78211 mg kg(-1) and 371 mg kg(-1) concentrations of Cr and Ni, respectively, and varied metal concentrations. The experiment investigated the growth of Brassica juncea plants on fertilized WFS mixed with peat at concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, and 10% (w/w). The highest peat treatment allowed substantial plant growth and increased Ni mass in shoots, which was positively correlated to shoot biomass increments. On a concentration basis, peat additions did not increase shoot Ni values, thus suggesting that plants grown on peat-treated WFS may not increase risks to human and ecological receptors. Chromium was below detection levels in shoots for all peat treatments. Peat-treated substrates also promoted increased CEC values and higher water holding capacity, therefore improving the WFS agronomical properties. These results indicate that peat can be used as an amendment to assist in the phytoremediation of WFS landfill areas. However, there was evidence for increased mobilization of Cr and Ni in the substrate solution which can pose a threat to local groundwater.

  11. Extensive turnover of plant nitrogen in peats from the West Siberian Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, M. J.; Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen cycling in peatlands is of great interest because N is scarce in peatlands and may limit both primary production and microbial decomposition. The amino acid hydroxyproline (Hyp) was used to determine the proportion of peat N derived from plants in two peat cores collected from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia. Hyp is an effective tracer of plant N because plants are its only significant source in peats. In addition, its reactivity is similar to that of bulk plant N, so its yield in peat can be used to quantitatively estimate plant N. The C:N ratio of the peat was very high (>70) throughout both cores. As N is assumed to be conserved while C is removed with decomposition, high C:N ratios are often interpreted as indicating relatively unaltered peat. However, Hyp yields indicate extensive turnover of plant N. Peat N was mostly plant-derived in the upper 50 cm of both cores, but declined to 30-60% in the catotelm. These results suggest that N from plant litter is rapidly utilized by microbes and incorporated into new forms. Thus despite high C:N ratios, these peats have undergone substantial alteration and decomposition. This demonstrates the organic N pool in peatlands is intensely recycled and is more dynamic than can be inferred by considering the C:N ratio alone.

  12. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from small-scale peat fires

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution emitted from peat fires can negatively impact regional air quality, visibility, climate, and human health. Peat fires can smolder over long periods of time and, therefore, can release significantly greater amounts of carbon into the atmosphere per unit area compared...

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter from small-scale peat fire

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution emitted from peat fires can negatively impact regional air quality, visibility, climate, and human health. Peat fires can smolder over long periods of time and, therefore, can release significantly greater amounts of carbon into the atmosphere per unit area compared...

  14. Characterisation of VOC, SVOC, and PM emissions from peat burnt in laboratory simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peat, or organic soil, is a vast store of organic carbon, widely distributed from polar temperate to equatorial regions. Drainage for agriculture and drought are drying vast areas of peat, exposing it to increasing fire risk, which may be exacerbated by climate change. This has ...

  15. Preliminary investigation of mineralogy and chemistry of peats from the Kietrz site, southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skreczko, Sylwia; Nadłonek, Weronika; Szopa, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    Peat bog deposits provide a very important record of past environmental conditions, preserving biotic and abiotic processes that occurred in the vicinity of the bog. In this study, we examined three peat bog profiles from Kietrz, located in the micro-region of the Głubczycki Plateau, southern Poland. The objective of this study was to determine the type of peat occurring in this area, through examination of its mineral composition, and evaluation of the total carbon and total sulphur content. In addition, we measured peat reaction (pH) and identified floral and faunal components occurring within the peat deposits. The peat comprises primarily of fragments of fossilized plant and mollusk remains, as well as minerals (calcium sulphates, calcium carbonates, and pyrites). Additionally, an assemblage of iron oxides/hydroxides, Kfeldspar, apatite, zircon, and quartz grains was identified. A neutral and/or light alkalinity was recorded for the peat deposits, but an increase in acidity (pH) with increasing depth through each peat profile was also recorded. We observed a positive correlation between the pH and chemical composition of deposits, where a significant presence of calcite is associated with higher reaction (higher pH), whilst a lower pH is characteristic for sediments where carbonates are rare. The recognized species of mollusks are typical of shallow, fresh-water stagnant reservoirs with a high fluctuation of water level.

  16. In situ fluidization for peat bed rupture, and preliminary economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Niven, R K; Khalili, N

    2002-11-01

    This study concerns in situ fluidization (ISF), a new remediation method with potential application to the remediation of NAPL and heavy metal contaminants, by their release from the fluidized zone generated by a water jet. The present study examines the effect of ISF on layers of peat, of significance owing to its role as an important NAPL and metal contaminant trap. Once trapped, such contaminants are not readily accessible by most remedial methods, due to the low permeability and diffusivity of the peat. A simple tank experiment is used to demonstrate rupture of a peat layer by ISF, with removal of the peat as elutriated fines and segregated peat chunks. The application of ISF in the field is then examined by three field trials in uncontaminated sands, in both saturated and unsaturated conditions. Fluidized depths of up to 1.9 m in the saturated zone (with refusal on a peat layer) and 2.5 m in the unsaturated zone (no refusal) were attained, using a 1.9-m-long, 50 mm diameter jet operated at 5-13 1 s(-1). Pulses of dark turbidity and shell fragments in the effluent indicated the rupture of peat and shelly layers. The experiments demonstrate the hydraulic viability of ISF in the field, and its ability to remove peat-based contaminants. The issues of appropriate jet design and water generation during ISF are discussed, followed by a preliminary economic analysis of ISF relative to existing remediation methods.

  17. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  18. Dynamics of peat accumulation and marl flat formation in a calcareous fen, midwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miner, J.J.; Ketterling, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    The age and sequence of peat accumulation were investigated at a calcareous fen in northeastern Illinois, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify the processes that form and sustain marl flats, which are areas of marl or tufa substrate within the fen that contain numerous rare plant species. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and radiocarbon evidence was used to establish the processes and chronology of peat accumulation and erosion adjacent to each marl flat. The age of the base of the peat deposit varies greatly throughout the fen, ranging from 14,679 calibrated years before present (cal. years BP) to nearly modern, indicating that colonization of the sand and gravel substrate by peat occurred throughout the period from the Late Pleistocene to present. Adjacent to one marl flat, trends in basal peat age and thickness show that peat accumulation has progressed laterally inward from both sides, suggesting that the marl flat has been infilling with peat progressively by accumulation at the margins since at least 5,370 cal. years BP or longer. A second marl flat in the fen is surrounded by older, thick peat of differing ages on either edge and is bounded by fresh scarps, indicating that the marl flat currently is expanding laterally by erosion into the preexisting peat blanket. These two examples suggest a continuously repeating process, where erosion of the accumulated peat blanket forms a marl flat, which is later covered by peat accumulation. Trends in basal peat age elsewhere in the fen suggest that other marl flats may have existed in the past that have been completely infilled with peat. This study suggests that marl flat formation is a natural process that has been occurring for millennia, continuously creating habitat for the rare plant species that occupy marl flats. There is no evidence that the marl flats at this site are indicative of anthropogenic disturbance, so that management options for these areas are limited to maintaining the quality and quantity

  19. [Adsorption of acid orange II from aqueous solution onto modified peat-resin particles].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Ye; Yang, Lin-Zhang

    2007-06-01

    The adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles was examined in aqueous solution in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic and the intraparticle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The results showed that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models could be used to describe the adsorption of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was 71.43 mg x g(-1). The data analysis indicated that the intraparticle diffusion model could fit the results of kinetic experiment well. The adsorption rate of acid orange II onto modified peat-resin particles is affected by the initial dye concentrations, sizes and doses of modified peat-resin particles and agitation rates. The surface of modified peat-resin particle is the major adsorption area.

