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Sample records for pectoralis jacq var

  1. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  2. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video.

    PubMed

    Ordas Bayon, Alejandro; Sandoval, Enrique; Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  3. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  4. Molecular and morphologic data reveal multiple species in Peromyscus pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Schmidly, David J.; Amman, Brian R.; Platt, Roy N.; Neumann, Kathy M.; Huynh, Howard M.; Muñiz-Martínez, Raúl; López-González, Celia; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequence and morphometric data were used to re-evaluate the taxonomy and systematics of Peromyscus pectoralis. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene in 44 samples of P. pectoralis indicated 2 well-supported monophyletic clades. The 1st clade contained specimens from Texas historically assigned to P. p. laceianus; the 2nd was comprised of specimens previously referable to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis obtained from northern and eastern Mexico. Levels of genetic variation (~7%) between these 2 clades indicated that the genetic divergence typically exceeded that reported for other species of Peromyscus. Samples of P. p. laceianus north and south of the Río Grande were not monophyletic. In addition, samples representing P. p. collinus and P. p. pectoralis formed 2 clades that differed genetically by 7.14%. Multivariate analyses of external and cranial measurements from 63 populations of P. pectoralis revealed 4 morpho-groups consistent with clades in the DNA sequence analysis: 1 from Texas and New Mexico assignable to P. p. laceianus; a 2nd from western and southern Mexico assignable to P. p. pectoralis; a 3rd from northern and central Mexico previously assigned to P. p. pectoralis but herein shown to represent an undescribed taxon; and a 4th from southeastern Mexico assignable to P. p. collinus. Based on the concordance of these results, populations from the United States are referred to as P. laceianus, whereas populations from Mexico are referred to as P. pectoralis (including some samples historically assigned to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis). A new subspecies is described to represent populations south of the Río Grande in northern and central Mexico. Additional research is needed to discern if P. p. collinus warrants species recognition. PMID:26937045

  5. Pectoralis major tears: anatomy, classification, and diagnosis with ultrasound and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiavaras, Mary M; Jacobson, Jon A; Smith, Jay; Dahm, Diane L

    2015-02-01

    Accurate characterization of pectoralis major tears is important to guide management. Imaging evaluation with ultrasound and MR imaging can be difficult given the complex regional anatomy. In addition, recent literature has redefined the anatomy of the distal pectoralis major. The purpose of this study is to review pectoralis major injuries taking into account new anatomic descriptions using ultrasound and MR imaging, including cadaveric dissection, surgically produced pectoralis tears, and clinical pectoralis tendon tear with surgical correlation.

  6. Atypical Pectoralis Major Muscle Wasting in a Recreational Weight Lifter.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Nata; Blevins, Maryellen I; Carey, Paul; Friedman, Darren J

    2016-07-01

    Pectoralis major injuries are relatively uncommon and can pose a diagnostic challenge. Deformity and weakness of this muscle in weight lifters is typically due to traumatic tendon rupture and often requires surgical repair. However, there are other less common etiologies that can mimic the clinical presentation of pectoralis major wasting and weakness that require different treatment approaches. This article describes a case of a 48-year-old recreational weight lifter who presented with severe pectoralis major wasting and weakness secondary to isolated mononeuropathy of the lateral pectoral nerve possibly due to Parsonage Turner syndrome. The patient was treated nonoperatively and achieved full recovery 18 months after onset. Parsonage Turner syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with atraumatic weakness and wasting of the pectoralis major muscle and dysfunction. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e756-e759.]. PMID:27280627

  7. Proximal humerus shaft fracture after pectoralis major tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Jeff A; Goldberg, Ben; Wolin, Preston

    2011-06-01

    Surgical repair of a complete pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion has superior results compared to nonoperative treatment. To our knowledge, a proximal humerus shaft fracture occurring at the site of the bone trough and cortical drill holes after a pectoralis major tendon rupture repair has not been reported in the literature.A 45-year-old man sustained an acute left pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion while performing a bench press maneuver. He underwent acute surgical repair. Approximately 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient fell from a standing height and sustained a proximal humerus shaft fracture through the repair site at the bone trough. Three days after the fracture, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus shaft fracture and exploration of the pectoralis major tendon repair. The fracture was found to be at the level of the repair site, and the pectoralis major tendon was completely intact to the distal fragment. The fracture healed uneventfully, and the patient regained full motion and strength of his extremity with no limitations.Any type of surgical fixation that creates a hole in the humerus or decreases the cross-sectional area such as a bone trough creates a stress riser. Patients undergoing pectoralis tendon repair that involves violating the humerus with a bone trough or hole have a slight risk of postoperative humerus fracture, especially if sustaining an early traumatic event such as a fall. PMID:21667914

  8. Pectoralis major tendon repairs in the active-duty population.

    PubMed

    Antosh, Ivan J; Grassbaugh, Jason A; Parada, Stephen A; Arrington, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is an uncommon injury that typically occurs in young, active people. Of this injury population, active-duty military personnel represent a unique, athletic subset that is commonly treated with operative repair. For the retrospective case series reported here, we hypothesized that active-duty soldiers with acute and chronic pectoralis major tendon ruptures treated with operative repair would have high levels of patient satisfaction, quick return to work and sports, and few long-term complications. We retrospectively reviewed all pectoralis major tendon rupture repairs performed at our institution between 2000 and 2007. Charts were thoroughly reviewed, and patients were asked to complete DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand) and supplemental questionnaires. Paired Student's t test was performed, and Ps were calculated to analyze statistical differences between immediate- and delayed-treatment groups. Fourteen patients were identified. The most common mechanism of injury was bench-pressing weights. Overall DASH, Work Module, and Sports Module scores were good to excellent. There was a statistically significant difference between outcomes for the immediate- and delayed- treatment groups, with the immediate-treatment group having better overall DASH and Work Module scores. Patients had a 30% to 40% objective loss of strength after surgery. Active-duty soldiers reported acceptable overall outcomes after both immediate and delayed treatment for pectoralis major tendon ruptures, but a statistically significant difference was found in overall DASH and Work Module scores between the treatment groups.

  9. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-02-25

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships.

  10. Regeneration of specific innervation in Xenopus pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Harada, Y; Grinnell, A D

    1996-12-01

    We investigated the motor unit organization and precision of reinnervation in the Xenopus pectoralis muscle following different manipulations, including crush or section of the posterior pectoralis nerve, foreign nerve innervation, and crush coupled with activity modulation or block. Most fibers have two neuromuscular junctions, and multielectrode recordings were used to identify the axonal origin of all inputs to both junctions on most or all fibers covering about 25% of the muscle surface. Following simple nerve crush, a highly organized innervation pattern was restored, indistinguishable from the normal pattern, including selective innervation of fibers of similar input resistance (R(in)), compact motor unit organization, and high incidence of exclusive innervation of both end plates on each fiber by the same axon (distributed mononeuronal innervation, or a/a pattern). Initial reinnervation was equally precise when nerve conduction in the regenerating nerve was blocked by tetrodotoxin. More distant or repeated nerve crush or nerve section delayed and reduced the precision of reinnervation, but the majority of fibers still received input to both end plates by the same axon, often in combination with others. A foreign nerve, the pectoralis sternalis, which in its own muscle forms only single end plates, showed less precise reinnervation, but still had an incidence of a/a innervation far above chance. These data imply the expression and recognition of remarkably precise chemospecific cues even in mature animals, superimposed on which is a further refinement by synapse elimination, probably based on an activity-dependent process.

  11. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program.

  12. ULTRASOUND OF THE PECTORALIS MAJOR MUSCLE AFTER REVERSE SHOULDER ARTHROPLASTY: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Mascarinas, Angelie L.; Newman, Joel S.; Warner, Jon J.P.; Jain, Nitin B.

    2014-01-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. We present a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple prior surgeries and contraindication to MRI due to a shoulder implant. This patient’s physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient since a surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program. PMID:25251253

  13. Distribution of the white-ankled mouse (Peromyscus pectoralis) in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, K.

    2004-01-01

    The white-ankled mouse (Peromyscus pectoralis) was previously known only from Carlsbad Caverns National Park and nearby areas in extreme southeastern New Mexico. I discovered 15 new localities for P. pectoralis, which extend its distribution 225 km north-northwest. This new distribution does not represent a recent northward expansion of P. pectoralis in New Mexico but reflects the lack of mammalian surveys in the region and misidentification of museum specimens from past surveys. At present, the distribution of P. pectoralis in New Mexico includes the Guadalupe Mountains and lowland habitats between the Sacramento Mountains and Pecos River.

  14. Surgical debridement, vacuum therapy and pectoralis plasty in poststernotomy mediastinitis.

    PubMed

    Ennker, I C; Pietrowski, D; Vöhringer, L; Kojcici, B; Albert, A; Vogt, P M; Ennker, J

    2009-11-01

    In cardiac surgery poststernotomy mediastinitis continues to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality. We report our experience with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy followed by reconstruction with M. pectoralis muscle flaps as treatment for deep sternal wound infections. Our group performed a retrospective analysis of 3630 consecutive cardiac surgical patients using median sternotomy from 11/2004 to 11/2007. After removing sternal wires, necrotic debris and potentially infective material, restabilisation of the sternum was performed and VAC therapy was employed. Wound closure and subsequent reconstruction were performed using a bilateral pectoralis muscle plasty. Of the analysed patients 16 female and 29 male patients suffered from deep sternal wound infections and were treated with VAC. The most common risk factors were diabetes mellitus odds ratio (OR 3.5), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 2.9), use of bilateral mammarian artery (OR 2.0) and obesity (1.8). The median age of patients with deep sternal infections was similar to control patients. Staphylococcus epidermis was the most common pathogen (37.8%) followed by Enterococcus faecilis (22.2%) and Staphylococcus aureus (17.8). In 22.2% no pathogen could be detected. The 30 day mortality was 0%, the in-hospital mortality was 15.6%. The results of our studies demonstrate that vacuum therapy in conjunction with early and aggressive debridement is an effective strategy for treating poststernotomy mediastinitis. We consider pectoralis major muscle flap reconstruction as a safe technique and regard it as the primary choice for wound closure in poststernotomy mediastinitis. PMID:18996074

  15. Anatomy of the pectoralis minor tendon and its use in acromioclavicular joint reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moinfar, Amir R; Murthi, Anand M

    2007-01-01

    Many procedures described for operative management of acromioclavicular joint separations entail transfer of the coracoacromial ligament. We sought to describe the anatomy and morphology of the pectoralis minor tendon better, to assess its anatomic potential as a substitute for sacrificing the coracoacromial ligament, and to compare the ultimate tensile strength of the pectoralis minor with that of the coracoacromial ligament and detached coracoclavicular ligament. The morphology of the pectoralis minor tendon was carefully delineated and compared with that of the coracoacromial ligament, and 10 paired fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested to failure by applying a single uniaxial tensile load. Anatomic study of the pectoralis minor tendon confirmed its adequacy as a source of local autograft tissue in acromioclavicular joint reconstruction. We hypothesize that, in cases of acromioclavicular joint separation necessitating operative intervention, the use of the pectoralis minor tendon as a potential source of autograft tissue is anatomically feasible and it is slightly stronger than the coracoacromial ligament.

  16. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary to a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.

  17. Automatic identification of pectoralis muscle on digital cranio-caudal-view mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Mei; Mawdsley, Gordon; Yaffe, Martin

    2011-03-01

    To improve efficiency and reduce human error in the computerized calculation of volumetric breast density, we have developed an automatic identification process which suppresses the projected region of the pectoralis muscle on digital CC-view mammograms. The pixels in the image of the pectoralis muscle, represent dense tissue, but not related to risk, will cause an error in estimated breast density if counted as fibroglandular tissue. The pectoralis muscle on the CC-view is not always visible and has variable shape and location. Our algorithm robustly detects the existence of the pectoralis in the image and segments it as a semi-elliptical region that closely matches manually segmented images. We present a pipeline where adaptive thresholding and distance transforms have been used in the initial pectoralis region identification process; statistical region growing is applied to explore the region within the identified location aimed at refining the boundary; and a 2D shape descriptor is developed for the target validation: the segmented region is identified as the pectoralis muscle if it has a semi-elliptical contour. After the pectoralis muscle is identified, a 1D-FFT filtering is used for boundary smoothing. Quantitative evaluation was performed by comparing manual segmentation by a trained operator, and analysis using the algorithm in a set of 174 randomly selected digital mammograms. Use of the algorithm is shown to improve accuracy in the automatic determination of the volumetric ratio of breast composition by removal of the pectoralis muscle from both the numerator and denominator. As well, it greatly improves the efficiency and throughput in large scale volumetric mammographic density studies where previously interaction with an operator was required to obtain that level of accuracy.

  18. Thoracic outlet syndrome of pectoralis minor etiology mimicking cardiac symptoms on activity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome is the result of compression or irritation of neurovascular bundles as they pass from the lower cervical spine into the arm, via the axilla. If the pectoralis minor muscle is involved the patient may present with chest pain, along with pain and paraesthesia into the arm. These symptoms are also commonly seen in patients with chest pain of a cardiac origin. In this case, a patient presents with a history of left sided chest pain with pain and paraesthesia into the left upper limb, which only occurs whilst running. The symptoms were reproduced on both digital pressure over the pectoralis minor muscle and on provocative testing for thoracic outlet syndrome. The patient’s treatment therefore focused on the pectoralis minor muscle, with a complete resolution of symptoms. This illustrates that not all cases of chest pain with associated arm symptoms that occur on physical activity are of cardiac origin. PMID:23204575

  19. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  20. Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail pheromones and use them to find food.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Christian; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Foragers of several species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Meliponini) deposit pheromone marks in the vegetation to guide nestmates to new food sources. These pheromones are produced in the labial glands and are nest and species specific. Thus, an important question is how recruited foragers recognize their nestmates' pheromone in the field. We tested whether naïve workers learn a specific trail pheromone composition while being recruited by nestmates inside the hive in the species Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We installed artificial scent trails branching off from trails deposited by recruiting foragers and registered whether newly recruited bees follow these trails. The artificial trails were baited with trail pheromones of workers collected from foreign S. pectoralis colonies. When the same foreign trail pheromone was presented inside the experimental hives while recruitment took place a significant higher number of bees followed the artificial trails than in experiments without intranidal presentation. Our results demonstrate that recruits of S. pectoralis can learn the composition of specific trail pheromone bouquets inside the nest and subsequently follow this pheromone in the field. We, therefore, suggest that trail pheromone recognition in S. pectoralis is based on a flexible learning process rather than being a genetically fixed behaviour. PMID:21052681

  1. Effect of wooden breast condition on water-holding capacity of broiler breast pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging muscle abnormality with broiler breast meat. Limited studies have shown that WBC significantly affects meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBC on water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast pectoralis major. Broiler...

  2. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-12-22

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P

  3. Analisys of pectoralis major tendon in weightlifting athletes using ultrasonography and elastography

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ferretti, Mario; Kawakami, Eduardo Felipe Kin Ito; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Cohen, Moisés; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate tendinopathy of the pectoralis major muscle in weightlifting athletes using ultrasound and elastography. Methods This study included 20 patients, 10 with rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and 10 control patients. We evaluated pectoralis major muscle contralateral tendon with ultrasonographic and elastography examinations. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed using a high-resolution B mode ultrasound device. The elastography evaluation was classified into three patterns: (A), if stiff (more than 50% area with blue staining); (B), if intermediate (more than 50% green); and (C), if softened (more than 50% red). Results Patients’ mean age was 33±5.3 years. The presence of tendinous injury measured by ultrasound had a significant different (p=0.0055), because 80% of cases had tendinous injury versus 10% in the Control Group. No significant differences were seen between groups related with change in elastography (p=0.1409). Conclusion Long-term bodybuilders had ultrasound image with more tendinous injury than those in Control Group. There was no statistical significance regarding change in tendon elasticity compared with Control Group. PMID:26761551

  4. Xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructs hypopharynx and cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Danhui; Tang, Qinglai; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shisheng; He, Xiangbo; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Yang, Mi; Yang, Xinming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction. A total of five patients were treated with this surgical method to reconstruct hypopharynx and cervical esophagus in Second Xiangya Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Four of them had hypopharyngeal carcinoma with laryngeal and cervical esophageal invasion, while the fifth patient with hypopharyngeal cancer had developed scars and atresia after postoperative radiotherapy. The defect length after hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal resection was 6-8 cm, and was repaired by a combination of ADM and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap by our team. Interestingly, the four patients had primary healing and regained their eating function about 2-3 weeks after surgery, the fifth individual suffered from pharyngeal fistula, but recovered after dressing change about 2 months. Postoperative esophageal barium meals revealed that the pharynx and esophagus were unobstructed in all five patients. Xenogeneic ADM in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction is a simple, safe and effective method with fewer complications. Nevertheless, according to the defect length of the cervical esophagus, the patients need to strictly follow the medical advice.

  5. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin allotransplantation model of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Nasir, Serdar; Zor, Fatih; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Siemionow, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cellular and vascularized bone marrow cells have been used to induce donor-specific chimerism in various models of composite tissue allotransplantation. Although thymus transplantation has been reported in the literature, the effect of thymus transplantation on chimerism levels in vascularized bone containing composite tissue allotransplantation has not been reported. In this study, a new method for composite vascularized sternal bone marrow transplant model is descried that can be applied to augment chimerism after transplantation. A total of seven composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin transplantations were performed in two groups. The first group (n = 5) was designed as an allotransplantation group and the second group (n = 2) was designed as an isotransplantation group. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, and pectoralis muscles allografts were harvested on the common carotid artery and external jugular vein and a heterotopic transplantation was performed to the inguinal region of the recipient rat. Cyclosporine A monotherapy was administered in order to prevent acute and chronic allograft rejection. Animals sacrificed when any sign of rejection occurred. The longest survival was 156 day post-transplant. Assessment of bone marrow cells within sternum bone component and flow cytometry analysis of donor-specific chimerism in the peripheral blood of recipients were evaluated. Our results showed that this composite allograft carried 7.5 × 10(6) of viable hematopoietic cells within the sternum component. At day 7 post-transplant chimerism was developed in T-cell population and mean level was assessed at 2.65% for RT1(n) /CD4 and at 1.0% for RT1(n) /CD8. In this study, a new osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscle, and skin allotransplantation model is reported which can be used to augment hematopoietic activity for chimerism induction after transplantation.

  6. Recruits of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis learn food odors from the nest atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Christian; Jarau, Stefan; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice in the field in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. During the experiments, recruited bees had to choose between two feeders, one with an odor that was present inside the nest during the recruitment process, and one with an unknown odor. In all experiments with different odor combinations (linalool/phenylacetaldehyde, geraniol/eugenol) a significant majority of bees visited the feeder with the odor they had experienced in their nest ( χ 2-tests; p < 0.05). By contrast, the bees showed no preference for one of two feeders when they were either baited with the same odor (linalool) or contained no odor. Our results clearly show that naïve workers of S. pectoralis can learn the odor of a food source during the recruitment process from the nest atmosphere and that their subsequent food search in the field is influenced by the learned odor.

  7. The in vitro passive elastic response of chicken pectoralis muscle to applied tensile and compressive deformation.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Melika; Murphy, Paula; Simms, Ciaran K

    2016-09-01

    The mechanics of passive skeletal muscle are important in impact biomechanics, surgical simulation, and rehabilitation engineering. Existing data from porcine tissue has shown a significant tension/compression asymmetry, which is not captured by current constitutive modelling approaches using a single set of material parameters, and an adequate explanation for this effect remains elusive. In this paper, the passive elastic deformation properties of chicken pectoralis muscle are assessed for the first time, to provide deformation data on a skeletal muscle which is very different to porcine tissue. Uniaxial, quasi-static compression and tensile tests were performed on fresh chicken pectoralis muscle in the fibre and cross-fibre directions, and at 45° to the fibre direction. Results show that chicken muscle elastic behaviour is nonlinear and anisotropic. The tensile stress-stretch response is two orders of magnitude larger than in compression for all directions tested, which reflects the tension/compression asymmetry previously observed in porcine tissue. In compression the tissue is stiffest in the cross-fibre direction. However, tensile deformation applied at 45° gives the stiffest response, and this is different to previous findings relating to porcine tissue. Chicken muscle tissue is most compliant in the fibre direction for both tensile and compressive applied deformation. Generally, a small percentage of fluid exudation was observed in the compressive samples. In the future these data will be combined with microstructural analysis to assess the architectural basis for the tension/compression asymmetry now observed in two different species of skeletal muscle.

  8. Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Medina, L M; Hart, A G; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-01-01

    Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M. beecheii colonies, workers took 2-9 days to remove 100% of the dead brood (4.4 +/- 2.0 days, mean +/- SD), while S. pectoralis removed all dead brood in less than 3 days (2.3 +/- 0.6 days, mean +/- SD). We conclude that hygienic behavior is not unique to A. mellifera, and is not solely an adaptation for the reuse of brood cells as occurs in honey bees but not stingless bees. Although stingless bees do not reuse brood cells, space is limited. The removal of dead brood may be necessary to allow new cells to be constructed in the same place. PMID:19551645

  9. Transferability of microsatellite markers of Capsicum annuum L. to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Oliveira, I B; Amaral, Z P S; Reifschneider, F J B; Faleiro, F G; Buso, G S C

    2015-07-17

    In order to support further genetic, diversity, and phylogeny studies of Capsicum species, the transferability of a Capsicum annuum L. simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite set was analyzed for C. frutescens L. ("malagueta" and "tabasco" peppers) and C. chinense Jacq. (smell peppers, among other types). A total of 185 SSR primers were evaluated in 12 accessions from 115 C. frutescens L. and 480 C. chinense Jacq, representing different types within each species. Transferability to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. occurred for 116 primers (62.7%). Nineteen (16.37%) were polymorphic in C. frutescens L. and 36 (31.03%) in C. chinense Jacq., 17 of which were coincident and could be used to analyze samples obtained for the 2 species. Among these primers, CA49 showed a different amplitude range of alleles between the 2 species (130-132 base pairs for C. frutescens L. and 120-128 base pairs for C. chinense Jacq.), and could differentiate the species. A total of 55 alleles were identified among the 19 polymorphic SSR loci among accessions of C. frutescens L., with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 5, a mean of 2.89, and the polymorphic information content ranging from 0.30 to 0.65. The number of alleles identified in C. chinense Jacq. was 119, ranging from 2 to 5 alleles per locus, an average of 3.30, and polymorphic information content from 0.19 to 0.68. The C. annuum L. SSR primers were most often transfer-able and polymorphic for C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq., and we present a set of SSR for each species.

  10. Transferability of microsatellite markers of Capsicum annuum L. to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Oliveira, I B; Amaral, Z P S; Reifschneider, F J B; Faleiro, F G; Buso, G S C

    2015-01-01

    In order to support further genetic, diversity, and phylogeny studies of Capsicum species, the transferability of a Capsicum annuum L. simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite set was analyzed for C. frutescens L. ("malagueta" and "tabasco" peppers) and C. chinense Jacq. (smell peppers, among other types). A total of 185 SSR primers were evaluated in 12 accessions from 115 C. frutescens L. and 480 C. chinense Jacq, representing different types within each species. Transferability to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. occurred for 116 primers (62.7%). Nineteen (16.37%) were polymorphic in C. frutescens L. and 36 (31.03%) in C. chinense Jacq., 17 of which were coincident and could be used to analyze samples obtained for the 2 species. Among these primers, CA49 showed a different amplitude range of alleles between the 2 species (130-132 base pairs for C. frutescens L. and 120-128 base pairs for C. chinense Jacq.), and could differentiate the species. A total of 55 alleles were identified among the 19 polymorphic SSR loci among accessions of C. frutescens L., with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 5, a mean of 2.89, and the polymorphic information content ranging from 0.30 to 0.65. The number of alleles identified in C. chinense Jacq. was 119, ranging from 2 to 5 alleles per locus, an average of 3.30, and polymorphic information content from 0.19 to 0.68. The C. annuum L. SSR primers were most often transfer-able and polymorphic for C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq., and we present a set of SSR for each species. PMID:26214475

  11. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  12. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  13. Reconstruction of the zygoma, temporo-mandibular joint and mandible using a compound pectoralis major osteo-muscular flap.

    PubMed

    Jones, N F; Sommerlad, B C

    1983-10-01

    A method of reconstruction of the zygoma, temporo-mandibular joint and hemi-mandible utilising a segment of the outer table of the sternum, sterno-costal joint and rib vascularised by an ipsilateral pectoralis major muscle flap is described. The mobility of an isolated sterno-coastal joint is compared with movements of the temporo-mandibular joint.

  14. Pectoralis major insertional ratio in proximal humerus fractures: a method to reconstruct humeral head height in arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S Ashfaq; Rauls, Russell B; Cordell, Cari L; Heinzelmann, Andrew D; Siegel, Eric R

    2009-10-01

    A key factor for a successful outcome after hemiarthroplasty for a 4-part proximal humerus fracture is accurately restoring humeral length. Our hypothesis was that the pectoralis major insertion is not at a constant distance on the humerus, as has been previously suggested, but varies depending on the length of the humerus, and our goal was to determine if a consistent ratio exists for the insertion as it relates to total humeral length. Thirty-eight cadaver arms were dissected to expose the pectoralis major insertion. Using a digital caliper, measurements were made from the top of the humeral head to the superior aspect of the pectoralis major insertion (HP), and from the pectoralis insertion to the lateral epicondyle (PL). The predictive ability of PL for HP was examined via regression, and the average prediction error was computed. The final predictive regression model had the following formula: pHP=0.2323xPL, where pHP is predicted HP. This equation had an average prediction error of 4.11 mm. The PL can be measured intraoperatively during hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures. The proportionality relationship can then be used to predict HP with an average prediction error <5 mm. This relationship may facilitate accurate intraoperative reconstruction of prosthetic head height and enhance existing techniques for assessment of implant positioning.

  15. Effect of the wooden breast condition on shear force and texture profile analysis of raw and cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (Pectoralis major) with the wooden breast condition (WBC) using the instrumental texture techniques of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h post-mortem) broiler fille...

  16. Reliability of measuring pectoralis minor muscle resting length in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Dayana P.; Borstad, John D.; Pires, Elisa D.; Camargo, Paula R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pectoralis minor adaptive shortening may change scapula resting position and scapular kinematics during arm elevation. A reliable and clinically feasible method for measuring pectoralis minor length will be useful for clinical decision making when evaluating and treating individuals with shoulder pain and dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability of a pectoralis minor (PM) muscle length measurement in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement. Method: A convenience sample of 100 individuals (50 asymptomatic and 50 symptomatic) participated in this study. Intra- and interrater reliability of the measurement was estimated in 50 individuals (25 asymptomatic and 25 symptomatic), and between-day reliability of the measurement repeated over an interval of 7 days was estimated in an independent sample of 50 additional participants. Pectoralis minor length was measured using a flexible tape measure with subjects standing. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) for intrarater and interrater reliability ranged from 0.86-0.97 and 0.95 for between-day reliability in both groups. Standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged from 0.30-0.42 cm, 0.70-0.84 cm, and 0.40-0.41 cm for intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability, respectively, across the sample. The minimal detectable change (MDC) for between-day measurements ranged from 1.13-1.14 cm for both groups. Conclusions: In asymptomatic individuals and in those with signs of shoulder impingement, a single rater or pair of raters can measure pectoralis minor muscle length using a tape measure with very good reliability. This measurement can also be reliably used by the same rater over a seven day interval. PMID:26982455

  17. Avoiding Breast Animation Deformity with Pectoralis-Sparing Subcutaneous Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kobraei, Edward M; Cauley, Ryan; Gadd, Michele; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C

    2016-05-01

    There is renewed interest in sparing the pectoralis major muscle in implant breast reconstruction, placing the implant in the subcutaneous position. This advance is made reliable by improvements in mastectomy skin flap quality, evolution of technique, and increased awareness of breast animation deformity. This retrospective review presents 13 patients (23 breasts) reconstructed immediately with placing the definitive implant in the subcutaneous space without disruption of the underlying chest muscles. None of the 13 patients had breast animation deformity postoperatively. One patient experienced an early hematoma, and 3 patients had small seromas that resolved uneventfully. One morbidly obese patient undergoing chemotherapy using a nearby chest port experienced infection requiring implant removal. This study describes an early experience, demonstrates feasibility, and discusses patient selection considerations that are important because we continue to evolve breast reconstruction approaches.