  20. Uncertainties in peat volume and soil carbon estimated using ground penetrating radar and probing

    SciTech Connect

    Parsekian, Andrew D.; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Nolan, James; Sebestyen, Stephen D; Kolka, Randall K; Hanson, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the uncertainty in calculations of peat basin volume using high-resolution data . to resolve the three-dimensional structure of a peat basin using both direct (push probes) and indirect geophysical (ground penetrating radar) measurements. We compared volumetric estimates from both approaches with values from literature. We identified subsurface features that can introduce uncertainties into direct peat thickness measurements including the presence of woody peat and soft clay or gyttja. We demonstrate that a simple geophysical technique that is easily scalable to larger peatlands can be used to rapidly and cost effectively obtain more accurate and less uncertain estimates of peat basin volumes critical to improving understanding of the total terrestrial carbon pool in peatlands.

  1. Long-term purification efficiency of a wetland constructed to treat runoff from peat extraction.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Satu M; Heikkinen, Kaisa; Ihme, Raimo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Peat extraction increases the phosphorus, nitrogen, organic matter, suspended solids, and iron concentrations in runoff, resulting in negative effects on downstream water bodies. Wetlands are commonly used as natural cost-effective solutions to mitigate these negative effects. This study analyzed changes in the quality of runoff water from peat extraction areas and the long-term efficiency of constructed wetlands. The results indicate that the quality of runoff water changed after the initial drainage and during peat extraction. Nitrogen leached at high concentrations in the early stages of peat extraction following drainage, whereas the leaching of iron and phosphorus increased after peat extraction from deeper layers. Comparison of water quality and impurities retained immediately after treatment wetland construction and 14 years later showed that the treatment wetland remained functional, with good retention capacity, over a long period.

  2. Actinomycetal complexes in drained peat soils of the taiga zone upon pyrogenic succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenova, G. M.; Glushkova, N. A.; Bannikov, M. V.; Shvarov, A. P.; Pozdnyakov, A. I.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2008-04-01

    The number and diversity of actinomycetes in peat soils vary in dependence on the stage of pyrogenic succession. In the cultivated peat soil, the number of actinomycetes after fires decreases by three-four times, mainly at the expense of acidophilic and neutrophilic groups. An increase in the number of mycelial prokaryotes (at the expense of alkaliphilic forms) is seen on the fifth year of functioning of the pyrogenic peat soil. The species diversity of streptomycetes in peat soils also decreases after fires. An increase in the range of streptomycetal species at the expense of neutrophilic and alkaliphilic forms takes place on the fifth year of the pyrogenic succession. Parameters of the actinomycetal complex—the population density, species composition, and ecological features—are the criteria whose changes allow us to judge the state of peat soils in the course of their pyrogenic succession.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  4. Adsorption of dyes using peat: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, L; Fernández, K; Contreras, E; Palma, C

    2004-09-01

    In recent years, adsorption has been accepted as one of the most appropriate processes for decolorization of wastewaters. This paper presents experimental results on application of peat for removal of structurally diverse dyes (azo, oxazine, triphenylmethane, thiazine and others) with emphasis on relevant factors such as the adsorbate-adsorbent chemical properties and chemical interaction as well as adsorption conditions. The equilibrium experimental results were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the maximum sorption capacity of basic dyes at 22 degrees C was 667 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Blue 24, 526 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Green 4 and 714 (mg g(-1)) for Basic Violet 4. On the other hand for Acid Black 1 it was only 25 (mg g(-1)). Batch kinetics studies were undertaken and the data evaluated in compliance with chemical sorption mechanisms. For all of the systems studied the pseudo-second order model provided the best correlation of the kinetic experimental data. A film-pore double resistance diffusion model for mass transfer has also been used in this study to determine the effective diffusivity, Deff, for the adsorption of basic dyes in to peat.

  5. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible.

  6. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    SciTech Connect

    Kopanitsa, Natalya Sarkisov, Yurij Gorshkova, Aleksandra Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-15

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  7. Hydrology of peat-forming wetlands in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bragg, O M

    2002-07-22

    Peatlands cover approximately 14% of Scotland, although only part of this area is active (peat-forming) mire. Mires are important for the biodiversity of the specialist plant and animal communities they support. Study of mire ecosystems has revealed intimate relationships between their organic components and water, which mean that it is impossible to understand their ecology without considering hydrology. Whilst ecohydrological studies have concentrated on the internal functioning of mires, the insights gained are relevant to runoff generation in peat-covered river catchments. This paper reviews our knowledge of processes occurring in mires and relates these to wider catchment hydrology, on the basis of published information and recent research in Scotland. The influence of different types of land management is considered, and it emerges that mire is most effective in delaying storm run-off, in preventing soil erosion and in retaining inorganic nutrients when it is undrained; although there can be adverse effects on water quality under certain conditions. In the context of global warming, mire ecosystems are sensitive but at the same time robust to climate change, and thus contain archives of climatic data for the Holocene. Moreover, peatlands store significant quantities of carbon, and influence directly the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Various issues related to conservation and restoration of peatland biodiversity have been addressed constructively in recent decades, although approaches and objectives are not always consistent between sites. These are reviewed, and some outstanding issues and research needs are identified.

  8. Fate of silicate minerals in a peat bog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Philip C.; Siegel, Donald I.; Hillier, Barbara M.; Glaser, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of silicate weathering in a Minnesota mire indicates that quartz and aluminosilicates rapidly dissolve in anoxic, organic-rich, neutral- pH environments. Vertical profiles of pH, dissolved silicon, and major cations were obtained at a raised bog and a spring fen and compared. Profiles of readily extractable silicon, diatom abundance, ash mineralogy, and silicate surface texture were determined from peat cores collected at each site.In the bog, normally a recharge mound, dissolved silicon increases with depth as pH increases, exceeding the background silicon concentration by a factor of two. Silicate grain surfaces, including quartz, are chemically etched at this location, despite being in contact with pore water at neutral pH with dissolved silicon well above the equilibrium solubility of quartz. The increasing silica concentrations at circum-neutral pH are consistent with a system where silicate solubility is influenced by silica-organic-acid complexes. Silica-organic-acid complexes therefore may be the cause of the almost complete absence of diatoms in decomposed peat and contribute to the formation of silica-depleted underclays commonly found beneath coal.