  18. Avoiding Breast Animation Deformity with Pectoralis-Sparing Subcutaneous Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kobraei, Edward M.; Cauley, Ryan; Gadd, Michele; Austen, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: There is renewed interest in sparing the pectoralis major muscle in implant breast reconstruction, placing the implant in the subcutaneous position. This advance is made reliable by improvements in mastectomy skin flap quality, evolution of technique, and increased awareness of breast animation deformity. This retrospective review presents 13 patients (23 breasts) reconstructed immediately with placing the definitive implant in the subcutaneous space without disruption of the underlying chest muscles. None of the 13 patients had breast animation deformity postoperatively. One patient experienced an early hematoma, and 3 patients had small seromas that resolved uneventfully. One morbidly obese patient undergoing chemotherapy using a nearby chest port experienced infection requiring implant removal. This study describes an early experience, demonstrates feasibility, and discusses patient selection considerations that are important because we continue to evolve breast reconstruction approaches. PMID:27579232

  19. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Alaska blackfish (Esociformes: Dallia pectoralis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Sage, George K.; DeWilde, Rachel L.; López, J. Andres; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Blackfishes (Esociformes: Esocidae: Dallia), small fishes with relictual distributions, are unique in being the only primary freshwater fish genus endemic to Beringia. Although the number of species of Dallia is debated, disjunct populations and distinct mitochondrial divisions that predate the end of the last glacial maximum are apparent. We developed sixteen polymorphic microsatellites from the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) to study genetic diversity in Dallia. Genotypes from two populations, Denali (n = 31) and Bethel (n = 35), demonstrated the usefulness of the loci for population-level investigation. Observed and expected heterozygosity averaged 18.6 and 19.8 % in Denali and 61.1 and 63.7 % in Bethel. Number of alleles at each locus averaged 3.50 in Denali and 9.63 in Bethel. The observed signature of variability and structuring between populations is consistent with mitochondrial data.

  20. Quantitative Computed Tomography Measures of Pectoralis Muscle Area and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Ross, James C.; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Zhou, Linfu; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Eckbo, Eric; Muralidhar, Nina; Come, Carolyn E.; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Lange, Christoph; Wouters, Emiel; Casaburi, Richard H.; Coxson, Harvey O.; MacNee, William; Rennard, Stephen I.; Lomas, David A.; Agusti, Alvar; Celli, Bartolome R.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Kinney, Greg L.; Lutz, Sharon M.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a poor prognosis and is not readily assessed by measures of body mass index (BMI). BMI does not discriminate between relative proportions of adipose tissue and lean muscle and may be insensitive to early pathologic changes in body composition. Computed tomography (CT)–based assessments of the pectoralis muscles may provide insight into the clinical significance of skeletal muscles in smokers. Objectives: We hypothesized that objective assessment of the pectoralis muscle area on chest CT scans provides information that is clinically relevant and independent of BMI. Methods: Data from the ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) Study (n = 73) were used to assess the relationship between pectoralis muscle area and fat-free mass. We then used data in a subset (n = 966) of a larger cohort, the COPDGene (COPD Genetic Epidemiology) Study, to explore the relationship between pectoralis muscle area and COPD-related traits. Measurements and Main Results: We first investigated the correlation between pectoralis muscle area and fat-free mass, using data from a subset of participants in the ECLIPSE Study. We then further investigated pectoralis muscle area in COPDGene Study participants and found that higher pectoralis muscle area values were associated with greater height, male sex, and younger age. On subsequent clinical correlation, compared with BMI, pectoralis muscle area was more significantly associated with COPD-related traits, including spirometric measures, dyspnea, and 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD). For example, on average, each 10-cm2 increase in pectoralis muscle area was associated with a 0.8-unit decrease in the BODE (Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) index (95% confidence interval, –1.0 to –0.6; P < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significant associations between pectoralis muscle area and COPD

  1. Segmenting pectoralis muscle on digital mammograms by a Markov random field-maximum a posteriori model.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mei; Mainprize, James G; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Yaffe, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    Accurate and automatic segmentation of the pectoralis muscle is essential in many breast image processing procedures, for example, in the computation of volumetric breast density from digital mammograms. Its segmentation is a difficult task due to the heterogeneity of the region, neighborhood complexities, and shape variability. The segmentation is achieved by pixel classification through a Markov random field (MRF) image model. Using the image intensity feature as observable data and local spatial information as a priori, the posterior distribution is estimated in a stochastic process. With a variable potential component in the energy function, by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the labeling image, given the image intensity feature which is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution, we achieved convergence properties in an appropriate sense by Metropolis sampling the posterior distribution of the selected energy function. By proposing an adjustable spatial constraint, the MRF-MAP model is able to embody the shape requirement and provide the required flexibility for the model parameter fitting process. We demonstrate that accurate and robust segmentation can be achieved for the curving-triangle-shaped pectoralis muscle in the medio-lateral-oblique (MLO) view, and the semielliptic-shaped muscle in cranio-caudal (CC) view digital mammograms. The applicable mammograms can be either "For Processing" or "For Presentation" image formats. The algorithm was developed using 56 MLO-view and 79 CC-view FFDM "For Processing" images, and quantitatively evaluated against a random selection of 122 MLO-view and 173 CC-view FFDM images of both presentation intent types.

  2. The in vitro passive elastic response of chicken pectoralis muscle to applied tensile and compressive deformation.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkhah, Melika; Murphy, Paula; Simms, Ciaran K

    2016-09-01

    The mechanics of passive skeletal muscle are important in impact biomechanics, surgical simulation, and rehabilitation engineering. Existing data from porcine tissue has shown a significant tension/compression asymmetry, which is not captured by current constitutive modelling approaches using a single set of material parameters, and an adequate explanation for this effect remains elusive. In this paper, the passive elastic deformation properties of chicken pectoralis muscle are assessed for the first time, to provide deformation data on a skeletal muscle which is very different to porcine tissue. Uniaxial, quasi-static compression and tensile tests were performed on fresh chicken pectoralis muscle in the fibre and cross-fibre directions, and at 45° to the fibre direction. Results show that chicken muscle elastic behaviour is nonlinear and anisotropic. The tensile stress-stretch response is two orders of magnitude larger than in compression for all directions tested, which reflects the tension/compression asymmetry previously observed in porcine tissue. In compression the tissue is stiffest in the cross-fibre direction. However, tensile deformation applied at 45° gives the stiffest response, and this is different to previous findings relating to porcine tissue. Chicken muscle tissue is most compliant in the fibre direction for both tensile and compressive applied deformation. Generally, a small percentage of fluid exudation was observed in the compressive samples. In the future these data will be combined with microstructural analysis to assess the architectural basis for the tension/compression asymmetry now observed in two different species of skeletal muscle. PMID:27281164

  3. Pectoralis Muscle Flap Repair Reduces Paradoxical Motion of the Chest Wall in Complex Sternal Wound Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Zeitani, Jacob; Russo, Marco; Pompeo, Eugenio; Sergiacomi, Gian Luigi; Chiariello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with chronic complex sternum dehiscence, the use of muscle flap repair minimizes the occurrence of paradoxical motion of the chest wall (CWPM) when compared to sternal rewiring, eventually leading to better respiratory function and clinical outcomes during follow-up. Methods In a propensity score matching analysis, out of 94 patients who underwent sternal reconstruction, 20 patients were selected: 10 patients underwent sternal reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis muscle flaps (group 1) and 10 underwent sternal rewiring (group 2). Eligibility criteria included the presence of hemisternum diastases associated with multiple (≥3) bone fractures and radiologic evidence of synchronous chest wall motion (CWSM). We compared radiologically assessed (volumetric computed tomography) ventilatory mechanic indices such as single lung and global vital capacity (VC), diaphragm excursion, synchronous and paradoxical chest wall motion. Results Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 85±24 months). CWPM was inversely correlated with single lung VC (Spearman R=−0.72, p=0.0003), global VC (R=−0.51, p=0.02) and diaphragm excursion (R=−0.80, p=0.0003), whereas it proved directly correlated with dyspnea grade (Spearman R=0.51, p=0.02) and pain (R=0.59, p=0.005). Mean CWPM and single lung VC were both better in group 1, whereas there was no difference in CWSM, diaphragm excursion and global VC. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with complex chronic sternal dehiscence, pectoralis muscle flap reconstruction guarantees lower CWPM and greater single-lung VC when compared with sternal rewiring and it is associated with better clinical outcomes with less pain and dyspnea. PMID:27733997

  4. Segmenting pectoralis muscle on digital mammograms by a Markov random field-maximum a posteriori model

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mei; Mainprize, James G.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Accurate and automatic segmentation of the pectoralis muscle is essential in many breast image processing procedures, for example, in the computation of volumetric breast density from digital mammograms. Its segmentation is a difficult task due to the heterogeneity of the region, neighborhood complexities, and shape variability. The segmentation is achieved by pixel classification through a Markov random field (MRF) image model. Using the image intensity feature as observable data and local spatial information as a priori, the posterior distribution is estimated in a stochastic process. With a variable potential component in the energy function, by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the labeling image, given the image intensity feature which is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution, we achieved convergence properties in an appropriate sense by Metropolis sampling the posterior distribution of the selected energy function. By proposing an adjustable spatial constraint, the MRF-MAP model is able to embody the shape requirement and provide the required flexibility for the model parameter fitting process. We demonstrate that accurate and robust segmentation can be achieved for the curving-triangle-shaped pectoralis muscle in the medio-lateral-oblique (MLO) view, and the semielliptic-shaped muscle in cranio-caudal (CC) view digital mammograms. The applicable mammograms can be either “For Processing” or “For Presentation” image formats. The algorithm was developed using 56 MLO-view and 79 CC-view FFDM “For Processing” images, and quantitatively evaluated against a random selection of 122 MLO-view and 173 CC-view FFDM images of both presentation intent types. PMID:26158068

  5. Three-dimensional study of pectoralis major muscle and tendon architecture.

    PubMed

    Fung, Lillia; Wong, Brian; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Agur, Anne; Rindlisbacher, Tim; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2009-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the normal structural anatomy of the pectoralis major (PM) is of paramount importance in the planning of PM tendon transfers or repairs following traumatic PM tears. However, there is little consensus regarding the complex musculotendinous architecture of the PM in the anatomic or surgical literature. The purpose of this study is to model and quantify the three-dimensional architecture of the pectoralis muscle and tendon. Eleven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens were examined: five (2M/3F) were serially dissected, digitized, and modeled in 3D using Autodesk Maya; six (4M/2F) were dissected and photographed. The PM tendon consisted of longer anterior and shorter posterior layers that were continuous inferiorly. The muscle belly consisted of an architecturally uniform clavicular head (CH) and a segmented sternal head (SH) with 6-7 segments. The most inferior SH segment in all specimens was found to fold anteriorly forming a trough that cradled the inferior aspect of the adjacent superior segment. No twisting of either the PM muscle or tendon was noted. Within the CH, the fiber bundle lengths (FBL) were found to increase from superior to inferior, whereas the mean FBLs of SH were greatest in segments 3-5 found centrally. The mean lateral pennation angle was greater in the CH (29.4 +/- 6.9 degrees ) than in the SH (20.6 +/- 2.7 degrees ). The application of these findings could form the basis of future studies to optimize surgical planning and functional recovery of repair/reconstruction procedures.

  6. A case of pseudo–angina pectoris from a pectoralis minor trigger point caused by cross-country skiing

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Gordon E.; Hung, Laurie Y.; Ko, Gordon D.; Laframboise, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to illustrate the pectoralis minor muscle as a possible pain source in patients with anterior chest pain, especially those who are known to be beginner cross-country skiers. Clinical Features A 58-year-old man presented with anterior chest pain and normal cardiac examination findings. Upon history taking and physical examination, the chest pain was determined to be caused by active trigger points in the pectoralis minor muscle. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated with Graston Technique and cross-country skiing technique advice. The subject's symptoms improved significantly after 2 treatments and completely resolved after 4 treatments. Conclusion This case demonstrates the importance of differential diagnosis and mechanism of injury in regard to chest pain and that chiropractic management can be successful when addressing patients with chest wall pain of musculoskeletal origin. PMID:22014906

  7. Preliminary Investigations of the Anti-asthmatic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia pectoralis (Fresh Cut)

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, C; Jacob, AS; Thomas, EA; Levy, AS

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Justicia pectoralis (fresh cut plant), family Acantheceae, is a herb that is native to central America and the Caribbean. A crude extract prepared from the leaves of Justicia pectoralis is commonly used in Jamaican ethnotraditional medicine to reduce difficulty in breathing and suppress wheezing in asthmatic individuals. Objectives: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihistamine activity of an aqueous extract of Justicia pectoralis. Method: In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem, 1987. The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine. Results: The crude extract was efficacious in reducing the formation of histamine-induced wheals (p < 0.05). Results obtained from in vitro studies indicated that the crude extract (3.3 mg) caused significant reduction in tracheal smooth muscle contraction resulting from cumulative doses of histamine (p < 0.05). However, as the histamine doses increased, fresh cut extract was not able to maintain inhibition of histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction. This is an indication that the extract showed competitive reversible antagonism, possibly at histamine receptors. Conclusion: A crude extract of the leaves of Justicia pectoralis reduced the formation of histamine-induced wheals in sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.05) and also reduced histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions (p < 0.05). It blocked the effect of contraction produced by histamine in the airways; this property supports folklore claims for its use as an antihistamine. PMID:26624581

  8. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired

  9. Variation for Fruit Morphological Characteristics within a Germplasm Collection of Capsicum Chinense Jacq.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature fruit of 330 accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. from the USDA/ARS Capsicum germplasm collection were characterized for fruit length, width, weight and color. Mean fruit length was determined to be 47 mm with a range from 7.9 mm to 113.7 mm. Mean fruit width was 21.17 mm with a range of 6...

  10. 4-Deoxyaurone Formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Miosic, Silvija; Knop, Katrin; Hölscher, Dirk; Greiner, Jürgen; Gosch, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kai, Marco; Shrestha, Binita Kumari; Schneider, Bernd; Crecelius, Anna C.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Svatoš, Aleš; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6′-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones) in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI) indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction). Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general. PMID:23667445

  11. Subclavicular Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Optimal Reconstruction of Large Orbitozygomatic Defects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pingarron, Lorena; Ruiz, Julian; Rey, Juan; Maniegas, Lourdes; Roson, Silvia; Martinez, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of microvascular free flaps, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) has been relegated to background for most reconstructive surgeons. The objective of this article is to show the advantages of cervicofacial defects reconstruction with PMMF using the subclavicular plane route in a challenging clinical case. An 83-year-old man presented with cutaneous temporomalar lesion with orbital spread. Tumor resection was performed, including 12 × 11 cm skin and subcutaneous tissue, overlying zygomatic and malar bone, and orbital exenteration. Radical parotidectomy and functional neck dissection were performed. PMMF was chosen as reconstructive option routing the pedicle to the subclavicular plane. The length of the pedicle was 31 cm. The subclavicular route for PMMF increases the flap's length and arc of rotation compared with the conventional supraclavicular one. This procedure decreases the bulk of the PMMF pedicle which makes it functionally and cosmetically favorable. By using this modification, we may widen the “safe” reconstructive possibilities. PMID:25136415

  12. Proximity of Axillary Nerve During Cortical Button Repair of Pectoralis Major Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Sarah T.; Smith, Geoff C.; Ogunleye, Oluwafunto E.; Clark, Damian A.; Packham, Iain N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rupture of the pectoralis major (PM) tendon is a rare but severe injury. Several techniques have been described for PM fixation, including a transosseus technique, placing cortical buttons at the superior, middle and inferior PM tendon insertion points. The present cadaveric study investigates the proximity of the posterior branch of the axillary nerve to the drill positions for transosseus PM tendon repair. Methods Twelve cadaveric shoulders were used. The axillary nerve was marked during a preparatory dissection. Drills were passed through the humerus at the superior, middle and inferior insertions of the PM tendon and the drill bits were left in situ. The distance between these and each axillary nerve was measured using computed tomography. Results The superior drill position was in closest proximity to the axillary nerve (three-dimensional distance range 0–18.01 mm, mean 10.74 mm, 95% confidence interval 7.24 mm to 14.24 mm). The middle PM insertion point was also very close to the nerve. Conclusions Caution should be used when performing bicortical drilling of the humerus, especially when drilling at the superior border of the PM insertion. We describe ‘safe’ and ‘danger’ zones for the positioning of cortical buttons through the humerus reflecting the risk posed to the axillary nerve. PMID:27582906

  13. Influence of Pectoralis Minor Muscle and Upper Trapez Muscle Tightness in Scapular Dyskinesis

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilyaprak, Sevgi Sevi; Yüksel, Ertuğrul; Kalkan, Serpil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Alterations in scapular kinematics were found in individuals with shoulder problems compared with healthy individuals. These alterations in scapular kinematics such as changes in the normal position or any abnormal motion of the scapula during active motions are defined as “’Scapular Dyskinesis (SD)”. Relationship between tight muscles and scapular kinematics has been investigated. Pectoralis Minor Muscle Tightness (PMMT) effects scapular motion and make changes in scapular kinematics. Although there are some studies indicating a possible relationship between PMM or Upper Trapezius Muscle Tightness (UTMT) and SD, this relationship hasn’t been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of PMMT and UTMT on SD in an asymptomatic population. Methods: One-hundred-eleven participants (mean age: 22.73±3.45 years old, 222 arms, 42 Female-69 Male) were recruited. Subjects were eligible if they were ≥18 years of age, having active full shoulder motion and who has no health problem to hinder them from participate. Individuals with symptoms produced by cervical spine motion, impingement syndrome, frozen shoulder, shoulder instability and a history of shoulder fracture/surgery were excluded. Scapular Dyskinesis Test (SDT) was used to identify SD. PMMT was determined by Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI), UTMT by UTMT Test. Logistic regression analysis performed to ascertain the effects of PMMT and UTMT on the likelihood that participants have SD. Results: SD was identified in 62 arms (27.9%), PMMT in 32 arms (14.4%), and UTMT in 75 arms (33.8%) in total number of participants. PMMT was determined in 23 arms (37.1%) and UTMT in 39 arms (62.9%) in participants with SD. The logistic regression model was statistically significant, X2=65.472, p<.000, df= 2. The model explained 36.8% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in SD and correctly classified 78.4% of cases. The Wald criterion demonstrated that both PMMT and UTMT made a significant

  14. CT scan evaluation of glenoid bone and pectoralis major tendon: interest in shoulder prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Peyron, Christelle; Boyer, Etienne; Menu, Gauthier; Loisel, François; Aubry, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The shoulder arthroplasty brings satisfaction to patients in terms of quality of life and indolence. However whether anatomic implant or reverse, it does not escape from the loosening of the glenoid component. Moreover, optimal implantation is required to ensure the functional outcome without shortening of the arm. The purpose of this study is obtain CT scan evaluation of the glenoid bone stock in order to optimize glenoid component implantation and obtain a reference to determine optimal humeral component placement in case of humeral proximal fracture. Materials and methods: Between 2010 and 2011 we have analyzed 200 intact shoulder’s CT. We measured maximal and minimal width in the transverse plane of the glenoid, the distance from the pectoralis major (PM) tendon to the humeral head, the greater tubercle, change of curvature and the anatomical neck. Results: Mean maximum width was 27.4 ± 3.4 mm and mean minimum width was 15.5 ± 2.8 mm. Distances between upper edge of PM tendon to: humeral head, greater tubercle, change of curvature and anatomical neck were respectively: 67.6 ± 9.98 mm, 57.8 ± 10.3 mm, 28.7 ± 9 mm, and 34.2 ± 9.7 mm. Conclusion: Our study has produced an assessment of glenoid bone stock for optimal positioning of the glenoid implant but also to obtain a reference to determine the ideal location of the humeral component in the case of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:27716461

  15. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis.

  16. Contractile activity of the pectoralis in the zebra finch according to mode and velocity of flap-bounding flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W; Puccinelli, Lisa A; Sheridan, David C

    2005-08-01

    We studied flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 12), to provide a new test of a long-standing ;fixed-gear' hypothesis that flap-bounding birds use only intermittent non-flapping phases, instead of variation in muscle activity, to vary mechanical power output in flight. Using sonomicrometry and electromyography, we measured in vivo fascicle length and neuromuscular recruitment in the pectoralis as the birds flew in different flight modes (level, ascending, descending; mean velocity 1.6+/-0.3 m s(-1)) and across velocities in a new, variable-speed wind tunnel (0-12 m s(-1)). Synchronized high-speed digital video (250 Hz) provided a record of wing kinematics. Flight mode had a significant effect upon pectoralis strain, strain rate, fractional shortening and the relative timing of muscle activity (onset, offset and duration). Among flight velocities, we observed significant variation in pectoralis strain, fractional lengthening and shortening, strain rate, relative electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and EMG duration and offset. In particular, variation in strain rate and relative EMG amplitude indicates that the fixed-gear hypothesis should be rejected. Instead, it appears that zebra finch vary work and power output within wingbeats by modulating muscle contractile behavior and between wingbeats using intermittent bounds. Muscle activity patterns and wing kinematics were similar between free flight and wind tunnel flight at similar speeds. Comparing flights with and without surgically implanted transducers and electrodes, zebra finch exhibited a reduction in maximum velocity (from 14 to 12 m s(-1)) and a significant increase in wingbeat frequency and percent time flapping. This identifies a potential limitation of in vivo flight measurements, and similar studies of bird flight should, therefore, include measurements of the extent to which flight performance is compromised by experimental protocol.

  17. A comparative study of the mechanics of the pectoralis muscle of the red-tailed hawk and the barred owl.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan E; Dobbins, Charles S

    2012-03-01

    A comparison of the isometric forces and levers of the pectoralis muscle in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and barred owls (Strix varia) was done to identify differences that may correlate with their different flight styles. The pectoralis consists of two heads, the anterior m. sternobrachialis (SB) and the posterior m. thoracobrachialis (TB). These are joined at an intramuscular tendon and are supplied by separate primary nerve branches. As in other birds, the two heads have distinct fiber orientations in red-tailed hawks and barred owls. SB's fiber orientation (posterolateral and mediolateral from origin to insertion) provides pronation and protraction of the humerus during adduction. Electromyographic studies in pigeons show that it is active in early downstroke and during level flight. TB is more active during take-off and landing in pigeons. The anterolateral orientation (from origin to insertion) of its fibers provides a retractive component to humeral adduction used to control the wing during landing. In our study, the maximum isometric force produced by the combined pectoralis heads did not differ significantly between the hawk and owl, however, the forces were distributed differently between the two muscle heads. In the owl, SB and TB were capable of producing equal amounts of force, but in the hawk, SB produced significantly less force than did TB. This may reflect the need for a large TB to control landing in both birds during prey-strike, with the owl maintaining both protractive (using SB) and retractive (using TB) abilities. Pronation and protraction may be less important in the flight behavior of the hawk, but its prey-strike behavior may require the maintenance of a substantial TB for braking and controlled stalling, as it initiates strike behavior.

  18. Effects of heat shock protein 90 expression on pectoralis major oxidation in broilers exposed to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hao, Y; Gu, X H

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) expression on pH, lipid peroxidation, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression of pectoralis major in broilers exposed to acute heat stress. In total, 90 male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control (CON), heat stress (HS), or geldanamycin treatment (GA). On d 41, the broilers in the GA group were injected intraperitoneally with GA (5 μg/kg of BW), and the broilers in the CON and HS groups were injected intraperitoneally with saline. Twenty-four hours later, the broilers in the CON group were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 22°C for 2 h, and the broilers in the HS and GA groups were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 40°C for 2 h. The pH values of the pectoralis major after 30 min and 24 h of chilling after slaughter of HS and GA broilers were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the CON broilers. Heat stress caused significant increases in sera corticosterone and lactic dehydrogenase, the activity of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, the expression of HSP90 and HSP70, and nuclear expression of GR protein in the pectoralis major (P < 0.05). Heat stress induced a significant decrease in GR protein expression in the cytoplasm and GR mRNA expression. Furthermore, the low expression of HSP90 significantly increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde and GR protein expression in the cytoplasm under heat stress (P < 0.01), and significantly decreased nuclear GR protein expression (P < 0.01). Heat shock protein 90 was positively correlated with corticosterone and superoxide dismutase activities (P < 0.01), and HSP90 mRNA was negatively correlated with pH after chilling for 24 h. The results demonstrated that HSP90 plays a pivotal role in protecting cells from oxidation.