  9. Peat Bogs as Hotspots for Organoarsenical Formation and Persistence.

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian; Rothwell, James J

    2016-04-19

    Peatlands have received significant atmospheric inputs of As and S since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, but the effect of S deposition on the fate of As is largely unknown. It may encompass the formation of As sulfides and organosulfur-bound As, or the indirect stimulation of As biotransformation processes, which are presently not considered as important As immobilization pathways in wetlands. To investigate the immobilization mechanisms of anthropogenically derived As in peatlands subjected to long-term atmospheric pollution, we explored the solid-phase speciation of As, Fe, and S in English peat bogs by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, we analyzed the speciation of As in pore- and streamwaters. Linear combination fits of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data imply that 62-100% (average: 82%) of solid-phase As (Astot: 9-92 mg/kg) was present as organic As(V) and As(III). In agreement with appreciable concentrations of organoarsenicals in surface waters (pH: 4.0-4.4, Eh: 165-190 mV, average Astot: 1.5-129 μg/L), our findings reveal extensive biotransformation of atmospheric As and the enrichment of organoarsenicals in the peat, suggesting that the importance of organometal(loid)s in wetlands subjected to prolonged air pollution is higher than previously assumed.

  10. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  11. Soil carbon dioxide emissions from a rubber plantation on tropical peat.

    PubMed

    Wakhid, Nur; Hirano, Takashi; Okimoto, Yosuke; Nurzakiah, Siti; Nursyamsi, Dedi

    2017-03-01

    Land-use change in tropical peatland potentially results in a large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions owing to drainage, which lowers groundwater level (GWL) and consequently enhances oxidative peat decomposition. However, field information on carbon balance is lacking for rubber plantations, which are expanding into Indonesia's peatlands. To assess soil CO2 emissions from an eight-year-old rubber plantation established on peat after compaction, soil CO2 efflux was measured monthly using a closed chamber system from December 2014 to December 2015, in which a strong El Niño event occurred, and consequently GWL lowered deeply. Total soil respiration (SR) and oxidative peat decomposition (PD) were separately quantified by trenching. In addition, peat surface elevation was measured to determine annual subsidence along with GWL. With GWL, SR showed a negative logarithmic relationship (p<0.01), whereas PD showed a strong negative linearity (p<0.001). Using the significant relationships, annual SR and PD were calculated from hourly GWL data to be 3293±1039 and 1408±214gCm(-2)yr(-1) (mean±1 standard deviation), respectively. PD accounted for 43% of SR on an annual basis. SR showed no significant difference between near and far positions from rubber trees (p>0.05). Peat surface elevation varied seasonally in almost parallel with GWL. After correcting for GWL difference, annual total subsidence was determined at 5.64±3.20 and 5.96±0.43cmyr(-1) outside and inside the trenching, respectively. Annual subsidence only through peat oxidation that was calculated from the annual PD, peat bulk density and peat carbon content was 1.50cmyr(-1). As a result, oxidative peat decomposition accounted for 25% of total subsidence (5.96cmyr(-1)) on average on an annual basis. The contribution of peat oxidation was lower than those of previous studies probably because of compaction through land preparation.

  12. Phosphorus mobilization in rewetted fens: the effect of altered peat properties and implications for their restoration.

    PubMed

    Zak, Dominik; Wagner, Carola; Payer, Brian; Augustin, Jürgen; Gelbrecht, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    Rewetting of drained fens is necessary to stop further soil degradation and to reestablish important ecological functions. However, substantial changes of peat characteristics in the upper soil layers, due to drainage and land use, could counteract their recovery as nutrient-poor systems for an unknown period. We assessed the importance of altered peat properties, such as the degree of peat decomposition and the amount of redox-sensitive phosphorus (P) compounds, for P mobilization in different degraded fens. An experimental design involving 63 intact peat cores from fens with varying drainage and land-use histories was developed to quantify the mobilization of P, as well as that of iron (Fe), ammonium, carbon dioxide, and methane, all indicators of organic-matter decomposition and/or P-releasing processes. We found that net P release rates in peat cores with highly decomposed peat (range: 0.1-52.3 mg P x m(-2) x d(-1)) were significantly correlated to the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive compounds and the molar Fe:P as well as Al:P ratios of peat. We conclude that the following general rules apply for P mobilization in rewetted fens: (1) elevated levels of P release rates and P concentrations in pore water up to three orders of magnitude larger than under natural reference conditions can only be expected for rewetted fens whose surface soil layers consist of highly decomposed peat; (2) peat characteristics, such as the amount of P bound to redox-sensitive Fe(III) compounds (positive correlation) and molar ratios of Fe:P or Al:P (negative correlations), explain the high range of P release rates; and (3) a critical P export to adjacent lakes or rivers can only be expected if molar Fe:P ratios of highly decomposed peat are less than 10.

  13. How suitable are peat cores to study historical deposition of PAHs?

    PubMed

    Thuens, Sabine; Blodau, Christian; Radke, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Ombrotrophic peat bogs are natural archives of atmospheric pollution, their depth profiles can be used to study the deposition chronology of harmful contaminants. Prerequisites for deriving historical deposition rates from the peat archive are that contaminants are persistent and immobile in the peat and that the applied dating technique is accurate. To examine these requirements and the accuracy of peat archives for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 12 peat profiles were sampled in 4 bogs in Ontario, Canada, as well as surface peat in one bog. Additionally we carried out laboratory incubations; no degradation occurred over a 3-year period in these experiments. The standard deviations of PAH concentrations in surface samples and of PAH inventories in whole cores was approximately 30%, and concentrations in surface peat were on average 50% higher in hollows than in hummocks. No indications for mobility of PAHs were observed in peat. Temporal deposition trends inferred from peat cores were generally in agreement with trends derived from a sediment core sampled close by but deposition rates to the sediment were substantially higher. A major source of uncertainty was the rather coarse vertical sampling resolution of 5 cm which introduced substantial uncertainty in the dating of the individual segments. This caused variations of the deposition rates up to 70% per PAH between three replicate cores, and it also impedes the identification of deposition peaks. Overall, we conclude that peat cores are suitable archives for inferring atmospheric deposition trends, but due to their relatively low temporal resolution short-term events may not be identified and the development of sampling methods that allow a higher vertical resolution would greatly improve the performance of the method. The analysis of more than one core per site is suggested to provide a realistic estimate of the historic deposition and total inventories.