  19. A comparative study of the mechanics of the pectoralis muscle of the red-tailed hawk and the barred owl.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan E; Dobbins, Charles S

    2012-03-01

    A comparison of the isometric forces and levers of the pectoralis muscle in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and barred owls (Strix varia) was done to identify differences that may correlate with their different flight styles. The pectoralis consists of two heads, the anterior m. sternobrachialis (SB) and the posterior m. thoracobrachialis (TB). These are joined at an intramuscular tendon and are supplied by separate primary nerve branches. As in other birds, the two heads have distinct fiber orientations in red-tailed hawks and barred owls. SB's fiber orientation (posterolateral and mediolateral from origin to insertion) provides pronation and protraction of the humerus during adduction. Electromyographic studies in pigeons show that it is active in early downstroke and during level flight. TB is more active during take-off and landing in pigeons. The anterolateral orientation (from origin to insertion) of its fibers provides a retractive component to humeral adduction used to control the wing during landing. In our study, the maximum isometric force produced by the combined pectoralis heads did not differ significantly between the hawk and owl, however, the forces were distributed differently between the two muscle heads. In the owl, SB and TB were capable of producing equal amounts of force, but in the hawk, SB produced significantly less force than did TB. This may reflect the need for a large TB to control landing in both birds during prey-strike, with the owl maintaining both protractive (using SB) and retractive (using TB) abilities. Pronation and protraction may be less important in the flight behavior of the hawk, but its prey-strike behavior may require the maintenance of a substantial TB for braking and controlled stalling, as it initiates strike behavior. PMID:22025367

  20. Outcome of repair of chronic tear of the pectoralis major using corkscrew suture anchors by box suture sliding technique

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Jitesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Deepak; Singh, Utkarsh; Jain, Vineet; Lal, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the functional and clinical results of repair of chronic tears of pectoralis major using corkscrew and sliding suture technique. METHODS In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of pectoralis major repair in 11 chronic cases (> 6 wk) done between September 2011 and December 2014 at our institute. In all cases repair was done by same surgeon using corkscrew suture anchors and box suture sliding technique. At 6 mo, after surgery magnetic resonance imaging was done to see the integrity of the repair. Functional evaluation was done using Penn and ASES scores. Pre and postoperative Isokinetic strength was measured. RESULTS Average follow-up was 48.27 ± 21.0 mo. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to evaluate the outcome scores. The average ASES score increased from an average of 54.63 ± 13.0 preoperatively to 95.09 ± 2.60 after surgery at their last follow-up. The average Penn score also increased from 5.72 ± 0.78, 2.81 ± 1.32 and 45.81 ± 1.72 to 9.36 ± 0.80, 8.27 ± 0.90 and 59 ± 1.34 for pain, satisfaction and function respectively. Follow up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (at 6 mo) showed continuity and the bulk of pectoralis major muscle in all cases. Average isokinetic strength deficiency in horizontal adduction at 60° was 13.63% ± 6.93% and at 120° was 10.18% ± 4.93% and in flexion at 60° was 10.72% ± 5.08% and at 120° was 6.63% + 3.74%. Results showed that both ASES and Penn score improved significantly (2 tailed P value = 0.0036). CONCLUSION We could conclude from this series that pectoralis major repair even in chronic cases using 5.5 mm corkscrew anchors give excellent functional and cosmetic results. In chronic cases the repairable length of the tendon is not available and sliding suture technique allows for fixation of worn out tendomuscular junction to bone without letting cutting through the muscle. PMID:27795949

  1. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities. PMID:27664620

  2. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  3. Antibacterial activity of stem and leaf extract of Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

    PubMed Central

    Priyavardhini, S.; Gowri, S. Shyamala; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of chloroform extracts of stem and leaf of Kedrostis foetidissima (jacq.) cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the chloroform extract of stem presented the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa others show significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557304

  4. The Laminated Nature of the Pectoralis Major Muscle and the Redefinition of the Inframammary Fold: Clinical Implications in Aesthetic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Maclin, Melvin M; Deigni, Olivier A; Bengtson, Bradley P

    2015-10-01

    The breast is appreciated aesthetically and clinically for its shape, projection, and volume. Surgical techniques have evolved to manipulate the breast skin envelope, soft tissues, and chest wall anatomy, with and without prosthetic devices. The pectoralis major specifically is altered for pocket dissection and implant coverage. Both the aesthetic and reconstructive surgeons are aware of its relationship to the chest wall and the breast soft tissues. Both are able to achieve outstanding outcomes; however, the authors present an alternative appreciation of the pectoralis and its relationship to the breast. PMID:26408437

  5. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction: An experience in 100 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Mayank; Parshad, Sanjeev; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar; Singh, Virender

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap has been used as a versatile and reliable flap since its first description by Ariyan in 1979. In India head and neck cancer patients usually present in the advanced stage making PMMC flap a viable option for reconstruction. Although free flap using microvascular technique is the standard of care, its use is limited by the availability of expertise and resources in developing world. The aim of this study is to identify the outcomes associated with PMMC flap reconstruction. Patients and Methods: After ethical approval we retrospectively analyzed 100 PMMC flap at a tertiary care hospital from 2006 to 2013. A total of 137 PMMC flap reconstructions were performed out of which follow-up data of 100 cases were available in our record. Results: A total of 100 patients were reviewed of these 86% were of oral cavity and oropharyngeal lesions, 8% were of hypopharyngeal, 3% were of laryngeal malignancies and 3 cases were of salivary gland tumor. Most tumors (83%) were advanced (T3 or T4 lesion). 95 PMMC flap reconstruction were done as a primary procedure, and 5 were salvage procedure. PMMC flap was used to cover mucosal defect in 84 patients, skin defects in 10 patient and both in 6 patients. Overall flap related complications were 40% with a major complication in 10% and minor complications in 30%. No total flap loss occurred in any patient, major flap occurred in 6% and minor flap loss in 12%. In minor flap loss patients, necrotic changes were mostly limited to skin. Orocutaneous and pharyngocutaneous fistula developed in 12 patients. 10% patients required re-surgery after developing various flap related complications Pleural empyema developed in 3 patients. Other minor complications such as neck skin dehiscence and intra-oral flap dehiscence developed in 26 patients. Conclusion: PMMC flap is a versatile flap with an excellent reach to face oral cavity and neck region. With limited expertise and resources, it is

  6. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  7. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  8. Prophylactic sternal plating with pectoralis advancement flaps after sternotomy in patients with a history of chest irradiation.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Keith C; Blount, Andrew L; Kim, John A; Renucci, John D; Hooker, Robert L

    2011-03-01

    Deep sternal infections secondary to bony instability and malunion, can result in mediastinitis. Previous authors have described the use of prophylactic rigid plate fixation in high-risk patients. The purpose of our study is to review the use of prophylactic sternal platting with pectoralis advancement flaps in high-risk patients with a history of chest irradiation. Fourteen patients (July 2003-September 2008) with a history of chest irradiation who underwent a median sternotomy followed by prophylactic rigid plate fixation of the sternum were reviewed. Breast cancer was the most common etiology of chest irradiation (n=11, 78%). The average EuroSCORE was 24.06% with 72% of patients having a preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) class≥III. There were no episodes of sternal non-union, mediastinitis or death. Follow-up was 100% with a 0% 30-day and a 7.1% one-year mortality rate (non-cardiac). A comparison between mean preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (49.6%) and postoperative LVEF (59.7%) was statistically significant (P<0.0001). All living patients currently maintain a NYHA class I/II. Prophylactic rigid plate fixation and pectoralis flap coverage decreases the risk of developing sternal dehiscence and postoperative wound complications and should therefore be considered in high-risk patients with a history of chest irradiation. PMID:21138917

  9. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  10. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-...

  11. Seasonal variation in pectoralis muscle and heart myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in small birds: a regulatory role for seasonal phenotypic flexibility?

    PubMed

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Seasonally variable environments produce seasonal phenotypes in small birds such that winter birds have higher thermogenic capacities and pectoralis and heart masses. One potential regulator of these seasonal phenotypes is myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, which may be downregulated under conditions promoting increased energy demand. We examined summer-to-winter variation in skeletal muscle and heart masses and used qPCR and Western blots to measure levels of myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2 for two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Winter pectoralis and heart masses were significantly greater than in summer for American goldfinches. Neither myostatin expression nor protein levels differed significantly between seasons for goldfinch pectoralis. However, myostatin levels in goldfinch heart were significantly greater in summer than in winter, although heart myostatin expression was seasonally stable. In addition, expression of both metalloproteinase activators was greater in summer than in winter goldfinches for both pectoralis and heart, significantly so except for heart TLL-2 (P = 0.083). Black-capped chickadees showed no significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses. Seasonal patterns of pectoralis and heart expression and/or protein levels for myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators in chickadees showed no consistent seasonal trends, which may help explain the absence of significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses for chickadees in this study. These data are partially consistent with a regulatory role for myostatin, and especially myostatin processing capacity, in mediating seasonal metabolic phenotypes of small birds. PMID:24395519

  12. Genetic diversity and structure in Mamey [P. sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn] by using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for the fungitoxic, anti-inflamatory and anti-oxidant activity of extracts from its bark, leaves and roots, though its genetics is unknown. We did high-throughput sequencing of micr...

  13. Antihyperglycemic effects of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC. extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; He, Jiguo; Ji, Baoping; Li, Ye; Zhang, Xiaofeng

    2007-03-01

    The root of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC has been reported to have a wide range of health benefits in oriental food. This study examined the hypoglycemic effects of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC aqueous-ethanol extract (PGE) in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic ICR mice (STZ diabetic mice) for the first time. The effects of PGE on blood glucose, plasma insulin levels and body weight were investigated. A significant decrease in blood glucose levels was observed after single administration of PGE. Furthermore, Glibenclamide and PGE significantly suppressed the rise in blood glucose after 30 min in the acute glucose tolerance test. Treatment with glibenclamide and PGE resulted in a reduction in blood glucose levels from the 2nd week, and this reduction was maintained until the 4th week of treatment. The body weight changed slightly in glibenclamide and PGE treated mice in comparison with the STZ control group. Plasma insulin levels were increased with glibenclamide treatment in STZ diabetic mice, whereas such effect was not observed with PGE. These results indicated that PGE could induce hypoglycemic effects without stimulating insulin secretion. PMID:17226070

  14. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and Pimenta racemosa var. grisea.

    PubMed

    Saenz, M T; Tornos, M P; Alvarez, A; Fernandez, M A; García, M D

    2004-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and P. racemosa var. grisea was determined against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. P. racemosa var. grisea demonstrated a more pronounced activity. These data would indicate the potential usefulness of the variety grisea as a microbiostatic, antiseptic or disinfectant agent.

  15. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting ofmore » python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.« less

  16. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  17. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  18. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines ‘Tarzan’ assault course

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the ‘Tarzan’ assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids. PMID:27582974

  19. Ontogenic development of the fatty acyl chain composition of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) pectoralis superficialis muscle membranes: an allometric approach.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Fébel, Hedvig; Horn, P; Andrássy-Baka, G; Bázár, Gy; Romvári, R

    2006-06-01

    The growth-associated development of the m. pectoralis superficialis (MPS) phospholipid (PL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) fatty acyl (FA) chain composition was determined in BUT8 meat-type turkeys. Samples (3 d, 8, 12, 16 and 20 wk) of each 6 males were analysed by lipid fractionation and subsequent gas chromatography. Results were interpreted on an allometric basis. The MPS mass increased linearly (MPS weight = 0.2787 BW- 123.67; R2 = 0.9935, P<0.001, n = 30). In the total phospholipids 62-63% unsaturated fatty acids were found irrespective of the diet. A negative allometric alteration was found for the total saturated acyl chains (B = -0.012), while a positive value for the calculated unsaturation index (B = 0.026) was obtained. Within the PUFA chains, the n3- n6 balance was markedly changed, on the favour of the n3 fatty acyl chains, namely competitive allometric trends were found for the total n3 (B = 0.087) and n6 (B = 0.032) fatty acid groups. The alterations of the TAG FA chain composition were diet-dependent. The serum creatine kinase activity increased by over one class of magnitude during the trial. The allometric approach was found to be powerful in the characterization of the basic, non diet-dependent ontogenic alterations of the phospholipid fatty acyl chain composition.

  20. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines 'Tarzan' assault course.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-07-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the 'Tarzan' assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of the stem bark extracts of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. on Shigellae.

    PubMed

    Millogo-Kone, H; Guissou, Ip; Nacoulma, O; Traore, A S

    2007-06-10

    Total and hydroalcoholic extracts of the stem barks of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth. (Mimosaceae) were tested on strains belonging to three species of Shigellae: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. boydii collected from hospitals in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The results showed that both extracts were active against Shigellae. The hydroalcoholic extract was more active than the decoction (aqueous one) prescribed by the traditional healer. Both extracts were particularly effective against S. dysenteriae, the most virulent of the three pathogenic species. The effects of the extracts have been compared to that of gentamicin. The phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of sterols, triterpenes, polyphenolic compounds including tannins, flavonoids, coumarins, anthocyanidins. Other components are saponosides and reducing sugars.

  2. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Ahmed, Touqeer; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna. PMID:26378574

  3. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

  4. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

  5. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  6. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, D H; Pfeiffer, T J

    1990-01-01

    Environmental isolations have established that Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii appears to have a specific ecological association with Eucalyptus camaldulensis. So far, we have isolated C. neoformans var. gattii on 35 separate occasions, all from samples associated with E. camaldulensis. The global distribution of E. camaldulensis appears to correspond to the epidemiologic distribution of cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans var. gattii. No other environmental source for the fungus has yet been detected, and no other eucalypt has the distribution pattern corresponding to reported cases caused by this fungus. These findings may provided an explanation for the high incidence of infections caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in Australian aborigines living in the Northern Territory and for its low worldwide incidence in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Images PMID:2199524

  7. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  8. Characterization of Geminivirus resistance in an accession of Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    García-Neria, Marco A; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F

    2011-02-01

    Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) and Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV), members of the Geminiviridae family, are important pathogens of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and other solanaceous crops. Accession BG-3821 of C. chinense Jacq. was reported earlier as resistant to mixed infection with PepGMV and PHYVV. In this work, we characterized the Geminivirus resistance trait present in BG-3821. Segregation analysis suggested that resistance depends on two genes. Our data showed that PepGMV replication in protoplast of resistant plants is approximately 70% lower when compared with the levels observed in protoplasts from susceptible plants. Additionally, viral movement is less efficient in resistant plants. We also evaluated several characteristics commonly associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is a conserved defensive mechanism. The concentration of salicylic acid was higher in resistant plants inoculated with PepGMV than in susceptible plants. Marker genes for SAR were induced after inoculation with PepGMV in resistant leaves. Similarly, we found a higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species on resistant leaves compared with susceptible ones. A model for the mechanism acting in the Geminivirus resistance detected in BG-3821 is proposed. Finally, the importance of BG-3821 in Geminivirus resistance breeding programs is discussed.

  9. Biotechnological enhancement of capsaicin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures were initiated from hypocotyl derived callus to induce capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Efficient capsaicin production with high growth index (GI) was obtained by exposing cells to salicylic acid (SA) and calcium channel modulators in suspension cultures. The time course of capsaicin formation is related to the cell growth profile in a batch culture. Cells cultivated in the standard medium (SM) initially showed low level of capsaicin yield during active growth. When the cells approached stationary phase, cell growth and cell viability decreased whereas capsaicin production increased continuously. In the fed-batch cultures, the highest capsaicin yield (567.4 ± 8.1 μgg(1) fresh weight) (f.wt) was obtained by feeding the cells with 1 mM SA. However, SA feeding during cultivation repressed the cell growth. Enhanced cell growth (3.1 ± 0.1 GI/culture) and capsaicin yield (534 ± 7.8 μgg(-1)f.wt) were obtained when the cells were fed with calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 mM) on day 25 as compared to the control. Addition of the calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride (100 mM) inhibited cell growth and capsaicin production in Naga King Chili suspension cell cultures. PMID:26578343

  10. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1), in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition.

  11. Growth Rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and Its Climatic Background

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993–1996 at bottom and 2006–2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year−1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year−1). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year−1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year−1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from −2.75 to −1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from −6.75 to −5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  12. Growth rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and its climatic background.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993-1996 at bottom and 2006-2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year(-1) based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year(-1)). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year(-1), than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year(-1), in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from -2.75 to -1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from -6.75 to -5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  13. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of proteinase inhibitors from Capsicum chinense Jacq. Seeds.

    PubMed

    Dias, Germana Bueno; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; Pereira, Umberto Zottich; Ribeiro, Suzanna F Ferreira; Carvalho, André O; Rodrigues, Rosana; Machado, Olga L Tavares; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales; Ferreira, André Teixeira S; Perales, Jonas; Da Cunha, Maura

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species belong to the Solanaceae family and have great social, economic and agronomical significance. The present research presents data on the isolation and characterization of Capsicum chinense Jacq. peptides which were scrutinized in relation to their toxicity towards a diverse set of yeast species. The protein extract was separated with C18 reverse-phase chromatography in high performance liquid chromatography, resulting in three different peptide enriched fractions (PEFs) termed PEF1, PEF2 and PEF3. Tricine-SDS-PAGE of the PEF2 revealed peptides with molecular masses of approximately 5.0 and 8.5 kDa. These PEFs also exhibited strong antifungal activity against different yeasts. In the presence of the PEF2, Candida tropicalis exhibited morphological changes, including cellular agglomeration and formation of pseudohyphae. Determined N-terminal sequences of PEF2 and PEF3 were proven to be highly homologous to serine proteinase inhibitors, when analysed by comparative database sequence tools. For this reason were performed protease inhibitory activity assay. The PEFs displayed high inhibitory activity against trypsin and low inhibitory activity against chymotrypsin. PEF2 and PEF3 were considerably unsusceptible to a broad interval of pH and temperatures. Due to the myriad of application of Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in fields ranging from plant protection against pathogens and pests to medicine such as in cancer and virus replication inhibition, the discovery of new PIs with new properties are of great interest.

  14. Biotechnological enhancement of capsaicin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures were initiated from hypocotyl derived callus to induce capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Efficient capsaicin production with high growth index (GI) was obtained by exposing cells to salicylic acid (SA) and calcium channel modulators in suspension cultures. The time course of capsaicin formation is related to the cell growth profile in a batch culture. Cells cultivated in the standard medium (SM) initially showed low level of capsaicin yield during active growth. When the cells approached stationary phase, cell growth and cell viability decreased whereas capsaicin production increased continuously. In the fed-batch cultures, the highest capsaicin yield (567.4 ± 8.1 μgg(1) fresh weight) (f.wt) was obtained by feeding the cells with 1 mM SA. However, SA feeding during cultivation repressed the cell growth. Enhanced cell growth (3.1 ± 0.1 GI/culture) and capsaicin yield (534 ± 7.8 μgg(-1)f.wt) were obtained when the cells were fed with calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 mM) on day 25 as compared to the control. Addition of the calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride (100 mM) inhibited cell growth and capsaicin production in Naga King Chili suspension cell cultures.

  15. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees.

  16. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  17. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  18. VarSITI - SCOSTEP's scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, Katya; Shiokawa, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    With the aim to promote international scientific activity in the different branches of solar terrestrial physics and its application for the benefit of humanity, SCOSTEP runs long-term (4-5 years) international interdisciplinary scientific programs. The current SCOSTEP's scientific program (2014-2018) is VarSITI - Variability of the Sun and Its Terrestrial Impacts. It has four scientific projects covering solar terrestrial problems all the way from the Sun through the interplanetary space, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and down to the Earth's atmosphere. We will present the VarSITI's projects and activities, and will highlight some of the results so far and plans for the future.

  19. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae) and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Crespo, Manuel B.; Dold, Anthony P.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of Albuca caudata are described as a new related species: Albuca bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed. PMID:22171189

  20. Notes on three new immigrant species of spilanthes jacq. (Asteraceae) in India and the identity of the common 'tooth - ache plant'.

    PubMed

    Sivarajan, V V; Mathew, P

    1984-01-01

    Three new immigrant species of Spilanthes Jacq. (Asteraceae) is described for the first time from India. Their current nomenclature and an artificial key for the identification of the 5 Indian species are provided. The identity of the commonly used 'tooth-ache' plant is also discussed. PMID:22557401

  1. Characterization of Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn.) germplasm at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn) is a tropical tree fruit in the Sapotaceae, which is native to Central America and southern Mexico. The tree is used for timber and shade; however it is the sweet, nutrient and vitamin rich fruit that is eaten out of hand, in milkshakes...

  2. Chemical constituents from Clematis delavayi var. spinescens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wang, Si-Feng; Zhao, Yan-Li; Liu, Ke-Chun; Wang, Xi-Min; Yang, Yong-Ping; Li, Xiao-Li

    2009-01-01

    A new coumarin, 7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-5-methylcoumarin (1), was isolated from the aerial parts of Clematis delavayi var. spinescens together with 17 known compounds. Their structures were identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially 2D NMR techniques. Antiangiogenic effects of all compounds were evaluated using a zebrafish model. PMID:19924077

  3. Saponins from Furcraea selloa var. marginata.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Boyce, Joanne L; Tinto, Winston F; McLean, Stewart; Reynolds, William F

    2004-12-01

    Four steroidal saponins were isolated from the leaves of Furcraea selloa var. marginata. These included one furostanol saponin, furcreafurostatin (1), and three known spirostanol saponins, furcreastatin (3), yuccaloeside C (4) and cantalasaponin-1 (5). The 22-O-methyl ether (2) of furcreafurostatin (1) was also characterized. The structures were determined by using a combination of spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Heat Stability of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Scotch Bonnet Peppers ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Thies, J A; Fery, R L

    2000-12-01

    Stability of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood was determined in pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and C. annuum L.) at 24, 28, and 32 degrees C. Reactions of the C. annuum cultivars Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant and the C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350 to M. incognita were compared. Charleston Belle is homozygous for the N gene that confers resistance to M. incognita in C. annuum, and Keystone Resistant Giant is the susceptible recurrent parent of Charleston Belle. PA-426 is homozygous for a single dominant resistance gene that is allelic to the N gene, and PA-350 is susceptible. Root galling, egg-mass production, numbers of eggs per g fresh root, and reproductive factor of M. incognita increased for all pepper genotypes as temperature increased. Severity of root galling and nematode reproduction were less for PA-426 and Charleston Belle compared to PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant at all temperatures. However, both PA-426 and Charleston Belle exhibited a partial loss of resistance at the higher temperatures. For example, at 32 degrees C, the numbers of M. incognita eggs per g fresh root and the reproductive index for PA-426 and Charleston Belle were in the susceptible range. Nevertheless, the gall index for both cultivars was still within the resistant range. Both PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant exhibited highly susceptible reactions at 28 and 32 degrees C. Although the resistances of PA-426 and Charleston Belle were somewhat compromised at high temperatures, cultivars possessing these resistances will still be useful for managing M. incognita under high soil temperatures.

  5. Understanding the Physiological Responses of a Tropical Crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature – leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature–leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  6. Elemental composition of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. growing in tungsten-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Güleryüz, Gürcan; Erdemir, Ümran Seven; Arslan, Hülya; Güçer, Şeref

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the elemental (W, Mo, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Cr, Co, B, and Bi) composition of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (Lamiaceae), around the abandoned tungsten mine on Uludağ Mountain, Turkey, to determine if it is an appropriate candidate for phytomonitoring and/or phytoremediation purposes. Three sample sites were selected around the mine for soil and plant sampling. Two sites approximately 500 m from the mine were assumed to be unpolluted sites. The other site was selected from a waste removal pool (WRP) and was assumed to be a polluted site. The soil and different organs (roots, leaves, and flowers) of plant samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the elemental content. The classic open wet digestion procedure was applied to the samples with 5 mL HNO3 and 3 mL H2O2 in a borosilicate glass vessel for the roots, leaves, and the flowers of the plants. Kjeldahl digestion was used for the soil samples. The W, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, B, and Bi contents were found to be higher in the soil samples from the waste removal pools compared with the samples from the unpolluted sites. We also found that the elemental composition of M. astracanicum has generally been increased by the activity of the tungsten mine, and there were significant correlations between the elemental contents of the soil samples and plant parts, except for Mo and Cr. The high level of many elements in the soil samples indicates the presence of contamination related to tungsten-mining activity on Uludağ Mountain. Assessing the elemental contents of M. astracanicum, we can suggest this species as a candidate for phytoremediation purposes of W-contaminated sites due to its high W-accumulation capacity. PMID:27278070

  7. Adaptations to soil drying in woody seedlings of African locust bean, (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.).

    PubMed

    Osonubi, O; Fasehun, F E

    1987-12-01

    Stomatal conductance, transpiration and xylem pressure potential of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth.) seedlings subjected from the sixth week after emergence to four weeks of continuous soil drought did not differ from those of well-watered, control plants until two-thirds of the available soil water had been used. In both well-watered and drought-treated plants, stomatal conductance was highest early in the day when vapor pressure deficits were low, but decreased sharply by midday when evaporative demand reached its highest value. There was no increase in stomatal conductance later in the day as vapor pressure deficit declined. The relationship between transpiration rate and xylem pressure potential showed non-linearity and hysteresis in both control and drought-treated plants, which seems to indicate that the plants had a substantial capacity to store water. The rate of leaf extension in African locust bean seedlings subjected to six consecutive 2-week cycles of soil drought declined relative to that of well-watered, control plants, whereas relative root extension increased. It appears that African locust bean seedlings minimized the impact of drought by: (1) restricting transpiration to the early part of the day when a high ratio of carbon gain to water loss can be achieved; (2) utilizing internally stored water during periods of rapid transpiration; (3) reducing the rate of leaf expansion and final leaf size in response to soil drought without reducing the rate of root extension, thereby reducing the ratio of transpiring leaf surface area to absorbing root surface area.

  8. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly for the Tropical Grass Panicum maximum Jacq

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Jank, Liana; Souza, Anete Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs) and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses. PMID:23923022

  10. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  11. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  12. Steroidal saponins from Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso.

    PubMed

    Konishi, T; Fujiwara, Y; Konoshima, T; Kiyosawa, S; Nishi, M; Miyahara, K

    2001-03-01

    Two steroidal saponins, hemeroside A and B, were isolated from the aerial part of Hemerocallis fulva var. kwanso for the first time. The structures of these compounds were established as 24S-hydroxy-neotokorogenin 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl 24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isorhodeasapogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) through NMR experiments. PMID:11253923

  13. Effects of exogenous chelators on phytoavailability and toxicity of Pb in Zinnia elegans Jacq.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wei, Shu-he; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Lei; Ren, Li-ping

    2007-07-19

    Chelate-enhanced phytoremediation is considered as an effective method for the extraction of lead (Pb) by plants. However, more detailed studies are needed to evaluate the effect of exogenous chelators on phytoavailability and toxicity of Pb in plants, then to find out the proper applied concentration of chelators to minimize the combined toxicity to the plants and maximize phytoavailable Pb. To clarify these questions, the seed germination test of Zinnia elegans Jacq. exposed to solutions containing Pb and four types of chelators including sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (Na2EDTA), oxalic acid, tartaric acid and citric acid was observed. The results showed that the roots and shoots treated with equimolar chelators and Pb were longer than those treated with half and two folds of the molar concentrations of Pb. The growth of seedlings was inhibited by surplus addition of chelators, and the toxicity of complexes was less than that of Pb and chelators. In particular, 2.4 mM EDTA and 1.2 mM oxalic acid significantly (P<0.05) increased Pb uptake when the seeds were treated with 2.4 mM Pb. In the 4.8 mM Pb solution, Pb accumulation in the seedlings was markedly (P<0.05) increased by 4.8 mM EDTA, 2.4 mM tartaric acid, 4.8 mM tartaric acid and 2.4 mM citric acid, and amounted to 6752.4, 6453.8, 6541.4 and 6598.3 microg g(-1), respectively. With the superfluous addition of chelators, Pb accumulation in the seedlings decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. When Pb was used at 2.4 mM, an equimolar concentration of EDTA not only increased Pb uptake but also stimulated the seedling growth. Thus, chelating agents in their appropriately concentrations could counteract Pb toxicity, but superfluous chelators resulted in less Pb uptake and growth inhibition of the seedlings.

  14. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Alias, Halimah; Boon, Soo-Heong; Shariff, Elyana M; Tan, Chi-Yee A; Ooi, Leslie CL; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Raha, Abdul-Rahim; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Singh, Rajinder

    2008-01-01

    Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm

  15. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  16. Characterization of apigenin and luteolin derivatives from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Noor Idayu; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ishak, Zamzuri; Ramli, Umi Salamah

    2012-11-14

    The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found promising potential of oil palm fronds as a source of nutraceutical due to its bioactive properties. However, the chemical composition of the tissue is still not deciphered. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), glycosylated apigenin and luteolin were separated and identified from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf and structures of the constituents were elucidated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS. From 28 derivatives of the flavones, 9 compounds were conjugated with hydroxymethylglutaric (HMG) acid. Improved knowledge on oil palm especially on bioactive component of the leaf tissue will allow correlation of its beneficial effects and further promotes efficient utilization of this agriculture byproduct.

  17. [Use of kenaf fibre in the elaboration of specific substrates for Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer cultivation].

    PubMed

    Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Perona Zamora, Ma Aquilina; Pardo Núñez, José

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the viability of the kenaf fibre use, alone or combined with cereal straw, vine shoots and olive mill dried waste, in the elaboration of specific substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, second mushroom in importance cultivated in Spain, is described. Furthermore, three different methods of preparation of the substrate have been considered in order to obtain selectivity for the growth and later fruiting of Pleurotus sporophore. As for the production parameters, the best results have been provided by the substrates that combined kenaf with straw and with vine shoots, being unfavourable the substrates based in just kenaf or combined with olive mill dried waste. As for the treatment applied to the materials, the immersion in water alone and subsequent pasteurization and thermophilic conditioning, together with the semi-anaerobic fermentation, has been favoured in front of the immersion in water with fungicide and later pasteurization.

  18. Effect of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and cytoskeletal protein degradation of broiler M. pectoralis major.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Huang, F; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of fast pH decline during the early postmortem period on calpain activity and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in broilers. Eighty broilers were randomly categorized into two groups: physical restraint (PR) and free struggle (FS). M. pectoralis major (PM) was used for determination of calpain activity, shear value, ultrastructure of myofibrils, and the degradation of desmin, titin, nebulin, and troponin-T. The pH (6.05) of FS group is significantly low than PR group (6.38) at 0.3 h postmortem. Fast pH decline during the early postmortem period led to a decrease of μ/m-calpain activities at 0.3 and 3 h postmortem (P < 0.05), but did not affect the ultimate μ/m-calpain activity. An initial fast decrease in pH increased the degradation of desmin, titin, nebulin, and increased the 30 kDa degradation fragments of troponin-T. Therefore, the fast pH decline during the early postmortem period decreased the μ/m-calpain activity and increased the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins in broiler muscle. It is possible that the fast pH decline experienced an earlier activation of calpains that resulted in earlier protein degradation and ultimately lower shear force.

  19. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  20. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Zhan; Zhao, Wei; Feng, Xiu-Li; Liu, Fang-Le; Zhu, Chen-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Two new abietane diterpenoids, Gerardianin B (1) and Gerardianin C (2), one new lignan glycoside, Gerardianin D (3) and one new lupane-type triterpenoid, Gerardianol A (4), together with seven known abietane diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia lophanthoides var. gerardianus. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The cytotoxic activities of the nine diterpenoids were evaluated on human cancer cell lines. Compounds 6-11 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cell lines with IC50 from 4.68 to 9.43μM and HCF-8 cell lines with IC50 from 9.12 to 13.53μM. PMID:26608401

  1. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  2. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  3. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-d postdeboning aging at 2°C, 7-d postdeboning aging (2-h deboned meat only), and 6-d storage at -20°C plus 1-d thawing at 2°C (freezing and thawing treatment, 2-h deboned meat only). The WHC was determined by cooking loss, drip loss, a filter paper press method (results were presented as expressible fluid), and a salt-induced swelling and centrifugation method (results were presented as percentage of salt-induced water gain). There were no differences for WHC estimated by cooking loss and expressible fluid between the treatments. Only the freezing and thawing treatment resulted in a significant increase in drip loss. The average percentage of salt-induced water gains by the 24-h deboned samples, postdeboning aged 2 h samples, and frozen 2 h sample, which did not differ from each other, were significantly higher than that by the 2-h deboned sample. These results indicate that regardless of method (carcass aging vs. postdeboning aging) and time (aging for 1 d vs. for 7 d), postmortem aging more than 1 d does not affect WHC of the early deboned samples measured by dripping, cooking, and pressing. However, postmortem carcass aging, postdeboning aging, and freezing and thawing storage can significantly enhance the ability of chicken breast meat to hold added salt water or WHC measured by the salt-induced swelling and centrifuge method.