  14. Reduced bed agglomeration by co-combustion biomass with peat fuels in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karin Lundholm; Anders Nordin; Marcus Oehman; Dan Bostroem

    2005-12-01

    Fluidized bed combustion is an energy conversion technology that is very suitable for biomass combustion because of its fuel flexibility and low process temperatures. However, agglomeration of bed material may cause severe operating problems. To prevent or at least reduce this, peat has been suggested as an additive to the main fuels. Nevertheless, the characteristics of peat fuels vary and there is limited information of the effect of different peat fuels and of the mechanisms behind the agglomeration prevention. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (I) quantify the potential positive effect by co-combustion peat with forest fuels in terms of initial agglomeration temperatures; (ii) determine the amount of peat fuel that is needed to significantly reduce the agglomeration tendencies; and, if possible, (iii) elucidate the governing mechanisms. The results showed that all peat fuels prevented agglomeration in the studied interval of 760-1020{sup o}C and even as little as 5% peat fuel was found to have significant effects. The results also indicated that the mechanism of the agglomeration prevention varies between different peat fuels. Possible mechanisms are the minerals in the peat fuel retain alkali, which then is either elutriated up from the bed or captured in the bed; calcium and other refractory elements increase the melting temperature and thereby counteract the melting of alkali; and sulfur reacts with alkali metals and the alkali sulfates is either elutriated up from the bed or prevents agglomeration by increased melting temperature and lowered viscosity. Results from elemental analysis of the coating on bed particles showed that all mixtures with peat fuel resulted in a decreased or unchanged fraction of potassium and an increased fraction of aluminum in the coatings. The results also indicated a complex relationship between the fuel inorganic contents and the agglomeration process. 21 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Age Determination of the Remaining Peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; de Fontaine, Christian S.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California was once a 1,400 square kilometer (km2) tidal marsh, which contained a vast layer of peat ranging up to 15 meters (m) thick (Atwater and Belknap, 1980). Because of its favorable climate and highly fertile peat soils, the majority of the Delta was drained and reclaimed for agriculture during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Drainage of the peat soils changed the conditions in the surface layers of peat from anaerobic (having no free oxygen present) to aerobic (exposed to the atmosphere). This change in conditions greatly increased the decomposition rate of the peat, which consists largely of organic (plant) matter. Thus began the process of land-surface subsidence, which initially was a result of peat shrinkage and compaction, and later largely was a result of oxidation by which organic carbon in the peat essentially vaporized to carbon dioxide (Deverel and others, 1998; Ingebritsen and Ikehara, 1999). Because of subsidence, the land-surface elevation on farmed islands in the Delta has decreased from a few meters to as much as 8 m below local mean sea level (California Department of Water Resources, 1995; Steve Deverel, Hydrofocus, Inc., written commun., 2007). The USGS, in collaboration with the University of California at Davis, and Hydrofocus Inc. of Davis, California, has been studying the formation of the Delta and the impact of wetland reclamation on the peat column as part of a project called Rates and Evolution of Peat Accretion through Time (REPEAT). The purpose of this report is to provide results on the age of the remaining peat soils on four farmed islands in the Delta.

  16. Changes in Flow and Transport Patterns in Fen Peat as a Result of Soil Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haojie; Janssen, Manon; Lennartz, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    The preferential movement of water and transport of substances play an important role in soils and are not yet fully understood especially in degraded peat soils. In this study, we aimed at deducing changes in flow and transport patterns in the course of soil degradation as resulting from peat drainage, using titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer. The dye tracer experiments were conducted on columns of eight types of differently degraded peat soils from three sites taken both in vertical and horizontal directions. The titanium dioxide suspension (average particle size of 0.3 μm; 10 g l-1) was applied in a pulse of 40 mm to each soil core. Twenty-four hours after the application of the tracer, cross sections of the soil cores were prepared for photo documentation. In addition, the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was determined. Preferential flow occurred in all investigated peat types. From the stained soil structural elements, we concluded that undecomposed plant remains are the major preferential flow pathways in less degraded peat. For more strongly degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm channels, operated as the major transport domain. Results show that Ks and the effective pore network in less degraded peat soils are anisotropic. With increasing peat degradation, the Ks and cross section of effective pore network decreased. The results also indicate a strong positive relationship between Ks and number of macropores as well as pore continuity. Hence, we conclude that changes in flow and transport pathways as well as Ks with an increasing peat degradation are due to the disintegration of the peat forming plant material and decrement of number and continuity of macropores after drainage.

  17. Peat form and distribution – acrotelm hydrology and topographic wetness index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Mike; Irvine, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Away from the divide in a peat mire, steadily increasing volumes of rainwater flowing through and over the peat can only be transported by increasing surface and water table gradient, forcing development of a domed form for a raised bog. Simple models assume either a groundwater mound in which the peat surface is defined by the water table, or a surface limited by the balance between growth and decomposition. Recognised complications to the hydrology include the observations of substantial flow both close to the bog surface and through pipes within the peat mass and the near-random heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity values in the peat. In addition the assumptions of these end member models interact, since increases in peat depth allow more water to flow through the catotelm, thereby increasing seasonal drying near the surface and raising decomposition rates. These competing factors have been built into a model which combines TOPmodel near-surface with Darcian flow at depth, creating a dynamic oxic layer within which rates of decomposition are highest. This enriched mire model, distinguishes bogs, and regions within bogs, dominated by surface or internal flow and those that are limited by growth and decomposition. The model also helps to clarify the important role of seasonality in bog growth, provides some guidance on where peat can become established, on the basis of climate and local topography, and how this may evolve as global temperatures rise.

  18. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  19. Peat decomposition - shaping factors, significance in environmental studies and methods of determination; a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzymulska, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    A review of literature data on the degree of peat decomposition - an important parameter that yields data on environmental conditions during the peat-forming process, i.e., humidity of the mire surface, is presented. A decrease in the rate of peat decomposition indicates a rise of the ground water table. In the case of bogs, which receive exclusively atmospheric (meteoric) water, data on changes in the wetness of past mire surfaces could even be treated as data on past climates. Different factors shaping the process of peat decomposition are also discussed, such as humidity of the substratum and climatic conditions, as well as the chemical composition of peat-forming plants. Methods for the determination of the degree of peat decomposition are also outlined, maintaining the division into field and laboratory analyses. Among the latter are methods based on physical and chemical features of peat and microscopic methods. Comparisons of results obtained by different methods can occasionally be difficult, which may be ascribed to different experience of researchers or the chemically undefined nature of many analyses of humification.

  20. On the retention of uranyl and thorium ions from radioactive solution on peat moss.

    PubMed

    Humelnicu, Doina; Bulgariu, Laura; Macoveanu, Matei

    2010-02-15

    The efficiency of the radioactive uranyl and thorium ions on the peat moss from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different experimental conditions. The sorption and desorption of uranyl and thorium ions on three types (unmodified peat moss, peat moss treated with HNO(3) and peat moss treated with NaOH) of peat moss were studied by the static method. Peat moss was selected as it is available in nature, in any amount, as a cheap and accessible sorbent. Study on desorption of such ions led to the conclusion that the most favourable desorptive reagent for the uranyl ions is Na(2)CO(3) 1M while, for the thorium ions is HCl 1M. The results obtained show that the parameters here under investigation exercise a significant effect on the sorption process of the two ions. Also, the investigations performed recommend the peat moss treated with a base as a potential sorbent for the uranyl and thorium ions from a radioactive aqueous solution.