  4. Immunomodulatory Activity of Xanthones from Calophyllum teysmannii var. inuphylloide.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M J; Nascimento, M S; Cidade, H M; Pinto, M M; Kijjoa, A; Anantachoke, C; Silva, A M; Herz, W

    1999-05-01

    Nine xanthones, including 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metnylbutyl)-4,8-dihydroxyxanthone, were isolated from the wood of a Thai collection of CALOPHYLLUM TEYSMANNII Miq. var. INUPHYLLOIDE (King) P. Stephen. Immunomodulatory activities of eight of these have been investigated.

  5. Phenolics, sugars, antimicrobial and free-radical-scavenging activities of Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2009-06-01

    Edible fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. are consumed fresh or in traditional food, drink and medicinal preparations. Some therapeutic effects of these fruits may be due to phenolics and sugars. Aqueous acetone, methanol or ethanol tissue extracts of different cultivars or collections of M. bijugatus fruits from the Dominican Republic and Florida were analyzed for total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity by UV-vis spectroscopy, sugars by gas chromatography, and antimicrobial activity by the disc diffusion assay. Total phenolics and free radical scavenging activities ranked: seed coat > embryo > pulp extracts. Montgomery cultivar fruits had the highest total phenolics. For sugars: pulp > embryo and highest in Punta Cana fruit pulp. In all extracts: sucrose > glucose and fructose. Glucose:fructose ratios were 1:1 (pulp) and 0.2:1 (embryo). Pulp extracts had dose-response antibacterial activity and pulp and embryo extracts had antifungal activity against one yeast species. Phenolics and sugars were confirmed with thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Sugar-free pulp fractions containing phenolics had slightly more antimicrobial activity than H2O-soluble pulp fractions with sugars. Results indicate M. bijugatus fruits contain phenolics, sugars and other H2O-soluble compounds consistent with therapeutic uses. PMID:19444610

  6. Study of flavonoids of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) different edible organs by liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Morelli, Ivano; Braca, Alessandra

    2004-10-20

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method was developed for the characterization of flavonoids from Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) edible organs, a plant cultivated since pre-Colombian times in Mexico where the fruit is called chayote. Chayote is used for human consumption in many countries; in addition to the fruits, stems, leaves and the tuberous part of the roots are also eaten. Eight flavonoids, including three C-glycosyl and five O-glycosyl flavones, were detected, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data, and quantified in roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of the plant by LC-photodiode array-MS. The aglycone moieties are represented by apigenin and luteolin, while the sugar units are glucose, apiose, and rhamnose. The results indicated that the highest total amount of flavonoids was in the leaves (35.0 mg/10 g of dried part), followed by roots (30.5 mg/10 g), and finally by stems (19.3 mg/10 g).

  7. In vitro plantlet regeneration from nodal segments and shoot tips of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-03-01

    An in vitro regeneration protocol was developed for Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili, a very pungent chili cultivar and an important horticultural crop of Nagaland (Northeast India). Maximum number of shoot (13 ± 0.70) was induced with bud-forming capacity (BFC) index of 10.8, by culturing nodal segments in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 μM Thidiazuron (TDZ) followed by 35.52 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Using shoot tips as explants, multiple shoot (10 ± 0.37) (BFC 8.3) was also induced in MS medium fortified with either 18.16 μM TDZ or 35.52 μM BAP. Elongated shoots were best rooted in MS medium containing 5.70 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Rooted plantlets thus developed were hardened in 2-3 weeks time in plastic cups containing potting mixture of a 1:1 mix of soil and cow dung manure and then subsequently transferred to earthen pots. The regenerated plants did not show any variation in the morphology and growth as compared to the parent plant. PMID:22582155

  8. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species.

  9. Impact of divergent selection for ultimate pH of pectoralis major muscle on biochemical, histological, and sensorial attributes of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, N; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Baéza, E; Chabault, M; Chartrin, P; Bordeau, T; Cailleau-Audouin, E; Meteau, K; Berri, C

    2015-09-01

    The impact of divergent selection based on the ultimate pH (pHu) of pectoralis major (P. major) muscle on the chemical, biochemical, and histological profiles of the muscle and sensorial quality of meat was investigated in broiler chickens. The protein, lipid, DM, glycogen and lactate content, glycolytic potential, proteolysis, lipid and protein oxidation index, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillary density, and collagen surface were determined on the breast P. major muscle of 6-wk-old broilers issued from the high-pHu (pHu+) and low-pHu (pHu-) lines. Sensory attributes were also evaluated on the breast (roasted or grilled) and thigh (roasted) meat of the 2 lines. Protein, lipid, and DM content of P. major muscle were not affected by selection ( > 0.05). However, the P. major muscle of the pHu+ line was characterized by lower residual glycogen (-16%; ≤ 0.001) and lactate (-14%; ≤ 0.001) content and lower glycolytic potential (-14%; ≤ 0.001) compared with the pHu- line. Although the average cross-sectional area of muscle fibers and surface occupied by collagen were similar ( > 0.05) in both lines, fewer capillaries per fiber (-15%; ≤ 0.05) were observed in the pHu+ line. The pHu+ line was also characterized by lower lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance index: -23%; ≤ 0.05) but protein oxidation and proteolysis index were not different ( > 0.05) between the 2 lines. At the sensory level, selection on breast muscle pHu mainly affected the texture of grilled and roast breast meat, which was judged significantly more tender ( ≤ 0.001) in the pHu+ line, and the acid taste, which was less pronounced in the roasted breast meat of the pHu+ line ( ≤ 0.002). This study highlighted that selection based on pHu does not affect the chemical composition and structure of breast meat. However, by modifying muscle blood supply and glycogen turnover, it affects meat acidity and oxidant status, both of which are likely to contribute to the large

  10. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    PubMed

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  11. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  12. New Record of Mariannaea elegans var. elegans in Korea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Longqing; Hyun, Min Woo; Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi Ho

    2012-03-01

    A Mariannaea fungus was isolated during investigation of an elm tree infested with unidentified beetles. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Mariannaea elegans var. elegans. Fungal growth was better on malt extract agar than on potato dextrose agar and oatmeal agar. Optimal temperature and pH for growth of the fungus were 30℃ and pH 7.0, respectively. The fungus was found to have the ability to produce extracellular enzymes such as amylase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, and protease. This is first report on M. elegans var. elegans in Korea. PMID:22783129

  13. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  14. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  15. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy M; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions.

  16. [Induction and identification of polyploid of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxiang; Gao, Jianping; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2003-05-01

    In this article, improved agar painting method, with semi-solid of 0.2% colchicine and 0.1% agar, was adopted to treat apical buds of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao seedlings. Obtained plants were proved to be tetraploids by identification of biological characteristics and chromosome numbers. PMID:14535010

  17. [Experiment on polyploid induction of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    PubMed

    Peng, F; Zhou, R; Liu, J

    1999-12-01

    Colchicine solution was applied to the primary adventitious buds of Angelica dahurica var. formosana in vitro to induce the polyploid. Compared with non-treated plantlet, the morphology, microhisology, and chromosome number of treated plantlets are varied. It proved that the polyploid induction was effective. PMID:12571900

  18. New diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H; Huang, S L

    1998-06-26

    An abietane diterpene, 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1); a seco-abietane diterpene, obtuanhydride (2); and an isopimarane diterpene, 18,19-O-isopropylidene-18, 19-dihydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:9644078

  19. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  20. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus.

  1. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  2. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. Methods: The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. Results: The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. Conclusions: AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer. PMID:25337587

  3. C.V. Riley’s lost aphids: Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata and Aphis rapae var. laevigata (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The syntypes of Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata Riley were rediscovered in the Aphidoidea collection of the United States of America National Museum of Natural History. Previously, S. fragariae immaculata was largely lost and forgotten. Through examination of the specimens, we hereby establ...

  4. Extremely high boron tolerance in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. related to root boron exclusion and a well-regulated antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Hamurcu, Mehmet; Hakki, Erdogan E; Demiral Sert, Tijen; Özdemir, Canan; Minareci, Ersin; Avsaroglu, Zuhal Z; Gezgin, Sait; Ali Kayis, Seyit; Bell, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate an extremely high level of tolerance to boron (B) toxicity in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. but the mechanistic basis is not known. Puccinellia distans was exposed to B concentrations of up to 1000 mg B L-1 and root B uptake, growth parameters, B and N contents, H2O2 accumulation and ·OH-scavenging activity were measured. Antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation products were determined. B appears to be actively excluded from roots. Excess B supply caused structural deformations in roots and leaves, H2O2 accumulation and simultaneous up-regulation of the antioxidative system, which prevented lipid peroxidation even at the highest B concentrations. Thus, P. distans has an efficient root B-exclusion capability and, in addition, B tolerance in shoots is achieved by a well-regulated antioxidant defense system. PMID:27356235

  5. A germin-like protein gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. is induced during incompatible interactions and displays Mn-superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44-47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV.

  6. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  7. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance. PMID:23705379

  8. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  9. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field. PMID:27062807

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  11. Polyprenols from the needles of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhui; Wang, Yanbin; Qian, Hua; Zhao, Yunpeng; Liu, Bentong; Fu, Chengxin

    2012-07-01

    Polyprenols with various pharmacological activities were first isolated from Taxus chinensis var. mairei, which is native to China, and were identified by a high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), (13)C NMR and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The taxus polyprenols (TPs) had two maxima of polyprenol-17 and polyprenol-21 and different from polyprenols distributed in other plant species. A reversed-phase HPLC method with a simple gradient elution was established, and the proposed combined peak area method for the quantification of polyprenols was verified. The analysis indicated that TPs were present in the old needles at levels as high as 3% and that T. chinensis var. mairei could be an alternative botanical source for the extraction of polyprenols.

  12. [Isoflavones and flavans from Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wan-wan; Jin, Chen; Shuang, Peng-cheng; Liao, Hui; Zhang, Ling

    2015-06-01

    The current study to separate and identify constituents from Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima. The compounds from Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima were isolated by means of various chromatographic techniques such as column chromatography over ODS and Sephadex LH-20, preparative HPLC, and the structures of these isolated compounds were identified through spectroscopic analyses. Nine isoflavonoids and two flavans were isolated and identified as 5-O-methy genistein (1), 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone (2), ononin (3), catechin (4), formononetin (5), genistein (6), calycosin (7), (-)-gallocatechin (8), sissotrin (9), wistin (10), daidzin (11). Compounds 1, 2, 9 are obtained from the genus Millettia for the first time,and compounds 4, 8 are isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:26591526

  13. New clerodane diterpenes from Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Wen-Juan; Jiao, Li-Xiang; Guo, Jun-Ming; Tian, Kai; Yang, Chun-Tao; Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Four new clerodane diterpenes, namely sagittatayunnanosides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata var. yunnanensis, together with two known compounds, tinospinoside C (5) and tinospinoside E (6). The structures of the four new compounds were well elucidated by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, and 1D and 2D NMR data. The cytotoxic and antifouling activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. PMID:24634023

  14. New lignans from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-07-01

    Four new lignans, 3',4'-O,O-demethylenehinokinin (1), chamalignolide (2), 8'beta-hydroxyhinokinin (3) and 7beta,8beta-epoxyzuonin A (4), as well as (-)-hinokinin (5), and (-)-zuonin A (6), were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these lignans were unambiguously determined by spectroscopic methods. And the absolute configuration of 1 was elucidated with a circular dichroism (CD) spectrum. PMID:12130860

  15. Synthesis of Calocybe indica var. APK2 polysaccharide repeating unit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiangming

    2014-06-01

    The first total synthesis of p-methoxyphenyl α-l-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) was achieved starting from five monosaccharide building blocks. This structure represents the repeating unit of the polysaccharide isolated from edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2, and was synthesized in high overall yield via a convergent '3+2' glycosylation strategy.

  16. Graft-related endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa.

    PubMed Central

    Summerbell, R C; de Repentigny, L; Chartrand, C; St Germain, G

    1992-01-01

    The first case of endocarditis caused by Neosartorya fischeri var. spinosa is reported. The patient was a child who received a calf pericardium graft after removal of a previously inserted Dacron graft associated with deterioration of adjacent tissue. Copious vegetations removed from the heart were found to be composed of septate hyaline fungal filaments. The fungus was recognized in culture by its bivalved, winged, spiny ascospores, its Aspergillus fischerianus anamorph, and its thermotolerance. Images PMID:1624579

  17. Allozyme Variation in Endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila

    PubMed Central

    FU, YUQING; DANE, FENNY

    2003-01-01

    Allozyme genetic variation in 12 populations of the endangered Castanea pumila var. pumila (Allegheny chinkapin), sampled across the natural range of the species in the United States, was evaluated using 11 loci from seven enzyme systems. At the species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (Ps) was 72·7 %, the mean number of alleles per locus (As) was 1·9, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (APs) was 2·3, the effective number of alleles per locus (Aes) was 1·5 and the genetic diversity (Hes) was 0·296. At the population level, Pp = 49·2 %, Ap = 1·5, Aep = 1·4, APp = 2·1 and Hep = 0·21. Most of the allozyme variation (70 %) in C. pumila var. pumila occurred within populations. Wright’s gene flow rate [Nm(W)] was as low as 0·57. Population differentiation along the species range was not detected. Populations of C. pumila var. pumila in Florida had the most variable levels of genetic diversity, but populations in Virginia and Mississippi also showed high levels. Based on the results of this study, conservation management strategies are discussed. PMID:12829445

  18. [Transcriptome profiling and analysis of Panax japonicus var. major].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-peng; Jin, Jian; Hu, Bing-xiong; Wu, Ya-yun; Yan, Qi; Zeng, Wan-yong; Zheng, Yong-lian; Zhang Xi-feng; Chen, Ping

    2015-06-01

    The rhizome of Panax japonicus var. major have been used as the natural medicinal agent by Chinese traditional doctors for more than thousand years. Most of the therapeutic effects of P. japonicus var. major had been reported due to the presence of tetracyclic or pentacyclic triterpene saponins. In this study, Illumina pair-end RNA-sequencing and de novo splicing were done in order to understand the pathway of triterpenoid saponins in this species. The valid reads data of 15. 6 Gb were obtained. The 62 240 unigenes were finally obtained by de novo splicing. After annotation, we discovered 19 unigenes involved in ginsenoside backbone biosynthesis. Additionally, 69 unigenes and 18 unigenes were predicted to have potential function of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glycosyltransferase based on the annotation results, which may encode enzymes responsible for ginsenoside backbone modification. This study provides global expressed datas for P. japonicus var. major, which will contribute significantly to further genome-wide research and analysis for this species.

  19. Oil composition and some morphological characters of Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Comlekcioglu, N; Karaman, S; Ilcim, A

    2008-04-15

    Native Crambe orientalis var. orientalis and Crambe tataria var. tataria collected from Kahramanmaras flora were morphologically examined and seed oil composition was determined. Volatile acid and fatty acid composition of seeds were examined with GC and GC/MS and the ratio of volatile acids to total oil was 3.49% in C. orientalis and 17.49% in C. tataria. The ratio of fatty acids to total oil was 92.03 and 67.28% in C. orientalis, and C. Tataria, respectively. The amount of erucic acid was 39.29% in C. orientalis and 29.87% in C. tataria. High linolenic acid (21.21%) and linoleic acid (12.42%) was found in C. orientalis oil, and high linolenic acid (15.01%) and linoleic acid (9.00%) was also found in C. tataria oil.

  20. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven M; Riggs, Erin R; Maglott, Donna R; Lee, Jennifer M; Azzariti, Danielle R; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M; Martin, Christa L; Landrum, Melissa J; Rehm, Heidi L

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. PMID:27037489

  1. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. Conclusions: These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation. PMID:27672521

  2. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A. M.; Li, Tao; Sim, B. Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F.; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-01-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase. PMID:27070311

  3. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  4. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. Conclusions: These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  5. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Garvey, Edward P.; Hoekstra, William J.; Schotzinger, Robert J.; Patterson, Thomas F.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  6. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

  7. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis. PMID:26369977

  8. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-01

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  9. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  10. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  11. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  12. A comparison between the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and the free anterolateral thigh perforator flap for reconstruction in head and neck cancer patients: assessment of the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Meng-Jie; Fang, Qi-Gen; Sun, Chang-Fu

    2014-05-01

    Our study investigated the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese patients after immediate reconstruction surgery on individuals with head and neck cancer. In addition, we compared the differences between pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) and anterolateral thigh free flap (ALTFF). The University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire, version 4, was used to assess the QoL. Assessments were performed at least 24 months postoperatively. A total of 110 patients' records were obtained. Among them, 86 patients completed a QoL questionnaire (78.2%). No significant differences could be found in age, primary site, T stage, N stage, and postoperative radiotherapy between PMMF and ALTFF groups. However, there were significant differences between both groups in sex, operation time, and complication. A matched analysis was performed to compare the differences in QoL between patients with head and neck cancers reconstructed with PMMF or ALTFF. Patients reconstructed with ALTFF had better shoulder but worse speech functions. There was a significant effect on the QoL of head and neck cancer patients who had undergone either PMMF or ALTFF reconstruction. The result of this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of treatment modalities for head and neck cancers.

  13. Effects of heat exposure on Akt/S6K1 signaling and expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in chicken (Gallus gallus) pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Boussaid-Om Ezzine, S; Everaert, N; Métayer-Coustard, S; Rideau, N; Berri, C; Joubert, R; Temim, S; Collin, A; Tesseraud, S

    2010-11-01

    In order to improve understanding of the heat-induced changes in muscle growth, we determined the expression of genes related to protein and energy metabolism in the pectoralis major muscle of chickens. We also explored the protein kinase B (PKB also called Akt)/p70 S6 kinase (S6K1)/S6 pathway that mediates anabolic signals thereby regulating metabolism and hypertrophic/atrophic balance. Four-week-old chickens were exposed to 32 or 22 degrees C for 1 week. Chickens from both groups were then fasted for 16 h or left fed, and submitted to an oral administration of glucose-arginine to induce an anabolic response (30-min treatment) or left untreated. High ambient temperature and the associated decrease in feed intake modified the expression of certain energy-related genes (e.g. -40% for PGC-1alpha) and protein metabolism (e.g. about +80% for atrogin-1), but the expression of several muscle metabolism-related genes considered here was unchanged. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis, i.e. RNA/protein ratio, was reduced in warm conditions (approximately -20%). Slightly lower activation of S6 induced by glucose-arginine treatment was found at 32 degrees C compared to 22 degrees C, which might indicate somewhat lower efficiency of mRNA translation. Analysis of glucose/insulin balance suggested changes in glucose metabolism under heat exposure. However, this remains to be characterized.

  14. Novel diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Hsiu-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    Two novel diterpenes, obtusanal B (1) and obtusadione (2), along with obtusanal A (3), obtunone (4), 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial, 8,12-dihydroxydielmentha-5,9-diene-7,11-dione and myrcene, isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, were characterized by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 are 7(6-->2)abeoabietane and 14(8-->9)abeoabietane type diterpenes, respectively. Their biosyntheses were proposed. PMID:15187404

  15. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  16. Analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of Sideritis lotsyi var. Mascaensis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Margarita; Rabanal Gallego, Rosa M

    2002-05-01

    The antiinflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of crude ethanol extracts of Sideritis lotsyi var. mascaensis (Lamiaceae), and chloroform and aqueous fractions were evaluated in mice using paw and ear oedema induced by carrageenan and 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA), respectively, as inflammation models, the writhing test induced by acetic acid for evaluating analgesic activity and the disk-diffusion method for testing antimicrobial actions. The results obtained demonstrated significant topical antiinflammatory and analgesic activities for the ethanol extract and chloroform fraction, but no relevant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested.

  17. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  18. Pungent Alkamides from Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Nagashima, M

    1992-01-01

    A main pungent amide, spilanthol (1), and three alkamides, (2E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)-2-undecene-8,10-diynamide (2), (2E,7Z)-N-isobutyl-2,7-tridecadiene-10,12-diynamide (3), and (7Z)-N-isobutyl-7-tridecene-10,12-diynamide (4) were isolated from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2 and 4 were new and 3 was found for the first time in Spilanthes species. Chemotaxonomic aspects are discussed. PMID:27286203

  19. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  20. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  1. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  2. Generation of Antigenic Diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by Structured Rearrangement of Var Genes During Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D.; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7–72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle. PMID:25521112

  3. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia".

    PubMed

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. "Bhut Jolokia." Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 10(6)) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 10(6)) and C. arborea (45 × 10(6)), respectively. The increase in height (60-70 cm), number of leaves (600-650), and yield of chili (120-150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  4. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. 'Montgomery' fruits.

    PubMed

    Bystrom, Laura M; Lewis, Betty A; Brown, Dan L; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L

    2008-12-15

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues. PMID:21709744

  5. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system. PMID:26322853

  6. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.

  7. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  8. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    PubMed

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  9. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. ‘Montgomery’ fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Laura M.; Lewis, Betty A.; Brown, Dan L.; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L.

    2008-01-01

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues. PMID:21709744

  10. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes. PMID:27370696

  11. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency. PMID:27302128

  12. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency.

  13. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes.

  14. Two matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors from Ferula persica var. persica.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Saadat, F; Khorramizadeh, M R; Iranshahi, M; Khoshayand, M R

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in several physiologic and pathologic events. There is some evidence indicating the involvement of MMPs in tumor invasion and inflammatory diseases. Here we studied the chloroform extract of Ferula persica var. persica. The influence of these extracts vs. a reference drug, diclofenac sodium, on MMP production by the fibrosarcoma cell line was investigated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide, and gelatin zymography. The total extract of the roots was found to exhibit a selective inhibitory effect on tumor cell invasion. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of two compounds. These compounds showed highest MMP inhibitory effect at minimal toxic dose levels. Using conventional spectroscopy methods, the active fractions were identified as t-butyl 3-[(1-methylthiopropyl)dithio]-2-propenyl malonate (persicasulphide B) and umbelliprenin, previously isolated from F. persica var. latisecta. Since inhibition of MMP activity has been employed in modality therapy in diseases such as cancer, this compound might be promising in the preparation of anti-MMP therapeutic derivatives.

  15. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  16. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  17. A weak-constraint 4DEnsembleVar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amezcua, Javier; Goodliff, Michael; van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2016-04-01

    4DEnsembleVar is a hybrid data assimilation method which, besides making use of flow-dependent ensemble covariance information, avoids the computation of tangent-linear and adjoint models for the evolution and observation operators. In this method, the information from the observation time is communicated to the initial time via 4D cross-time covariances. Large systems require localisation of covariance matrices to suppress long-distance spurious elements. In a 4D covariance, however, using static localisation matrices (as it is done in practice) can eliminate the effect of observations if their location (at observational time) is far from that of the variable they are influencing (at the initial time). In lack of time-dependent localisation functions, in this work we propose a simpler option to ameliorate this problem. We exploit the presence of model error to spread the information of observations to more time steps, introducing a weak-constrained 4DEnsembleVar. The benefits of this method are illustrated in the Korteweg-de-Vries system, the Lorenz 1996 system, and a modified shallow water system with simulated convection.

  18. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo.

  19. Impact of EnVar hybrid assimilation using EnKF ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    Performance of an EnVar hybrid data assimilation system based on 3D Var NGFS (NCMRWF Global Forecast System) of T574 configuration and Ensemble Kalman Filter is investigated. The experiment is conducted during the Indian monsoon season (June-September) 2015 and compared against operational GSI 3D Var system. Two way coupled dual resolution hybrid system with 80 member ensemble of T254L64 configuration are used and forecasts are done for 10days. In hybrid experiment 75% weight is given to ensemble covariance and 25% for static covariance. The forecast skill of experiments over different spatial domains is compared against observations and respective analysis. The hybrid experiment produced significant improvement in forecasts compared to 3D Var in all fields except lower level temperature over tropical regions. Improvement is also seen in the prediction of extreme rainfall events. The prediction of monsoon onset and track of cyclone Ashobaa with hybrid and 3D var system is discussed.

  20. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  1. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem. PMID:26818015

  2. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  3. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples. PMID:26616932

  4. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. Results: The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0±28.3) and (225.0±21.2) μg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0±2.0) μg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0±1.0) μg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. Conclusions: The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects. PMID:24599694

  5. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P < 0.05). The varying pattern for the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms was showed as following: the amount of bacteria > the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  6. Genetic relationships among turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, E; Yildirim, N; Ercisli, S; Agar, G; Karlidag, H

    2010-01-01

    Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) is one of the main vegetables consumed by people living in Eastern Anatolia in Turkey. In this region, farmers obtain their own seeds for production, which results in considerable morphological variability. We examined the genetic variation and relationships among 11 turnip genotypes sampled from diverse environments of the Erzurum region located in Eastern Anatolia in Turkey. Thirty-two Operon RAPD primers were screened; among them, 20 gave reproducible and clear DNA fragments after amplification. The average polymorphism ratio was 90.4%. The genetic distance between turnip genotypes were found to range from 0.302 to 0.733, indicating high genetic variability. Eleven genotypes were divided into three main clusters in a dendrogram; ETS2 and ETS8 genotypes were the most distant. We conclude that RAPD analysis would be useful for genotyping turnip genotypes.

  7. Steroidal saponins from the flowers of Dioscorea bulbifera var. sativa.

    PubMed

    Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Böttger, Stefan; Melzig, Matthias F

    2013-11-01

    Eleven steroidal saponins, dioscoreanosides A-K, along with five known congeners, were isolated from the flowers of Dioscorea bulbifera var. sativa. Their structures were established by extensive NMR experiments in conjunction with mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against urinary bladder carcinoma cells (ECV-304 cells). Our results revealed a moderate activity for spiroconazol A (15), pennogenin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (12), and 26-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5-en-furost-3ß,17α,22α,26-tetraol-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranoside (13).

  8. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  9. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  10. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage. PMID:26165967

  11. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  12. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  13. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  14. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  15. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  16. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  17. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  18. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency. PMID:22286610

  19. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  20. [Correlation between chemical constituents and ecological factors of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing-zhen; Wang, Zeng-hui; Fu, Juan; Liu, De-wang; Huang, Lin-fang

    2015-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis (CA) were applied to analyze the correlation of the main chemical components in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and ecological factors. The results showed that the contents of astragaloside, campanulin, ononin, kaempferol and astragalus polysaccharides (APS) of A. membranaceus var. mongholicus produced. in Shanxi were significantly higher than in Inner Mongolia and Gansu. The main climatic factors for affecting the contents of chemical ingredients in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus were annual average relative humidity, sunshine hours and average July temperature. Calcium was the main factor in the soil affecting the chemical ingredient contents, and calcium was negatively correlated with the contents of calycosin glycosides, kaempferol, ononin, quercetin and APS in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus within a certain range. PMID:26211053

  1. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves. PMID:22171181

  2. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  3. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  4. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  5. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  6. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species. PMID:25423905

  7. Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-Δ4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells.

  8. The "firing cannons" of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Andries P S; Swart, Chantel W; Pohl, Carolina H; van Wyk, Pieter W J; Swart, Hendrik C; Coetsee, Elizabeth; Schoombie, Schalk W; Smit, Jon; Kock, Johan Lodewyk F

    2013-06-01

    According to literature, the elongated ascospores of Dipodascopsis uninucleata var. uninucleata exhibit smart movement when forcefully ejected from bottle-shaped asci. This type of movement is defined as the unique patterns of non-random movement of ascospores with specialized morphology thereby facilitating release from asci. Smart movement is required to actively release ascospores individually through the narrow ascus neck, without causing an obstruction and blocking ascospore release. However, little is known about the propulsion mechanism of this cannon-type release system. We show that asci of this yeast contain a central channel (barrel) filled with ascospores. These are surrounded by a sheath-like structure that lines the inner surface of the ascus wall. We found that this sheath is responsible for forcing the naked ascospores out of the ascus by exerting turgor pressure from the bottom towards the tip of the ascus. This cannon firing system is in contrast to that found in Dipodascus geniculatus, where no sheaths lining the ascus interior were observed. Instead, sheaths were found enveloping each ascospore. PMID:23750956

  9. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow. PMID:23179714

  10. Genetic dissection of agronomic traits in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A; Santos, J O; Sudré, C P; Viana, A P

    2015-03-20

    Genetic mapping is very useful for dissecting complex agronomic traits. Genetic mapping allows for identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL), provide knowledge on a gene position and its adjacent region, and enable prediction of evolutionary mechanisms, in addition to contributing to synteny studies. The aim of this study was to predict genetic values associated with different agronomic traits evaluated in an F2 population of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum. Previously, a reference genetic map for C. baccatum was constructed, which included 183 markers (42 microsatellite, 85 inter-simple sequence repeat, and 56 random amplification of polymorphic DNA) arranged in 16 linkage groups. The map was used to identify QTL associated with 11 agronomic traits, including plant height, crown diameter, number of days to flowering, days to fruiting, number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit pulp thickness, soluble solids, and fruit dry weight. QTL mapping was performed by standard interval mapping. The number of small QTL effects ranged from 3-11, with a total of 61 QTL detected in 9 linkage groups. This is the first report involving QTL analysis for C. baccatum species.

  11. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  12. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  15. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested.

  16. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale. PMID:27045759

  17. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Warhurst, David C.; Craig, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  18. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    PubMed

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications. PMID:27483471

  19. Pectoralis major injuries: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Haley, Chad A; Zacchilli, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    PM tears most commonly occur in the young athletic male while performing weight-lifting exercises, but can result from any activity whereby the arm is maximally contracted in an extended and externally rotated position. Patients typically present with acute pain, swelling, ecchymosis, deformity, and weakness with adduction and internal rotation. Diagnosis of PM tears can usually be made by history and physical examination, but MRI can be helpful in identifying the extent and location of injury. Most tears occur near the tendon insertion. Nonoperative treatment is generally reserved for proximal tears, low-grade partial tears, and tears in sedentary patients. In most cases these patients will resume full activities of daily living. For all other tears, especially in the young, active athlete, acute (<6 weeks) repair is recommended to return the patient to full strength and function.

  20. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits.

  1. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  2. [Dietary fiber and pectin fractions of Beta vulgaris var. conditiva].

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G

    1996-04-01

    The alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. conditiva Alef.) (3.31% of the edible substance) was extracted sequentially with water, ammonium oxalate, 0.05 N HCl and 0.05 N NaOH. Accordingly 3.93 g, about 0.8 g, 2.96 g resp. 3.80 g galacturonan/100 g AIS were extracted with this procedure. These pectin extracts were purified as Cu2 +-salts and fractionated into a water-soluble and a water-insoluble part. The composition of neutral monosaccharide units was estimated in the fractions. Gal, Ara and Glc dominated; Xyl, Rha and Man were also present but in smaller amounts. A higher GalA content was found in the soluble fractions (with the exception of the alkali extract). Pectins from red beet are middle- or low-esterified and partially acetylated. The composition of the AIS and of the residue after pectin extraction (RE) was determined (14.6 resp. 9.5% pectin; 10,6 resp. 17.6% protein; 58.7 resp. 64.9% total polysaccharides). In the AIS 23.3% soluble and 54.7% insoluble dietary fiber were estimated, whereas in RE 15.3 resp. 54.7% were found (enzymatic method). Following dietary fiber fractions were determined by the detergent method for both preparations: 39.0 resp. 52.7% NDF; 6.3 resp. 4.5% NDF filtrate; 23.6 resp. 41.8% ADF; 1.2 resp. 1.8% lignin. The water binding capacity decreased from 19.85 g water (AIS) to 11. 53 g water (RE) related to 1 g AUS. From these just 50% were found in the NDF fractions and about 13% in the ADF fractions. Alterations of the grown biological structures during pectin extraction and dietary fiber analysis (detergent method) were investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Experimental use of TRMM precipitation radar observations in 1D+4D-Var assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Lopez, Philippe; Bauer, Peter; Moreau, Emmanuel

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a new application of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) observations for indirect assimilation into the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The PR reflectivities are first processed using a one-dimensional variational (1D-Var) method to adjust model temperature and specific humidity. The retrieved Total Column Water Vapour (TCWV) is then assimilated into the operational four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) system. The applicability of the 1D+4D-Var approach to the radar observations is discussed in detail.Several case studies were run to assess the feasibility and the effectiveness of assimilating PR reflectivities with a 1D-Var approach. Results show good behaviour of the 1D-Var system in terms of convergence and stability. Its performance in terms of retrieved TCWV is comparable to that of other 1D-Vars which make use of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observations. When the 1D-Var TCWV pseudo-observations are input into the 4D-Var system, a positive impact is shown in the analysis and the subsequent forecasts, both on moisture-related fields and also on winds and surface pressure. The quality of the forecast is verified using track observations for the tropical cyclones. The track forecasts from the experiments which include 1D-Var TCWV are generally closer to the observed track than a control run. Despite their much smaller spatial coverage than TMI observations, it is found that the PR data have a comparable impact, provided the satellite samples a meaningful portion of the storm, possibly its centre. This is possibly due to the fact that TCWV increments from PR and from TMI brightness temperature have similar magnitudes.These results show that active sensor data can provide indirect yet useful information on the moisture field and that this information can effectively be assimilated to improve the analysis and the forecast of tropical disturbances. Although this is a sub

  4. Evidence for the Involvement of VAR2CSA in Pregnancy-associated Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Salanti, Ali; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Turner, Louise; Nielsen, Morten A.; Barfod, Lea; Magistrado, Pamela; Jensen, Anja T.R.; Lavstsen, Thomas; Ofori, Michael F.; Marsh, Kevin; Hviid, Lars; Theander, Thor G.

    2004-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum–endemic areas, pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is an important health problem. The condition is precipitated by accumulation of parasite-infected erythrocytes (IEs) in the placenta, and this process is mediated by parasite-encoded variant surface antigens (VSA) binding to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Parasites causing PAM express unique VSA types, VSAPAM, which can be serologically classified as sex specific and parity dependent. It is sex specific because men from malaria-endemic areas do not develop VSAPAM antibodies; it is parity dependent because women acquire anti-VSAPAM immunoglobulin (Ig) G as a function of parity. Previously, it was shown that transcription of var2csa is up-regulated in placental parasites and parasites selected for CSA binding. Here, we show the following: (a) that VAR2CSA is expressed on the surface of CSA-selected IEs; (b) that VAR2CSA is recognized by endemic plasma in a sex-specific and parity-dependent manner; (c) that high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels can be found in pregnant women from both West and East Africa; and (d) that women with high plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA IgG give birth to markedly heavier babies and have a much lower risk of delivering low birth weight children than women with low levels. PMID:15520249

  5. Characteristic odorants from bailingu oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis) and summer oyster mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the characteristic odorants of the volatile oils from Pleurotus species (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). A total of 52 and 54 components (P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus, respectively) were identified, representing about 98.8% and 85.1% of the volatile oils, respectively. The main components of the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil were palmitic acid (82, 38.0%), oleic acid (86, 25.0%) and linoleic acid (85, 9.7%). The main components of the P. cystidiosus oil, palmitic acid (82, 25.8%), indole (54, 9.1%) and myristic acid (77, 5.3%). Regarding the aroma components, 16 and 13 components were identified in the P. eryngii var. tuoliensis and P. cystidiosus oils respectively, by the GC-O analyses. The results of the sniffing test, odor activity value (OAV) and flavor dilution (FD) factor indicate that methional, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal are the main aroma-active components of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis oil. On the other hands, dimethyl trisulfide and 1-octen-3-ol were estimated as the main aroma-active components of the P. cystidiosus oil. PMID:24919476

  6. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. PMID:27010411

  7. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  8. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  9. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  10. Designing a VAR2CSA-based vaccine to prevent placental malaria✩

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Placental malaria (PM) due to Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of maternal, fetal and infant mortality, but the mechanisms of pathogenesis and protective immunity are relatively well-understood for this condition, providing a path for vaccine development. P. falciparum parasites bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) to sequester in the placenta, and women become resistant over 1–2 pregnancies as they acquire antibodies that block adhesion to CSA. The protein VAR2CSA, a member of the PfEMP1 variant surface antigen family, mediates parasite adhesion to CSA, and is the leading target for a vaccine to prevent PM. Obstacles to PM vaccine development include the large size (~350 kD), high cysteine content, and sequence variation of VAR2CSA. A number of approaches have been taken to identify the combination of VAR2CSA domains and alleles that can induce broadly active antibodies that block adhesion of heterologous parasite isolates to CSA. This review summarizes these approaches, which have examined VAR2CSA fragments for binding activity, antigenicity with naturally acquired antibodies, and immunogenicity in animals for inducing anti-adhesion or surface-reactive antibodies. Two products are expected to enter human clinical studies in the near future based on N-terminal VAR2CSA fragments that have high binding affinity for CSA, and additional proteins preferentially expressed by placental parasites are also being examined for their potential contribution to a PM vaccine. PMID:26469717

  11. Identification of parental genomes and genomic organization in Aster microcephalus var. ovatus.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Soejima, Akiko; Hoshi, Yoshikazu

    2007-09-01

    The karyotype of diploid Aster iinumae is morphologically similar to that of diploid Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides, however, its chromosome size is apparently smaller (S-type chromosomes versus L-type chromosomes, respectively). The hybrid origin of tetraploid Aster microcephalus var. ovatus (LS-type chromosomes) has previously been suggested by cytogenetics and chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) data. The cp DNA phylogeny also implies that the S-type chromosome is apomorphic, which means that genome size reduction occurred on the evolutionary way to A. iinumae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the chromosome size difference does not depend on the intensity of chromosome condensation but on the DNA content. The simultaneous genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) results show the similarity between S-type chromosomes of A. iinumae and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, and between L-type chromosomes of A. ageratoides and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, which provide additional evidence for A. microcephalus var. ovatus being a tetraploid amphidiploid produced by hybridization between S-type chromosomes and L-type chromosomes. The distribution patterns of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons were similar in L- and S-type chromosomes. The copies of this retrotransposon dispersed uniformly on all chromosomes, and it is not yet apparent how the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon affects the size difference between them.

  12. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  13. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  14. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  15. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Stevens, Mikel R; Johnson, Leigh A; Robbins, Matthew D; Anderson, Chris D; Ricks, Nathan J; Farley, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  16. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do.

    PubMed

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Hee-Young

    2014-03-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea.

  17. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity of Bakuchiol from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Won-Hee; Lee, Yeonmi; Jo, Youn Ock; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2010-08-01

    The bark of the root and stem of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has been used as a traditional Korean medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. This plant reportedly exhibits antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. A search for biologically active compounds in U. davidiana var. japonica extracts yielded bakuchiol, which we structurally identified on the basis of spectral data, including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer. In our study, bakuchiol (50 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 53.7% and 84.2%, respectively. These results suggested that bakuchiol is one of the potent anti-inflammatory components of U. davidiana var. japonica.

  18. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  19. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  20. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  1. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do.

    PubMed

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Jung, Hee-Young

    2014-03-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea. PMID:24808739

  2. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  3. Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengran; Huang, Chenyang; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Xiangli; Qu, Jibin; Zhang, Jinxia

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 123 wild strains of Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis, which were collected from nine geographical locations in Yumin, Tuoli, and Qinghe counties in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, was analysed using two molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat and start codon targeted). At the variety level, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s gene diversity index for P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was 96.32% and 0.238, respectively. At the population level, Nei’s gene diversity index ranged from 0.149 to 0.218 with an average of 0.186, and Shannon's information index ranged from 0.213 to 0.339 with an average of 0.284. These results revealed the abundant genetic variability in the wild resources of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. Nei’s gene diversity analysis indicated that the genetic variance was mainly found within individual geographical populations, and the analysis of molecular variance revealed low but significant genetic differentiation among local and regional populations. The limited gene flow (Nm = 1.794) was inferred as a major reason for the extent of genetic differentiation of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis. The results of Mantel tests showed that the genetic distance among geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis was positively correlated with the geographical distance and the longitudinal distances (rGo = 0.789 and rLn = 0.873, respectively), which indicates that geographical isolation is an important factor for the observed genetic differentiation. Nine geographical populations of P. eryngii var. tuoliensis were divided into three groups according to their geographical origins, which revealed that the genetic diversity was closely related to the geographical distribution of this wild fungus. PMID:24349475

  4. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  5. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  7. Genetic interactions reveal that specific defects of chloroplast translation are associated with the suppression of var2-mediated leaf variegation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiayan; Zheng, Mengdi; Wang, Rui; Wang, Ruijuan; An, Lijun; Rodermel, Steve R; Yu, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana L. yellow variegated (var2) mutant is defective in a chloroplast FtsH family metalloprotease, AtFtsH2/VAR2, and displays an intriguing green and white leaf variegation. This unique var2-mediated leaf variegation offers a simple yet powerful tool for dissecting the genetic regulation of chloroplast development. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new var2 suppressor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION8 (SVR8), which encodes a putative chloroplast ribosomal large subunit protein, L24. Mutations in SVR8 suppress var2 leaf variegation at ambient temperature and partially suppress the cold-induced chlorosis phenotype of var2. Loss of SVR8 causes unique chloroplast rRNA processing defects, particularly the 23S-4.5S dicistronic precursor. The recovery of the major abnormal processing site in svr8 23S-4.5S precursor indicate that it does not lie in the same position where SVR8/L24 binds on the ribosome. Surprisingly, we found that the loss of a chloroplast ribosomal small subunit protein, S21, results in aberrant chloroplast rRNA processing but not suppression of var2 variegation. These findings suggest that the disruption of specific aspects of chloroplast translation, rather than a general impairment in chloroplast translation, suppress var2 variegation and the existence of complex genetic interactions in chloroplast development. PMID:23721655

  8. The Chondroitin Sulfate A-binding Site of the VAR2CSA Protein Involves Multiple N-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Morten A.; Clausen, Thomas M.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Pinto, Vera V.; Arnot, David E.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a major health problem for African women. The disease is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, which accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). The interaction between infected erythrocytes and the placental receptor is mediated by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with high affinity, however to date no sub-fragment of VAR2CSA has been shown to interact with CSA with similar affinity or specificity. In this study, we used a biosensor technology to examine the binding properties of a panel of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDRPAM and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite adhesion blocking activity in animal immunization experiments. PMID:21398524

  9. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  10. Application of a thyristor controlled VAR compensator for damping subsynchronous oscillations in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hammad, A.E.; El-Sadek, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for controlling static VAr compensators (SVC) in power systems. It allows thyristor controlled VAr compensators to effectively damp subsynchronous resonance (SSR) oscillations besides controlling the system voltage. Eigenvalue analysis and digital time simulations for the IEEE SSR benchmark system are utilized to investigate the role of the main voltage regulator of the SVC in stabilizing the system and alleviating the SSR modal interactions that may be introduced by the auxiliary speed signal alone. Stability zones are identified to optimize the compensator parameters for economical application.

  11. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Luciana V; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R F; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A; Janse, Chris J; Gamain, Benoit; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 10(4) P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei At doses of 10(5) and 10(6) IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6-EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  12. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Luciana V; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R F; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A; Janse, Chris J; Gamain, Benoit; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 10(4) P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei At doses of 10(5) and 10(6) IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6-EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA.

  13. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa).

    PubMed

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds.

  14. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds. PMID:26504534

  15. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  16. Assigning Brassica microsatellite markers to the nine C-genome chromosomes using Brassica rapa var. trilocularis-B. oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Geleta, Mulatu; Heneen, Waheeb K; Stoute, Andrew I; Muttucumaru, Nira; Scott, Roderick J; King, Graham J; Kurup, Smita; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2012-08-01

    Brassica rapa var. trilocularis-B. oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were used to assign simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to the nine C-genome chromosomes. A total of 64 SSR markers specific to single C-chromosomes were identified. The number of specific markers for each chromosome varied from two (C3) to ten (C4, C7 and C9), where the designation of the chromosomes was according to Cheng et al. (Genome 38:313-319, 1995). Seventeen additional SSRs, which were duplicated on 2-5 C-chromosomes, were also identified. Using the SSR markers assigned to the previously developed eight MAALs and recently obtained aneuploid plants, a new Brassica rapa-B. oleracea var. alboglabra MAAL carrying the alien chromosome C7 was identified and developed. The application of reported genetically mapped SSR markers on the nine MAALs contributed to the determination of the correspondence between numerical C-genome cytological (Cheng et al. in Genome 38:313-319, 1995) and linkage group designations. This correspondence facilitates the integration of C-genome genetic information that has been generated based on the two designation systems and accordingly increases our knowledge about each chromosome. The present study is a significant contribution to genetic linkage analysis of SSR markers and important agronomic traits in B. oleracea and to the potential use of the MAALs in plant breeding.

  17. [The effect of beta-ionine on biosynthesis of carotenes by Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides].

    PubMed

    Sverdlova, A N; Alekseeva, L N; Nefelova, M V

    1977-01-01

    Biosynthesis of carotenoids by a growing culture of Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides is totally inhibited by beta-ionone added at different concentrations, at various time of the cultural growth, and in various combinations with oil. The inhibition of carotenoid synthesis by beta-ionone is of a specific character since the biomass growth under the same conditions does not increase.

  18. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) Mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Philip E.; Dev, Vasu; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Moore, Peggy E.

    2000-01-01

    β-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. β-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while δ-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil.

  19. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  20. First record of genus Coelomomyces in Macau (China): Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae parasitizing Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Ramos, H C; Ribeiro, H; Novo, T; Bizarro, J; Easton, E R

    1996-09-01

    During a mosquito survey carried out in 1994-95, in Macau, southern China, Coelomomyces stegomyiae var. stegomyiae was found parasitizing Aedes albopictus. This constitutes the first record of this genus as potential agents of mosquito control in the area. PMID:8887236

  1. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  2. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  3. First case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain.

    PubMed

    Colom, M Francisca; Frasés, Susana; Ferrer, Consuelo; Jover, Alejandro; Andreu, Mariano; Reus, Sergio; Sánchez, Manuel; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M

    2005-07-01

    We report the first case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii described in our country, which was presented as brain cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. An extensive sampling of the patient's environment was carried out to find the source of infection.

  4. First Case of Human Cryptococcosis Due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Colom, M. Francisca; Frasés, Susana; Ferrer, Consuelo; Jover, Alejandro; Andreu, Mariano; Reus, Sergio; Sánchez, Manuel; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii described in our country, which was presented as brain cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. An extensive sampling of the patient's environment was carried out to find the source of infection. PMID:16000503

  5. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.145 Alpha-Galactosidase derived from... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme alpha-galactosidase and the mycelia of the microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer which produces the enzyme. (b) The...

  6. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  7. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  8. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus. PMID:27573677

  9. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  10. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  11. Characterization of a cinnamoyl derivative from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Ko, Eunyoung; Lee, Choonghwan; Choi, Jung Nam; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Se Won

    2010-12-01

    A new intact glucosinolate Cinnamoyl derivative [6'-O-trans-(4″- hydroxy cinnamoyl)-4-(methylsulphinyl) butyl glucosinolate] (A) has been isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. The compound was isolated and characterized by LC, MS-ESI, FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as (1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135° spectrometric experiments.

  12. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy. PMID:17476467

  13. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oleaginous Yeast Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete draft genome sequence of Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus, an oleaginous yeast, which can utilize various organic carbon sources for lipid synthesis. Availability of this genome will help elucidate factors driving lipid accumulation in C. albidus and contribute toward bioprocess development and optimization for engineered lipid production. PMID:27198024

  15. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  16. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  17. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network. PMID:27028486

  18. [The potential antineoplastic acting constituents of Physalis alkekengi L. var franchetii Mast].

    PubMed

    Dornberger, K

    1986-04-01

    In a continuing search for potent antineoplastic compounds in indigenous plants, a water extract of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii Mast. fruits was shown to have reproducible antineoplastic activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Systematic fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of citric acid as the major active principle.

  19. Investigation of Erythrina spp. VII. Chemical constituents of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis bark.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Chawla, A S; Jindal, A K; Conner, A H; Rowe, J W

    1975-01-01

    The petroleum ether extractive of the bark of Erythrina variegata var. orientalis was fractionated and shown to be composed of wax alcohols and wax acids, alkyl ferulates, alkyl phenolates, stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol and possibly citrostadienol/24-methylenelophenol. The ethanol extractive yielded chloroform-soluble and water-soluble bases, identified as erysovine and stachydrine, respectively. PMID:1134218

  20. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  1. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  2. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy.

  3. Evidence that the Human Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii May Have Evolved in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Carbone, Ignazio; Rossouw, Jenny; Thakur, Rameshwari; Govender, Nelesh P.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis – an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm. PMID:21589919

  4. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, P.E.; Dev, V.; Munevar-Mendoza, E.; Moore, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    ??-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. ??-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while ??-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil. ?? 2000 Allured Publishing Corp.

  5. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  6. Photobiont Relationships and Phylogenetic History of Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum and Related Dermatocarpon Species

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Kyle M.; Beck, Andreas; Stocker-Wörgötter, Elfie; Piercey-Normore, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the genus Dermatocarpon are widespread throughout the Northern Hemisphere along the edge of lakes, rivers and streams, and are subject to abiotic conditions reflecting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Little is known about the evolutionary relationships within the genus and between continents. Investigation of the photobiont(s) associated with sub-aquatic and terrestrial Dermatocarpon species may reveal habitat requirements of the photobiont and the ability for fungal species to share the same photobiont species under different habitat conditions. The focus of our study was todetermine the relationship between Canadian and Austrian Dermatocarpon luridum var. luridum along with three additional sub-aquatic Dermatocarpon species, and to determine the species of photobionts that associate with D. luridum var. luridum. Culture experiments were performed to identify the photobionts. In addition, the question of the algal sharing potential regarding different species of Dermatocarpon was addressed. Specimens were collected from four lakes in northwestern Manitoba, Canada and three streams in Austria. Three Canadian and four Austrian thalli of D. luridum var. luridum were selected for algal culturing. The nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA gene of the fungal partner along with the algal ITS rDNA gene was sequenced to confirm the identity of the lichen/photobiont and afterwards the same data sets were used in phylogenetic analyses to assess algal sharing. The green algal photobiont was identified as Diplosphaera chodatii (Trebouxiophyceae). The phylogenetic analyses of Canadian and Austrian D. luridum var. luridum revealed that ITS sequences are identical despite the vast geographic distance. Phylogenetic placement of D. luridum var. decipiens and D. arnoldianum suggested that a re-examination of the species status might be necessary. This study concluded that additional photobiont culture experiments should be conducted to answer the

  7. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  8. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition. PMID:26790285

  9. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Dry, Jonathan R

    2016-06-20

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  10. VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Ahdesmaki, Miika; Chapman, Brad; Hofmann, Oliver; McEwen, Robert; Johnson, Justin; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J. Carl; Dry, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research. PMID:27060149

  11. Evidence that Synthesis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondrially Encoded Ribosomal Protein Var1p May Be Membrane Localized

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Alessandro; Mason, Thomas L.; Fox, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    The 5′-untranslated leaders of mitochondrial mRNAs appear to localize translation within the organelle. VAR1 is the only yeast mitochondrial gene encoding a major soluble protein. A chimeric mRNA bearing the VAR1 untranslated regions and the coding sequence for pre-Cox2p appears to be translated at the inner membrane surface. We propose that translation of the ribosomal protein Var1p is also likely to occur in close proximity to the inner membrane. PMID:12796311

  12. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary. PMID:24388820

  13. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary.

  14. DiffVar: a new method for detecting differential variability with application to methylation in cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Phipson, Belinda; Oshlack, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of DNA is known to be essential to development and dramatically altered in cancers. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip has been used extensively as a cost-effective way to profile nearly half a million CpG sites across the human genome. Here we present DiffVar, a novel method to test for differential variability between sample groups. DiffVar employs an empirical Bayes model framework that can take into account any experimental design and is robust to outliers. We applied DiffVar to several datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas, as well as an aging dataset. DiffVar is available in the missMethyl Bioconductor R package. PMID:25245051

  15. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  16. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis - B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ai Xia; Shen, Shu Xing; Wang, Yan Hua; Zhao, Jian Jun; Xuan, Shu Xin; Chen, Xue Ping; Li, Xiao Feng; Luo, Shuang Xia; Zhao, Yu Jing

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis - B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  17. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  18. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  19. Complete Genome Sequences of Salmonella enterica Serovars Anatum and Anatum var. 15+, Isolated from Retail Ground Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Marasini, Daya; Abo-Shama, Usama H.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of two isolates of Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum and Anatum var. 15+ revealed the presence of two plasmids of 112 kb and 3 kb in size in each. The chromosome of Salmonella Anatum (4.83 Mb) was slightly smaller than that of Salmonella Anatum var. 15+ (4.88 Mb). PMID:26798111

  20. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  1. Genetic transformation of Brassica campestris var. rapa protoplasts with an engineered cauliflower mosaic virus genome.

    PubMed

    Paszkowski, J; Pisan, B; Shillito, R D; Hohn, T; Hohn, B; Potrykus, I

    1986-09-01

    A hybrid Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) genome containing a selectable marker gene was constructed by replacing the gene VI coding region with the aminoglycoside (neomycin) phosphotransferase type II [APH(3')II] gene from Tn5. This modified viral genome was tested for its infectivity both in planta and in a protoplast transformation system of Brassica campestris var. rapa. Stable, genetically transformed cell lines of B. campestris var. rapa were obtained after transformation. DNA of the hybrid CaMV genome was found to be integrated into high molecular weight plant genomic DNA. Transformation was achieved only when the hybrid genome was supplied together with wild type viral DNA. A possible complementation of the modified CaMV genome with the wild type viral DNA as a helper molecule in planta and in the protoplast system is discussed.

  2. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    PubMed

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  3. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

  4. Inhibition of Lung Inflammation by Acanthopanax divaricatus var. Albeofructus and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2016-01-01

    In order to find potential therapeutic agents on lung inflammatory conditions, the extracts of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus were prepared and its constituents were isolated. They include lignans such as (+)-syringaresinol (1), acanthoside B (2), salvadoraside (3) and acanthoside D (4), lariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and phenylpropanoids such as 4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-1-propenyl]phenol (6), coniferin (7), and methyl caffeate (8). The extracts and several constituents such as compound 1, 6 and 8 inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, IL-6 and nitric oxide, from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, the extracts and compound 4 significantly inhibited lung inflammation in lipolysaccharide-treated acute lung injury in mice by oral administration. Thus it is suggested that A. divaricatus var. albeofructus and its several constituents may be effective against lung inflammation. PMID:26759704

  5. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica). PMID:7617014

  6. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  7. ImmVar project: Insights and design considerations for future studies of "healthy" immune variation.

    PubMed

    De Jager, Philip L; Hacohen, Nir; Mathis, Diane; Regev, Aviv; Stranger, Barbara E; Benoist, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Immune Variation (ImmVar) project is one of a series of recent efforts to map the extent of variation in immune function in healthy human subjects. The focus of our initial studies involved a careful mapping of the genetic architecture of the adaptive and innate immunologic transcriptomes. Our studies highlight the shared nature of this immunogenetic architecture across human populations, the important role of context in uncovering effects of genetic variation, and the fact that, over all tested genes, common genetic variation account for a minority of the variance in the immune transcriptome in healthy subjects. Yet, it is an element of the variance that can be measured very precisely and will play an important role in the design of future studies. We therefore discuss how insights from ImmVar and similar studies inform experimental strategies and frame the design of future studies of immune function in health and disease.