  1. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, J.Z.; De Fontaine, C. S.; Deverel, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 5580 of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to land-surface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 29005700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. The legacy of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Christian S. de Fontaine,; Steven J. Deverel,

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the world, many extensive wetlands, such as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California (hereafter, the Delta), have been drained for agriculture, resulting in land-surface subsidence of peat soils. The purpose of this project was to study the in situ effects of wetland drainage on the remaining peat in the Delta. Peat cores were retrieved from four drained, farmed islands and four relatively undisturbed, marsh islands. Core samples were analyzed for bulk density and percent organic carbon. Macrofossils in the peat were dated using radiocarbon age determination. The peat from the farmed islands is highly distinct from marsh island peat. Bulk density of peat from the farmed islands is generally greater than that of the marsh islands at a given organic carbon content. On the farmed islands, increased bulk density, which is an indication of compaction, decreases with depth within the unoxidized peat zone, whereas, on the marsh islands, bulk density is generally constant with depth except near the surface. Approximately 55–80% of the original peat layer on the farmed islands has been lost due to landsurface subsidence. For the center regions of the farmed islands, this translates into an estimated loss of between 2900-5700 metric tons of organic carbon/hectare. Most of the intact peat just below the currently farmed soil layer is over 4000 years old. Peat loss will continue as long as the artificial water table on the farmed islands is held below the land surface.

  3. The Impact of Tropical Peat Fire on Termite Assemblage in Sumatra, Indonesia: Reduced Complexity of Community Structure and Survival Strategies.

    PubMed

    Neoh, Kok-Boon; Bong, Lee-Jin; Muhammad, Ahmad; Itoh, Masayuki; Kozan, Osamu; Takematsu, Yoko; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia account for approximately 72% of global peatland. However, extensive forest exploitation following peat drainage for agricultural expansion has been leading to catastrophic peat fires. In this study, we compared the termite assemblage in burnt and unburnt peats in Sumatra, Indonesia. We also identified which taxonomic group is particularly resistant to fire disturbance and the traits that correlate with its persistence in fire-impacted peatlands. Overall, the termite species richness in fire-impacted peats was up to 40% lower than that of the total species found in peat swamp forests. Although the estimated species richness values in fire-impacted peats and peat swamp forests were not significantly different, fire changed termite community structure significantly. Only termites of the family Rhinotermitidae survived in the fire event, whereas members of the Termitidae that were reportedly resilient to fire and open habitats elsewhere disappeared during the fire events. The rhinotermitids found in the burnt sites were exclusively wood nesters. This suggests that the desiccation tolerance of termites in open habitat is not the simple underlying survival strategy, but tree branches and barks might have provided a refuge from heat during fire. The result also suggests that the high similarity in species composition in recently burnt peats and long burnt peats implies low species turnover. Thus, regardless of how much time had passed since the fire-impacted peats were abandoned or cultivated, the increase in habitat complexity did not favor colonization by the forest-dependent group.

  4. Improving conceptual models of water and carbon transfer through peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Siegel, Donald I.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Baird, Andrew J.; Belyea, Lisa R.; Comas, Xavier; Reeve, A.S.; Slater, Lee D.

    2009-01-01

    Northern peatlands store 500 × 1015 g of organic carbon and are very sensitive to climate change. There is a strong conceptual model of sources, sinks, and pathways of carbon within peatlands, but challenges remain both in understanding the hydrogeology and the linkages between carbon cycling and peat pore water flow. In this chapter, research findings from the glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands are used to develop a conceptual framework for peatland hydrogeology and identify four challenges related to northern peatlands yet to be addressed: (1) develop a better understanding of the extent and net impact of climate-driven groundwater flushing in peatlands; (2) quantify the complexities of heterogeneity on pore water flow and, in particular, reconcile contradictions between peatland hydrogeologic interpretations and isotopic data; (3) understand the hydrogeologic implications of free-phase methane production, entrapment, and release in peatlands; and (4) quantify the impact of arctic and subarctic warming on peatland hydrogeology and its linkage to carbon cycling.

  5. Field-tracing approach to determine flow velocity and hydraulic conductivity in saturated peat soils

    SciTech Connect

    Gafni, A.

    1986-01-01

    A tracing methodology based on the point dilution concept was developed to quantify groundwater velocities in saturated peat soils. Groundwater velocity was measured in four different peatlands. The steepest hydraulic gradient and the dominant direction of groundwater flow were determined for each peatland. The hydraulic conductivity (K) of selected peat layers was estimated from measured groundwater velocity and hydraulic gradient using Darcy's equation. The effective porosity of three peat layers was determined using the pressure plate technique. The estimated hydraulic parameters of one of the bags were further evaluated by analyzing a rainfall-runoff event that exhibited groundwater discharge.

  6. Microbial activity and dissolved organic carbon production in drained and rewetted blanket peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallage, Z. E.; Holden, J.; Jones, T.; McDonald, A. T.

    2009-04-01

    Heightened levels of degradation in response to environmental change have resulted in an increased loss of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the drainage waters of many peatland catchments across Europe and North America. One significant threat to peatland sustainability has been the installation of artificial drainage ditches, and although recent restoration schemes have pursued drain blocking as a possible strategy for reducing degradation and fluvial carbon losses, little is known about how such processes influence the intimate biological systems operating within these soils. This paper investigates how disturbance, in the form of drainage and drain blocking, influences the rate of microbial activity within a peat soil, and the subsequent impact this has on DOC production potential. Peat samples were extracted from three treatment sites (intact peat, drained peat and drain-blocked peat) in an upland blanket peat catchment in the UK. Microbial activity was measured via laboratory experimentation that incorporated the use of an INT-Formazan dehydrogenase enzyme assay to assess the level of electron transport system (ETS) activity occurring within each treatment. Drainage significantly lowered the height of the water table relative to the intact peat, whilst drain blocking successfully rewetted the peat, having raised the height of the water table relative to the drained site. Mean microbial activity rates at the drained site were found to be 33 % greater than the undisturbed intact peat and almost double that of the restored, drain-blocked site. These results correspond well with previously published data observing significantly greater DOC concentrations in the pore waters of the drained site and significantly lower concentrations at the blocked site, relative to the intact peat. Data from the drain-blocked treatment also provides evidence contrary to the commonly quoted hypothesis that an enzyme-latch reaction may be sustained in drained peat, even once it has