  8. Characterization of convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V M; Maia, J G; de Souza, J M; Bortolotto, Z A; Cavalheiro, E A

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea, male Wistar rats were injected ip with 50 to 150 mg/kg of the extract and EEG and behavior were observed for periods as long as 2 h. Following the lower doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) only minor behavioral changes such as grooming and wet dog shakes were observed. Higher doses (100 to 150 mg/kg) induced full tonic-clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner which were accompanied by typical electrographic seizures in the EEG. These results confirm that the hexane extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea is able to induce generalized convulsions in rats and can be used as a tool in the development of new models of epilepsy. PMID:2758174

  9. Cryopreservation of immature seeds of Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana by vitrification.

    PubMed

    Hirano, T; Ishikawa, K; Mii, M

    2005-01-01

    Ponerorchis graminifolia var. suzukiana is a terrestrial orchid that is an endangered species native to Japan, and it germinates more readily in immature seeds than in mature seeds. To preserve this orchid, an efficient protocol was established for the cryopreservation of immature seeds of P. graminifolia var. suzukiana. When immature seeds of 6 weeks after pollination, which showed higher germination and protocorm formation than mature seeds, were precultured on New Dogashima (ND) medium with 0.3M sucrose for 3 days and cryopreserved by vitrification method (treated with PVS2 for 60 min), the viability after preservation as assessed with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining test was about 86%. Immature seeds thus treated showed equal rates of germination and protocorm formation to the untreated control immature seeds, and they developed into normal plantlets on ND medium.

  10. The anti-rheumatoid arthritis property of the folk medicine Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis, Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Lu, Yi; Yan, Cheng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Liu, Zizhen; Xu, Guanling; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xia; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jianqiu; She, Gaimei

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese folk medicine Dianbaizhu, consisting of Gaultheria species, is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by several minority nationalities. The species and plant parts of this genus used as Dianbaizhu in clinical application are confused. In order to elucidate the species and the medicinal parts, as well as to ascertain the effective components and the probable optimal source of Dianbaizhu, the different plant parts and polarity fractions of its mainstream species, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis were investigated. The inhibition of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor produced in macrophage J774 were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of those samples. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis may be the preferred species for anti-RA effect. The underground parts of this taxon showed the best anti-inflammatory and anti-RA activities; the n-butanol and water fractions of the underground parts may be the most anti-RA active.

  11. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  12. Variogram Analysis of Response surfaces (VARS): A New Framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis of Earth and Environmental Systems Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Gupta, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    Earth and environmental systems models (EESMs) are continually growing in complexity and dimensionality with continuous advances in understanding and computing power. Complexity and dimensionality are manifested by introducing many different factors in EESMs (i.e., model parameters, forcings, boundary conditions, etc.) to be identified. Sensitivity Analysis (SA) provides an essential means for characterizing the role and importance of such factors in producing the model responses. However, conventional approaches to SA suffer from (1) an ambiguous characterization of sensitivity, and (2) poor computational efficiency, particularly as the problem dimension grows. Here, we present a new and general sensitivity analysis framework (called VARS), based on an analogy to 'variogram analysis', that provides an intuitive and comprehensive characterization of sensitivity across the full spectrum of scales in the factor space. We prove, theoretically, that Morris (derivative-based) and Sobol (variance-based) methods and their extensions are limiting cases of VARS, and that their SA indices can be computed as by-products of the VARS framework. We also present a practical strategy for the application of VARS to real-world problems, called STAR-VARS, including a new sampling strategy, called "star-based sampling". Our results across several case studies show the STAR-VARS approach to provide reliable and stable assessments of "global" sensitivity across the full range of scales in the factor space, while being at least 1-2 orders of magnitude more efficient than the benchmark Morris and Sobol approaches.

  13. Induction of adhesion-inhibitory antibodies against placental Plasmodium falciparum parasites by using single domains of VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten A; Pinto, Vera V; Resende, Mafalda; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Ditlev, Sisse B; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali

    2009-06-01

    In areas of endemicity pregnancy-associated malaria is an important cause of maternal anemia, stillbirth, and delivery of low-birth-weight children. The syndrome is precipitated by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, mediated through an interaction between a parasite protein expressed on erythrocytes named variant surface antigen 2-chondroitin sulfate A (VAR2CSA) and CSA on syncytiotrophoblasts. VAR2CSA is a large polymorphic protein consisting of six Duffy binding-like (DBL), domains and with current constraints on recombinant protein production it is not possible to produce entire VAR2CSA recombinant proteins. Furthermore, the presence of polymorphisms has raised the question of whether it is feasible to define VAR2CSA antigens eliciting broadly protective antibodies. Thus, the challenge for vaccine development is to define smaller parts of the molecule which induce antibodies that inhibit CSA binding of different parasite strains. In this study, we produced a large panel of VAR2CSA proteins and raised antibodies against these antigens. We show that antibodies against the DBL4 domain effectively inhibit parasite binding. As the inhibition was not limited to homologous parasite strains, it seems feasible to base a protective malaria vaccine on a single VAR2CSA DBL domain. PMID:19307213

  14. Consumption of brown onions (Allium cepa var. cavalier and var. destiny) moderately modulates blood lipids, haematological and haemostatic variables in healthy pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Ewa; Gabler, Nicholas K; Sterling, Sam J; Tatham, Brendan G; Jones, Rodney B; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Dunshea, Frank R

    2004-02-01

    Although garlic and onions have long been associated with putative cardiovascular health benefits, the effects of different commercially available onions and level of intake have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of raw onions using the pig as a biomedical model. Twenty-five female (Large White x Landrace) pigs were used in a (2 x 2)+1 factorial experiment. Pigs were fed a standard grower diet supplemented with 100 g tallow/kg with the addition of Allium cepa var. cavalier or var. destiny at 0, 10 or 25 g/MJ digestible energy for 6 weeks. Overall, the consumption of onions resulted in significant reductions in plasma triacylglycerol; however, the reductions were most pronounced in pigs fed destiny onions (-26 %, P=0.042). Total plasma cholesterol and LDL:HDL ratios were not significantly different. Onion supplementation, regardless of the variety, resulted in dose-dependent reductions in erythrocyte counts and Hb levels, while the white blood cell concentrations, particularly lymphocytes, were increased in pigs that consumed onions. Furthermore, indices of blood clotting were largely unaffected by onion consumption. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with raw brown onions has moderate lipid-modulating and immunostimulatory properties. However, daily onion intake >25 g/MJ digestible energy could be detrimental to erythrocyte numbers.

  15. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  16. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  17. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  18. Influence of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Altherr, B J; Tölke, C; Schmidt, M F G

    2007-12-15

    In a feeding trial, sows and piglets were fed with the probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus var. toyoi as a feed additive, and the effects on immune cell populations were examined. The development of the gut immune system was determined for piglets at the ages of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days post partum. Tissue samples of the Jejunum and the continuous Peyer's patch were used for enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocyte populations by fluorescence activated flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Both independent methods of investigation led to similar results: the population of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells was significantly enhanced in the probiotic group piglets (p< or =0.05), and the numbers of gammadelta T cells tended to be higher in the intestinal epithelium (p<0.1) at the time of weaning (day 28). Lamina propria lymphocytes were also influenced by the treatment. Application of B. cereus var. toyoi resulted in significantly more CD25+ lymphocytes and gammadelta T cells in the probiotic group post-weaning. The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups was also less frequent in the feces of piglets from the probiotic group. The finding that the CD8+ T cell population in the intestinal mucosa showed changes on day 28 indicated that the influence of B. cereus var. toyoi supplementation on the intestinal immune system started before weaning, an observation supported by changes in the intestinal microflora observed during the suckling-period. The results suggest that feeding of B. cereus var. toyoi to sows may result in beneficial effects on piglet health status independent of their feed supplementation.

  19. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. ); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. )

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  20. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl. PMID:9131573

  1. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  2. Virulence, serotype, and molecular characteristics of environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed Central

    Kwon-Chung, K J; Wickes, B L; Stockman, L; Roberts, G D; Ellis, D; Howard, D H

    1992-01-01

    Four strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii originating from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, three from Australia and one from San Francisco, were tested for their serotype, virulence for mice, and a number of genetic and molecular characteristics. All were found to be serotype B and showed significantly higher virulence for mice than did the type strains of C. neoformans var. gattii and Filobasidiella neoformans var. bacillispora, which were obtained from human cryptococcosis cases. Electrophoretic karyotypes of the strains from Australia were identical, although they were collected from sites at least 15 to 500 km apart. The electrophoretic karyotype of the strain from San Francisco was the same as that of the Australian isolates except for the mobility of one chromosome. On the contrary, no two isolates of serotype B (of a total of 11) from clinical sources were the same, regardless of their geographic origin. Furthermore, none of the clinical isolates showed a chromosomal banding pattern identical to that of Eucalyptus-originated strains. The Eucalyptus-originated strains failed to form dikaryons when crossed with the tester strains of the two varieties of F. neoformans. Hybridization analysis with a nucleic acid probe (AccuProbe C. neoformans Culture Confirmation Test; Gen-Probe Inc., San Diego, Calif.), however, showed signals of equal intensity for clinical strains and the Eucalyptus-originated strains. Various fungi phylogenetically related to C. neoformans, including a phenol oxidase-positive strain of Cryptococcus laurentii obtained from E. camaldulensis, were negative in the nucleic acid hybridization test. These observations confirm that, in spite of karyotypic differences and the lack of dikaryon formation with the tester strains of F. neoformans, Eucalyptus-originated C. neoformans var. gattii is the same organism as those isolated from cases of human infection. Furthermore, the C. neoformans culture confirmation test using a commercial nucleic acid

  3. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus and Rodwayella citrinula, Two Unrecorded Taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae (Tribe Arachnopezizeae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A fungal survey that targeted the tribe Arachnopezizeae (Hyaloscyphaceae, Helotiales) was conducted in Korea. One variety belonging to Proliferodiscus and one species belonging to Rodwayella are recorded for the first time from Korea. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus differs from P. earoleucus by its amyloid reaction in ascal apices and larger asci. Rodwayella citrinula is distinguished from other members of the genus by small ascospores and its occurrence on grasses. The descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics of the species are provided. PMID:24808741

  4. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from the liverwort Treubia isignensis var. isignensis with chemotaxonomic significance.

    PubMed

    Coulerie, Paul; Nour, Mohammed; Thouvenot, Louis; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-01

    The New Caledonian endemic Treubia isignensis var. isignensis, which is known as a morphologically primitive liverwort, was extracted with diethyl ether and the crude extract analyzed by TLC and GC/MS. The species is chemically very primitive because it produces only maaliane-, eudesmane-, aristolane and gorgonane sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which are significant chemical marker of the species; neither oxygenated terpenoids nor aromatic compounds were detected. PMID:25233573

  5. Biologically active constituents of leaves and roots of Aloe arborescens var. natalensis.

    PubMed

    Hirata, T; Suga, T

    1977-01-01

    Several biologically active substances, such as aloenin (1), magnesium lactate, aloe-emodin (4), barbaloin (5), and succinic acid, were found to be contained in the leaf juice of Aloe arborescens Mill. var. natalensis Berger, which has widely been used in domestic medicines. Aloenin (1) and magnesium lactate were elucidated to exhibit an inhibitory action on the gastric juice secretion of rats. Various constituents other than the above bioactive substances were found in the leaves and the roots of the plant.

  6. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum isolates from north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Ribeiro, Joyce F; Lima, Rita A C; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Mesquita, Jacó R L; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Rocha, Marcos F G; Sidrim, José J C

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, there has been a significant increase in the number of histoplasmosis cases in Ceará, a state in north-east Brazil. The lack of epidemiological data on the genotypes circulating in the north-east region shows the importance of more detailed studies on the molecular epidemiology of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum in this region. Different molecular techniques have been used to better characterize the genetic profile of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum strains. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic diversity of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum isolates in Fortaleza, the capital of Ceará, through the sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1-5.8S-ITS2 region, and establish the molecular profile of these isolates, along with strains from south-east Brazil, by RAPD analysis, featuring the different clusters in those regions. The isolates were grouped into two clusters. Cluster 1 included strains from the south-east and north-east regions with separation of isolates into three distinct subgroups (subgroups 1a, 1b and 1c). Cluster 2 included only samples from north-east Brazil. Sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region allowed the detection of two major clades, which showed geographical correlation between them and their subgroups. Therefore, it can be concluded that the H. capsulatum var. capsulatum isolates from Ceará have a high degree of genetic polymorphism. The molecular data also confirm that populations of this fungus are composed of different genotypes in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:22977075

  7. Cycloartane glycosides from Astragalus plumosus var. krugianus and evaluation of their antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Denizli, Nilüfer; Horo, Ibrahim; Gülcemal, Derya; Masullo, Milena; Festa, Michela; Capasso, Anna; Koz, Ömer; Piacente, Sonia; Alankuş-Çalışkan, Özgen

    2014-01-01

    The methanol extracts of Astragalus plumosus var. krugianus Chamb. & Matthews afforded sixteen cycloartane glycosides among which krugianoside A, was never reported before. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity in human skin fibroblast WS1 cells. For compounds exhibiting no significant effect on WS1 viability, the antioxidant potential was examined. Compounds 1 and 8 prevented elevation of ROS induced by t-BOOH, suggesting the potential activity of these compounds to protect fibroblasts from oxidative stress.

  8. MetaNetVar: Pipeline for applying network analysis tools for genomic variants analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eric; Hagenauer, Megan; Lesko, Matthew; Francis, Felix; Rodriguez, Oscar; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Huser, Vojtech; Busby, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis can make variant analysis better. There are existing tools like HotNet2 and dmGWAS that can provide various analytical methods. We developed a prototype of a pipeline called MetaNetVar that allows execution of multiple tools. The code is published at https://github.com/NCBI-Hackathons/Network_SNPs. A working prototype is published as an Amazon Machine Image - ami-4510312f . PMID:27158457

  9. W10BSmL, a mutant of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris lacking plastids.

    PubMed

    Osafune, T; Schiff, J A

    1983-10-15

    Organized proplastid structures are absent from dark-grown and light-grown cells of Euglena gracilis Klebs var. bacillaris Cori mutant W10BSmL, based on electron micrographs of serial sections of entire cells. Fluorescence due to normal plastid DNA is undetectable in these cells after treatment with the DNA fluorochrome 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Serial sections through a newly described compartmentalized osmiophilic structure in Euglena cells are presented.

  10. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    PubMed Central

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes. PMID:20981322

  11. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-11-07

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem.

  12. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  13. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  14. [Comparison between Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys based on ITS sequences and metabolomics].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Mei-li; Li, Zhen-yu; Zhang, Fu-sheng; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-12-01

    Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Hedysarum polybotrys belong to different genera, but have similar drug efficacy in traditional Chinese medicine theory, and H. polybotrys was used as the legal A. membranaceus var. mongholicus previously. In this study, similarities and differences between them were analyzed via their ITS/ITS2 fragments information. The ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced in two-way. The alignment lengths of ITS regions were 616 bp, in which 508 loci were consistent, and 103 loci were different, accounting for 82.47% and 16.72% of the total ITS nucleotides in length, respectively. As genotype determines phenotype, 1HNMR-based metabolomic approach was further used to reveal the chemical similarities and differences between them. Thirty-four metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra, and twenty-seven metabolites were the common components. Amino acids, carbohydrates and other primary metabolites were similar, while a large difference existed in the flavonoids and astragalosides. This study suggests that A. membranaceus var. mongholicus and H. polybotrys show similarities and differences from molecular and chemical perspectives, which has laid a foundation for elucidating the effective material basis of drug with similar efficacy and resources utilization. PMID:27169287

  15. rVarBase: an updated database for regulatory features of human variants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liyuan; Du, Yang; Qu, Susu; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We present here the rVarBase database (http://rv.psych.ac.cn), an updated version of the rSNPBase database, to provide reliable and detailed regulatory annotations for known and novel human variants. This update expands the database to include additional types of human variants, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and novel variants, and include additional types of regulatory features. Now rVarBase annotates variants in three dimensions: chromatin states of the surrounding regions, overlapped regulatory elements and variants' potential target genes. Two new types of regulatory elements (lncRNAs and miRNA target sites) have been introduced to provide additional annotation. Detailed information about variants' overlapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) (often less than 15 bp) within experimentally supported TF-binding regions (∼ 150 bp) is provided, along with the binding motifs of matched TF families. Additional types of extended variants and variant-associated phenotypes were also added. In addition to the enrichment in data content, an element-centric search module was added, and the web interface was refined. In summary, rVarBase hosts more types of human variants and includes more types of up-to-date regulatory information to facilitate in-depth functional research and to provide practical clues for experimental design. PMID:26503253

  16. Tyrosinase inhibitory properties of phenylpropanoid glycosides and flavonoids from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes

    PubMed Central

    Boghrati, Zahra; Naseri, Maryam; Rezaie, Mitra; Pham, Ngoc; Quinn, Ronald J; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. Materials and Methods: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assays. Results: In this research, we isolated two phenylpropanoid glycosides including verbascoside and poliumoside and two flavonoids including jaranol and isorhoifolin using chromatographic techniques. We found promising antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase compounds from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes. Conclusion: To date, different compounds have been isolated and characterized from T. polium including terpenoids and flavonoids. But no phytochemical study has been reported from T. polium var. gnaphalodes. Poliumoside and jaranol showed promising antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, respectively. PMID:27746860

  17. Data assimilation (4D-VAR) to forecast flood in shallow-waters with sediment erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, Eric; Vincent, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the four-dimensional variational data assimilation technique (4D-VAR) is presented as a tool to forecast floods. Our study is limited to purely hydrological flows and supposes that the weather, here a big rain, has been already forecasted by meteorological services. The technique consists in minimizing, in the sense of Lagrange, the cost function: a measure of the difference between calculated data and available observations, here the water level. This is done under constraints that are the equations of the physical model. In our case, we modified the shallow-water equations to include a simplified sediment transport model. The steepest descent algorithm is then used to find the minimum. This is made possible because we can compute analytically the gradient of the cost function by using the adjoint equations of the model. As an application of the 4D-VAR technique, the overflowing of the Chicoutimi River at the Chute-Garneau dam, during the 1996 flood, is investigated. It is found that the 4D-VAR method reduces the error in the water height forecast even when the erosion model is not activated. In terms of Lyapunov exponents, we estimate the predictability horizon of such an event to be about half-an-hour after a big rain. However, this limit of predictability can be increased by using more observations or by using a finer computational grid.

  18. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  19. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-01-01

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem. PMID:25501145

  20. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  1. ViVar: A Comprehensive Platform for the Analysis and Visualization of Structural Genomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sante, Tom; Vergult, Sarah; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Trooskens, Geert; De Preter, Katleen; Dheedene, Annelies; Speleman, Frank; De Meyer, Tim; Menten, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Structural genomic variations play an important role in human disease and phenotypic diversity. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing tools, mate-pair/paired-end/single-read sequencing has become an important technique for the detection and exploration of structural variation. Several analysis tools exist to handle different parts and aspects of such sequencing based structural variation analyses pipelines. A comprehensive analysis platform to handle all steps, from processing the sequencing data, to the discovery and visualization of structural variants, is missing. The ViVar platform is built to handle the discovery of structural variants, from Depth Of Coverage analysis, aberrant read pair clustering to split read analysis. ViVar provides you with powerful visualization options, enables easy reporting of results and better usability and data management. The platform facilitates the processing, analysis and visualization, of structural variation based on massive parallel sequencing data, enabling the rapid identification of disease loci or genes. ViVar allows you to scale your analysis with your work load over multiple (cloud) servers, has user access control to keep your data safe and is easy expandable as analysis techniques advance. URL: https://www.cmgg.be/vivar/ PMID:25503062

  2. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence. PMID:16279416

  3. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  4. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici.

  5. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  6. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  7. RBP-Var: a database of functional variants involved in regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fengbiao; Xiao, Luoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Liang, Jialong; Teng, Huajing; Cai, Wanshi; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors bind to the genome by forming specific contacts with the primary DNA sequence; however, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have greater scope to achieve binding specificity through the RNA secondary structure. It has been revealed that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that alter RNA structure, also known as RiboSNitches, exhibit 3-fold greater local structure changes than replicates of the same DNA sequence, demonstrated by the fact that depletion of RiboSNitches could result in the alteration of specific RNA shapes at thousands of sites, including 3′ UTRs, binding sites of microRNAs and RBPs. However, the network between SNVs and post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we developed RBP-Var, a database freely available at http://www.rbp-var.biols.ac.cn/, which provides annotation of functional variants involved in post-transcriptional interaction and regulation. RBP-Var provides an easy-to-use web interface that allows users to rapidly find whether SNVs of interest can transform the secondary structure of RNA and identify RBPs whose binding may be subsequently disrupted. RBP-Var integrates DNA and RNA biology to understand how various genetic variants and post-transcriptional mechanisms cooperate to orchestrate gene expression. In summary, RBP-Var is useful in selecting candidate SNVs for further functional studies and exploring causal SNVs underlying human diseases. PMID:26635394

  8. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  9. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  10. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  11. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  12. Differential, Positional-Dependent Transcriptional Response of Antigenic Variation (var) Genes to Biological Stress in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Oshrit; Sinay, Rosa; Cowman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    1% of the genes of the human malaria causing agent Plasmodium falciparum belong to the heterogeneous var gene family which encodes P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PFEMP1). This protein mediates part of the pathogenesis of the disease by causing adherence of infected erythrocytes (IE) to the host endothelium. At any given time, only one copy of the family is expressed on the IE surface. The cues which regulate the allelic exclusion of these genes are not known. We show the existence of a differential expression pattern of these genes upon exposure to biological stress in relation to their positional placement on the chromosome – expression of centrally located var genes is induced while sub-telomeric copies of the family are repressed - this phenomenon orchestrated by the histone deacetylase pfsir2. Moreover, stress was found to cause a switch in the pattern of the expressed var genes thus acting as a regulatory cue. By using pharmacological compounds which putatively affect pfsir2 activity, distinct changes of var gene expression patterns were achieved which may have therapeutic ramifications. As disease severity is partly associated with expression of particular var gene subtypes, manipulation of the IE environment may serve as a mechanism to direct transcription towards less virulent genes. PMID:19730749

  13. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  14. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:23488173

  15. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants.

  16. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  17. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five

  18. var gene transcription and PfEMP1 expression in the rosetting and cytoadhesive Plasmodium falciparum clone FCR3S1.2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra-vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a family of ≈60 var genes. Methods The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence. Results Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2var1; IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1α of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dose-dependently disrupted rosettes (≈95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer's clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite. Conclusion The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1α of FCR3S1.2var1 is likely due to cross-reactivity with NTS-DBL1α of the var2 encoded PfEMP1. PMID:21266056

  19. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  20. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level.

  1. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana

  2. Plantain or edible banana (musa x paradisica var - sapiemtum) some lesser known folk uses in India.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, P; Kaur, J; Sharma, J

    1989-07-01

    Plantain Or edible banana (Musa X paradisiacal var. Sapientum), an important commercial fruit item of the tropics, is known in India since time immemorial. Apart from its use as a valuable food item, banana fruits and the different part of plant find diverse uses in various folk practices, customs, religious rituals and medicine among the villagers and tribal communities of the country which are oral in tradition. A study conducted on various medicinal applications of banana has shown that they are very effective and can be used by all as simple and safe home remedy for treating a number of common ailments which are reported here.

  3. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively. PMID:26567954

  4. Five new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-01-01

    Muurola-4,10(14)-dien-3-one (1), 10-O-acetyl-15-oxo-alpha-cadinol (2), 15-hydroxy-alpha-cadinol (3), 4alpha-hydroxy-5beta-ethoxy-epi-cubenol (4), and 4alpha-hydroxy-5beta-acetoxy-epi-cubenol (5), five new bicyclic sesquiterpenes, have been isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana along with the known compounds epi-cubenol, T-cadinol, T-muurolol, delta-cadinol, and alpha-cadinol. The structures of the new constituents were elucidated through chemical and spectral studies. PMID:11809059

  5. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse.

  6. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  7. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  8. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao-Bao; Wang, Guang-Li; Huang, Lan-Zhi; Heng, Lin-Sen; Li, Xiao-Hui

    2013-01-01

    A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside (1), named glaucocalyxin G, has been isolated from the n-butanol-soluble fraction of the dried whole plants of Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx along with two known compounds, namely arjunglucoside (2) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3). The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments and comparison with the literature data. PMID:23614395

  9. Oleanane type saponins from the stems of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Xiaoxia; Ruan, Jingya; Wang, Tingting; Dong, Yongzhe; Hao, Jia; Liu, Erwei; Han, Lifeng; Gao, Xiumei; Wang, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Astragalus membranaceus is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) belonging to the Leguminosae family. It has been used as antidiabetic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective in the TCM clinic. From the stems of A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, 14 oleanane type saponins (1-14) including eight new ones, astroolesaponins A (1), B (2), C1 (3), C2 (4), D (5), E1 (6), E2 (7), and F (8) were obtained, and their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-5, 7, 8, 11, and 13 showed decreased effects on triglyceride levels in sodium oleate induced HepG2 cells. PMID:26687558

  10. Plant regeneration in vitro of South Pacific taro (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale, Aracea).

    PubMed

    Yam, T W; Hsu, G I; Arditti, J

    1990-08-01

    Axillary bud expiants from South Pacific (Solomon Islands) taro, Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta cv. Akalomamale (Araceae) cultured on a modified Murashige-Skoog medium containing 1 mg NAA 1(-1) and TE formed callus and produced multiple plantlets. Explants died if NAA was present at levels lower than 0.1 mg 1(-1). BA was not required and may have been inhibitory. Plantlets developed faster and became larger following transfer to a hormone-free medium two weeks after the start of culture. Fully grown plants were established in a potting mix and are growing well in a greenhouse. PMID:24226709

  11. Evaluation of the antinflammatory and analgesic activity of Sideritis canariensis var. pannosa in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Margarita; Rabanal, Rosa M

    2002-06-01

    A previous chemical study of Sideritis canariensis var. pannosa demonstrated the presence of some important classes of related organic compounds with anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the crude ethanol extract and the chloroformic and aqueous fractions of S. canariensis have been examined for their antimicrobial actions through the disk-diffusion method and for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in several animal models. No relevant antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms was found. The chloroformic fraction was the most interesting, exhibiting a good analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  12. Four New Flavonoids with α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities from Morus alba var. tatarica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Long; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wan, Chuan-Xing; Zhou, Zhong-Bo; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Four new flavonoids, mortatarins A-D (1-4, resp.), along with eight known flavonoids (5-12) were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba var. tatarica. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configuration of 4 was determined by analysis of its CD spectrum. All isolates were tested for inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. Compounds 4, 7, and 8 exhibited a significant degree of inhibition with IC50 values of 5.0 ± 0.3, 7.5 ± 0.5, and 5.9 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  13. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  14. A new isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-microbial properties from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. jaeschkeana.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells.

  15. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  16. [African histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii): a case report from Mali].

    PubMed

    Minta, Daouda K; Dembélé, Mamadou; Lorre, Gilbert; Diallo, Dapa A; Traoré, Hamar A; Chabasse, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of disseminated African histoplasmosis with lymph node and digestive involvement in a 19-year-old man living in the Kayes district of Mali. The patient, HIV-seronegative and not otherwise immunocompromised, presented voluminous cervical and axillary adenopathies as well as retrosternal and mesenteric tumor lesions. Direct examination of biopsy tissue showed numerous specimens of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii. Because direct fungal techniques are the easiest and the most effective method of diagnostic investigation, no cultures were performed. Intolerance to therapy with amphotericin b and ketoconazole led its rapid replacement by surgical treatment: partial excision of the abdominal lesions led to partial remission of the symptoms. PMID:16207583

  17. Determination of trace elements in cole (Brassica oleraceae var. acephale) at Trabzon region in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tıraşoğlu, E.; Çevik, U.; Ertuğral, B.; Apaydın, G.; Baltaş, H.; Ertuğrul, M.

    2005-08-01

    The elemental analysis of cole (Brassica oleraceae var. acephale) has been carried out in the Trabzon region (Turkey) using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Cole is one of the most commonly consumed vegetables by people living in that region. The reason for this is its abundance and easy growth in four seasons. We have analyzed cole samples for 11 stations using 50 mCi Fe-55 and Am-241 radioactive sources. We have found that potassium was present in the highest concentration in cole for every station. The concentration of Cl generally changed according to the distance between the sea and the sampling station.