  7. Impact of subjacent rocks at the water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, V. A.

    2009-04-01

    At the depleted peat deposits (after peat extraction), where the residual layer of peat with the thickness of about 0,5 meters is laid at the well water permeable rocks, vegetation typical for dry conditions is developed in case of good drainage conditions; birch trees, willow, alder-trees and buckthorn prevail in this vegetation. Water and air regime is characterized here by good aeration with prevailing of oxidative processes. If water regime is regulated, these depleted peat areas are suitable for agricultural and forest lands; however, necessity of transformation of these depleted lands into forest and agricultural lands must be ecologically and economically justified. If the residual layer of peat with the thickness of 0,05-0,3 m is based at the sapropel or peat sapropel, contrast amphibiotic water and air regime with strong fluctuation of oxidative and restoration process depending on the weather conditions is formed; this regime is formed without artificial increase of the ground waters level. This does not allow bog vegetation or vegetation typical for dry conditions to develop. Thus, within 20 and more years after completion of peat extraction, such areas are not covered by vegetation in spite of favorable agro-chemical qualities of peat layer and favorable for vegetation chemical composition of soil and ground waters. Depleted peat deposits, that are based at the sapropel, are not suitable for agricultural use, because agricultural vegetation requires stable water and air regime with good aeration and oxidative and restoration potential within 400-750 mV. Contrast amphibiotic water and air regime of the depleted peat deposits that are based at sapropel excludes possibility to use them as agricultural lands. Because of this reason, areas with residual peat layer that are based at sapropel are not suitable for forest planting. Due to periodic increase of ground waters level, rot systems of the plants can not penetrate into the required depth, and mechanical

  8. Coal and peat in the sub-Saharan region of Africa: alternative energy options?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Landis, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Coal and peat are essentially unused and in some cases unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. However, they might comprise valuable alternative energy sources in some or all of the developing nations of the region. The 11 countries considered in this appraisal reportedly contain coal and peat. On the basis of regional geology, another five countries might also contain coal-bearing rocks. If the resource potential is adequate, coal and peat might be utilized in a variety of ways including substituting for fuelwood, generating electricity, supplying process heat for local industry and increasing agricultural productivity. -from Author

  9. Response of sphagnum peatland testate amoebae to a 1-year transplantation experiment along an artificial hydrological gradient.

    PubMed

    Marcisz, Katarzyna; Fournier, Bertrand; Gilbert, Daniel; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2014-05-01

    Peatland testate amoebae (TA) are well-established bioindicators for depth to water table (DWT), but effects of hydrological changes on TA communities have never been tested experimentally. We tested this in a field experiment by placing Sphagnum carpets (15 cm diameter) collected in hummock, lawn and pool microsites (origin) at three local conditions (dry, moist and wet) using trenches dug in a peatland. One series of samples was seeded with microorganism extract from all microsites. TA community were analysed at T0: 8-2008, T1: 5-2009 and T2: 8-2009. We analysed the data using conditional inference trees, principal response curves (PRC) and DWT inferred from TA communities using a transfer function used for paleoecological reconstruction. Density declined from T0 to T1 and then increased sharply by T2. Species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson evenness were lower at T2 than at T0 and T1. Seeded communities had higher species richness in pool samples at T0. Pool samples tended to have higher density, lower species richness, Simpson diversity and Simpson Evenness than hummock and/or lawn samples until T1. In the PRC, the effect of origin was significant at T0 and T1, but the effect faded away by T2. Seeding effect was strongest at T1 and lowest vanished by T2. Local condition effect was strong but not in line with the wetness gradient at T1 but started to reflect it by T2. Likewise, TA-inferred DWT started to match the experimental conditions by T2, but more so in hummock and lawn samples than in pool samples. This study confirmed that TA responds to hydrological changes over a 1-year period. However, sensitivity of TA to hydrological fluctuations, and thus the accuracy of inferred DWT changes, was habitat specific, pool TA communities being least responsive to environmental changes. Lawns and hummocks may be thus better suited than pools for paleoecological reconstructions. This, however, contrasts with the higher prediction error and species' tolerance for

  10. Sketch maps, sections and laboratory analyses of peat resources in deposits in and near Piscataquis and Somerset counties and northeastern Aroostook County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, C.C.; Mullen, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    Peat deposits in and near Piscataquis and Somerset Counties and northeastern Aroostook County, Maine, were investigated for their estimated potential as peat resources suitable for energy, horticultural, and agricultural uses. Fifty sketch maps with sections and laboratory analyses illustrate the amount and quality of peat resources. The total yield of commercial quality peat is estimated at 23,670,000 short tons air-dried peat.

  11. Biodestructive processes occurring in the organic matter of lowland peat in the arctic zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svarovskaya, L. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Serebrennikova, O. V.

    2016-11-01

    A model experiment was carried on in laboratory conditions. The biodestruction of organic matter was studied using lowland peat samples collected in Kolguev Island in Barents Sea. Here the purpose was to obtain information about the species range and the activity of bacterial complex involved in the destruction processes of lowland peat organic matter from the natural environment by simulating the Arctic zone climate. The species range is found to include bacteria dominant species, i.e. Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In order to stimulate the biodestruction of organic matter, inoculate was added to the culture medium containing peat; its composition and dose were determined by the trial-and-error method. The catalytic activity of bacterial ferments was initiated in the presence of inoculate; hence, the desired effect was achieved. The composition of the organic matter of bacterial biomass and peat was analyzed by the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. Peat soil organic matter composition depth profiles - is the diplotelmic model real?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boothroyd, Ian; Clay, Gareth; Moody, Catherine; Archer, Elaine; Dixon, Simon; Worrall, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Measures of bulk density and organic matter composition provide important insights into peat formation, degradation and hydrology as well as carbon and nutrient cycles, and indeed underpin the diplotelmic model of peat formation. This study presents soil core data from 23 upland and lowland peat sites across the United Kingdom. A series of soil cores up to ~3m depth were analysed for bulk density, gross heat value (energy content) and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen composition. Atomic ratios of C/N, H/C and O/C were used as indicators of the origin and quality of soil organic matter. Results show no consistent soil depth profiles evident across multiple sites, this challenges whether historical interpretations of peat soil formation and structure are appropriate.

  13. Solute movement in drained fen peat: a field tracer study in a Somerset (UK) wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Andrew J.; Gaffney, Simon W.

    2000-10-01

    Little is known about solute transport in peats, despite the obvious importance of solute transport on eco-hydrological processes in both managed and natural peatlands. To address this lack of knowledge, we investigated solute transport processes in an agricultural fen peat using a conservative KBr tracer. The main aim of the study was to elucidate solute transport behaviour in general in this peat, with a more specific aim of investigating whether preferential or bypassing flow occurred. The tracer moved through the peat more rapidly than expected, and the pattern of movement showed clear evidence of plot-scale bypassing flow. The data also provide evidence that bypassing flow occurs in pores at smaller scales. The implications of this study for management of wetland pastures in the Somerset Moors in south-west England are discussed.

  14. Adsorption of phenanthrene by quaternary ammonium surfactant modified peat and the mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y B; Chen, L; Wang, X Q; Xu, Y X; Lu, J

    2012-01-01

    Removal of phenanthrene (PHE) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto quaternary ammonium surfactant modified peat was studied. The results show that surfactant modification enhanced the PHE adsorption capacity of peat. Low temperature and neutral pH favored PHE adsorption. Peat modified with long carbon chain surfactant performed better than peat modified with short carbon chain surfactant. The magnitude of PHE adsorption capacity followed the order of MP-HPB>MP-HTAB>MP-TBAB>RP, ranged from 924 to 1,228 μg g(-1). A negative trend between adsorption capacity (y) and (O+N)/C ratio of biosorbent (x) was observed (y = -1,369.6x + 2,176), which confirmed the negative effect of polarity on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal. The study provides a guide to modify raw materials to enhance adsorption of hydrophobic organics.

  15. Pressate from peat dewatering as a substrate for bacterial growth. [Rhizopus arrhizus; Xanthomonas campestris; Aureobasidium

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, C.N.; Cooper, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    This study considered the possibility of using water expressed during the drying of fuel-grade peat as a substrate for microbial growth. Highly humified peat pressed for 2.5 min at 1.96 MPa produced water with a chemical oxygen demand of 690 mg/liter. Several biological compounds could be produced by using the organic matter inexpressed peat water as a substrate. These included polymers such as chitosan, contained in the cell wall of Rhizopus arrhizus, and two extracellular polysaccharides, xanthan gum and pullulan, produced by Bacillus subtilis grown in the expressed water. Small additions of nutrients to the peat pressate were necessary to obtain substantial yields of products. The addition of peptone, yeast extract, and glucose improved production of the various compounds. Biological treatment improved the quality of the expressed water to the extent that in an industrial process it could be returned to the environment.

  16. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Peat Depth Assessment Using Airborne Geophysical Data for Carbon Stock Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaney, Antoinette; McKinley, Jennifer; Ruffell, Alastair; Robinson, Martin; Graham, Conor; Hodgson, Jim; Desissa, Mohammednur

    2013-04-01

    The Kyoto Agreement demands that all signatory countries have an inventory of their carbon stock, plus possible future changes to this store. This is particularly important for Ireland, where some 16% of the surface is covered by peat bog. Estimates of soil carbon stores are a key component of the required annual returns made by the Irish and UK governments to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Saturated peat attenuates gamma-radiation from underlying rocks. This effect can be used to estimate the thickness of peat, within certain limits. This project examines this relationship between peat depth and gamma-radiation using airborne geophysical data generated by the Tellus Survey and newly acquired data collected as part of the EU-funded Tellus Border project, together encompassing Northern Ireland and the border area of the Republic of Ireland. Selected peat bog sites are used to ground truth and evaluate the use of airborne geophysical (radiometric and electromagnetic) data and validate modelled estimates of soil carbon, peat volume and depth to bedrock. Data from two test line sites are presented: one in Bundoran, County Donegal and a second line in Sliabh Beagh, County Monaghan. The plane flew over these areas at different times of the year and at a series of different elevations allowing the data to be assessed temporally with different soil/peat saturation levels. On the ground these flight test lines cover varying surface land use zones allowing future extrapolation of data from the sites. This research applies spatial statistical techniques, including uncertainty estimation in geostatistical prediction and simulation, to investigate and model the use of airborne geophysical data to examine the relationship between reduced radioactivity and peat depth. Ground truthing at test line locations and selected peat bog sites involves use of ground penetrating radar, terrestrial LiDAR, peat depth probing, magnetometry, resistivity, handheld gamma

  18. Analysing flow patterns in degraded peat soils using TiO2 dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haojie; Lennartz, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Dye tracing is a valuable method for studying the flow patterns in soils. However, limited information is available on water flow and solute transport pathways in dark colored peat soils because the frequently used Brilliant Blue FCF dye does not visibly stain the soil. In this study, we were aiming at testing the suitability of Titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a dye tracer for dark peat soils. The objectives were to quantify the physical properties of different degraded peat soils and visualize the flow patterns. Soil samples were collected from two low-lying fen sites, where the top soil was highly degraded, while lower horizons were less decomposed. Dye tracer experiments were conducted at both sites by applying a TiO2 suspension (10 g/l) with a pulse of 40 mm. Soil profiles were prepared for photo documentation the following day. It was found that the physical and hydraulic properties of peat were significantly influenced by the degree of peat decomposition and degradation. Higher decomposed and degraded peat soils had a higher bulk density, lower organic matter content and lower porosity. Moreover, higher decomposition and degradation resulted in a lower saturated hydraulic conductivity as long as investigated samples originated from the same site. In addition, degraded peat soils showed less anisotropy than un-degraded peat. It turned out that TiO2 is a suitable dye tracer to visualize the flow paths in peat soils. Although dye patterns differed within the same plot and between different plots, most of the flow patterns indicated a preferential flow situation. The distribution of TiO2 in the soil profile, as analyzed from 5 by 5 cm grid cells, compared to the distribution of bromide, which was applied along with the dye confirming the suitability of the dye tracer. Un-decomposed plant structures, such as wood branches and leaves, were identified as the major preferential flow path in un-degraded peat. For degraded peat, bio-pores, such as root and earthworm

  19. Mercury(II) sorption to two Florida Everglades peat--Evidence for strong and weak binding and competition by dissolved organic matter released from the peat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drexel, R. Todd; Haitzer, Markus; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2002-01-01

    The binding of mercury(II) to two peats from Florida Everglades sites with different rates of mercury methylation was measured at pH 6.0 and 0.01 M ionic strength. The mercury(II) sorption isotherms, measured over a total mercury(II) range of 10-7.4 to 10-3.7 M, showed the competition for mercury(II) between the peat and dissolved organic matter released from the peat and the existence of strong and weak binding sites for mercury(II). Binding was portrayed by a model accounting for strong and weak sites on both the peat and the released DOM. The conditional binding constants (for which the ligand concentration was set as the concentration of reduced sulfur in the organic matter as measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy) determined for the strong sites on the two peats were similar (Kpeat,s = 1021.8±0.1and 1022.0±0.1 M-1), but less than those determined for the DOM strong sites (Kdom,s = 1022.8±0.1and 1023.2±0.1 M-1), resulting in mercury(II) binding by the DOM at low mercury(II) concentrations. The magnitude of the strong site binding constant is indicative of mercury(II) interaction with organic thiol functional groups. The conditional binding constants determined for the weak peat sites (Kpeat,w = 1011.5±0.1 and 1011.8±0.1 M-1) and weak DOM sites (Kdom,w = 108.7±3.0 and 107.3±4.5 M-1) were indicative of mercury(II) interaction with carboxyl and phenol functional groups.

  20. Peat analyses in the Hudson Bay Lowlands using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Davis, J. L.; Rossiter, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a means to determine peak thickness and estimate peat volume in the Hudson Bay Lowlands of Canada is examined. Ground-based and airborne GPR data were acquired so as to extrapolate measurements to larger scales. While the ground-based measurements did an excellent job in determining peat depth, the airborne techniques did a fair job a low altitudes and demonstrated great promise with additional system engineering changes.