  18. The interleukin-18 inhibitory activities of echinocystic acid and its saponins from Impatiens pritzellii var. hupehensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Feng; Tang, Lan; Zhang, Peng; Zhaod, Xiao-Ya; Pi, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Ruan, Han-Li; Liu, Yonghong; Wu, Ji-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Echinocystic acid (1), an echinocystic acid saponin, 2, and four of its ester saponins, 3-6, obtained from the active fraction of Impatiens pritzellii var. hupehensis, an traditional Chinese medicine for rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated for their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-18 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Three of them, 1, 2 and 6, showed obvious activity to inhibit the production of IL-18, especially the ester saponins with a sugar chain at C-28, 6. Structure-activity relationships are discussed in brief.

  19. Immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1-VarO Adhesin: Induction of Surface-Reactive and Rosette-Disrupting Antibodies to VarO Infected Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Igonet, Sébastien; Hessel, Audrey; Petres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Le Scanf, Cécile; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Bentley, Graham A; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC) to human erythrocytes (i.e. rosetting) is associated with severe malaria. Rosetting results from interactions between a subset of variant PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins and specific erythrocyte receptors. Interfering with such interactions is considered a promising intervention against severe malaria. To evaluate the feasibility of a vaccine strategy targetting rosetting, we have used here the Palo Alto 89F5 VarO rosetting model. PfEMP1-VarO consists of five Duffy-Binding Like domains (DBL1-5) and one Cysteine-rich Interdomain Region (CIDR1). The binding domain has been mapped to DBL1 and the ABO blood group was identified as the erythrocyte receptor. Here, we study the immunogenicity of all six recombinant PfEMP1-VarO domains and the DBL1- CIDR1 Head domain in BALB/c and outbred OF1 mice. Five readouts of antibody responses are explored: ELISA titres on the recombinant antigen, VarO-iRBC immunoblot reactivity, VarO-iRBC surface-reactivity, capacity to disrupt VarO rosettes and the capacity to prevent VarO rosette formation. For three domains, we explore influence of the expression system on antigenicity and immunogenicity. We show that correctly folded PfEMP1 domains elicit high antibody titres and induce a homogeneous response in outbred and BALB/c mice after three injections. High levels of rosette-disrupting and rosette-preventing antibodies are induced by DBL1 and the Head domain. Reduced-alkylated or denatured proteins fail to induce surface-reacting and rosette-disrupting antibodies, indicating that surface epitopes are conformational. We also report limited cross-reactivity between some PfEMP1 VarO domains. These results highlight the high immunogenicity of the individual domains in outbred animals and provide a strong basis for a rational vaccination strategy targeting rosetting. PMID:26222304

  20. A Multiscale Transient Modeling Approach for Predicting the Solidification Structure in VAR-Processed Alloy 718 Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, Laurentiu

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the development and validation of a comprehensive multiscale modeling approach capable of predicting at the mesoscopic scale level the ingot solidification structure and solidification-related defects commonly occurring during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process. The approach consists of a coupling between a fully transient macroscopic code and a mesoscopic solidification structure code. The predictions from the multiscale model, including grain morphology and size and columnar-to-equiaxed transition, were validated against experimental measurements for a 20-inch (508 mm) diameter VAR alloy 718 ingots. The validated model was then used to investigate the effects of melting rate and ingot diameter on the solidification structure of VAR processed 718 ingots.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  3. The Research of Static Var Compensator's Time Characteristics and System-level Model of Controlled Current Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Qi-rong; Sun, Shou-xin

    In the status of lacking research on response time of static var compensator (SVC), this paper established the controlled current source model which can achieve the same effect in response time and reactive compensation with the physical model of SVC by analyzing of characteristics in reactive power compensation and the response of the static var compensator (SVC) physical model. Through the time module in control signal of controlled current source, it can accurately calculate the response time of SVC. It tested the consistency of two models through the simulation of a rolling mill start experiment in PSCAD.

  4. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-04-26

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum.

  5. Genetic Authentication of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai by Improved RAPD-Derived DNA Markers.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Boxu; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Imani, Saber; Chen, Hanchun; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    The evergreen shrub, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai is one of the most popular garden-plants, with significant ornamental importance. Here, we have cloned improved random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) derived fragments into T-vector, and developed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. These markers have been deposited in GenBank database with the accession numbers KP641310, KP641311, KP641312 and KP641313 respectively. The BLAST search of database confirmed the novelty of these markers. The four SCAR markers, namely ZZH11, ZZH31, ZZH41 and ZZH51 can specifically recognize the genetic materials of G. jasminoides from other plant species. Moreover, SCAR marker ZZH31 can be used to distinguish G. jasminoides Ellis var. grandiflora Nakai from other G. jasminoides on the market. Together, this study has developed four stably molecular SCAR markers by improved RAPD-derived DNA markers for the genetic identification and authentication, and for ecological conservation of medicinal and ornamental plant G. jasminoides. PMID:26569205

  6. HPLC determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xixiang; Wang, Rongxiang; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Haibo; Zhang, Chaoshen; Li, Famei

    2009-03-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay using the internal standard method is developed for the simultaneous determination of eight polyphenols. The analyzed compounds isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major include chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4"-O-glucoside, vitexin-2"-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercetin. HPLC analysis is performed on a Diamonsil C18 analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, i.d., 5-microm) using solvent (A) acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran (95:5, v/v) and (B) 1% aqueous phosphoric acid as the mobile phase with UV absorption at 270 nm. The calibration curves of the eight polyphenols are linear (r(2) > 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.0894-120.0 microg/mL. The mean recoveries are 95.4% to 98.1%. The results indicate that the HPLC method developed can easily be applied to the determination of eight polyphenols in the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major.

  7. Chemical variability of the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Atik Bekkara, Fewzia; Consiglio, Danaë; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 50 samples of leaf oil isolated from Algerian Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata L. harvested in eight locations (littoral zone and highlands) was investigated by GC-FID (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The composition of the J. phoenicea var. turbinata leaf oils was dominated by monoterpenes. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses confirmed the chemical variability of the leaf oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters were distinguished on the basis of the α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate, β-phellandrene, and germacrene D contents. In most oil samples, α-pinene (30.2-76.7%) was the major compound, associated with β-phellandrene (up to 22.5%) and α-terpinyl acetate (up to 13.4%). However, five out of the 50 samples exhibited an atypical composition characterized by the predominance of germacrene D (16.7-22.7%), α-pinene (15.8-20.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.1-22.6%).

  8. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  9. Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus with potential for production of thermostable amylases.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Simone C; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2003-12-01

    The effect of several nutritional and environmental parameters on growth and amylase production from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis was analysed. This fungus was isolated from soil of the Brazilian "cerrado" and produced high levels of amylolytic activity at 45 degrees C in liquid medium supplemented with starch, sugar cane bagasse, oat meal or cassava flour. Glucose in the culture medium drastically repressed the amylolytic activity. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by thin layer chromatography, and glucose was detected as the main component. The amylolytic activity hydrolysed several substrates, such as amylopectin, amylase, glycogen, pullulan, starch, and maltose. Glucose was always the main end product detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicated that the amylolytic activity studied is a glucoamylase, but there were also low levels of alpha-amylase. As compared to other fungi, R. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis can be considered an efficient producer of thermostable amylases, using raw residues of low cost as substrates. This information is of technological value, considering the importance of amylases for industrial hydrolysis.

  10. Antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, an edible wild plant in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sarac, Nurdan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The ethanolic extract of Tragopogon longirostis var. longirostis, a wild edible plant in Anatolia was isolated, and its antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic properties were investigated. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by the inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, total AA, and phenolic compounds. The mutagenic and antimutagenic activities were investigated by Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity test. Results: The IC50 value for DPPH radicals was 7.84 ± 0.603 mg/mL. The total AA increased with an increase in the concentration of the extracts (1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL), containing linoleic acid emulsion. The total phenolic content was 284.71 ± 5.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract. The results showed that the ethanolic extract can be considered safe, because it does not have any mutagenic effect at the tested concentrations. As a result, the ethanolic extract of the leaves exhibited antimutagenic effects at 2.5, 0.25, and 0.025 mg/plate concentrations. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study of the antioxidant, mutagenic, and antimutagenic activities of T. longirostis var. longirostis. These activities are an important topic in the food industry, as well as in the medical field. PMID:26288475

  11. Race-specific molecules that protect soybeans from Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae*

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Mark; Albersheim, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae (A. A. Hildebrand) is a fungal stem and root rot-causing pathogen of soybeans. Glycoproteins secreted into the medium of the aseptically cultured fungus have been partially purified by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and by column chromatography on norleucine-substituted Sepharose 4B and on DEAE-cellulose. Glycoprotein preparations from P. megasperma var. sojae races 1, 2, and 3 have been tested on four cultivars of soybeans. The partially purified glycoproteins from incompatible races of the pathogen (races that cannot successfully infect the plant), but not those from compatible races (races that can kill the plant), protect soybean seedlings from attack by compatible races. The seedlings are protected by introducing the glycoproteins into hypocotyl wounds of seedlings either 90 min prior to or at the time of inoculation of the wounds with mycelia of one of the pathogens. The glycoprotein preparations are poor nonspecific elicitors of phytoalexin accumulation; the glycoproteins have less than 1.0% of the elicitor activity of the glucans present in the mycelial walls of the pathogen. Images PMID:16592713

  12. Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, Southeast France.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Michèl, Hervé; Funel, Geneviève Barci; Féraud, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 μg g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program.

  13. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  14. Viola kauaensis var. hosakae (Violaceae), a new variety of endemic Hawaiian violet.

    PubMed

    Havran, J Christopher; Harbin, Susan Ching; Portner, Talia

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian endemic Viola kauaensis A. Gray has a broad distribution in bogs of Kaua`i and a limited distribution on mesic ridges in the Ko`olau Mountains of O`ahu. Based on differences in scale, the O`ahu populations of Viola kauaensis had previously been described as a distinct taxon. The taxonomic status of the O`ahu populations was reevaluated through a morphometric analysis of all varieties of Viola kauaensis and the morphologically similar Viola vanroyenii. Morphological features of historic and freshly collected specimens of all varieties of Viola kauaensis were analyzed with a principal components analysis. Populations from O`ahu represent a distinct cluster that slightly overlaps with Viola kauaensis var. kauaensis. Lamina width, apex angle, and base angles contribute to the separation of the O`ahu populations from other varieties of Viola kauaensis. Due to differences in scale, the O`ahu populations are described as Viola kauaensis var. hosakae, a new critically endangered taxon.

  15. Multiyear climate prediction with initialization based on 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Takashi; Masuda, Shuhei; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    An initialization relevant to interannual-to-decadal climate prediction has usually used a simple restoring approach for oceanic variables. Here we demonstrate the potential use of four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation on the leading edge of initialization approach particularly in multiyear (5 year long) climate prediction. We perform full-field initialization rather than anomaly initialization and assimilate the atmosphere states together with the ocean states to an atmosphere-ocean coupled climate model. In particular, it is noteworthy that ensembles of multiyear hindcasts using our assimilation results as initial conditions exhibit an improved skill in hindcasting the multiyear changes of the upper ocean heat content (OHC) over the central North Pacific. The 4D-Var approach enables us to directly assimilate a time trajectory of slow changes of the Aleutian Low that are compatible with the sea surface height and the OHC. Consequently, we can estimate a coupled climate state suitable for hindcasting dynamical changes over the extratropical North Pacific as observed.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  17. [Reclamation of the plant regeneration efficiency of Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis var.Parachinensis].

    PubMed

    Yu, X L; Cao, J S; Xu, S Y

    2001-06-01

    This investigation has developed an efficient and fast method for plant regeneration from petiole of cotyledon explants of Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis Makino var. parachinensis Tsen et Lee. A medium was designed for B. campestris subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis to obtain the high frequency of shoot regeneration, which contained BAP 2 mg/L, NAA 0.75-1.0 mgL and 7.5 mg/L AgNO3 solution to the half of NH4+ concentration's MS basic medium. 60 mL/L coconut milk were added to all of media. In this method, frequency of shoot regeneration of "youqing caixin" reached as high as 91.2% and the number of shoots per explant reached as high as 4.7 plants. The result showed that there was a positive correlation between frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant. The little shoots could be observed five days after inoculation and were formed directly. The inducing rate of roots of the shoots reached as high as 100% and the rate of viability of transferred mature plant reached higher than 95%. The regeneration period from petiole with cotyledon to a seedling was shorten to about 49 days. Factors influencing in vitro explant regeneration were studied. PMID:12549111

  18. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food. PMID:24766147

  19. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  20. The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Damkroger, B.K.; Kelley, J.B.; Schlienger, M.E.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.; Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.

    1994-05-01

    Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.

  1. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  2. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  3. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-01-01

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa. PMID:25511044

  4. Cellular fatty-acid analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki commercial preparations.

    PubMed

    Adams, D Jack; Gurr, Susan; Hogge, Jason

    2005-02-01

    Cellular fatty acid (CFA) composition of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) preparations was determined by use of the MIDI Sherlock microbial identification system on a Hewlett-Packard 5890 gas chromatograph. Four commercial preparations--one Btk sample obtained from the U.S. Forest Service, one Btk sample obtained from Dugway Proving Ground, and Btk and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) preparations obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC)--were analyzed and evaluated. This study demonstrated the capability to detect the strain variation in the bacterial species Btk and to clearly differentiate strain variants on the basis of qualitative and quantitative differences in hydrolyzable whole CFA compositions in the preparations examined. We conclude that CFA analysis may be used to identify commercial products but that a more intensive study would be required to evaluate the potential of CFA to provide an inexpensive screening tool applicable to several levels of isolate or product evaluation, including how applied preparations might interact with natural populations over time.

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

    2011-02-28

    The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage. PMID:21320730

  6. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds in the popular landscape plant Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Schutzki, Robert E; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2013-02-01

    Berberis thunbergii var, atropurpurea. DC is one of the popular landscape plants in the USA, but until now lacked report on its chemical composition and biological properties. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract and pure isolates of B. thunbergii var. atropurpurea, Crimson Pygmy, roots were evaluated using established bioassay procedures. The methanolic extract gave an absorbance value of 0.44 at 250 microg/mL concentration in the MTT assay. In addition, the extract inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 93% and the cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 by 54 and COX-2 by 34%, at 100 microg/mL concentration. Therefore, a bioactivity-guided purification was carried out yielding pure isolates, out of which compounds 3-6 inhibited LPO by 34-66% at 100 microg/mL concentration. Similarly, compounds 1-6 inhibited COX-1 and -2 by 24-65 and 23-43% at 25 microg/mL concentration, respectively. This is the first report of the chemical constituents and biological activities of this plant.

  7. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  8. Peroxidase is involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, L S A; Rodrigues, R; Diz, M S S; Robaina, R R; do Amaral Júnior, A T; Carvalho, A O; Gomes, V M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) are among the defense mechanisms of plants that work as an important barrier to the development of pathogens. These proteins are classified into 17 families according to their amino acid sequences, serology, and/or biological or enzyme activity. The present study aimed to identify PRs associated with the pathosystem of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum: Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV). Forty-five-day-old plants from accession UENF 1624, previously identified as resistant to PepYMV, were inoculated with the virus. Control and infected leaves were collected for analysis after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. The inoculated and control plants were grown in cages covered with anti-aphid screens. Proteins were extracted from leaf tissue and the presence of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, peroxidase, and lipid transport protein was verified. No difference was observed between the protein pattern of control and infected plants when β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and lipid transport protein were compared. However, increased peroxidase expression was observed in infected plants at 48 and 72 h after inoculation, indicating that this PR is involved in the response of resistance to PepYMV in C. baccatum var. pendulum. PMID:23661464

  9. The memory-ameliorating effects of Artemisia princeps var. orientalis against cholinergic dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotong; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Se Jin; Cai, Mudan; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Artemisia princeps var. orientalis (Compositae) is widely distributed in China, Japan and Korea and is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. The ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of A. princeps var. orientalis (AEA) was found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (IC(50) value: 541.4 ± 67.5 μg/ml). Therefore, we investigated the effects of AEA on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks in mice. AEA (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in the passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks (p < 0.05). In the Morris water maze task, AEA (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly shortened escape latencies in training trials and increased both swimming time spent in the target zone and probe crossing numbers during the probe trial as compared with scopolamine-treated mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, the ameliorating effect of AEA on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was antagonized by a subeffective dose of MK-801. These results suggest that AEA could be an effective treatment against cholinergic dysfunction and its effect is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system via NMDA receptor signaling or acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  10. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively). PMID:20359228

  11. The Progression of Cavitation in Earlywood Vessels of Fraxinus mandshurica var japonica during Freezing and Thawing.

    PubMed

    Utsumi; Sano; Funada; Fujikawa; Ohtani

    1999-11-01

    For an examination of the progression of cavitation in large-diameter earlywood vessels of a deciduous ring-porous tree, potted saplings of Fraxinus mandshurica var japonica Maxim. were frozen and then thawed. The changes in the amount and distribution of water in the lumina of the current year's earlywood vessels during the course of the freezing and thawing were visualized by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. When samples were frozen, most of the current year's earlywood vessels were filled with water. After the subsequent thawing, the percentage of cavitated current-year earlywood vessels gradually increased with time. All of the current year's earlywood vessels were cavitated within 24 h, and only limited amounts of water remained in the lumina of earlywood vessels. Similar cavitation of earlywood vessels was observed after thawing of frozen, excised stem pieces. In contrast, many vessels of the current year's latewood retained water in the lumina during freezing and thawing. These observations indicate that the cavitation of the current year's earlywood vessels is not produced during freezing but progresses during rewarming after freezing in F. mandshurica var japonica.

  12. Immobilization of alginate-encapsulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis containing different multivalent counterions for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L

    2008-08-01

    Immobilized techniques have been used widely for the controlled release formulation of mosquitoes. Among the microbial formulations, polymeric matrices play an important role in the controlled release of microbial pesticide at rates sufficiently effective to kill mosquitoes in the field. The advantage of these matrices is that they enhance the stability of both spores and toxin against pH, temperature variations, and UV irradiation. The disadvantage of using calcium alginate beads is that they are unstable upon contact with phosphate of potassium or sodium ions rich in the mosquito habitats. To overcome these problems, attempts were made to encapsulate Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate by using different multivalent counterions, namely, calcium chloride, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, cobalt chloride, and ferric chloride, and the beads formed were tested for its mosquito larvicidal activity. Among all the beads tested, zinc alginate beads resulted in maximum larvicidal activity of 98% (+/-1.40 SE) against Culex quinquefasciatus IIIrd instar larvae and maximum spore count of 3.36 x 10(5) (+/-5291.50 SE) CFU/ml. Zinc alginate beads maintained their structure for up to 48 h when shaken vigorously on a rotary shaker at 180 rpm in the presence of 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 +/- 0.1). In conclusion, our results suggest that the use of zinc sulfate as counterions to encapsulate B. thuringiensis var. israelensis within alginate may be a potent mosquito control program in the habitats where more phosphate ions are present.

  13. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS PRODUCING PACLITAXEL FROM TAXUS WALLICHIANA VAR MAIREI.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Hongsheng, Wang; Ning, Wang; Li, Meng; Guifang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture. Surface sterilized bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was used as source material and potato dextrose agar culture medium was used in isolation of endophytic fungi. Fungal cultures were extracted with a mixture of chloroform / methanol (1:1, v/v) and the paclitaxel in the extracts was determined and authenticated with LC-MS. An endophytic fungus that produced paclitaxel was identified by ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. The results showed that a total of 435 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from T. wallichiana var. mairei and purified. Only one of these strains produced paclitaxel and it belongs to Fusarium. The paclitaxel productivity in whole PDB culture and that in spent culture medium from this strain is 0.0153 mg/L and 0.0119 mg/L respectively. The paclitaxel content in dry mycelium is 0.27 mg/kg. This isolated endophytic fungus produced paclitaxel at a considerable level and shows potentiality as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture after strain improvement.

  14. Mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1, a Factor Required for Normal Chloroplast Translation, Suppress var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Xiayan; Alsheikh, Muath; Park, Sungsoon; Rodermel, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant is variegated due to lack of a chloroplast FtsH-like metalloprotease (FtsH2/VAR2). We have generated suppressors of var2 variegation to gain insight into factors and pathways that interact with VAR2 during chloroplast biogenesis. Here, we describe two such suppressors. Suppression of variegation in the first line, TAG-FN, was caused by disruption of the nuclear gene (SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1 [SVR1]) for a chloroplast-localized homolog of pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase, which isomerizes uridine to Ψ in noncoding RNAs. svr1 single mutants were epistatic to var2, and they displayed a phenotypic syndrome that included defects in chloroplast rRNA processing, reduced chloroplast translation, reduced chloroplast protein accumulation, and elevated chloroplast mRNA levels. In the second line (TAG-IE), suppression of variegation was caused by a lesion in SVR2, the gene for the ClpR1 subunit of the chloroplast ClpP/R protease. Like svr1, svr2 was epistatic to var2, and clpR1 mutants had a phenotype that resembled svr1. We propose that an impairment of chloroplast translation in TAG-FN and TAG-IE decreased the demand for VAR2 activity during chloroplast biogenesis and that this resulted in the suppression of var2 variegation. Consistent with this hypothesis, var2 variegation was repressed by chemical inhibitors of chloroplast translation. In planta mutagenesis revealed that SVR1 not only played a role in uridine isomerization but that its physical presence was necessary for proper chloroplast rRNA processing. Our data indicate that defects in chloroplast rRNA processing are a common, but not universal, molecular phenotype associated with suppression of var2 variegation. PMID:18599582

  15. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cD...

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  17. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  18. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  19. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species. PMID:24625662

  1. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  2. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa from Nevada and Texas USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named (Delta) 1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2-6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were...

  3. Microsatellite Typing of Clinical and Environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii Isolates from Cuba Shows Multiple Genetic Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria-Teresa; Martínez-Machín, Gerardo F.; Fernández-Andreu, Carlos M.; Boekhout, Teun; Meis, Jacques F.; Klaassen, Corné H. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human cryptococcal infections have been associated with bird droppings as a likely source of infection. Studies toward the local and global epidemiology of Cryptococcus spp. have been hampered by the lack of rapid, discriminatory, and exchangeable molecular typing methods. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected nine microsatellite markers for high-resolution fingerprinting from the genome of C. neoformans var. grubii. This panel of markers was applied to a collection of clinical (n = 122) and environmental (n = 68; from pigeon guano) C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Cuba. All markers proved to be polymorphic. The average number of alleles per marker was 9 (range 5–51). A total of 104 genotypes could be distinguished. The discriminatory power of this panel of markers was 0.993. Multiple clusters of related genotypes could be discriminated that differed in only one or two microsatellite markers. These clusters were assigned as microsatellite complexes. The majority of environmental isolates (>70%) fell into 1 microsatellite complex containing only few clinical isolates (49 environmental versus 2 clinical). Clinical isolates were segregated over multiple microsatellite complexes. Conclusions/Significance A large genotypic variation exists in C. neoformans var. grubii. The genotypic segregation between clinical and environmental isolates from pigeon guano suggests additional source(s) of human cryptococcal infections. The selected panel of microsatellite markers is an excellent tool to study the epidemiology of C. neoformans var. grubii. PMID:20161737

  4. Effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on immune parameters of pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Filter, Matthias; Scharek, Lydia; Toelke, Christiane; Taras, David; Tedin, Karsten; Haverson, Karin; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H

    2009-01-15

    Changing immune parameters during pregnancy have previously been reported in humans and cattle, and have been suggested to contribute to increased susceptibility to infections. However, data regarding immune parameters during pregnancy in sows are rare. In this study, we investigated the peripartal immune status of sows using phenotypical (FACS analysis) as well as functional (proliferation assays, cytokine analysis) parameters of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in pregnant sows. In previous studies, we reported a modulation of the immune system after feed supplementation of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi in piglets [Schierack, P., Wieler, L.H., Taras, D., Herwig, V., Tachu, B., Hlinak, A., Schmidt, M.F., Scharek, L., 2007. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118, 1-11]. Here, we extended these previous studies to include investigations of possible probiotic effects on the peripartal immune status of sows and their reproductivity. We show that immune parameters of sows change during pregnancy, the proliferative response of PBMCs to several bacterial antigens in control animals decreased from days 90 to 30 ante partum. Relative numbers (%) of CD3+CD8+, CD4+, cytotoxic T, CD14+ and CD21+ cells were reduced compared to non-pregnant sows. In contrast, the proliferative response of PBMCs of probiotic-treated sows increased during pregnancy. Bacterial antigens primarily stimulated the proliferation of naïve CD21+ cells and the relative CD21+ cell numbers were elevated in the probiotic group in the absence of effects on other immune cell populations. The clinical and microbial status of both control and probiotic sows was similar, excluding pre-existing health problems or infections as responsible for the immunological changes, and feed supplementation also had no significant effects on reproductivity. The results suggest that the probiotic B. cereus var. toyoi can alter the

  5. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae) and comparative analysis with its congeneric species

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Zhao; Geng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in plant systematics, genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and divergence dating. The genus Gentiana contains 362 species, but there are only two valuable complete cp genomes. The purpose of this study is to report the characterization of complete cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Methods Using high throughput sequencing technology, we got the complete nucleotide sequence of the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome. The comparison analysis including genome difference and gene divergence was performed with its congeneric species G. straminea. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and phylogenetics were studied as well. Results The cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri is a circular molecule of 138,750 bp, containing a pair of 24,653 bp inverted repeats which are separated by small and large single-copy regions of 11,365 and 78,082 bp, respectively. The cp genome contains 130 known genes, including 85 protein coding genes (PCGs), eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses indicated that G. lawrencei var. farreri is 10,241 bp shorter than its congeneric species G. straminea. Four large gaps were detected that are responsible for 85% of the total sequence loss. Further detailed analyses revealed that 10 PCGs were included in the four gaps that encode nine NADH dehydrogenase subunits. The cp gene content, order and orientation are similar to those of its congeneric species, but with some variation among the PCGs. Three genes, ndhB, ndhF and clpP, have high nonsynonymous to synonymous values. There are 34 SSRs in the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome, of which 25 are mononucleotide repeats: no dinucleotide repeats were detected. Comparison with the G. straminea cp genome indicated that five SSRs have length polymorphisms and 23 SSRs are species-specific. The phylogenetic analysis of 48 PCGs from 12 Gentianales taxa cp genomes

  7. Processes of late Quaternary turbidity current flow and deposition on the Var deep sea fan, northwest Mediterranean sea

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )

    1993-09-01

    Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.

  8. Hybrid Origins of Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, Two Problematic Taxa in Carex Section Vesicariae (Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    M. Pedersen, A. Tiril; Nowak, Michael D.; Brysting, Anne K.; Elven, Reidar; Bjorå, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of “pure” species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C. rostrata var. borealis has received very little attention in the years since its first description in the 19th century. By performing an extensive sampling of relevant taxa from a broad distribution range, and analyzing data from fifteen microsatellite loci developed specifically for our study together with pollen stainability measures, we resolve the hybrid origins of C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis and provide new insights into this taxonomically challenging group of sedges. Our results are in accordance with previous findings suggesting that C. stenolepis is a hybrid between C. vesicaria and C. saxatilis. They are also in accordance with a previous proposition that C. rostrata var. borealis is a hybrid between C. rostrata and C. rotundata, and furthermore suggest that both hybrids are the result of multiple, recent (i.e., postglacial) hybridization events. We found little evidence for successful sexual reproduction within C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, but conclude that the common and recurrent, largely predictable occurrence of these taxa justifies accepting both hybrids as hybrid species with binomial names. There are, however, complications as to types and priority names, and we therefore choose to address these problems in a separate paper. PMID:27780239

  9. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-04-10

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV.