  1. Strong degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway during the last 60 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borge, Amund F.; Westermann, Sebastian; Solheim, Ingvild; Etzelmüller, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Palsas and peat plateaus are permafrost landforms occurring in subarctic mires which constitute sensitive ecosystems with strong significance for vegetation, wildlife, hydrology and carbon cycle. Firstly, we have systematically mapped the occurrence of palsas and peat plateaus in the northernmost county of Norway (Finnmark, ˜ 50 000 km2) by manual interpretation of aerial images from 2005 to 2014 at a spatial resolution of 250 m. At this resolution, mires and wetlands with palsas or peat plateaus occur in about 850 km2 of Finnmark, with the actual palsas and peat plateaus underlain by permafrost covering a surface area of approximately 110 km2. Secondly, we have quantified the lateral changes of the extent of palsas and peat plateaus for four study areas located along a NW-SE transect through Finnmark by utilizing repeat aerial imagery from the 1950s to the 2010s. The results of the lateral changes reveal a total decrease of 33-71 % in the areal extent of palsas and peat plateaus during the study period, with the largest lateral change rates observed in the last decade. However, the results indicate that degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway has been a consistent process during the second half of the 20th century and possibly even earlier. Significant rates of areal change are observed in all investigated time periods since the 1950s, and thermokarst landforms observed on aerial images from the 1950s suggest that lateral degradation was already an ongoing process at this time. The results of this study show that lateral erosion of palsas and peat plateaus is an important pathway for permafrost degradation in the sporadic permafrost zone in northern Scandinavia. While the environmental factors governing the rate of erosion are not yet fully understood, we note a moderate increase in air temperature, precipitation and snow depth during the last few decades in the region.

  2. The nonlinear effects based on peat chronology data in paleoclimatic reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, O. G.; Reshetko, M. V.; Moiseeva, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The simplified mathematical model of peat deposits growth is suggested based on assuming the swamp is a thermodynamics system Its validation was performed according to the data of the swamps in Siberia It is shown that the peat deposits growth is nonlinear related to climate change Therefore, for the appropriate methods applying in paleoclimatic reconstructions is expedient to establish the optimal values of functioning particular bio- and ecosystem in natural conditions that determine the most probable existence of life forms of biological species

  3. Assessment of the peat resources of Florida, with a detailed survey of the northern everglades

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.M.; Wieland, C.C.; Hood, L.Q.; Goode, R.W. III; Sawyer, R.K.; McNeill, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Available data, including previous publications, modern soil surveys, and detailed coring in the Northern Everglades for this project have been used to update information on Florida's peat resources. It is now estimated that Florida could, if no other constraints existed, produce 606 million tons of moisture-free fuel-grade peat, which may yield approximately 10.0 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy. These estimates are much lower than previously published projections for the state. The principal effort of this survey was in the largest peat region of the state, the Northern Everglades of Palm Beach and adjacent counties, where more than 800 core holes were drilled. Based on analyses of these cores, the Northern Everglades is now estimated to contain 191 million tons of moisture-free peat, with a potential energy yield of 2.98 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. These values are considerably less than previously published estimates, probably due to bacterial oxidation and other forms of drainage-induced subsidence in the Everglades agricultural areas. The present fuel-peat resources of the Northern Everglades occur in 19 separate deposits. Of these, the deposits in the Port Mayaca, Bryant, Six Mile Bend, and Loxahatchee Quadrangles comprise the highest concentration of the resource. These lands are generally privately owned and used for sugar cane and other crops, and the conversion of these lands to peat removal seems unlikely. It seems even less likely that the extensive peat deposits within the Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge will be available for fuel use, barring a dire national emergency. The utilization of peat as a fuel must be approached with caution and careful study; large scale use may require state or federal action. 34 references.

  4. Appraisal of peat thickness using combined GPR and terrestrial lidar survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vsemirnova, Ekaterina; Wilkinson, Maxwell; Carle, Joël; Jarvis, Zak; Miller, Chris; Jones, Richard; Warburton, Jeff

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the depth of peat cover has traditionally been carried out manually using hand-held probe rods, and more recently using methods of near surface geophysics, principally ground-penetrating radar (GPR). These studies provide an important basis for evaluating carbon storage in organic mire ecosystems. However, peatlands often represent a challenge when acquiring GPR over large areas (on the order of 100s ha) of rough terrain; processing of GPR data is also often difficult due to local variations in topography. Little Woolden Moss is > 100 ha peatland site west of Manchester, UK. The site is crossed with numerous shallow ditches and some deeper drainage ditches, and a number of linear raised areas of peat. Peat extraction has taken place on the site over many years, and still being actively worked. A detailed study of peat thickness and base-peat topography was carried out in late 2012. The site was surveyed using a MALÅ RAMAC GPR and 200 MHz unshielded antenna linked to differential GPS. The antennae were housed within a bespoke rough terrain sledge. The data, collected along over 40 profiles with length between 200 and 600 m, were post-processed using MALÅ RadExplorer and Seismic Unix software, including digitising of peat depth layers. Static terrain corrections were derived from terrestrial lidar data acquired at the site using a Riegl LMS-Z40i scanner, integrated with GPS readings provided at the time of GPR survey. The survey enabled detailed maps of base peat elevation and terrain corrected peat thickness to be produced in ArcGIS.

  5. Characterizing peat palm forest degradation in the Peruvian Amazon from space and on the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor Hugo; van Lent, Jeffrey; Verchot, Louis Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Peru has the second largest area of peatlands in the Tropics however little is known on how the biogeochemical cycle of its peat forests can be affected through anthropogenic intervention. The most representative land cover on peat is a Mauritia flexuosa-dominated palm swamp forest which has been under human pressure over decades due the high demand for the M. flexuosa fruit often collected by cutting down the entire palm. Degradation of these carbon-dense forests can severely affect emissions of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change. The objectives of this research were to assess the impacts on soil trace gas fluxes and biomass carbon stocks of peat palm swamp forest degradation and to explore the potential of remote sensing methods combined with field measurements to map the distribution of peat palm swamp forest according degradation levels. Results suggest a shift in forest composition from palm- to woody-tree dominated forest following degradation. We also found that human intervention in peat palm swamp forest can translate into substantial reductions in tree carbon stocks with a decrease in initial biomass (above and below-ground) stocks (118.3 ± 1.1 Mg C ha-1) by 26 and 44% following medium and high degradation. Preliminary results suggest high and low soil CH4 and CO2 emission rates on average, as compared to Southeast Asian peat swamp forests whereas N2O emissions are of the same magnitude. Degradation seems to disrupt soil respiration mainly through micro-climatic changes induced by reduced canopy cover. The analysis indicates a good potential to discriminate areas of peat palm swamp forest with different levels of degradation from other land covers, suggesting the feasibility of monitoring peat palm swamp forest degradation using remote sensing analyses.

  6. Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sophia V; Kaste, James M; Olid, Carolina; Bindler, Richard

    2014-09-15

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (241)Am, and (7)Be, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of (7)Be down to 18-20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of (241)Am without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and s