  10. N-glycosides of amino acid amides from Hemerocallis fulva var. sempervirens.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuko; Konishi, Tenji

    2009-10-01

    As part of our search for sedative substances from natural sources, we isolated two novel amino acid amides connected with the fructopyranose, kwansonine A (1) and kwansonine B (2), together with three known amino acid amides, longitubanine A (3), longitubanine B (4), and pinnatanine (5), from Hemerocallis fulva L. var. sempervirens (ARAKI) M. HOTTA. The structures of 1 and 2 have been determined on the spectroscopic evidences as N(2)-(1-beta-D-fructopyranosyl)-N(5)-(2',5'-dihydro-2'-furyl-3'-hydroxymethyl)-gamma-hydroxyglutamine and N(2)-(1-beta-D-fructopyranosyl)-N(5)-(2-hydroxymethylbutadienyl)-gamma-hydroxyglutamine. This is the first report on the isolation of amino acid amide N-furctoside from Hemerocallis genus plant. PMID:19801868

  11. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls. PMID:19031237

  12. A multilevel voltage-source inverter with separate dc sources for static var generation

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng |; Lai, Jih-Sheng; McKeever, J.; VanCoevering, J.

    1995-09-01

    A new multilevel voltage-source inverter with a separate dc sources is proposed for high-voltage, high-power applications, such as flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS) including static var generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting, voltage balancing, fuel cell and photovoltaic utility systems interfacing, etc. The new M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle as the number of levels increases. It can solve the problems of conventional transformer-based multipulse inverters and the problems of the multilevel diode-clamped inverter and the multilevel flying capacitor inverter. To demonstrate the superiority of the new inverter, a SVG system using the new inverter topology is discussed through analysis, simulation and experiment.

  13. Targeted metabolite analysis and biological activity of Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Noites, Alexandra; Valentão, Patricia; Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, José A; Vale-Silva, Luis; Pinto, Eugénia; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-01-28

    For the first time, an insect-plant system, Pieris brassicae fed with Brassica rapa var. rapa, was tested for its biological capacity, namely, antioxidant (DPPH*, *NO, and O(2)*- radicals) and antimicrobial (bacteria and fungi) activities. Samples from the insect's life cycle (larvae, excrements, exuviae, and butterfly) were always found to be more efficient than the host plant. Also, P. brassicae materials, as well as its host plant, were screened for phenolics and organic acids. The host plant revealed higher amounts of both compounds. Two phenolic acids, ferulic and sinapic, as well as kaempferol 3-Osophoroside, were common to insect (larvae and excrements) and plant materials, with excrements being considerably richer. Detection of sulfated compounds in excrements, absent in host plant, revealed that metabolic processes in this species involved sulfation. Additionally, deacylation and deglycosilation were observed. All matrices presented the same organic acids qualitative profile, with the exception of excrements.

  14. Retention for Stoploss reinsurance to minimize VaR in compound Poisson-Lognormal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleh, Achmad Zanbar; Noviyanti, Lienda; Nurrahmawati, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Automobile insurance is one of the emerging general insurance's product in Indonesia. Fluctuation in total premium revenues and total claim expenses leads to a risk that insurance company can not be able to pay consumer's claims, thus reinsurance is needeed. Reinsurance is a risk transfer mechanism from the insurance company to another company called reinsurer, one of the reinsurance type is Stoploss. Because reinsurer charges premium to the insurance company, it is important to determine the retention or the total claims to be retain solely by the insurance company. Thus, retention is determined using Value at Risk (VaR) which minimize the total risk of the insurance company in the presence of Stoploss reinsurance. Retention depends only on the distribution of total claims and reinsurance loading factor. We use the compound Poisson distribution and the Log-Normal Distribution to illustrate the retention value in a collective risk model.

  15. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

  16. Production of chlorogenic acid in Varthemia persica DC (var. persica) callus cultures

    PubMed Central

    Siahpoush, A.; Ghasemi, N.; Ardakani, M. Shams; Asghari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a pharmacologically important compound, is a phenolic compound that occurs in certain commonly used medicinal herbs. We looked for the presence of this compound in the callus cultures of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica). We have evaluated the conditions for establishment of callus cultures of V. persica and the in vitro production of chlorogenic acid. Callus was initiated by culturing seedling of V. persica on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of kinetin, naphthalene acetic acid and 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid. Also, the influence of light, and phytohormones on the production of chlorogenic acid was examined. Kinetin stimulated the production of chlorogenic acid. Replacement of 2,4-diphenoxy acetic acid with naphthalene acetic acid did not alter the chlorogenic acid production. The ability to induce the accumulation of chlorogenic acid in the V. persica callus cultures offers an opportunity to produce a phenolic compound with therapeutic value. PMID:22049279

  17. Production of concentrates of bacterial bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis by flocculation/sedimentation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Finkler, Christine Lamenha; Finkler, Leandro

    2008-08-01

    Flocculation/sedimentation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) using flocculating agents has been studied. Batch cell production was performed in an agitated tank, and the flocculation assays were carried out in jar tests. Flocculent suspensions were characterized based on diameter of flocs and density. The best results were obtained with CaCl(2).2H(2)O, FeCl(3).6H(2)O, Al(2)(SO(4))(3) and tannin, with optimal flocculation concentrations of 2500, 2500, 3500 and 1000 mg l(-1), respectively. Thickening of the flocculent suspensions was investigated, leading to determination of the capacity curves of the settler. Bioassays against Aedes aegypti larvae demonstrated excellent results in insect control.

  18. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Lantana camara var. moritziana.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Nurby Rios; Mora, Flor; Rojas, Luis; Díaz, Tulia; Velasco, Judith; Yánez, Carlos; Rios, Nahile; Carmona, Juan; Pasquale, Sara

    2011-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) López-Palacios collected at Rubio, Táchira State, Venezuela, was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger trap (0.1% yield). The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) on HP GC-MS System, model 5973, identifying 33 compounds (97.1%) of which the major components were germacrene D (31.0%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (14.8%), a-phellandrene (6.7%), limonene (5.7%) and 1,8-cineole (5.2%). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method with discs against international reference bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) showed growing inhibition of E. faecalis and S. aureus at MIC of 350 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL, respectively.

  20. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  1. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  2. Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.

    PubMed

    Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jarosław; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2009-12-01

    The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces.

  3. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  4. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Hu, Zhijuan; Yu, Liyan; Ma, Zhongjun; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the EtOAc extract of the persistent calyx of Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (PA) was tested for its potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate using an UPLC-ESI-MS method. The result revealed that the PA had electrophiles that could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, three new withanolides, compounds 3, 6 and 7, together with four known withanolides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from PA extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H-, (13)C NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, (1)H, (1)H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by HR-MS. All the seven compounds were tested for their QR induction activities towards mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells.

  5. Anthocyanin Accumulation and Molecular Analysis of Correlated Genes in Purple Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Mingku; Zhu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhijin; Tian, Shibing; Chen, Guoping

    2015-04-29

    Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed widely for the round swollen stem. Purple kohlrabi shows abundant anthocyanin accumulation in the leaf and swollen stem. Here, different kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from the purple kohlrabi cultivar (Kolibri) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In order to study the molecular mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kohlrabi, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulatory genes in purple kohlrabi and a green cultivar (Winner) was examined by quantitative PCR. In comparison with the colorless parts in the two cultivars, most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and two transcription factors were drastically upregulated in the purple tissues. To study the effects of light shed on the anthocyanin accumulation of kohlrabi, total anthocyanin contents and transcripts of associated genes were analyzed in sprouts of both cultivars grown under light and dark conditions.

  6. Steroidal saponins from stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Chang-Xiang; Cheng, Yung-Chi; He, Li; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the stems and leaves of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis led to isolation of 12 steroidal saponins, chonglouosides SL-9-SL-20, which had not been described previously, along with 13 known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Four of the twelve steroidal saponins possessed three steroidal aglycones which have not been reported in nature. Steroidal saponins were also evaluated for their cytotoxicities against two human cancer cell lines (HepG2 and HEK293) and anti-HCV effects. One known steroidal saponin was the most cytotoxic compound overall with IC50 values of 2.9 ± 0.5 μM and 5.0 ± 0.6 μM against HepG2 and HEK293 cell lines, respectively, while none showed anti-HCV activity at a concentration of 20 μM.

  7. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    PubMed

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  8. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  9. Flavonoids from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-An; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Jun-Shan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2010-02-26

    A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1), was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (2), tangeretin (3), nobiletin (4), 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy-flavone (5), sinensetin (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9) and rutin (10). The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  10. Effect of Daucus carota var. boissieri extracts on immune response of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, N M; Maghraby, A S; el-Hagrassy, A M

    1999-01-01

    Isolation and structure elucidation was carried out of flavonoid constituents found in fractionated extracts of the seeds and green leaves of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae). The flavonoids are mainly apigenin, luteolin, their glycosidic precursors and 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde. Fatty acids, hydrocarbons and sterols were identified by GLC. The effect of various carrot extracts on the immune responses of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice was studied. The rate of reduction in worm infestation in mice injected with some fractions indicated a strong protection. Some extracts induced humoral immune response through raising the IgG level at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-infection as compared with infected control. The phenotypic analysis of the cellular immune response in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes was accomplished by direct immunofluorescence. The data showed that some extracts stimulated the blastogenesis of CD4(+)-T splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells.

  11. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment.

  12. Phenolic and terpenoid compounds from Chione venosa (sw.) urban var. venosa (Bois Bandé).

    PubMed

    Lendl, Angelika; Werner, Ingrid; Glasl, Sabine; Kletter, Christa; Mucaji, Pavel; Presser, Armin; Reznicek, Gottfried; Jurenitsch, Johann; Taylor, David W

    2005-10-01

    The Caribbean island of Grenada furnishes the popular aphrodisiac drug Bois Bandé, which consists of the stem bark and the roots of Chione venosa (sw.) URBAN var. venosa (Rubiaceae), a native tree growing in the islands' rain forest. The phytochemical investigation of dichloromethane and methanolic-aqueous extracts of the bark and the roots yielded three acetophenone derivatives described for the first time in plants - ortho-hydroxy-acetophenone-azine (1), acetophenone-2-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1''-->6')-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (2) and acetophenone-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) - along with five known compounds, alpha-morroniside (4), sweroside (5), diderroside (6), daucosterol (7) and beta-sitosterol (8). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, UV-Vis and ESI-MS.

  13. A performance comparison of static VAr compensator based on Goertzel and FFT algorithm and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Gani, Ahmet; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce a new approach for measuring and calculation of fundamental power components in the case of various distorted waveforms including those containing harmonics. The parameters of active, reactive, apparent power and power factor, are measured and calculated by using Goertzel algorithm instead of fast Fourier transformation which is commonly used. The main advantage of utilizing Goertzel algorithm is to minimize computational load and trigonometric equations. The parameters measured in the new technique are applied to a fixed capacitor-thyristor controlled reactor based static VAr compensation system to achieve accurate power factor correction for the first time. This study is implemented both simulation and experimentally. PMID:27047717

  14. Influence of microstructural purity on the bending fatigue behavior of VAR-melted superelastic Nitinol.

    PubMed

    Launey, Maximilien; Robertson, Scott W; Vien, Lot; Senthilnathan, Karthikeyan; Chintapalli, Prashanth; Pelton, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    The bending fatigue resistance of commercially-available Standard versus High Purity Nitinol was evaluated at 3% mean strain and a range of strain amplitudes with the simple wire Z-specimen geometry. The Standard grade Nitinol demonstrated a 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 0.50% alternating strain, comparable to results reported elsewhere in the literature. Conversely, the High Purity grade VAR Nitinol demonstrated a 5-fold improvement in fatigue resistance with an impressive 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 2.5% alternating strain. The High Purity Nitinol has an oxygen+nitrogen content of 60wppm, maximum wrought-material inclusion length of 17µm, and inclusion volume fraction of 0.28%, all substantially less than industry standards. With all processing variables held constant except for inclusion content, it is clear that this marked fatigue superiority is due exclusively to the reduction in both size and area fraction of inclusions. PMID:24603214

  15. Allelopathic effects of water extracts ofArtemisia princeps var.orientalis on selected plant species.

    PubMed

    Kil, B S; Yun, K W

    1992-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of wormwood plants (Artemisia princeps var.orientalis) and their possible phytotoxicity on receptor species were investigated. The aqueous extracts of mature leaf, stem, and root of wormwood plants caused significant inhibition in germination and decreased seedling elongation of receptor plants, whereas germination of some species was not inhibited by extracts of stems and roots. Dry weight growth was slightly increased at lower concentrations of the extract, whereas it was proportionally inhibited at higher concentrations. The calorie value of the organic matter in receptor plants measured by bomb calorimeter was reduced proportionally to the extract concentration. However, results with extracts of juvenile leaf did not correlate with inhibition or promotion of elongation and dry weight. PMID:24254631

  16. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of American bird pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fan-chun; Gao, Cheng-wen; Gao, Li-zhi

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of American bird pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) is reported and characterized in this study. The genome size is 156,612 bp, containing a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,776 bp separated by a large single-copy region of 87,213 bp and a small single-copy region of 17,851 bp. The chloroplast genome harbors 130 known genes, including 89 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. A total of 18 of these genes are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 16 genes contain 1 intron, and 2 genes and one ycf have 2 introns.

  17. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  18. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. PMID:27476617

  19. Six new physalins from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Kun; Xie, Si-da; Xu, Wan-Xuan; Nian, Yin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Peng, Xing-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Six new physalin steroids, 7β-methoxylisophysalin B (1), 7β-methoxylphysalin C (2), physalin V (3), physalin VI (4), physalin VII (5), isophysalin I (6), together with 20 known physalins (7-26) were isolated from calyces of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. Structures of the new compounds were revealed through 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-26 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480, and the results indicated that compounds 8, 11, and 14 displayed potent cytotoxicities (IC50<5μM) in vitro. Further antibacterial assay indicated that compounds 8, 14, and 19 showed high antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. PMID:27215128

  20. Lignans and triterpenoids from Vitex negundo var. heterophylla and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Li, Da-Hong; Hu, Xu; Li, Sheng-Ge; Sai, Chun-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Cong; Su, Tong; Bai, Jiao; Wang, Zi-Hou; Li, Zhan-Lin; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2016-06-01

    Three new phenylnaphthalene-type lignans, vitexnegheteroins E-G (1-3), and a new polyoxygenated ursane-type triterpene, vitexnegheteroin H (9), were isolated from the seeds of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, together with ten known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as their mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing their experimental ECD spectra with that calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) method. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines, inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in murine microglial BV-2 cells, and antioxidant activities for ABTS radical scavenging. PMID:27118321

  1. Protective Effect of Anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var. Edulis on Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haitian; Wang, Zhenyu; Ma, Fengming; Yang, Xin; Cheng, Cuilin; Yao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of anthocyanin extracted from Lonicera caerulea var. edulis (ALC), was studied in ICR mice. Different doses of ALC were intragastrically administered to mice once a day, prior to radiation. After two weeks, the mice received a one-time 5 Gy whole body 60Coγ radiation. The spleen index, thymus index, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione (GSH) content in liver tissue were measured. Compared with the radiation control group, the levels of MDA in all ALC treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GSH content, activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver tissue were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in all ALC groups. These results demonstrate that ALC may be a potential radioprotector, and a further study of the molecular mechanism is needed for further application. PMID:23109882

  2. Essential oil yield and chemical composition changes during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii var. motia).

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Purnanand, Somasi

    2010-12-01

    Changes in leaf biomass yield, essential oil yield, and chemical composition were investigated during leaf ontogeny of palmarosa {Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) Wats. var. motia Burk., family Poaceae}. Eleven leaves representing different developmental stages, serially numbered from the apex to the base of the plant were utilized for the study. Leaf biomass yield increased up to the eighth leaf. Essential oil recovery increased up to the third leaf; thereafter it decreased. Minimum essential oil recovery was observed in the eleventh leaf. Essential oil yield/leaf increased up to the sixth leaf. Essential oil yield and concentrations of linalool, alpha-terpineol, geranyl isobutyrate and geraniol were relatively higher in the essential oils of mature, older leaves. Essential oil recovery, and percentages of myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, geranyl acetate, (E,Z) farnesol and geranyl hexanoate were higher in the essential oils of young, expanding leaves. PMID:21299128

  3. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  4. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  5. Agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of Elitrigia repens.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Troise, Ciro; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A strain of Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of the perennial weed Elytrigia repens, produced several toxins in a liquid medium, and its primary toxin, named agropyrenol, was characterized as a substituted salicylaldehyde on the basis of its chemical and spectroscopic properties. Its absolute stereochemistry was determined by Mosher's method. Two other minor metabolites were isolated from the same culture and named agropyrenal and agropyrenone, respectively. They were characterized as a trisubstituted naphthalene carbaldehyde and a pentasubstituted 3H-benzofuranone, respectively, using the same techniques. When assayed on leaves of several weed plants, i.e., Mercurialis annua, Chenopodium album and Setaria viridis, agropyrenol proved to be phytotoxic, causing the appearance of necrotic lesions, agropyrenal was less active, while agropyrenone was inactive. None of the compounds showed antibiotic, fungicidal or zootoxic activity.

  6. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops. PMID:24599866

  7. In Vitro and In Vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hong-Sook; Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Da Hye; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Jun, Mira; Kim, Oh-Yoen; Kim, Sun Wook; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon

    2016-04-01

    Crowberry, Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, is widely used in folk medicine and grows naturally in Korea. Although some constituents and biological activity of Korean crowberry have been examined, there is little detailed information available. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of crowberry (EECB) on the inhibition of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of EECB were tested on in vitro models of angiogenesis, that is, tube formation and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EECB exhibited significant inhibitory effects on tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, crowberry significantly suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, strong antiangiogenic activity of EECB samples was observed in the in vivo assay using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). These results indicate that crowberry may have potential applications in the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human diseases. PMID:27396205

  8. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  9. Generalized transduction in Bacillus thuringiensis var. berliner 1715 using bacteriophage CP-54Ber.

    PubMed

    Lecadet, M M; Blondel, M O; Ribier, J

    1980-11-01

    A phage isolated from lysates of phage CP-54 grown on Bacillus cereus 569 and selected on the basis of its ability to infect Bacillus thuringiensis var. berliner 1715 (serotype I) was designated CP-54Ber. Phages CP-54Ber and CP-54 were similar in size, morphology, cryosensitivity and stabilization by dimethyl sulphoxide. They showed significant differences with regard to inactivation by specific antiserum, adsorption to the berliner strains and host range. Phage CP-54Ber was able to mediate generalized transduction in the host strain berliner 1715 with frequencies ranging between 1 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-6). Cotransduction of markers was demonstrated. Cross-transduction occurred between strains belonging to serotype I whereas it was more difficult to observe when lysates were prepared on strains from other serotypes.

  10. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongmei; Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiuyan; Tu, Ya; Jiao, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Depressive order is one of the most common psychiatric diseases, and Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis has shown many bioactivities in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (HPLC-ECD). Western blotting was performed to investigate the effects of essential oil on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in rats' brain. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of essential oil were estragole (6.16 %), β-elemene (24.91 %), β-cubebene (14.29 %), and γ-elemene (8.05 %). The results from the FST and TST demonstrated that the immobility time could be significantly reduced by essential oil (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the OFT. Additionally, the contents of DA, NE, 5-HT, and BDNF in the hippocampus of CMS rats could be increased by treatment with essential oil at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. All these results suggested that essential oil could be considered as a new candidate for curing depressive disorders.

  11. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of Brassica rapa-Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Hasterok, Robert; Wolny, Elzbieta; Kulak, Sylwia; Zdziechiewicz, Aleksandra; Maluszynska, Jolanta; Heneen, Waheeb K

    2005-07-01

    Interspecific alien chromosome addition lines can be very useful for gene mapping and studying chromosome homoeology between closely related species. In this study we demonstrate a simple but robust manner of identifying individual C-genome chromosomes (C5, C8 and C9) in the A-genome background through the simultaneous use of 5S and 25S ribosomal probes on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of three different Brassica rapa-B. oleracea var. alboglabra monosomic addition lines. Sequential silver staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation indicated that 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA genes on the additional chromosome C9 are expressed in the A-genome background. Meiotic behaviour of the additional chromosomes was studied in pollen mother cells at diakinesis and metaphase I. In all of the addition lines the alien chromosome was most frequently observed as a univalent. The alien chromosome C5, which carries an intercalary 5S rDNA locus, occasionally formed trivalents that involved either rDNA- or non rDNA-carrying chromosomes from the A genome. In the case of chromosomes C8 and C9, the most frequently observed intergenomic associations involved the regions occupied by 18S-5.8S-25S ribosomal RNA genes. It is possible that not all such associations represent true pairing but are remnants of nucleolar associations from the preceding interphase. Variations in the numbers and distribution of 5S and 25S rDNA sites between cultivars of B. oleracea, B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa are discussed.

  12. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of flavonoids isolated from Stevia satureiifolia var. satureiifolia.

    PubMed

    Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines

    2016-10-01

    Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50  value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50  value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL.

  13. Extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbon extraction and quantitation from the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii var. Showa.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ela; Melis, Anastasios

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical fractionation and aqueous or aqueous/organic two-phase partition approaches were applied for extraction and separation of extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbons from Botryococcus braunii var. Showa. A direct spectrophotometric method was devised for the quantitation of botryococcene and associated carotenoid hydrocarbons extracted by this method. Separation of extracellular botryococcene hydrocarbons from the Botryococcus was achieved upon vortexing of the micro-colonies with glass beads, either in water followed by buoyant density equilibrium to separate hydrocarbons from biomass, or in the presence of heptane as a solvent, followed by aqueous/organic two-phase separation of the heptane-solubilized hydrocarbons (upper phase) from the biomass (lower aqueous phase). Spectral analysis of the upper heptane phase revealed the presence of two distinct compounds, one absorbing in the UV-C, attributed to botryococcene(s), the other in the blue region of the spectrum, attributed to a carotenoid. Specific extinction coefficients were developed for the absorbance of triterpenes at 190nm (epsilon = 90 +/- 5 mM(-1) cm(-1)) and carotenoids at 450 nm (epsilon=165+/-5mM(-1) cm(-1)) in heptane. This enabled application of a direct spectrophotometric method for the quantitation of water- or heptane-extractable botryococcenes and carotenoids. B. braunii var. Showa constitutively accumulates approximately 30% of the dry biomass as extractable (extracellular) botryococcenes, and approximately 0.2% of the dry biomass in the form of a carotenoid. It was further demonstrated that heat-treatment of the Botryococcus biomass substantially accelerates the rate and yield of the extraction process. Advances in this work serve as foundation for a cyclic Botryococcus growth, non-toxic extraction of extracellular hydrocarbons, and return of the hydrocarbon-depleted biomass to growth conditions for further product generation.

  14. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers in Musa acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Banana is a nutritionally important crop across tropical and sub-tropical countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America and Asia. Although cultivars have evolved from diploid, triploid and tetraploid wild Asian species of Musa acuminata (A genome) and Musa balbisiana (B genome), many of today's commercial cultivars are sterile triploids or diploids, with fruit developing via parthenocarpy. As a result of restricted genetic variation, improvement has been limited, resulting in a crop frequently lacking resistance to pests and disease. Considering the importance of molecular tools to facilitate development of disease resistant genotypes, the objectives of this study were to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers from BAC clone sequences for M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4. This wild diploid species is used as a donor cultivar in breeding programs as a source of resistance to diverse biotic stresses. Findings Microsatellite sequences were identified from five Calcutta 4 BAC consensi datasets. Specific primers were designed for 41 loci. Isolated di-nucleotide repeat motifs were the most abundant, followed by tri-nucleotides. From 33 tested loci, 20 displayed polymorphism when screened across 21 diploid M. acuminata accessions, contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. The number of alleles per SSR locus ranged from two to four, with a total of 56. Six repeat classes were identified, with di-nucleotides the most abundant. Expected heterozygosity values for polymorphic markers ranged from 0.31 to 0.75. Conclusions This is the first report identifying polymorphic microsatellite markers from M. acuminata subsp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 across accessions contrasting in resistance to Sigatoka diseases. These BAC-derived polymorphic microsatellite markers are a useful resource for banana, applicable for genetic map development, germplasm characterization, evolutionary studies and marker assisted selection for traits

  15. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of flavonoids isolated from Stevia satureiifolia var. satureiifolia.

    PubMed

    Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines

    2016-10-01

    Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50  value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50  value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL. PMID:26983579

  16. [Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-04-01

    Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  17. Genome sequence analyses show that Neisseria oralis is the same species as 'Neisseria mucosa var. heidelbergensis'.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J

    2013-10-01

    Phylogenies generated from whole genome sequence (WGS) data provide definitive means of bacterial isolate characterization for typing and taxonomy. The species status of strains recently defined with conventional taxonomic approaches as representing Neisseria oralis was examined by the analysis of sequences derived from WGS data, specifically: (i) 53 Neisseria ribosomal protein subunit (rps) genes (ribosomal multi-locus sequence typing, rMLST); and (ii) 246 Neisseria core genes (core genome MLST, cgMLST). These data were compared with phylogenies derived from 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences, demonstrating that the N. oralis strains were monophyletic with strains described previously as representing 'Neisseria mucosa var. heidelbergensis' and that this group was of equivalent taxonomic status to other well-described species of the genus Neisseria. Phylogenetic analyses also indicated that Neisseria sicca and Neisseria macacae should be considered the same species as Neisseria mucosa and that Neisseria flavescens should be considered the same species as Neisseria subflava. Analyses using rMLST showed that some strains currently defined as belonging to the genus Neisseria were more closely related to species belonging to other genera within the family; however, whole genome analysis of a more comprehensive selection of strains from within the family Neisseriaceae would be necessary to confirm this. We suggest that strains previously identified as representing 'N. mucosa var. heidelbergensis' and deposited in culture collections should be renamed N. oralis. Finally, one of the strains of N. oralis was able to ferment lactose, due to the presence of β-galactosidase and lactose permease genes, a characteristic previously thought to be unique to Neisseria lactamica, which therefore cannot be thought of as diagnostic for this species; however, the rMLST and cgMLST analyses confirm that N. oralis is most closely related to N. mucosa.

  18. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract and its application as a cosmeceutical ingredient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Heui; Kim, Ki Ho; Han, Chang Sung; Park, Sun Hee; Yang, Hong Chul; Lee, Bang Yong; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Young-Sil; Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Nam Ho

    2008-01-01

    Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum has long been used as a rheumatic remedy, as an anti-pyretic and as an anti-ulcer treatment, and for the alleviation of local pain and fever in Korea and Malaysia. In order to investigate the possibility of Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum extract as a cosmetic ingredient, we measured its anti-inflammatory effect by its inhibition of iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and the release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. We also measured its anti-allergic effect by its inhibition of beta-hexosamidase release. An HPLC experiment after extraction with 95% EtOH at pH 3.5 showed that Crinum asiaticum Linne var. japonicum was mainly composed of lycorine (up to 1%), a well-known immunosuppressor. The content of lycorine varied, depending on the type of plant tissue analyzed and the extraction method. In an anti-inflammatory assay for inhibition of nitric oxide formation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, the ethanol extract of Crinum asiaticum showed an inhibitory activity of NO production in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 58.5 microg/ml). Additional study by RT-PCR demonstrated that the extract of Crinum asiaticum significantly suppressed the expression of the iNOS gene. Moreover, the extract of Crinum asiaticum did not show any cytotoxicity, but did show a cell proliferation effect against LPS (a 10 approximately 60% increase in cell viability). In an assay to determine inhibition of the H2O2-activated release of PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 in human normal fibroblast cell lines, the release of PGE2 and IL-6 was almost completely inhibited above concentrations of 0.05% and 1%, respectively. Moreover, the release of IL-8 was completely inhibited over the entire range of concentration (>0.0025%). In order to investigate the skin-sensitizing potentials of the extract of Crinum asiaticum, a human clinical test was performed after repeated epicutaneous 48-h applications under an occlusive patch (RIPT). The

  20. Application of a new time scale based low {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model to natural convection from a semi-infinite vertical isothermal plate

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; Senthooran, S.; Parameswaran, S.

    1999-01-01

    The low {kappa}-{var_epsilon} model proposed by Yang and Shih (1992) is applied to the calculation of the turbulent natural convective boundary layer over a semi-infinite, vertical, isothermal surface. Using {kappa}/{var_epsilon} as the turbulent time scale will introduce a singularity in the {var_epsilon} equation, near the wall. This model uses a modified turbulent time scale near the wall to eliminate this singularity. The constants in the equation for damping function are modified to produce better results for both, natural convection and force convection. The results are compared with available experimental data and the results obtained from Chien`s model and are found to be in reasonable agreement. Here {kappa} represents the turbulent kinetic energy and {var_epsilon} represents the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy.