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Sample records for pectoralis jacq var

  1. Estrogenic and progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of menopause and PMS.

    PubMed

    Locklear, Tracie D; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail B

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. The aerial parts of J. pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonists, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERbeta-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC(50) 4.8 microg/mL); bound to both ERalpha and ERbeta (IC(50) 50 microg/mL and 23.1 microg/mL, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERbeta-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC(50) 22.8 microg/mL). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estrogenic and Progestagenic effects of extracts of Justicia pectoralis Jacq., an herbal medicine from Costa Rica used for the treatment of Menopause and PMS

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, Tracie D.; Huang, Yue; Frasor, Jonna; Doyle, Brian J.; Perez, Alice; Gomez-Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the biological activities of Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae), an herbal medicine used in Costa Rica (CR) for the management of menopausal symptoms and dysmenorrhea. Study design The aerial parts of Justicia pectoralis were collected, dried and extracted in methanol. To establish possible mechanisms of action of JP for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, the estrogenic and progesterone agonist, and antiinflammatory activities were investigated. Main outcome measures The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERβ-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells. Results The JP-M extract inhibited COX-2 catalytic activity (IC50 4.8µg/ml); bound to both ERα and ERβ (IC50 50 µg/ml and 23.1µg/ml, respectively); induced estrogen-dependent transcription in the ERβ-CALUX; and bound to the progesterone receptor (IC50 22.8 µg/ml). The extract also modulated the expression of endogenous estrogen responsive genes pS2, PR, and PTGES in MCF-7 cells at a concentration of 20 µg/ml. Activation of a 2 ERE-construct in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells by the extract was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780, indicating that the effects were mediated through the estrogen receptor. Finally, the extract weakly enhanced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, however this was not statistically significant as compared with DMSO controls. Conclusions Extracts of J. pectoralis have estrogenic, progestagenic and anti-inflammatory effects, and thus have a plausible mechanism of action, explaining its traditional use for menopause and PMS. PMID:20452152

  3. Pectoralis major fascia in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Fascia is frequently used in rhinoplasty, for several different purposes. The deep temporalis fascia is most often chosen, though harvesting this fascia requires a separate surgical field that adds surgical time to the procedure and morbidity to the patient. In augmentation rhinoplasty cases as well as in many revision rhinoplasty cases, costal cartilage may be required. In these cases, when costal cartilage is harvested from the 5(th) to 7(th) ribs, pectoralis major fascia is in the surgical field and must be incised to provide access to the costal cartilage. Pectoralis major fascia is similar to the deep temporalis fascia, sharing many physical and histological characteristics with it. Pectoralis major fascia can be harvested from the same surgical field as costal cartilage and used in the nose whenever autologous costal cartilage is harvested, thus precluding the need for a separate surgical field for fascia harvest. The surgical technique for harvesting pectoralis major fascia is demonstrated, and two clinical cases of patients in whom this fascia was harvested and used in the nose are presented. Pectoralis major fascia may be considered an alternative option for use in rhinoplasty cases whenever autologous costal cartilage is used. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Pectoralis major transfer for serratus anterior paralysis.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Scott P; Wood, Michael B

    2003-01-01

    Serratus anterior paralysis can result in winging of the scapula and weakness of arm elevation. The etiology of the condition is injury to the long thoracic nerve. There are many proposed causes of long thoracic nerve injury including acute trauma, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or viral illness. The long length of the long thoracic nerve makes it prone to compression injury along the chest wall. Most patients recover nerve function with conservative treatment. In those in whom nerve function fails to recover, surgical treatment involving pectoralis major transfer may be beneficial. In this study 9 patients underwent pectoralis major transfer with a fascia lata extension graft. The symptoms of most were improved, with correction of the winging and improved movement in the affected shoulder.

  5. Pectoralis major turnover versus advancement technique for sternal wound reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zahiri, Hamid R; Lumpkins, Kimberly; Kelishadi, Shahrooz; Stromberg, Jeffrey A; Silverman, Ronald P; Slezak, Sheri; Goldberg, Nelson H; Holton, Luther; Singh, Devinder P

    2013-02-01

    We compared the efficacy of pectoralis turnover versus advancement technique for sternal wound reconstruction. A retrospective chart review was performed, December 1989 to December 2010, to compare postoperative complication rates between pectoralis major turnover versus pectoralis major advancement reconstruction techniques. Complications included hematomas, wound infections, tissue necrosis, dehiscence, and need for reoperation. Pearson χ and logistic regression were used and significance was P < 0.05. Sixty-seven patients received 91 tissue flaps. Eleven patients (16%) required reoperation due to complications, including recurrent wound infection, tissue necrosis, wound dehiscence, mediastinitis, and hematoma formation. Four patients (6%) were treated conservatively for minor complications. Overall, complication rates were significantly higher after pectoralis major advancement reconstruction (32.5% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.004). When feasible, pectoralis major turnover flap offers a superior reconstructive technique for complex sternal wounds, with diminished complications compared with the pectoralis advancement flap.

  6. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  7. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  8. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  9. Molecular and morphologic data reveal multiple species in Peromyscus pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Robert D.; Schmidly, David J.; Amman, Brian R.; Platt, Roy N.; Neumann, Kathy M.; Huynh, Howard M.; Muñiz-Martínez, Raúl; López-González, Celia; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequence and morphometric data were used to re-evaluate the taxonomy and systematics of Peromyscus pectoralis. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene in 44 samples of P. pectoralis indicated 2 well-supported monophyletic clades. The 1st clade contained specimens from Texas historically assigned to P. p. laceianus; the 2nd was comprised of specimens previously referable to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis obtained from northern and eastern Mexico. Levels of genetic variation (~7%) between these 2 clades indicated that the genetic divergence typically exceeded that reported for other species of Peromyscus. Samples of P. p. laceianus north and south of the Río Grande were not monophyletic. In addition, samples representing P. p. collinus and P. p. pectoralis formed 2 clades that differed genetically by 7.14%. Multivariate analyses of external and cranial measurements from 63 populations of P. pectoralis revealed 4 morpho-groups consistent with clades in the DNA sequence analysis: 1 from Texas and New Mexico assignable to P. p. laceianus; a 2nd from western and southern Mexico assignable to P. p. pectoralis; a 3rd from northern and central Mexico previously assigned to P. p. pectoralis but herein shown to represent an undescribed taxon; and a 4th from southeastern Mexico assignable to P. p. collinus. Based on the concordance of these results, populations from the United States are referred to as P. laceianus, whereas populations from Mexico are referred to as P. pectoralis (including some samples historically assigned to P. p. collinus, P. p. laceianus, and P. p. pectoralis). A new subspecies is described to represent populations south of the Río Grande in northern and central Mexico. Additional research is needed to discern if P. p. collinus warrants species recognition. PMID:26937045

  10. Clinical correlation of cervical myelopathy and the hyperactive pectoralis reflex.

    PubMed

    Paholpak, Permsak; Jirarattanaphochai, Kitti; Sae-Jung, Surachai; Wittayapairoj, Kriangkrai

    2013-12-01

    A diagnostic study. To validate the correlation between hyperactive pectoralis reflex and the level of cervical myelopathy. The hyperactive pectoralis reflex was proposed to be present in patients with spinal cord compression at the C2-3 and/or C3-4 level. Nevertheless, in a validation study on the correlation of various hyperactive reflexes and the cervical myelopathic level, this particular reflex was not evaluated. All patients presenting with cervical myelopathy between August 2009 and June 2012 were included in this study. Each patient underwent neurological examination for cervical myelopathy focusing on the examination of pathologic reflexes, including the hyperactive pectoralis reflex. We recorded the presence or absence of these reflexes and the level of cervical myelopathy as detected on magnetic resonance imaging. We used the level of spinal cord compression-cranial to C4 of the vertebral body-as the reference level to validate a hyperactive pectoralis reflex. The study included 95 cervical myelopathy patients: 33 patients had most of their compressed cervical cord somewhere above the C4 vertebral body. The hyperactive pectoralis reflex for cervical myelopathy at this level had a respective sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of 84.8%, 96.7%, 26.67, and 0.16. The high sensitivity and specificity of the hyperactive pectoralis reflex is very useful for screening and diagnosis of the cervical myelopathic level when it is above the C4 vertebral body.

  11. Pectoralis major ruptures in professional American football players.

    PubMed

    Tarity, T David; Garrigues, Grant E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Zooker, Chad C; Cohen, Steven B; Frederick, Robert W; Williams, Gerald R; DeLuca, Peter F; Dodson, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Pectoralis major injuries are an infrequent shoulder injury that can result in pain, weakness, and deformity. These injuries may occur during the course of an athletic competition, including football. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pectoralis major ruptures in professional football players and time lost from the sport following injury. We hypothesized that ruptures most frequently occur during bench-press strength training. The National Football League Injury Surveillance System was reviewed for all pectoralis major injuries in all players from 2000 to 2010. Details regarding injury setting, player demographics, method of treatment, and time lost were recorded. A total of 10 injuries-complete ruptures-were identified during this period. Five of the 10 were sustained in defensive players, generally while tackling. Nine occurred during game situations, and 1 occurred during practice. Specific data pertinent to the practice injury was not available. No rupture occurred during weight lifting. Eight ruptures were treated operatively, and 2 cases did not report the method of definitive treatment. The average days lost was 111 days (range, 42-189). The incidence was 0.004 pectoralis major ruptures during the 11-year study period. Pectoralis major injuries are uncommon while playing football. In the National Football League, these injuries primarily occur not during practice or while bench pressing but rather during games. When pectoralis major ruptures do occur, they are successfully treated operatively. Surgery may allow for return to full sports participation. IV, case series.

  12. Distal pectoralis major tears: sonographic characterization and potential diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Jacobson, Jon A; Kim, Sung-Moon; Fessell, David; Jiang, Yebin; Girish, Gandikota; Magerkurth, Olaf

    2013-12-01

    Distinction between musculotendinous tears of the pectoralis major and distal tendon avulsions is important, as the latter typically requires surgical repair. The objective of this study was to characterize the sonographic appearances of surgically proven distal tendon avulsion tears of the pectoralis major. A retrospective search of the radiology database (2001-2011) revealed 22 cases of pectoralis major tears on sonography, of which 9 had surgical correlation. Sonograms were retrospectively characterized by 3 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus with respect to the location and size of the fluid collection and the presence of tendon or tendonlike tissue superficial to the biceps brachii tendon. At surgery, complete distal tendon avulsions or tears of the sternal head of the pectoralis were present in all 9 cases: isolated in 6 and combined with clavicular head tears in 3. The location of the fluid collection was at the musculotendinous junction in 89% (8 of 9) and medial to the biceps brachii tendon in 11% (1 of 9), with a mean largest dimension of 3.8 cm (range, 0.7-6.2 cm). In no case was fluid seen at the humeral attachment of the pectoralis. In 67% (6 of 9), linear thickened hypoechoic tissue was seen superficial to the biceps brachii tendon, which simulated an abnormal but intact tendon, whereas in 33% (3 of 9), a normal distal pectoralis tendon was seen. Surgically proven distal pectoralis major tendon avulsions most commonly showed fluid collections at the musculotendinous junction and not at the humeral shaft, with either a normal tendon or hypoechoic tendonlike tissue over the biceps brachii long-head tendon. These findings may potentially cause misdiagnosis of distal tendon avulsions or tears as musculotendinous injuries.

  13. Pectoralis Major Tear: An Unusual and Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Kadu, Vikram V; Saindane, K A; Godghate, Ninad; Godghate, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The pectoralis major is a very powerful muscle that forms the chest prominence and. It moves the shoulder forward and across your chest. It is best known as the muscle that you develop with the bench press exercise in gymnasium. The pectoralis major attaches to the humerus bone and is divided into two parts. The upper part is known as the “clavicular head” and the lower part the “sternal head,” based on their origins from the clavicle and sternal bones, respectively. Ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle are becoming more common due to the increase in power sports weight training. Case Report: A About 25-year-old male presented to Out Patient Department with bruising and swelling over the anterior wall of left axilla. The patient was engineer and amateur weight lifter. Clinically, the swelling was tender, and movements of left arm were restricted. Muscle tear was suspected and hence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was advised which showed tear of tendon of pectoralis major muscle. The patient was treated surgically and has got full range of movements of the arm. Conclusion: MRI is the mainstay for diagnosing pectoralis major tear. The earlier a repair is performed the easier the surgery and the better the outcome of surgery. PMID:27299117

  14. Cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Engelmann, Florent

    2017-08-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a tropical plant, is the leading source of edible oil. This review deals with the cryopreservation of oil palm as a way to preserve this important tropical germplasm. Somatic embryos have been the most popular source of material for cryopreservation as they are propagules that are effectively produced during micropropagation. In contrast, fewer studies exist on the cryopreservation of pollen, zygotic embryos, seeds, kernels and embryogenic cell suspensions. This review highlights the ideal protocols, in detail, in a bid to offer guidance for further advances in oil palm cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Matthew T; Handfield, Kent; Boniquit, Nicole T; Reiff, Stefanie N; Sekiya, Jon K; Romeo, Anthony A

    2010-08-01

    Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent but result in pain, weakness, and deformity of the upper extremity. The usual injury mechanism is during eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. The ability to detect and treat a pectoralis major rupture is important for both the clinician and the patient and is aided with knowledge of the anatomy, the clinical findings, and results of nonoperative and operative care. It is important to understand the physical demands and desires of the patient as well as to understand the outcomes of both nonoperative and operative care to make an informed decision regarding optimal treatment. This article highlights the importance of the clinical examination in identifying the injury, examines various surgical techniques to repair the rupture, and reports on potential complication and reinjury rates.

  16. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  17. The Split Pectoralis Flap: Combining the Benefits of Pectoralis Major Advancement and Turnover Techniques in One Flap.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rodger H; Sharabi, Safa E; Kania, Katarzyna E; Hollier, Larry H; Izaddoost, Shayan A

    2017-06-01

    The pectoralis major is a versatile flap used as an advancement or turnover flap for sternal wound treatment. The advancement flap provides suboptimal inferior sternal coverage and poorly fills mediastinal dead space. The turnover flap covers the inferior sternum and fills dead space but requires disinsertion of the muscle from the humerus, resulting in functional loss and cosmetic deformity. The authors describe a new technique of splitting the pectoralis muscle along its fibers, using the superior portion as an advancement flap and the inferior portion as a turnover flap. Eleven patients underwent the described technique. Nine patients healed without complications or repeated operations. One patient had a recurrent aortic graft infection requiring reoperation. One patient had a postoperative seroma requiring incision and drainage. Using the pectoralis as an advancement and turnover flap allows inferior sternum and mediastinum coverage using one donor site and maintaining the function of the muscle and preventing cosmetic deformity.

  18. Rupture of the pectoralis major: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Schofer, Joel M

    2010-02-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare clinical entity that is becoming more common due to the increasing popularity of weightlifting and recreational sports. Due to the rarity of this condition, it may be missed at initial presentation and inappropriately treated, potentially leading to increased disability. This case highlights the mechanism of injury, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of rupture of the pectoralis major. The patient was a 31-year-old male bodybuilder who presented to the Emergency Department with acute pain and swelling in the left axilla after performing a bench press with a 400-pound barbell. The diagnosis of pectoralis major rupture was suspected and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, and early surgical repair was performed. The most common mechanism of injury is excessive tension on a maximally contracted pectoralis major muscle. Weightlifting, specifically bench pressing, is a common cause. The diagnosis can usually be made based on a patient's history and physical examination, but shortly after injury, the diagnosis may be obscured by severe pain and swelling. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice when the diagnosis remains unclear, and can avoid surgical delays. Early diagnosis and treatment within 3 to 8 weeks after the injury has the advantage of avoiding adhesions and muscle atrophy, and can prevent a delayed return to normal activities. Given the trend toward improved results with early surgical repair of complete rupture, it is important to raise awareness about pectoralis major muscle injury among Emergency Physicians to prevent missed or delayed diagnosis and repair. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Myofascial pain from pectoralis major following trans-axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Mike

    2003-09-01

    This is the first reported description, to the author's knowledge, of myofascial pain occurring at a surgical drain site. The patient consulted a medical acupuncturist after suffering five months of continuous chest and arm pain associated with 'tingling' in the forearm and hand. She had undergone trans-axillary resection of the first left rib following a left axillary vein thrombosis 18 months previously. Her symptoms had been principally attributed to nerve traction at surgery or nerve root entrapment from scar tissue. However, the drain passed through the free border of pectoralis major, and the myofascial trigger point that appeared to develop as a result of the muscle trauma, or the pain at that site, presented as a chronic and complex post-surgical pain problem. The pain and tingling resolved completely after two sessions of dry needling at a single myofascial trigger point in the free border of the left pectoralis major muscle.

  20. Pectoralis major transfer for paralysis of elbow flexion in children.

    PubMed

    Atkins, R M; Bell, M J; Sharrard, W J

    1985-08-01

    Seven pectoralis major transfers in children suffering from bilateral paralysis of elbow flexion due to arthrogryposis or to trauma are reported. A technique is described in which the muscle is mobilised from the clavicle to allow the tendon of insertion to be attached to the biceps tendon at the elbow. The biceps tendon was found to be present and could be mobilised forwards in all the arthrogrypotic elbows. Subjectively, the results were considered by patients or parents to be very good in six cases and fair in one. Elbow flexion power against gravity and against some resistance was achieved in all patients except one. The overall function was very good in one elbow, good in two, fair in three and poor in only one. The merits of the various procedures described for the restoration of elbow flexion in arthrogryposis are discussed. It is concluded that total pectoralis major transfer by the method described here has given the best results.

  1. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-02-25

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Surgical repair of a rupture of the pectoralis major muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto De Castro; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Muscle rupture is rarely treated surgically. Few reports of good outcomes after muscular suture have been published. Usually, muscular lesions or partial ruptures heal with few side effects or result in total recovery. We report a case of an athlete who was treated surgically to repair a total muscular rupture in the pectoralis major muscle. After 6 months, the athlete returned to competitive practice. After a 2-year follow-up, the athlete still competes in skateboard championships. PMID:25716033

  3. Biomechanical comparison of 3 methods to repair pectoralis major ruptures.

    PubMed

    Rabuck, Stephen J; Lynch, Jamie L; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Li-Qun; Edwards, Sara L; Nuber, Gordon W; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2012-07-01

    Pectoralis major ruptures are closely associated with weight lifting and participation in sports. The anatomy of the pectoralis major tendon is unique with an elongated thin footprint requiring multiple points of fixation to restore the native anatomy. Multiple options exist for tendon repairs, but the strongest construct has yet to be identified. The intent of this study was to compare the load to failure of bone trough, cortical button, and suture anchor repairs of the pectoralis major tendon in the extended and abducted position. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were divided equally into 3 groups based on the repair technique to be performed. Bone mineral density of the surgical neck of the proximal humerus was assessed before each repair. Bone trough, suture anchor, and cortical button repairs were performed as dictated by computerized randomization. Each specimen was loaded to failure and mode of failure was noted. The majority of failures occurred through the suture used for tendon repair. One specimen in the bone trough group failed via fracture of the proximal humerus. The suture anchor group failed at the implant in 5 of 9 specimens and through the suture in 4 of 9 specimens. Load to failure was greatest in bone trough repairs at 596 N, followed by cortical button at 494 N, and finally suture anchor repairs with 383 N. Load to failure was significantly greater in the bone trough group when compared with suture anchor repairs (P = .007). No correlation was found between bone mineral density and load to failure. Bone trough repair of the pectoralis major tendon was stronger than suture anchor repair. Identification of the strongest repair may help guide surgical repair.

  4. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle in a paratrooper.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Mahmut; Yildiz, Yavuz; Ozdemir, M Taner; Erler, Kaan

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle is a very rare injury. Excessive contraction of muscle fibers during certain forms of sports, such as weightlifting and bench pressing, is the most common cause. Among the 150 reported cases in the literature, in only 1 case did the injury happen during the landing phase of parachuting. Here we report a case of pectoralis major muscle rupture caused by a different mechanism than published previously. A paratrooper was injured during a tactical jump out of an aircraft after becoming entangled with the risers. The mechanism of injury was excessive traction and malpositioning of his shoulder when the parachute deployed. A three-phase conservative treatment regimen was performed and results were assessed by dynamometry. The patient was satisfied with the treatment and the dynamometric results were good at 9 mo after injury and at the end of a 20-mo follow-up period. We suggest that three-phase rehabilitation can be an effective treatment option for pectoralis major muscle rupture in selected patients. Prevention of this type of altitude injury would be possible by applying the fundamentals of parachuting.

  5. Ultrasound of the pectoralis major muscle after reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mascarinas, Angelie L; Newman, Joel S; Warner, Jon J P; Jain, Nitin B

    2014-12-01

    Only a few reports exist in the literature for sonographic assessment of the pectoralis major muscle. Presented is a case of pectoralis major muscle atrophy as a cause of persistent internal rotation weakness diagnosed via ultrasound in a patient with multiple previous surgeries and contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging because of a shoulder implant. This patient's physical examination suggested an abnormal contour of the pectoralis major muscle on contraction, so he was referred for diagnostic ultrasound. The ultrasound was key to guiding the management of this patient because surgical repair of a torn pectoralis major muscle was planned if this was found. No pectoralis major tear or rupture was seen on ultrasound, but there was evidence of pectoralis major muscle atrophy. Accordingly, surgery was avoided and the patient was able to continue with his physical therapy program.

  6. The preservation of minor pectoralis muscle in axillary dissection for breast cancer: functional and cosmetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Merson, M; Pirovano, C; Balzarini, A; Luini, A; Biasi, S; Galimberti, V; Genitoni, V; Muscolino, G; Veronesi, P

    1992-06-01

    We have evaluated, in two groups of 50 patients each submitted to axillary dissection for breast cancer (10 mastectomies and 90 conservative procedures), the advantage of the preservation of the minor pectoralis muscle. This muscle was preserved in one group and removed in the other. Whereas in the immediate postoperative period complications (shoulder pain, functional impairment, quantity or duration of serum drainage from the axilla) were the same in the two groups, at longer follow-up (more than 6 months after surgery) the patients whose pectoralis minor muscle was preserved showed a reduction in the incidence of partial atrophy and fibrosis of the pectoralis major muscle. Patients treated with conservation of the pectoralis minor muscle showed this atrophy in 6% of cases vs 54% observed in the other patients. This fact may be related to disruption of the pectoral nerves, which are in close contact with the pectoralis minor during their course from the brachial plexus to the pectoralis major muscle.

  7. Pectoralis major transfer for the management of scapula winging secondary to serratus anterior injury or paralysis.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem

    2014-02-01

    Pectoralis major transfer (partial or complete) is the most common transfer to the scapula for winging as a result of serratus anterior paralysis or injury. The most commonly described technique is to transfer the pectoralis major prolonged with tendon allograft or autograft to the scapula. We present a technique that entails direct transfer of the sternal head of the pectoralis major with its bony insertion to the lower scapula.

  8. Distribution of the white-ankled mouse (Peromyscus pectoralis) in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geluso, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The white-ankled mouse (Peromyscus pectoralis) was previously known only from Carlsbad Caverns National Park and nearby areas in extreme southeastern New Mexico. I discovered 15 new localities for P. pectoralis, which extend its distribution 225 km north-northwest. This new distribution does not represent a recent northward expansion of P. pectoralis in New Mexico but reflects the lack of mammalian surveys in the region and misidentification of museum specimens from past surveys. At present, the distribution of P. pectoralis in New Mexico includes the Guadalupe Mountains and lowland habitats between the Sacramento Mountains and Pecos River.

  9. Treatment of winged scapula by pectoralis major transfer.

    PubMed

    Iceton, J; Harris, W R

    1987-01-01

    We report the transfer of the sternal part of the pectoralis major to the lower pole of the scapula in 15 patients with winged scapula. At follow-up after 1 to 16 years nine had a satisfactory result and were gainfully employed, though in four of these re-operation had been necessary. Two patients had fair results; the transplant functioned, but they had limited voluntary control. Four were failures: two had had paralysis of other shoulder girdle muscles in addition to the serratus anterior. The indications for the operation are discussed.

  10. Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, G P; Selesnick, F H

    1997-08-01

    Correct diagnosis of complete or partial ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle complex is important because of the muscle's vital role in shoulder function. Three case reports are used here to support a discussion of diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis can usually be made with a history and physical exam, but magnetic resonance imaging can help pinpoint the site of a tear. Nonoperative treatment is generally preferred for partial tears; operative treatment may be necessary to restore full function in complete tears. Rehabilitation involves a gradual progression from pendulum exercises to range-of-motion exercises to strengthening, and patients can usually return to full activity in 3 to 6 months.

  11. Isolated tears of pectoralis minor muscle in professional football players: a case series.

    PubMed

    Zvijac, John E; Zikria, Bashir; Botto-van Bemden, Angie

    2009-03-01

    Our objective is to include pectoralis minor injuries in the comprehensive assessment of differential diagnoses for anterior chest wall pain or medial anterior shoulder pain sustained during blocking activities, which may present in football players. In this article, we report 2 cases of isolated pectoralis minor tears in professional football players and present mechanisms of injury, clinical presentations, appropriate diagnostic studies, and treatments.

  12. The "bench-presser's shoulder": an overuse insertional tendinopathy of the pectoralis minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Deepak N; de Beer, Joe F; van Rooyen, Karin S; Lam, Francis; du Toit, Donald F

    2007-08-01

    Tendinopathies of the rotator cuff muscles, biceps tendon and pectoralis major muscle are common causes of shoulder pain in athletes. Overuse insertional tendinopathy of pectoralis minor is a previously undescribed cause of shoulder pain in weightlifters/sportsmen. To describe the clinical features, diagnostic tests and results of an overuse insertional tendinopathy of the pectoralis minor muscle. To also present a new technique of ultrasonographic evaluation and injection of the pectoralis minor muscle/tendon based on use of standard anatomical landmarks (subscapularis, coracoid process and axillary artery) as stepwise reference points for ultrasonographic orientation. Between 2005 and 2006, seven sportsmen presenting with this condition were diagnosed and treated at the Cape Shoulder Institute, Cape Town, South Africa. In five patients, the initiating and aggravating factor was performance of the bench-press exercise (hence the term "bench-presser's shoulder"). Medial juxta-coracoid tenderness, a painful active-contraction test and bench-press manoeuvre, and decrease in pain after ultrasound-guided injection of a local anaesthetic agent into the enthesis, in the absence of any other clinically/radiologically apparent pathology, were diagnostic of pectoralis minor insertional tendinopathy. All seven patients were successfully treated with a single ultrasound-guided injection of a corticosteroid into the enthesis of pectoralis minor followed by a period of rest and stretching exercises. This study describes the clinical features and management of pectoralis minor insertional tendinopathy, secondary to the bench-press type of weightlifting. A new pain site-based classification of shoulder pathology in weightlifters is suggested.

  13. Pectoralis major flap for head and neck reconstruction in era of free flaps.

    PubMed

    Kekatpure, V D; Trivedi, N P; Manjula, B V; Mathan Mohan, A; Shetkar, G; Kuriakose, M A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the selection of pectoralis major flap in the era of free tissue reconstruction for post ablative head and neck defects and flap associated complications. The records of patients who underwent various reconstructive procedures between July 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively analysed. 147 reconstructive procedures including 79 free flaps and 58 pectoralis major flaps were performed. Pectoralis major flap was selected for reconstruction in 21 patients (36%) due to resource constrains, in 12 (20%) patients for associated medical comorbidities, in 11 (19%) undergoing extended/salvage neck dissections, and in 5 patients with vessel depleted neck and free flap failure salvage surgery. None of the flaps was lost, 41% of patients had flap related complications. Most complications were self-limiting and were managed conservatively. Data from this study suggest that pectoralis major flap is a reliable option for head and neck reconstruction and has a major role even in this era of free flaps. The selection of pectoralis major flap over free flap was influenced by patient factors in most cases. Resource constraints remain a major deciding factor in a developing country setting.

  14. Unilateral ectopic insertion of the pectoralis minor: Clinical and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Goldman, E; Vasan, C; Lopez-Cardona, H; Vasan, N

    2016-03-01

    During routine dissection of a 70-year-old female, we observed a unilateral ectopic insertion of the left pectoralis minor muscle. The tendon was cord-like and passed through a tendon sheath superior to the coracoid process to insert on the greater tubercle of the humerus. Additionally, an aponeurosis extended from the distal aspect of the muscle's tendon and passed medially to insert near the base of the coracoid process. This is the first report of an additional aponeurosis extending from the tendon of the pectoralis minor and attaching to the coracoid process. We also observed that the pectoralis minor tendon caused an unusually smooth deep indentation on the superior aspect of the coracoid process; considering its insertion on the humerus, we hypothesize that the muscle acted as an abductor of the shoulder along with the supraspinatus. The medial extension of an aponeurotic tendon from the pectoralis minor tendon near its insertion, to the base of the coracoid process further suggests that the muscle provided stability to the glenohumeral joint while acting as an abductor. Pectoralis minor variations have been described since 1897; however, few studies have demonstrated functional or clinical significance. The redundancy of the actions of this muscle along with its long tendon suggests a potential source for autograft.

  15. A systematic review and comprehensive classification of pectoralis major tears.

    PubMed

    ElMaraghy, Amr W; Devereaux, Moira W

    2012-03-01

    Reported descriptions of pectoralis major (PM) injury are often inconsistent with the actual musculotendinous morphology. The literature lacks an injury classification system that is consistently applied and accurately reflects surgically relevant anatomic injury patterns, making meaningful comparison of treatment techniques and outcomes difficult. Published cases of PM injury between 1822 and 2010 were analyzed to identify incidence and injury patterns and the extent to which these injuries fit into a classification category. Recent work outlining the 3-dimensional anatomy of the PM muscle and tendon, as well as biomechanical studies of PM muscle segments, were reviewed to identify the aspects of musculotendinous anatomy that are clinically and surgically relevant to injury classification. We identified 365 cases of PM injury, with 75% occurring in the last 20 years; of these, 83% were a result of indirect trauma, with 48% occurring during weight-training activities. Injury patterns were not classified in any consistent way in timing, location, or tear extent, particularly with regard to affected muscle segments contributing to the PM's bilaminar tendon. A contemporary injury classification system is proposed that includes (1) injury timing (acute vs chronic), (2) injury location (at the muscle origin or muscle belly, at or between the musculotendinous junction and the tendinous insertion, or bony avulsion), and (3) standardized terminology addressing tear extent (anterior-to-posterior thickness and complete vs incomplete width) to more accurately reflect the musculotendinous morphology of PM injuries and better inform surgical management, rehabilitation, and research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurectomy for breast reconstruction-related spasms of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Miller, Nathan F; Murphy, Robert X

    2014-02-01

    Tissue expander-based breast reconstruction is the most commonly utilized technique in the U.S. This modality, however, may be associated with significant pain related to pectoralis myospasms. Spasms of the pectoralis major likely result from trauma to the pectoral nerves during muscle elevation. In a subset of patients, Botox(®) therapy may be inadequate for long-term relief. We describe a patient with intractable pectoralis myospasms after breast reconstruction. Upon failing Botox(®) therapy, medial and lateral pectoral neurectomies were performed. Nine months after the procedure, the patient noted dramatic improvement in both symptoms and cosmesis with no musculoskeletal sequelae. We recommend medial and lateral pectoral neurectomy as an alternative in patients with intractable pectoral myospasms after tissue expander reconstruction.

  17. Accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging in predicting the intraoperative tear characteristics of pectoralis major ruptures.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward S; Zou, Jiyao; Costello, Joanna M; Lin, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred study of choice for pectoralis major ruptures. Because this is a rare injury, no large case series have evaluated the efficacy of MRI for diagnosing and characterizing pectoralis major ruptures. We hypothesized that MRI would be accurate for diagnosis of the location and grade of pectoralis major tears. The study included 36 operative cases of pectoralis major ruptures with detailed descriptions of tear location and grade and satisfactory preoperative MRIs. Two musculoskeletal fellowship-trained radiologists interpreted the MRIs, which were then compared with the operative findings for location: tendon-bone junction or myotendinous junction, and tear grade (G): G2 (incomplete high grade partial tear) or G3 (complete tear). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. The MRI sensitivity was 1.00 for diagnosing complete G3 tears at the sternal head and clavicular head in acute ruptures. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosing tendon-bone tears at the sternal and clavicular heads was 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. The sensitivity of MRI in diagnosing myotendinous and G2 tears diminishes, but specificity and negative predictive value remain high for sternal and clavicular head ruptures. Our data support the use of MRI in diagnosing the tear grade and location of pectoralis major tendon ruptures, particularly for acute, tendon-bone, and G3 tears. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI decreases when chronic tears are evaluated. MRI remains a useful adjunct in diagnosing and guiding treatment of pectoralis major ruptures. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of the Composite Pedicled Pectoralis Minor Flap after Resection of Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Reconstruction of the Glenohumeral Joint

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Michiel A. J.; Cosker, Tom; McDonnell, Stephen M.; Gibbons, C. L. M. H.; Giele, Henk

    2014-01-01

    The surgical repair of an extensive anterior glenohumeral soft tissue defect is complicated by glenohumeral instability and subsequent significant functional deficit. This surgical note offers a relatively simple reconstruction of the anterior capsule and subscapularis muscle using a pectoralis minor pedicle flap. This reconstruction is supplemented with functional reconstruction of the anterior glenohumeral joint. A conventional deltopectoral approach is utilized and pectoralis minor is freed from its coracoid insertion, released, and mobilized without compromising the pedicle entering from the dorsum and inferior one-third of the muscle. The mobilized pectoralis minor vascular pedicle has sufficient length for the pectoralis minor to be transferred to provide coverage of the anterior shoulder joint even in full external rotation, providing anterior stability. To further improve glenohumeral stability and shoulder function, the pectoralis major muscle can be split with the clavicular part reinserted lateral to the bicipital groove onto the lesser tuberosity replacing subscapularis function while stabilising the glenohumeral joint. PMID:25610683

  19. Transferability of microsatellite markers of Capsicum annuum L. to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Oliveira, I B; Amaral, Z P S; Reifschneider, F J B; Faleiro, F G; Buso, G S C

    2015-07-17

    In order to support further genetic, diversity, and phylogeny studies of Capsicum species, the transferability of a Capsicum annuum L. simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite set was analyzed for C. frutescens L. ("malagueta" and "tabasco" peppers) and C. chinense Jacq. (smell peppers, among other types). A total of 185 SSR primers were evaluated in 12 accessions from 115 C. frutescens L. and 480 C. chinense Jacq, representing different types within each species. Transferability to C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq. occurred for 116 primers (62.7%). Nineteen (16.37%) were polymorphic in C. frutescens L. and 36 (31.03%) in C. chinense Jacq., 17 of which were coincident and could be used to analyze samples obtained for the 2 species. Among these primers, CA49 showed a different amplitude range of alleles between the 2 species (130-132 base pairs for C. frutescens L. and 120-128 base pairs for C. chinense Jacq.), and could differentiate the species. A total of 55 alleles were identified among the 19 polymorphic SSR loci among accessions of C. frutescens L., with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 5, a mean of 2.89, and the polymorphic information content ranging from 0.30 to 0.65. The number of alleles identified in C. chinense Jacq. was 119, ranging from 2 to 5 alleles per locus, an average of 3.30, and polymorphic information content from 0.19 to 0.68. The C. annuum L. SSR primers were most often transfer-able and polymorphic for C. frutescens L. and C. chinense Jacq., and we present a set of SSR for each species.

  20. Nandrolone decanoate increases satellite cell numbers in the chicken pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Rosser, Benjamin W C

    2010-02-01

    The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate has minimal androgenic effects and, thus, is widely used to induce muscle hypertrophy in both patients and athletes. Although increases in satellite cell numbers and satellite cells giving rise to new myonuclei are associated with hypertrophy in many experimental models, the relationship between nandrolone and satellite cells is poorly understood. Here we test the hypothesis that nandrolone administration is associated with an increase in satellite cell numbers in muscle. Nandrolone was injected at weekly intervals for four weeks into the right pectoralis muscle of female white leghorn chickens aged 63 days post hatch. Age/size/sex matched control birds received saline injections. The contralateral pectoralis was excised for study from each control and nandrolone treated bird. An antibody against Pax7 and immunocytochemical techniques were used to identify satellite cells. Nandrolone significantly increased mean pectoralis mass by approximately 22%, and mean fiber diameter by about 24%. All satellite cell indices that were quantified increased significantly in chicken pectoralis with administration of nandrolone. Nandrolone injected birds had on average higher satellite cell frequencies (#SC nuclei/all nuclei within basal lamina), number of satellite cells per millimeter of fiber, and satellite cell concentrations (closer together). Myonuclei were further apart (less concentrated) in nandrolone injected muscle. However, an overall increase in myonuclear numbers was revealed by a significantly greater mean number of myonuclei per millimeter of fiber in nandrolone injected muscle. Our results suggest that satellite cells may be key cellular vectors for nandrolone induced muscle fiber hypertrophy.

  1. Instrumental texture characteristics of broiler pectoralis major with the woody breast condition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (pectoralis major) with the woody breast condition (WBC) using instrumental texture techniques Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and texture profile analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h postmortem) broiler fillets were c...

  2. The Origins of Deltopectoral Flaps and the Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the origins and history of deltopectoral flaps and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.The first published paper on the deltopectoral flap was written by Aymard in 1917. He described raising a medially based fasciocutaneous flap from the shoulder skin, which was then tubed and used for staged nasal reconstruction. Conley introduced the laterally based deltopectoral flap, which was supplied by the lateral thoracic and thoracocranial branches. Bakamjian used a medially based deltopectoral flap for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction; this was an axial flap based medially on the intercostal perforating vessels of the internal mammary artery. Krizek reviewed the literature and stated that Aymard flap was the keystone to the conception and execution of Bakamjian flap. Hueston was the first to combine a skin flap and pectoralis major muscle for repair of the large defects of the chest wall. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps described by Ariyan and Baek are a hybrid of Conley's laterally based deltopectoral flap and Hueston's inclusion of the pectoralis major muscle in the skin flap.When the authors develop what appears to be a new surgical technique, the authors are prone to be excited. However, at such a moment the authors must perform a literature review. In most patients, the authors will realize that the previous authors have already developed a given concept. The authors must not commit plagiarism due to their ignorance or laziness in conducting a literature review.

  3. Effect of wooden breast condition on water-holding capacity of broiler breast pectoralis major

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wooden breast condition (WBC) is an emerging muscle abnormality with broiler breast meat. Limited studies have shown that WBC significantly affects meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of WBC on water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast pectoralis major. Broiler...

  4. Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail pheromones and use them to find food.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Christian; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred; Jarau, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Foragers of several species of stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Meliponini) deposit pheromone marks in the vegetation to guide nestmates to new food sources. These pheromones are produced in the labial glands and are nest and species specific. Thus, an important question is how recruited foragers recognize their nestmates' pheromone in the field. We tested whether naïve workers learn a specific trail pheromone composition while being recruited by nestmates inside the hive in the species Scaptotrigona pectoralis. We installed artificial scent trails branching off from trails deposited by recruiting foragers and registered whether newly recruited bees follow these trails. The artificial trails were baited with trail pheromones of workers collected from foreign S. pectoralis colonies. When the same foreign trail pheromone was presented inside the experimental hives while recruitment took place a significant higher number of bees followed the artificial trails than in experiments without intranidal presentation. Our results demonstrate that recruits of S. pectoralis can learn the composition of specific trail pheromone bouquets inside the nest and subsequently follow this pheromone in the field. We, therefore, suggest that trail pheromone recognition in S. pectoralis is based on a flexible learning process rather than being a genetically fixed behaviour.

  5. Fracture of the proximal humerus with disruption of the tendon of the pectoralis major

    PubMed Central

    Berghs, Bart M.; Tongel, Alexander Van; Bo, Thomas De; De Wilde, Lieven F.

    2016-01-01

    Combined pectoralis major disruption and proximal humeral fractures are uncommon. A simple radiologic diagnostic tool which consists of the measurement of the displacement from the humeral shaft to the lateral side of the humeral head (lateral to the outer proximal cortex) can help to diagnose this combined lesion. PMID:26980990

  6. Galactorrhoea of the neck following pectoralis major reconstruction of a pharyngeal defect.

    PubMed

    Wheble, Gac; Taylor, K J; Potter, M

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of postoperative galactorrhea following the use of a pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of a pharyngolaryngeal defect in a woman with squamous cell carcinoma. We believe this to be unique in the literature, and an important complication to be reported, due to the similarities in appearance of galactorrhoea and postoperative aerodigestive tract/cutaneous fistula.

  7. Hyperactive pectoralis reflex as an indicator of upper cervical spinal cord compression. Report of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Watson, J C; Broaddus, W C; Smith, M M; Kubal, W S

    1997-01-01

    Myelopathy from cervical spondylosis is often accompanied by hyperreflexia of the upper-extremity deep tendon reflexes (DTRs). Reflexes such as the pectoralis jerk and the deltoid jerk may only be apparent in the context of hyperreflexia. Although the nerve roots involved in the reflex arcs are well described, levels of cervical spinal cord compression that lead to the hyperreflexia are not as clear. This is of particular significance for patients with multilevel cervical spondylosis in determining the levels responsible for their symptoms. The authors examined 15 consecutive patients who presented for treatment of cervical myelopathy. The clinical examination was then correlated with levels of cervical spinal cord compression by cervical magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography with intrathecal contrast enhancement. The presence of a prominent pectoralis jerk was seen only in patients with spinal cord compression at the C2-3 and/or C3-4 levels (nine patients). No patient with compression at or below the C4-5 disc space without coexisting compression at a higher level had hyperactive pectoralis reflexes. This association between the C3-4 level and a hyperactive pectoralis reflex was significant (p < 0.004, Fisher's exact test). The deltoid reflex was tested in the last nine consecutive patients. It was present in patients with compression of the upper spinal cord at levels C3-4 and C4-5 (four of five patients) but appeared in only one of four patients with compression below C4-5. This association did not attain statistical significance. The presence of a hyperactive pectoralis reflex is specific for lesions of the upper cervical spinal cord. Examination of upper-extremity DTRs may be helpful in planning the appropriate levels for surgical decompression in patients with multilevel spondylosis and myelopathy.

  8. Three-dimensional anatomical vascular distribution in the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Rikimaru, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Inoue, Youjirou; Tai, Yoshiaki

    2005-04-15

    In head and neck reconstruction, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, located adjacent to the area of reconstruction, is a very useful and easy-to-prepare flap. However, it is reported to have an unstable blood circulation that could result in partial necrosis of the skin island. The current study investigated the detailed three-dimensional vascular network in the flap to establish a method of preparation with a stable circulation. The pectoralis major muscle and the anterior chest skin on 12 sides of eight fresh cadavers were subjected to angiographic procedures in which contrast medium was injected selectively to the internal thoracic artery and the thoracoacromial artery. On another fresh cadaver, resin was injected in the same manner, and a clear specimen of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap was prepared. The pectoralis major muscle consists of two anatomical vascular territories that the choke vessels in the muscle at the level of the fourth costal cartilage divide into cranial and caudal sides. The chest skin area on the caudal side where the skin island of the flap is prepared receives its blood supply from a dense anastomotic network formed by the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal perforating branches. The blood flow in the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery runs through the choke vessels that dilate at the elevation of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, first into the fourth intercostal perforating branches; then to the anastomotic vascular network of the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal perforating branches; and finally to reach the periphery of the skin island.

  9. Recurrent neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome stressing the importance of pectoralis minor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Although first described over 60 years ago, neurogenic pectoralis minor syndrome (NPMS) has only recently been noted to be present in over half the patients with a clinical diagnosis of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). Similarly, NPMS has also been observed in the majority of patients with recurrent NTOS. This study explores the role of pectoralis minor tenotomy (PMT) in patients with recurrent NTOS. A total of 86 patients with symptoms of recurrent NTOS, who had failed to improve on conservative management, were evaluated by history and physical examination for both NPMS and NTOS. Diagnostic tests included pectoralis minor muscle (PMM) blocks, scalene muscle blocks, and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MAC) measurements. Surgery was either PMT alone or PMT plus brachial plexus decompression (BPD). Follow-up was 1 to 3 years. All patients had multiple symptoms of pain, weakness, and paresthesia. Patients who qualified for PMT alone had slightly fewer symptoms than those who required PMT plus BPD. There was essentially no difference in physical findings between the 2 groups. It was the response to PMM blocks and scalene muscle blocks that determined which of the 2 operations was performed. Pectoralis minor tenotomy alone gave 69% good results in 65 operations, with 8% fair and 23% failures. Pectoralis minor tenotomy plus BPD in 39 operations gave 58% good improvement, 20% fair and 22% failures. All patients with recurrent NTOS should be evaluated clinically for NPMS. If patients complain of pain or tenderness in the anterior chest wall and axilla, a diagnostic PMM block should be performed. A good response to the block suggests that consideration be given to performing PMT alone as it a simple, low-risk outpatient procedure. If unsuccessful, BPD can be performed at a later date. If there is a poor response to the PMM block, BPD is indicated along with PMT, provided there were some symptoms of NPMS.

  10. Shoulder horizontal abduction stretching effectively increases shear elastic modulus of pectoralis minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujita, Kosuke; Kusano, Ken; Nishishita, Satoru; Araki, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanase, Ko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-07-01

    Stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle, which involve shoulder horizontal abduction or scapular retraction, are performed in clinical and sports settings because the tightness of this muscle may contribute to scapular dyskinesis. The effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle is unclear in vivo. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. Elongation of the pectoralis minor muscle was measured for 3 stretching maneuvers (shoulder flexion, shoulder horizontal abduction, and scapular retraction) at 3 shoulder elevation angles (30°, 90°, and 150°). The shear elastic modulus, used as the index of muscle elongation, was computed using ultrasonic shear wave elastography for the 9 aforementioned stretching maneuver-angle combinations. The shear elastic modulus was highest in horizontal abduction at 150°, followed by horizontal abduction at 90°, horizontal abduction at 30°, scapular retraction at 30°, scapular retraction at 90°, scapular retraction at 150°, flexion at 150°, flexion at 90°, and flexion at 30°. The shear elastic moduli of horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150° were significantly higher than those of other stretching maneuvers. There was no significant difference between horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150°. This study determined that shoulder horizontal abduction at an elevation of 90° and horizontal abduction at an elevation of 150° were the most effective stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [A new trematode species, Gonocerca pecitorali sp. n. (Hemiurata: Derogenidae) from Albatrossia pectoralis (Gilbert, 1891) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae)].

    PubMed

    Shevtsova, L S

    2013-01-01

    A new trematode species, Gonocerca pectorali sp. n. was revealed in the collection of fish trematodes from the Pacific Ocean (Kuril Islands region). A brief review of publications on the species composition of the genus Gonocerca is given and points of view of some researchers on the genus structure were analyzed. The description of G. pectorali is given together with the differential diagnosis of the new species and the discussion on its position in the structure of the genus.

  12. Pectoralis muscle uptake of thallium-201 after arm exercise ergometry. Possible confusion with lung thallium-201 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Campeau, R.J.; Garcia, O.M.; Correa, O.A.; Mace, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Pectoralis muscle uptake of thallium-201 was noted in 8 (73%) out of 11 patients after exercise arm ergometry. Uptake varied from mild to marked and potentially could be confused with pulmonary Tl-201 activity with a resulting false-positive diagnosis of exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction. The three patients exhibiting negative or trace Tl-201 uptake had suboptimal exercise efforts. The characteristics of pectoralis muscle Tl-201 uptake are illustrated, and differentiation from true lung Tl-201 activity is discussed.

  13. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Gharedaghi, Milad; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum) is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum. Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE) and its n-hexane (non-polar) and residual partition (polar) fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg) and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg) and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg), 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection) of formalin test (p<0.05 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine). In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection), non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant analgesic activity (p<0.001 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine). Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:28265549

  14. Seasonal Shifts of Photosynthesis in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. 1

    PubMed Central

    Guralnick, Lonnie J.; Rorabaugh, Patricia A.; Hanscom, Zac

    1984-01-01

    Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq., a perennial facultative Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, was studied under natural photoperiods and temperatures in San Diego, California. The plants were irrigated every fourth day throughout the study period. Measurements of 14CO2 uptake, stomatal resistance, and titratable acidity were made periodically from July 1981 through May 1982. P. afra maintained C3 photosynthesis during the winter and the spring. Diurnal acid fluctuations were low and maximal 14CO2 uptake occurred during the day. The day/night ratio of carbon uptake varied from 5 to 10 and indicated little nocturnal CO2 uptake. CAM photosynthesis occurred during the summer and a mixture of both C3 and CAM during the fall. Large acid fluctuations of 100 to 200 microequivalents per gram fresh weight were observed and maximal 14CO2 uptake shifted to the late night and early morning hours. Daytime stomatal closure was evident. A reduction in the day/night ratio of carbon uptake to 2 indicated a significant contribution of nocturnal CO2 uptake to the overall carbon gain of the plant. The seasonal shift from C3 to CAM was facilitated by increasing daytime temperature and accompanied by reduced daytime CO2 uptake despite irrigation. PMID:16663899

  15. Hybrid production of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) Kummer.

    PubMed

    Gharehaghaji, A Nikzad; Goltapeh, E Mohammadi; Masiha, S; Gordan, H R

    2007-07-15

    Optimization of industrial mushroom production depends on improving the culture process and breeding new strains with higher yields and productivities. So many works have been done on process improvement, Although few systematic studies of genetic breeding of Pleurotus ostreatus strains have been reported. The major aim of hybridization is to combine desirable characteristics from different strains and create variability in the existing germ plasm. In this study, we used a breeding approach to hybrid production from cultivated Oyster mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus. Five strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) Kummer were used in this research. Basidiospores were suspended in sterile distilled water and counted with a haemocytometer. After germination, colony of each isolate transferred into the PDA medium. Growth rate and colony type of each isolate was determined and then 17 monokaryons were selected. Consequently screening monokaryons were crossed to each other. Some characteristics such as morphological interaction in the contact zone of mycelium, increasing in growth rate of hybrid, change of colony morphology and the presence of clamp connections between dikaryotic cells used to distinction of monokaryons from dikaryons. We recognized 27 hybrids by these characteristics.

  16. [Case of Central Venous Catheter Laceration of the Pectoralis Minor Muscle].

    PubMed

    Endo, Shunji; Furuichi, Kinya; Morimoto, Kengo; Kotsuma, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Terumasa; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Adachi, Shinichi; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Ueda, Masami; Tsuda, Yujiro; Takayama, Hirotoshi; Itakura, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Nishijima, Junichi

    2016-12-01

    A 50's underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer 4 years before. He had received chemotherapy for para-aortic lymph node metastases. A central venous catheter with a subcutaneous port was implanted via the right subclavian vein, under ultrasonographic guidance, 1 year 3 months earlier. The patient complained of swelling in his right chest during intravenous injection of ramucirumab and paclitaxel via the port. A chest radiograph revealed that a catheter fracture. A CT scan showed that the fractured catheter had lacerated the pectoralis minor muscle and the tip was in the right inferior pulmonary artery. The catheter fragment was removed using a pigtail catheter and a snare catheter via a percutaneous transfemoral approach, without any complication. The catheter was cut at 15.5 cm from the tip. This fracture was thought to be caused by a kink in the pectoralis muscle.

  17. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-12-22

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P

  18. Bipolar Latissimus Dorsi Transfer for Restoration of Pectoralis Major Function in Poland Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patrick; Leyngold, Mark; Mast, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    Poland syndrome typically presents as a unilateral congenital complete or partial absence of the pectoralis major muscle, variably with other associated anomalies. Reconstruction of the defect typically concentrates on aesthetic restoration with functional outcomes being unsuccessful or limited. We present an innovative means of true muscle transfer that provided functional benefit to increase upper extremity strength. A 16-year-old adolescent boy with Poland syndrome manifesting as left pectoralis major muscle agenesis wished to undergo functional reconstruction. He wanted to play on his high school football team, but could not meet the minimum weightlifting requirements. An ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle bipolar functional transfer was done with bone-anchored inset into the sternum and humerus so that muscle flexion would replace the absent pectoralis major. A progressive weight training program was then instituted postoperatively. At 9 months, a significant increase in left upper extremity strength was confirmed. The patient ultimately was able to surpass the weightlifting requirements for his high school football team, and joined the team. Our highlighted procedure restored functional outcome using both plastic surgical principles and orthopedic techniques for muscle and tendon repair: bipolar muscle transfer and load-bearing muscle inset. Heretofore, transfer of the latissimus for provision of pectoralis major function has not been reported. Functional reconstruction was possible due to stable, bipolar muscle transfer with load-bearing muscle attachments into cortical bone of the anterior sternum and anteromedial aspect of the humerus. The techniques described should be within the skill set of most plastic surgeons, so that functional restoration for those with Poland syndrome is possible and accessible.

  19. Exact moment of tendon of pectoralis major muscle rupture captured on video.

    PubMed

    de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Monteiro, Gustavo Cara; Fleury, Anna Maria; Faloppa, Flavio; Cohen, Moises; Albertoni, Walter Manna

    2007-09-01

    A powerlifting athlete ruptured his left tendon of the pectoralis major muscle while attempting to lift 160 kg in a Brazilian bench press championship. The injury seemed to occur in the concentric phase of exercise; however, the more common mechanism of rupture is during the eccentric phase. The tendon was reinserted to the humerus 3 weeks later with screws and washers. The athlete returned to competitive activities after 5 months. One year later he lifted 170 kg and won the national championship.

  20. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  1. Analisys of pectoralis major tendon in weightlifting athletes using ultrasonography and elastography

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ferretti, Mario; Kawakami, Eduardo Felipe Kin Ito; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Cohen, Moisés; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate tendinopathy of the pectoralis major muscle in weightlifting athletes using ultrasound and elastography. Methods This study included 20 patients, 10 with rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and 10 control patients. We evaluated pectoralis major muscle contralateral tendon with ultrasonographic and elastography examinations. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed using a high-resolution B mode ultrasound device. The elastography evaluation was classified into three patterns: (A), if stiff (more than 50% area with blue staining); (B), if intermediate (more than 50% green); and (C), if softened (more than 50% red). Results Patients’ mean age was 33±5.3 years. The presence of tendinous injury measured by ultrasound had a significant different (p=0.0055), because 80% of cases had tendinous injury versus 10% in the Control Group. No significant differences were seen between groups related with change in elastography (p=0.1409). Conclusion Long-term bodybuilders had ultrasound image with more tendinous injury than those in Control Group. There was no statistical significance regarding change in tendon elasticity compared with Control Group. PMID:26761551

  2. Role of the pectoralis major myofascial flap in preventing pharyngocutaneous fistula following salvage laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Chaukar, D A; Laskar, S G; Kapre, N; Deshmukh, A; Pai, P; Chaturvedi, P; D'Cruz, A

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the utility of onlay pectoralis major myofascial flap in preventing pharyngocutaneous fistula following salvage total laryngectomy. A retrospective analysis was performed of 172 patients who underwent salvage laryngectomy for recurrent carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx between 1999 and 2014. One hundred and ten patients underwent primary closure and 62 patients had pectoralis major myofascial flap onlay. The overall pharyngocutaneous fistula rate was 43 per cent, and was similar in both groups (primary closure group, 43.6 per cent; onlay flap group, 41.9 per cent; p = 0.8). Fistulae in the onlay flap group healed faster: the median and mean fistula duration were 37 and 55 days, respectively, in the primary closure group and 20 and 25 days, respectively, in the onlay flap group (p = 0.008). Use of an onlay pectoralis major myofascial flap did not decrease the pharyngocutaneous fistula rate, although fistula duration was shortened. A well-designed randomised-controlled trial is needed to establish parameters for its routine use in clinical practice.

  3. Myodegeneration with fibrosis and regeneration in the pectoralis major muscle of broilers.

    PubMed

    Sihvo, H-K; Immonen, K; Puolanne, E

    2014-05-01

    A myopathy affecting the pectoralis major muscle of the commercial broiler has emerged creating remarkable economic losses as well as a potential welfare problem of the birds. We here describe the macroscopic and histologic lesions of this myopathy within 10 pectoralis major muscles of 5- to 6-week-old broilers in Finland. Following macroscopic evaluation and palpation of the muscles, a tissue sample of each was fixed in formalin, processed for histology, and histologically evaluated. The muscles that were macroscopically hard, outbulging, pale, and often accompanied with white striping histologically exhibited moderate to severe polyphasic myodegeneration with regeneration as well as a variable amount of interstitial connective tissue accumulation or fibrosis. All affected cases also exhibited perivenular lymphocyte accumulation. The etiology of this myodegenerative lesion remains yet open. Polyphasic myodegeneration is associated with several previously known etiologies, but palpatory hardness focusing on the pectoralis major, together with perivenular lymphocytes, has not been described in relation to them. The results of this study provide the pathological basis for further studies concerning the etiology of the currently described myopathy.

  4. Xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructs hypopharynx and cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Danhui; Tang, Qinglai; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shisheng; He, Xiangbo; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Yang, Mi; Yang, Xinming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction. A total of five patients were treated with this surgical method to reconstruct hypopharynx and cervical esophagus in Second Xiangya Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Four of them had hypopharyngeal carcinoma with laryngeal and cervical esophageal invasion, while the fifth patient with hypopharyngeal cancer had developed scars and atresia after postoperative radiotherapy. The defect length after hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal resection was 6-8 cm, and was repaired by a combination of ADM and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap by our team. Interestingly, the four patients had primary healing and regained their eating function about 2-3 weeks after surgery, the fifth individual suffered from pharyngeal fistula, but recovered after dressing change about 2 months. Postoperative esophageal barium meals revealed that the pharynx and esophagus were unobstructed in all five patients. Xenogeneic ADM in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction is a simple, safe and effective method with fewer complications. Nevertheless, according to the defect length of the cervical esophagus, the patients need to strictly follow the medical advice.

  5. 4-Deoxyaurone Formation in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Miosic, Silvija; Knop, Katrin; Hölscher, Dirk; Greiner, Jürgen; Gosch, Christian; Thill, Jana; Kai, Marco; Shrestha, Binita Kumari; Schneider, Bernd; Crecelius, Anna C.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Svatoš, Aleš; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    The formation of 4-deoxyaurones, which serve as UV nectar guides in Bidens ferulifolia (Jacq.) DC., was established by combination of UV photography, mass spectrometry, and biochemical assays and the key step in aurone formation was studied. The yellow flowering ornamental plant accumulates deoxy type anthochlor pigments (6′-deoxychalcones and the corresponding 4-deoxyaurones) in the basal part of the flower surface whilst the apex contains only yellow carotenoids. For UV sensitive pollinating insects, this appears as a bicoloured floral pattern which can be visualized in situ by specific ammonia staining of the anthochlor pigments. The petal back side, in contrast, shows a faintly UV absorbing centre and UV absorbing rays along the otherwise UV reflecting petal apex. Matrix-free UV laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-MSI) indicated the presence of 9 anthochlors in the UV absorbing areas. The prevalent pigments were derivatives of okanin and maritimetin. Enzyme preparations from flowers, leaves, stems and roots of B. ferulifolia and from plants, which do not accumulate aurones e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, were able to convert chalcones to aurones. Thus, aurone formation could be catalyzed by a widespread enzyme and seems to depend mainly on a specific biochemical background, which favours the formation of aurones at the expense of flavonoids. In contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation, hydroxylation and oxidative cyclization to the 4-deoxyaurones does not occur in one single step but is catalyzed by two separate enzymes, chalcone 3-hydroxylase and aurone synthase (catechol oxidase reaction). Aurone formation shows an optimum at pH 7.5 or above, which is another striking contrast to 4-hydroxyaurone formation in Antirrhinum majus L. This is the first example of a plant catechol oxidase type enzyme being involved in the flavonoid pathway and in an anabolic reaction in general. PMID:23667445

  6. Bony avulsion injury of the pectoralis major in a 19 year-old male judo athlete: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Nathan P; Westrick, Richard B; Owens, Brett D; Johnson, Michael R

    2013-12-01

    Bony avulsion of the pectoralis major muscle is a rare but potentially devastating injury for athletes. Pectoralis major rupture typically occurs in 20 to 39 year-old males. The shoulder region is one of the most frequently injured areas in Judo athletes. The purpose of this case report is to describe diagnosis and treatment following a pectoralis major bony avulsion due to an atypical mechanism of injury in a young Judo athlete. A 19-year-old military cadet and competitive judo athlete reported to a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic 7 weeks after incurring a shoulder injury during a judo match. He complained of shoulder pain and weakness with the inability to perform pushups. He presented with horizontal adduction weakness and visible discontinuity of the pectoralis muscle with resisted adduction. Radiographs demonstrated a bony avulsion of the pectoralis major from its humeral attachment. The patient underwent surgical repair of the lesion the next week and was able to resume most military cadet activities within 5 months post-operation. Bony avulsions are exceptionally rare injuries, and are even more uncommon in athletes under the age of 20. It is important for clinicians to perform a thorough history and physical examination in order to avoid missing this diagnosis. Surgery is likely the best option for a young athletic population; while conservative management may be optimal for the older, inactive population. 4.

  7. Variance of the pectoralis major in relation to the inframammary fold and the pectoralis minor and its application to breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Baek, Woo Yeol; Byun, Il Hwan; Seok Kim, Young; Jung, Bok Ki; Yun, In Sik; Roh, Tai Suk

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the muscles and other structures of the chest is of great importance in breast surgery. We have conducted the first analysis of the overall variations and relationships among the pectoralis major (PM), inframammary fold (IMF), and pectoralis minor (Pm). We studied 30 patients and 10 cadavers, leading to a total of 50 breasts. Preoperatively, the breast width was measured, and the costal origin of the lowest IMF point was marked. Intraoperatively, we recorded the costal origins of the PM and IMF, PM width, the distance between the PM and IMF, and the relationship and distance between the PM and Pm. Among the patients, PMs originated from the sixth rib in 80% and above the IMF in 66.67%. The mean distances between the PM and IMF were 10.5 mm in the patients and 16 mm in the cadavers. The mean PM/breast width ratio was 0.82 in the patients and 0.85 in the cadavers. The PM and Pm mostly crossed on the fourth or fifth rib, and the average angles between the two muscles were 23.5° and 21.4° in the patients and cadavers, respectively. This study is the first to analyze the anatomical variations of the PM, IMF, and Pm simultaneously. We also examined the differences between Western and Asian populations. Understanding the anatomy is undoubtedly crucial for breast surgery, and here we provide a firm guide to the variations to be expected during operations, which can lead to successful outcomes. Clin. Anat. 30:357-361, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pectoralis Major Myofascial Onlay and Myocutaneous Flaps and Pharyngocutaneous Fistula in Salvage Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Sturm, Joshua J.; Gooding, William E.; Johnson, Jonas T.; Kim, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the fistula rate in irradiated patients undergoing salvage laryngectomy, compare the effect of closure type on fistula rate, and examine possible perioperative risk factors that might contribute to an increased fistula rate. Study Design Case series with chart review. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of the University of Pittsburgh head and neck tumor registry and identified 73 patients from 1998 to 2011 who had received prior radiation before total laryngectomy or salvage laryngectomy and who had either primary closure, pectoralis major myofascial flap (PMMF) onlay, or pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC). Results Fistula was more common in patients who underwent initial primary closure (45%) than in patients who had immediate PMMF onlay (10.5%). The fistula rate for patients who underwent immediate PMMC flap was 28.6%, intermediate to primary closure and PMMF flap. Several factors were evaluated for relationship to fistula, but no significant associations were identified. However, patients with fistula tended to have longer inpatient stays and may have been more likely to have a history of cardiovascular or hypoxic disease. Conclusion Pharyngocutaneous fistula is a well-established complication of total laryngectomy, and it is especially a concern in patients with a previous history of radiation. Our retrospective review demonstrates pectoralis major myofascial onlay flap appears to be more effective in reducing the rate of fistula compared to primary closure in these patients. Myocutaneous augmentation flaps, in contrast, have a fairly high fistula rate and may be better replaced with alternative closures such as free flaps. PMID:25132580

  9. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin allotransplantation model of bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Klimczak, Aleksandra; Nasir, Serdar; Zor, Fatih; Krokowicz, Lukasz; Siemionow, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cellular and vascularized bone marrow cells have been used to induce donor-specific chimerism in various models of composite tissue allotransplantation. Although thymus transplantation has been reported in the literature, the effect of thymus transplantation on chimerism levels in vascularized bone containing composite tissue allotransplantation has not been reported. In this study, a new method for composite vascularized sternal bone marrow transplant model is descried that can be applied to augment chimerism after transplantation. A total of seven composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscles, and skin transplantations were performed in two groups. The first group (n = 5) was designed as an allotransplantation group and the second group (n = 2) was designed as an isotransplantation group. Composite osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, and pectoralis muscles allografts were harvested on the common carotid artery and external jugular vein and a heterotopic transplantation was performed to the inguinal region of the recipient rat. Cyclosporine A monotherapy was administered in order to prevent acute and chronic allograft rejection. Animals sacrificed when any sign of rejection occurred. The longest survival was 156 day post-transplant. Assessment of bone marrow cells within sternum bone component and flow cytometry analysis of donor-specific chimerism in the peripheral blood of recipients were evaluated. Our results showed that this composite allograft carried 7.5 × 10(6) of viable hematopoietic cells within the sternum component. At day 7 post-transplant chimerism was developed in T-cell population and mean level was assessed at 2.65% for RT1(n) /CD4 and at 1.0% for RT1(n) /CD8. In this study, a new osseomusculocutaneous sternum, ribs, thymus, pectoralis muscle, and skin allotransplantation model is reported which can be used to augment hematopoietic activity for chimerism induction after transplantation.

  10. Measurement of /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Yee B.

    1988-10-01

    The current status of the measurement of ''direct'' CP violation parameters /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ in the Fermilab experiment E731 is reviewed. Preliminary results on upper limit for the decays K/sub L/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// and ..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup /minus// (from 20% of the data taken in 1987-88) are also reported. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Exact moment of tendon of pectoralis major muscle rupture captured on video

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Monteiro, Gustavo Cara; Fleury, Anna Maria; Faloppa, Flavio; Cohen, Moises; Albertoni, Walter Manna

    2007-01-01

    A powerlifting athlete ruptured his left tendon of the pectoralis major muscle while attempting to lift 160 kg in a Brazilian bench press championship. The injury seemed to occur in the concentric phase of exercise; however, the more common mechanism of rupture is during the eccentric phase. The tendon was reinserted to the humerus 3 weeks later with screws and washers. The athlete returned to competitive activities after 5 months. One year later he lifted 170 kg and won the national championship. PMID:17337486

  12. Five-headed biceps brachii muscle with a rare origin from the tendon of pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Je, Sung-Suk; Park, Bori; Kim, Jinu; Yoon, Sang-Pil

    2016-01-01

    We found a five-headed biceps brachii (BB) muscle associated with the pectoralis major muscle in a 43-year-old Korean male cadaver during a routine dissection course. A supernumerary head originated from the anterior surface of the distal tendinous part of the pectoralis major muscle, lay in the sulcus between the short and long heads of BB muscle, and terminated at their point of union. The additional two accessory heads originated from the body of the humerus between the insertion site of the coracobrachialis muscle and the origin site of the brachialis muscle and inserted into the distal part of the united muscle belly of the BB muscle. The additional accessory heads were supplied by branches of the musculocutaneous nerve. Although a supernumerary head of BB muscle originated from the pectoralis major is a peculiar finding, morphological details on the presence of another combined variation might be essential for clinicians as well as anatomists.

  13. Antibacterial activity of stem and leaf extract of Kedrostis foetidissima (Jacq.) Cogn.

    PubMed Central

    Priyavardhini, S.; Gowri, S. Shyamala; Vasantha, K.; Umadevi, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of chloroform extracts of stem and leaf of Kedrostis foetidissima (jacq.) cogn. (Cucurbitaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the chloroform extract of stem presented the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa others show significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557304

  14. [Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in reconstruction of head and neck defects].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Zan; Zhou, Xiao; Yu, Jianjun; Bao, Ronghua; Zhang, Hailin; Ling, Hang

    2015-05-01

    To report the experience of use of modified pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps in reconstruction of head and neck postoperative defects. A total of 107 patients who underwent head and neck defect reconstruction using modified PMMC flaps after tumor rescetion between Jan 2008 and Dec 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate of reconstruction with modified PMMC flaps was 94.4% (101/107). Five patients had partial flap necrosis and their wounds healed with dressing change. One patient (0.9%) had total flap necrosis, followed by the second reconstruction using contralateral PMMC flap. The modified falcate PMMC flap can obtain optimum quantity of the skin in the chest and decreasing the closing tension of the donnor site in favor of wound healing. The pedicle without muscle will not only maintain the partial function of the pectoralis major, but also help to avoid pressing the vascular pedicle within the subclavian tunnel. The muscular element the pedicled muscles of the PMMC flap can increase the ability of the flap to resist infection, which can use for covering an exposed carotid artery and improving the neck fibrosis of irradiated patients.

  15. Medial scapular winging associated with rib fractures and plating corrected with pectoralis major transfer

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G.; Mears, Chad S.; Langston, Tanner D.; Van Boerum, Don H.; White, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Rib plating is becoming increasingly common as a method for stabilizing a flail chest resulting from multiple rib fractures. Recent guidelines recommend surgical stabilization of a flail chest based on consistent evidence of its efficacy and lack of major safety concerns. But complications of this procedure can occur and are wide ranging. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report an interesting case of a 58-year-old male patient that worked as a long-distance truck driver and had a flail chest from multiple bilateral rib fractures that occurred when his vehicle was blown over in a wind storm. He underwent open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF) of the bilateral rib fractures and they successfully healed. However, he had permanent long thoracic nerve injury on the side with the most severe trauma. This resulted in symptomatic scapular winging that impeded him from long-distance truck driving. The scapular winging was surgically corrected nearly two years later with a pectoralis major transfer augmented with fascia lata graft. The patient had an excellent final result. DISCUSSION We report this case to alert surgeons who perform rib fracture ORIF that long thoracic nerve injury is a potential iatrogenic complication of that procedure or might be a result of the chest wall trauma. CONCLUSION Although the specific cause of the long thoracic nerve injury could not be determined in our patient, it was associated with chest wall trauma in the setting of rib fracture ORIF. The scapular winging was surgically corrected with a pectoralis major transfer. PMID:25238337

  16. Hygienic behavior in the stingless bees Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    PubMed

    Medina, L M; Hart, A G; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-05-19

    Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing pupae. Both species detected and removed dead brood. However, removal rates differed between species. In M. beecheii colonies, workers took 2-9 days to remove 100% of the dead brood (4.4 +/- 2.0 days, mean +/- SD), while S. pectoralis removed all dead brood in less than 3 days (2.3 +/- 0.6 days, mean +/- SD). We conclude that hygienic behavior is not unique to A. mellifera, and is not solely an adaptation for the reuse of brood cells as occurs in honey bees but not stingless bees. Although stingless bees do not reuse brood cells, space is limited. The removal of dead brood may be necessary to allow new cells to be constructed in the same place.

  17. Pectoralis major myofascial interposition flap prevents postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula in salvage total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Anschütz, Lukas; Nisa, Lluís; Elicin, Olgun; Bojaxhiu, Beat; Caversaccio, Marco; Giger, Roland

    2016-11-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most cumbersome complication after salvage total laryngectomy (STL) in patients who have been previously irradiated for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. To assess the fistula rate, risk factors and effects of primary closure with and without pectoralis major myofascial interposition flap (PMMIF) on fistula formation, we conducted a retrospective review. We identified 48 patients from 2004 to 2013 who underwent STL after failure of primary curative (chemo)radiotherapy in laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. Details of risk factors for PCF formation, other postoperative complications and general outcome data were analyzed. Ten (20.8 %) out of 48 patients underwent STL with PMMIF closure. Patient and tumor features were not different between the groups with or without PMMIF closure. PCF rates were 0 and 42.1 % in patients with and without PMMIF, respectively (p = 0.002). Other operative complications were similar. We identified prior neck irradiation to be a risk factor for fistula formation (p = 0.04). Patients without PCF had a statistically significant reduction of average hospital stay (20 vs. 56 days; p = 0.001). Analysis of fistula management revealed 50 % of PCF to be closed secondarily by a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. Over one-third of fistulae persisted despite attempted surgical closure in some cases. PMMIF is useful to prevent PCF in STL following (chemo)radiotherapy. Neck irradiation during primary treatment is a risk factor for PCF formation.

  18. Wooden Breast Myodegeneration of Pectoralis Major Muscle Over the Growth Period in Broilers.

    PubMed

    Sihvo, H-K; Lindén, J; Airas, N; Immonen, K; Valaja, J; Puolanne, E

    2017-01-01

    Wooden breast (WB) myopathy of broiler chickens is a myodegenerative disease of an unknown etiology and is macroscopically characterized by a hardened consistency of the pectoralis major muscle. Our aim was to describe the development and morphology of WB over the growth period in broilers. Additionally, the effect of restricted dietary selenium on the occurrence of WB was examined by allocating the birds in 2 dietary groups: restricted and conventional level of selenium. The experiment included 240 male broilers that were euthanized at ages of 10, 18, 24, 35, 38, or 42 days and evaluated for WB based on abnormal hardness of the pectoralis major muscle. The severity and the distribution of the lesion and presence of white striping were recorded. The first WB cases were seen at 18 days; 13/47 birds (28%) were affected and the majority exhibited a mild focal lesion. In subsequent age groups the WB prevalence varied between 48% and 73% and the lesion was usually diffuse and markedly firm. White striping often coexisted with WB. Histological evaluation performed on 111 cases revealed a significant association of myodegeneration and lymphocytic vasculitis with WB. Vasculitis and perivascular cell infiltration were restricted to the veins. Restricted dietary selenium did not affect the occurrence of WB ( P = .44). Our results indicate that WB starts focally and spreads to form a diffuse and more severe lesion.

  19. Recruits of the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis learn food odors from the nest atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Christian; Jarau, Stefan; Aguilar, Ingrid; Ayasse, Manfred

    2010-05-01

    The ability to learn food odors inside the nest and to associate them with food sources in the field is of essential importance for the recruitment of nestmates in social bees. We investigated odor learning by workers within the hive and the influence of these odors on their food choice in the field in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona pectoralis. During the experiments, recruited bees had to choose between two feeders, one with an odor that was present inside the nest during the recruitment process, and one with an unknown odor. In all experiments with different odor combinations (linalool/phenylacetaldehyde, geraniol/eugenol) a significant majority of bees visited the feeder with the odor they had experienced in their nest ( χ 2-tests; p < 0.05). By contrast, the bees showed no preference for one of two feeders when they were either baited with the same odor (linalool) or contained no odor. Our results clearly show that naïve workers of S. pectoralis can learn the odor of a food source during the recruitment process from the nest atmosphere and that their subsequent food search in the field is influenced by the learned odor.

  20. Volumetric Evaluation of the Mammary Gland and Pectoralis Major Muscle following Subglandular and Submuscular Breast Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Ana Claudia Weck; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Salin, Renan; de Castro, Claudio Cardoso; Aboudib, Jose Horacio; Marques, Ruy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Besides being a procedure with high level of patient satisfaction, one of the main causes for reoperation after breast augmentation is related to contour deformities and changes in breast volume. Few objective data are available on postoperative volumetric analysis following breast augmentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate volume changes in the breast parenchyma and pectoralis major muscle after breast augmentation with the placement of silicone implants in the subglandular and submuscular planes. Fifty-eight women were randomly allocated either to the subglandular group (n = 24) or submuscular group (n = 24) and underwent breast augmentation in the subglandular or submuscular plane, respectively, or to a control group (n = 10) and received no intervention. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed at inclusion in all participants and either after 6 and 12 months in the control group or at 6 and 12 months after surgery in the intervention groups. Twelve months after breast augmentation, only the subglandular group had a significant reduction in glandular volume (mean, 22.8 percent), while patients in the submuscular group were the only ones showing significant reduction in muscle volume (mean, 49.80 percent). Atrophy of the breast parenchyma occurred after subglandular breast augmentation, but not following submuscular breast augmentation. In contrast, submuscular breast augmentation caused atrophy of the pectoralis major muscle. Therapeutic, II.

  1. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  2. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  3. Effect of the wooden breast condition on shear force and texture profile analysis of raw and cooked broiler pectoralis major

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (Pectoralis major) with the wooden breast condition (WBC) using the instrumental texture techniques of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h post-mortem) broiler fille...

  4. Reliability of measuring pectoralis minor muscle resting length in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Dayana P.; Borstad, John D.; Pires, Elisa D.; Camargo, Paula R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pectoralis minor adaptive shortening may change scapula resting position and scapular kinematics during arm elevation. A reliable and clinically feasible method for measuring pectoralis minor length will be useful for clinical decision making when evaluating and treating individuals with shoulder pain and dysfunction. Objectives: To evaluate intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability of a pectoralis minor (PM) muscle length measurement in subjects with and without signs of shoulder impingement. Method: A convenience sample of 100 individuals (50 asymptomatic and 50 symptomatic) participated in this study. Intra- and interrater reliability of the measurement was estimated in 50 individuals (25 asymptomatic and 25 symptomatic), and between-day reliability of the measurement repeated over an interval of 7 days was estimated in an independent sample of 50 additional participants. Pectoralis minor length was measured using a flexible tape measure with subjects standing. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC3,k) for intrarater and interrater reliability ranged from 0.86-0.97 and 0.95 for between-day reliability in both groups. Standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged from 0.30-0.42 cm, 0.70-0.84 cm, and 0.40-0.41 cm for intrarater, interrater, and between-day reliability, respectively, across the sample. The minimal detectable change (MDC) for between-day measurements ranged from 1.13-1.14 cm for both groups. Conclusions: In asymptomatic individuals and in those with signs of shoulder impingement, a single rater or pair of raters can measure pectoralis minor muscle length using a tape measure with very good reliability. This measurement can also be reliably used by the same rater over a seven day interval. PMID:26982455

  5. Quantitative Computed Tomography Measures of Pectoralis Muscle Area and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Ross, James C.; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Zhou, Linfu; Regan, Elizabeth A.; Eckbo, Eric; Muralidhar, Nina; Come, Carolyn E.; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Lange, Christoph; Wouters, Emiel; Casaburi, Richard H.; Coxson, Harvey O.; MacNee, William; Rennard, Stephen I.; Lomas, David A.; Agusti, Alvar; Celli, Bartolome R.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer L.; Kinney, Greg L.; Lutz, Sharon M.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle wasting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a poor prognosis and is not readily assessed by measures of body mass index (BMI). BMI does not discriminate between relative proportions of adipose tissue and lean muscle and may be insensitive to early pathologic changes in body composition. Computed tomography (CT)–based assessments of the pectoralis muscles may provide insight into the clinical significance of skeletal muscles in smokers. Objectives: We hypothesized that objective assessment of the pectoralis muscle area on chest CT scans provides information that is clinically relevant and independent of BMI. Methods: Data from the ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) Study (n = 73) were used to assess the relationship between pectoralis muscle area and fat-free mass. We then used data in a subset (n = 966) of a larger cohort, the COPDGene (COPD Genetic Epidemiology) Study, to explore the relationship between pectoralis muscle area and COPD-related traits. Measurements and Main Results: We first investigated the correlation between pectoralis muscle area and fat-free mass, using data from a subset of participants in the ECLIPSE Study. We then further investigated pectoralis muscle area in COPDGene Study participants and found that higher pectoralis muscle area values were associated with greater height, male sex, and younger age. On subsequent clinical correlation, compared with BMI, pectoralis muscle area was more significantly associated with COPD-related traits, including spirometric measures, dyspnea, and 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD). For example, on average, each 10-cm2 increase in pectoralis muscle area was associated with a 0.8-unit decrease in the BODE (Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) index (95% confidence interval, –1.0 to –0.6; P < 0.001). Furthermore, statistically significant associations between pectoralis muscle area and COPD

  6. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Alaska blackfish (Esociformes: Dallia pectoralis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Sage, George K.; DeWilde, Rachel L.; López, J. Andres; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Blackfishes (Esociformes: Esocidae: Dallia), small fishes with relictual distributions, are unique in being the only primary freshwater fish genus endemic to Beringia. Although the number of species of Dallia is debated, disjunct populations and distinct mitochondrial divisions that predate the end of the last glacial maximum are apparent. We developed sixteen polymorphic microsatellites from the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) to study genetic diversity in Dallia. Genotypes from two populations, Denali (n = 31) and Bethel (n = 35), demonstrated the usefulness of the loci for population-level investigation. Observed and expected heterozygosity averaged 18.6 and 19.8 % in Denali and 61.1 and 63.7 % in Bethel. Number of alleles at each locus averaged 3.50 in Denali and 9.63 in Bethel. The observed signature of variability and structuring between populations is consistent with mitochondrial data.

  7. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  8. Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for the total glossectomy defects: Effect on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gangiti, Kranthi Kumar; Gondi, Jonathan T; Nemade, Hemantkumar; Sampathirao, L M Chandra Sekhara Rao; Raju, K V V N; Rao, T Subramanyeshwar

    2016-07-01

    There is a general notion that, total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation leads to high dependency of tracheostomy and/or feeding tube. The objective of this study is to analyze the quality of life in terms of tube dependency following total glossectomy with a modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) reconstruction and laryngeal suspension. The retrospective study included consecutive patients operated from July 2012 to February 2015 proven advanced Carcinoma of tongue. We analyzed the time to wean off tracheostomy and feeding tube in 56 patients who underwent total glossectomy and a modified technique of PMMC reconstruction. The median time for tracheostomy weaning was 10 days and nasogastric tube was 16 days. Modified technique of reconstruction with PMMC in total glossectomy is a viable option with minimal functional morbidity. Quality of life in terms of tracheostomy and feeding tube dependency is minimal. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:32-35. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Avoiding Breast Animation Deformity with Pectoralis-Sparing Subcutaneous Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kobraei, Edward M; Cauley, Ryan; Gadd, Michele; Austen, William G; Liao, Eric C

    2016-05-01

    There is renewed interest in sparing the pectoralis major muscle in implant breast reconstruction, placing the implant in the subcutaneous position. This advance is made reliable by improvements in mastectomy skin flap quality, evolution of technique, and increased awareness of breast animation deformity. This retrospective review presents 13 patients (23 breasts) reconstructed immediately with placing the definitive implant in the subcutaneous space without disruption of the underlying chest muscles. None of the 13 patients had breast animation deformity postoperatively. One patient experienced an early hematoma, and 3 patients had small seromas that resolved uneventfully. One morbidly obese patient undergoing chemotherapy using a nearby chest port experienced infection requiring implant removal. This study describes an early experience, demonstrates feasibility, and discusses patient selection considerations that are important because we continue to evolve breast reconstruction approaches.

  10. Avoiding Breast Animation Deformity with Pectoralis-Sparing Subcutaneous Direct-to-Implant Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kobraei, Edward M.; Cauley, Ryan; Gadd, Michele; Austen, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: There is renewed interest in sparing the pectoralis major muscle in implant breast reconstruction, placing the implant in the subcutaneous position. This advance is made reliable by improvements in mastectomy skin flap quality, evolution of technique, and increased awareness of breast animation deformity. This retrospective review presents 13 patients (23 breasts) reconstructed immediately with placing the definitive implant in the subcutaneous space without disruption of the underlying chest muscles. None of the 13 patients had breast animation deformity postoperatively. One patient experienced an early hematoma, and 3 patients had small seromas that resolved uneventfully. One morbidly obese patient undergoing chemotherapy using a nearby chest port experienced infection requiring implant removal. This study describes an early experience, demonstrates feasibility, and discusses patient selection considerations that are important because we continue to evolve breast reconstruction approaches. PMID:27579232

  11. Salvage for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap failure in head and neck reconstruction by microvascular flap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chen-Ling; Wu, Yi-Chia; Lai, Ching-Hung; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lin, Sin-Daw; Chang, Kao-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap (PMMPF) - the "workhorse" for head and neck reconstruction - is associated with a high incidence of complications in certain cases. This study presents free tissue transfer as an alternative salvage technique after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction. It includes seven consecutive patients who underwent free tissue salvage after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction from January 2008 to September 2010 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Four vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flaps were applied for tongue and mouth floor defects, while three anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps were used for mouth floor, buccal, and cheek defects. All flaps survived uneventfully, and normal oral feeding was achieved without major complications. Free tissue transfer has several advantages and can be successfully employed in head and neck reconstruction, and it is also a reliable salvage procedure after PMMPF failure in such cases.

  12. Segmenting pectoralis muscle on digital mammograms by a Markov random field-maximum a posteriori model

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Mei; Mainprize, James G.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Accurate and automatic segmentation of the pectoralis muscle is essential in many breast image processing procedures, for example, in the computation of volumetric breast density from digital mammograms. Its segmentation is a difficult task due to the heterogeneity of the region, neighborhood complexities, and shape variability. The segmentation is achieved by pixel classification through a Markov random field (MRF) image model. Using the image intensity feature as observable data and local spatial information as a priori, the posterior distribution is estimated in a stochastic process. With a variable potential component in the energy function, by the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the labeling image, given the image intensity feature which is assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution, we achieved convergence properties in an appropriate sense by Metropolis sampling the posterior distribution of the selected energy function. By proposing an adjustable spatial constraint, the MRF-MAP model is able to embody the shape requirement and provide the required flexibility for the model parameter fitting process. We demonstrate that accurate and robust segmentation can be achieved for the curving-triangle-shaped pectoralis muscle in the medio-lateral-oblique (MLO) view, and the semielliptic-shaped muscle in cranio-caudal (CC) view digital mammograms. The applicable mammograms can be either “For Processing” or “For Presentation” image formats. The algorithm was developed using 56 MLO-view and 79 CC-view FFDM “For Processing” images, and quantitatively evaluated against a random selection of 122 MLO-view and 173 CC-view FFDM images of both presentation intent types. PMID:26158068

  13. Pectoralis Muscle Flap Repair Reduces Paradoxical Motion of the Chest Wall in Complex Sternal Wound Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Zeitani, Jacob; Russo, Marco; Pompeo, Eugenio; Sergiacomi, Gian Luigi; Chiariello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with chronic complex sternum dehiscence, the use of muscle flap repair minimizes the occurrence of paradoxical motion of the chest wall (CWPM) when compared to sternal rewiring, eventually leading to better respiratory function and clinical outcomes during follow-up. Methods In a propensity score matching analysis, out of 94 patients who underwent sternal reconstruction, 20 patients were selected: 10 patients underwent sternal reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis muscle flaps (group 1) and 10 underwent sternal rewiring (group 2). Eligibility criteria included the presence of hemisternum diastases associated with multiple (≥3) bone fractures and radiologic evidence of synchronous chest wall motion (CWSM). We compared radiologically assessed (volumetric computed tomography) ventilatory mechanic indices such as single lung and global vital capacity (VC), diaphragm excursion, synchronous and paradoxical chest wall motion. Results Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 85±24 months). CWPM was inversely correlated with single lung VC (Spearman R=−0.72, p=0.0003), global VC (R=−0.51, p=0.02) and diaphragm excursion (R=−0.80, p=0.0003), whereas it proved directly correlated with dyspnea grade (Spearman R=0.51, p=0.02) and pain (R=0.59, p=0.005). Mean CWPM and single lung VC were both better in group 1, whereas there was no difference in CWSM, diaphragm excursion and global VC. Conclusion Our study suggests that in patients with complex chronic sternal dehiscence, pectoralis muscle flap reconstruction guarantees lower CWPM and greater single-lung VC when compared with sternal rewiring and it is associated with better clinical outcomes with less pain and dyspnea. PMID:27733997

  14. Cholesterol content and intramuscular collagen properties of pectoralis superficialis muscle of quail from different genetic groups.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Knaga, S; Witkowski, A; Cianciullo, D; Bednarczyk, M

    2011-07-01

    To study growth performance and meat quality traits (cholesterol content and intramuscular collagen properties) of quail, 3 trials were carried out. Trial 1 used males of generation 19 of the egg type Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected previously (until generation 17) for low (n = 8) or high (n = 7) yolk cholesterol content as well as an unselected control (n = 11). Trial 2 used males of meat Pharaoh quail selected earlier (generations 1 to 6 and 9 to 11) on the basis of BW decrease after periodic deprivation of food (high decrease of weight, n = 10; low decrease of weight, n = 8) and unselected control (n = 10). Trial 3 compared males of English White quail, Manchurian Golden quail, and British Range quail. The birds were raised to 35 d of age. Quail were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age and had free access to water. At slaughter, all birds were individually weighed (after a fasting period of 12 h), stunned, and decapitated. After the refrigeration period (24 h at 4°C), the left pectoralis superficialis muscle was removed from the carcasses, weighed, vacuum packaged, and stored frozen (-40°C) for analyses of cholesterol and intramuscular collagen (IMC; collagen and crosslink concentration). In trial 1, divergent selection for yolk cholesterol content did not significantly influence pectoralis superficialis muscle weight and IMC crosslinking of Japanese quail, whereas it significantly reduced growth and IMC amount. In addition, it had greater effect on the amount of cholesterol in meat; in fact, the meat of quail with low yolk cholesterol content contained lower cholesterol (-36.6%) than that of birds with high yolk cholesterol content. In trial 2, divergent selection on the basis of Pharaoh quail BW decrease altered IMC crosslinking, leading to variability in meat tenderness of Pharaoh quail. In trial 3, English White quail were significantly heavier than the other breeds.

  15. Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae (teleomorph: Glomerella acutata var. fioriniae var. nov.) infection of a scale insect.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Jose; Giordano, Rosanna; Gouli, Svetlana; Gouli, Vladimir; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; TeBeest, David; Cesnik, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    An epizootic has been reported in Fiorinia externa populations in New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and NewJersey. Infected insects have profuse sclerotial masses enclosing their bodies. The most commonly isolated microorganism from infected F. externa was Colletotrichum sp. A morphological and molecular characterization of this fungus indicated that it is closely related to phytopathogenic C. acutatum isolates. Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. from F. externa in areas of the epizootic were similar genetically and were named Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae var. nov, based on our findings. In vitro and in planta mating observed between isolates of C. acutatum var. fioriniae could serve as a possible source of genetic variation and might give rise to new biotypes with a propensity to infect insects. Only one other strain, C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae, has been reported to show entomopathogenic activity.

  16. Repair of Double Head Pectoralis Major Tendon Avulsion into its Native Footprint Using Bi-cortical EndoButtons and Tendon Sliding Technique.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Jagadish; Faqi, Mohammed Khalid; Alkhalifa, Fahad; Tayara, Bader Kamal; Awad, Rashad Khamis

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent. The mechanism of injury is usually an eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. We report a case that presented to us with a history of sudden pain in the left pectoral region while doing heavy bench press exercise. The patient sustained a type III D pectoralis muscle -tendon avulsion. Surgical repair was done through a bi-cortical tendon sliding technique using two cortical buttons. In this article we describe our modifications to the previously described surgical technique for the pectoralis major tendon repair using the EndoButton and tension - slide technique, aiming to overcome the possible complications.

  17. Repair of Double Head Pectoralis Major Tendon Avulsion into its Native Footprint Using Bi-cortical EndoButtons and Tendon Sliding Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Jagadish; Faqi, Mohammed Khalid; Alkhalifa, Fahad; Tayara, Bader Kamal; Awad, Rashad Khamis

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to the pectoralis major muscle are relatively infrequent. The mechanism of injury is usually an eccentric shortening of the pectoralis major under heavy load, such as when performing a bench press exercise. We report a case that presented to us with a history of sudden pain in the left pectoral region while doing heavy bench press exercise. The patient sustained a type III D pectoralis muscle –tendon avulsion. Surgical repair was done through a bi-cortical tendon sliding technique using two cortical buttons. In this article we describe our modifications to the previously described surgical technique for the pectoralis major tendon repair using the EndoButton and tension – slide technique, aiming to overcome the possible complications. PMID:28217216

  18. Complete unilateral right-sided absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in an adult male cadaver of South Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Dayal, Stephen; Bhat, Rashmi; Shankar, Nachiket

    2014-01-01

    The unilateral complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscles in the absence of other anomalies is very rare. The complete absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior on the right side was observed during routine dissection of an elderly male cadaver of South Indian origin. Nodularity of the right fifth rib near the fifth costochondral junction was seen. The lateral pectoral and long thoracic nerves were present on the right side. Moderate right-sided disuse atrophy was noted in the pectoralis minor and the rotator cuff muscles due to a shoulder arthrodesis performed on that side. No abnormalities were noted on the left side. There was no family history of any upper limb anomalies suggestive of Poland's syndrome. The findings in the present case could be either due to a sporadic variant of Poland's syndrome or an isolated congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior.

  19. Effect of isometric horizontal abduction on pectoralis major and serratus anterior EMG activity during three exercises in subjects with scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band during three exercises (forward flexion, scaption, and wall push-up plus) in subjects with scapular winging by investigating the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior and the pectoralis major/serratus anterior activity ratio. Twenty-four males with scapular winging participated in this study. The subjects performed the forward flexion, scaption, and wall push-up plus with and without isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band. Surface EMG was used to collect the EMG data of the pectoralis major and serratus anterior during the three exercises. Two-way repeated analyses of variance with two within-subject factors (isometric horizontal abduction condition and exercise type) were used to determine the statistical significance of pectoralis major and serratus anterior EMG activity and the pectoralis major/serratus anterior EMG activity ratio. Pectoralis major EMG activity was significantly lower during forward flexion and wall push-up plus with isometric horizontal abduction, and serratus anterior EMG activity was significantly greater with isometric horizontal abduction. Additionally, the pectoralis major/serratus anterior activity ratio was significantly lower during the forward flexion and wall push-up plus with isometric horizontal abduction. The results of this study suggest that isometric horizontal abduction using Thera-Band can be used as an effective method to facilitate the serratus anterior activity and to reduce excessive pectoralis major activity during exercises for activating serratus anterior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic diversity and structure in Mamey [P. sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn] by using microsatellite markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, as well as for the fungitoxic, anti-inflamatory and anti-oxidant activity of extracts from its bark, leaves and roots, though its genetics is unknown. We did high-throughput sequencing of micr...

  1. The mean fibre area of the semitendinosus, diaphragm and pectoralis transversus muscles in differing types of horse and dog.

    PubMed

    Gunn, H M

    1978-10-01

    The mean fibre areas of samples from m. semitendinosus, m. diaphragma and m. pectoralis transversus of thoroughbred horses and greyhounds have been compared with those in similar samples from other members of their species. Athletes (greyhounds and thoroughbreds) have larger fibres in the semitendinosus and diaphragm than their fellows. However, the mean area of pectoralis transversus is similar in the two types of animal within each species. During growth the mean fibre areas increase to a greater extent in athletes than in non-athletes. Detraining adult greyhounds for a period of one year did not signficantly alter the fibre area; nor were any sex differences detected. Although the mean fibre area of corresponding muscles is significantly larger in horses than in dogs, the difference is proportionately less than that of their live weights.

  2. Pectoralis major tendon reference (PMT): a new method for accurate restoration of humeral length with hemiarthroplasty for fracture.

    PubMed

    Murachovsky, Joel; Ikemoto, Roberto Y; Nascimento, Luis G P; Fujiki, Edison N; Milani, Carlo; Warner, Jon J P

    2006-01-01

    For hemiarthroplasty reconstruction of a proximal humeral fracture, accurate restoration of humeral head position is challenging, and incorrect prosthetic placement is associated with a poor outcome of surgical treatment. The purpose of this study was to validate the pectoralis major tendon as a reproducible landmark for accurate restoration of humeral length with hemiarthroplasty reconstruction. We dissected 20 cadavers (40 shoulders), and the distance between the upper border of the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus and the top of the humeral head was measured (PMT). The PMT averaged 5.6 +/- 0.5 cm (with a confidence level of 95%). In only 4 of 40 shoulders did this distance exceed 6.0 cm, and there was no correlation between the size of the patient and this measurement. The PMT is a useful landmark that will aid in accurate restoration of humeral length when reconstructing complex proximal humeral fractures where landmarks are otherwise lost because of fracture comminution.

  3. Preliminary Investigations of the Anti-asthmatic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia pectoralis (Fresh Cut).

    PubMed

    Cameron, C; Jacob, A S; Thomas, E A; Levy, A S

    2015-09-01

    Justicia pectoralis (fresh cut plant), family Acantheceae, is a herb that is native to central America and the Caribbean. A crude extract prepared from the leaves of Justicia pectoralis is commonly used in Jamaican ethnotraditional medicine to reduce difficulty in breathing and suppress wheezing in asthmatic individuals. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihistamine activity of an aqueous extract of Justicia pectoralis. In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem (1987). The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine. The crude extract was efficacious in reducing the formation of histamine-induced wheals (p < 0.05). Results obtained from in vitro studies indicated that the crude extract (3.3 mg) caused significant reduction in tracheal smooth muscle contraction resulting from cumulative doses of histamine (p < 0.05). However, as the histamine doses increased, fresh cut extract was not able to maintain inhibition of histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction. This is an indication that the extract showed competitive reversible antagonism, possibly at histamine receptors. A crude extract of the leaves Justicia pectoralis reduced the formation of histamine-induced wheals in sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.05) and also reduced histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions (p < 0.05). It blocked the effect of contraction produced by histamine in the airways; this property supports folklore claims for its use as an antihistamine.

  4. Preliminary Investigations of the Anti-asthmatic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Justicia pectoralis (Fresh Cut)

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, C; Jacob, AS; Thomas, EA; Levy, AS

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Justicia pectoralis (fresh cut plant), family Acantheceae, is a herb that is native to central America and the Caribbean. A crude extract prepared from the leaves of Justicia pectoralis is commonly used in Jamaican ethnotraditional medicine to reduce difficulty in breathing and suppress wheezing in asthmatic individuals. Objectives: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihistamine activity of an aqueous extract of Justicia pectoralis. Method: In in vivo experiments, guinea pigs were sensitized by the method of Weinrich and Undem, 1987. The effect of water on the wheals was assessed in the control group, n = 4. The effect of 3.3 mg of the crude extract was noted in histamine-induced wheals over a period of three hours. The extract was injected via intraperitoneal injections. In in vitro experiments, 3.3 mg of crude sample was tested for its effectiveness against histamine-induced tracheal contraction caused by cumulative dosing of histamine. Results: The crude extract was efficacious in reducing the formation of histamine-induced wheals (p < 0.05). Results obtained from in vitro studies indicated that the crude extract (3.3 mg) caused significant reduction in tracheal smooth muscle contraction resulting from cumulative doses of histamine (p < 0.05). However, as the histamine doses increased, fresh cut extract was not able to maintain inhibition of histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction. This is an indication that the extract showed competitive reversible antagonism, possibly at histamine receptors. Conclusion: A crude extract of the leaves of Justicia pectoralis reduced the formation of histamine-induced wheals in sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.05) and also reduced histamine-induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions (p < 0.05). It blocked the effect of contraction produced by histamine in the airways; this property supports folklore claims for its use as an antihistamine. PMID:26624581

  5. Isokinetic muscle assessment after treatment of pectoralis major muscle rupture using surgical or non-surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Anna Maria; Silva, Antonio Carlos da; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance.

  6. Isokinetic muscle assessment after treatment of pectoralis major muscle rupture using surgical or non-surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Anna Maria; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rupture of the pectoralis major muscle appears to be increasing in athletes. However, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. OBJECTIVES: To compare the isokinetic shoulder performance after surgical treatment to that after non-surgical treatment for pectoralis major muscle rupture. METHODS: We assessed 33 pectoralis major muscle ruptures (18 treated non-surgically and 15 treated surgically). Horizontal abduction and adduction as well as external and internal rotation at 60 and 120 degrees/s were tested in both upper limbs. Peak torque, total work, contralateral deficiency, and the peak torque agonist-to-antagonist ratio were measured. RESULTS: Contralateral muscular deficiency did not differ between the surgical and non-surgical treatment modalities. However, the surgical group presented twice the number of athletes with clinically acceptable contralateral deficiency (<20%) for internal rotators compared to the non-surgical group. The peak torque ratio between the external and internal rotator muscles revealed a similar deficit of the external rotation in both groups and on both sides (surgical, 61.60% and 57.80% and non-surgical, 62.06% and 54.06%, for the dominant and non-dominant sides, respectively). The peak torque ratio revealed that the horizontal adduction muscles on the injured side showed similar weakness in both groups (surgical, 86.27%; non-surgical, 98.61%). CONCLUSIONS: This study included the largest single series of athletes reported to date for this type of injury. A comparative analysis of muscular strength and balance showed no differences between the treatment modalities for pectoralis major muscle rupture. However, the number of significant clinical deficiencies was lower in the surgical group than in the non-surgical group, and both treatment modalities require greater attention to the rehabilitation process, especially for the recovery of muscle strength and balance. PMID:21484052

  7. Influence of in ovo injection of glutamine and carbohydrates on digestive organs and pectoralis muscle mass in the duck.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Wang, R; Wan, H F; Xiong, X L; Peng, P; Peng, J

    2009-07-01

    1. We hypothesise that administration of available glutamine and carbohydrates by in ovo injection may provide energy for small intestine and duck embryo activity, in turn alleviating energy lack, sparing the pectoralis muscle protein and increasing breast muscle mass. To test this hypothesis, 220 duck eggs at 21 d of incubation were chosen and assigned to two treatments. At 23 d of incubation, glutamine, digestible sucrose and maltose were injected into the amniotic fluid in the treatment group. 2. In ovo injection of glutamine and carbohydrates improved small intestine development, as reflected in the increase in weight and sucrase activity, though gizzard, proventriculus and liver weight were not affected by the in ovo injection. 3. Compared with control, pectoralis weight in treatment ducks was increased by 24% at 25 d of incubation and 15% at hatch and this advantage was sustained until 7 d posthatch. In ovo injection improved duck weight gain in the early days posthatch. 4. The results of the present study suggest that in ovo injection of glutamine and carbohydrates improves small intestine development and pectoralis mass, which is probably due to sparing of breast muscle protein.

  8. Speech and swallowing function after reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap or a pectoralis major flap for tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Wan-Fu; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Sheng, Hwa

    2002-07-01

    The tongue plays a more significant role in English than in Mandarin, both in apical-palatal consonant production and tense-lax distinction. Theoretically, the same surgical intervention may produce a less significant impact on postoperative Mandarin production. The impact of tongue reconstruction on Mandarin articulation has not been reported. This study compared the tongue function outcome obtained using two methods of tongue reconstruction, radial forearm free flap transfer and pectoralis major flap transfer. Twenty-five patients with carcinoma of the tongue underwent tumor resection. The surgical defects were reconstructed using a pectoralis major flap in six patients and a radial forearm flap in 19 patients. Swallowing and speech function were evaluated 6 months to 5 years after the reconstruction. Speech intelligibility and a Mandarin articulation test were used to evaluate the articulation proficiency before and after surgery. Clinical evaluation of deglutition included a questionnaire on dietary habits and a swallowing rating of 1 to 7. Clinical evaluation showed that patients with free flap reconstruction had more intelligible speech (p = 0.014) even after total glossectomy. Assessment of data obtained by clinical questionnaire showed no significant difference between the two groups in swallowing function. Motility due to flap pliability increased speech intelligibility but had little effect on swallowing function. Our results suggest that radial forearm flap transfer is better than pectoralis major flap transfer in preserving speech function and that there is no significant difference between the two methods of reconstruction in their impact on swallowing function.

  9. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting.

  10. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the influence of myodegeneration of pectoralis major muscle on quality traits and chemical composition of breast meat of heavy-size male broilers. For this purpose, a total of 72 pectoralis major muscles were randomly collected from broilers farmed under homogeneous conditions and graded into three categories (mild, n=22; moderate, n=33; and severe, n=17) based on the presence of abnormal fibers (giant fibers, fibers with hyaline degeneration, and damaged and/or necrotic fibers) evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Color, pH, drip loss, Allo-Kramer shear values, and chemical composition (moisture, proteins, total lipids, ashes, and collagen) were determined on nonmarinated breast meat. Purge loss and cook loss, total yield, and Allo-Kramer shear values were measured on vacuum-tumbled samples. Samples showing moderate myodegeneration had the highest mean cross-sectional area of the fibers, while samples with severe myodegeneration had myofibers of different diameter and without the characteristic polygonal shape, multifocal degeneration and necrosis, as well as infiltration of CD3-immunoreactive cells. Cooking losses of nonmarinated meat were lower in the mild group with respect to moderate and severe groups (21.4 vs. 24.7 and 24.7%; P<0.001). Breast muscles with severe damage, in comparison with mild degenerated samples, showed higher moisture (75.4 vs. 74.4%; P<0.05) and lower protein percentages (21.1 vs. 22.6%; P<0.001). The lipid percentage of severely degenerated samples was higher than that from moderate group (2.94 vs. 2.36; P<0.05), while collagen content was not modified by histological lesion levels. Marinated meat from the mild group had higher uptake and total marinade yield after cooking. In conclusion, almost all breast fillets of heavy broiler chickens produced under intensive farming systems had histological lesions, which reflected on the chemical composition of the meat and the impaired

  11. Return to Function, Complication, and Reoperation Rates Following Primary Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair in Military Service Members.

    PubMed

    Nute, Drew W; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Waterman, Brian R

    2017-01-04

    Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have become increasingly common injuries among young, active individuals over the past 30 years; however, there is presently a paucity of reported outcome data. We investigated the ability to return to full preoperative level of function, complications, reoperation rates, and risk factors for failure following surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon in a cohort of young, highly active individuals. All U.S. active-duty military patients undergoing pectoralis major tendon repair between 2008 and 2013 were identified from the Military Health System using the Management Analysis and Reporting Tool (M2). Demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and trends in preoperative and postoperative self-reported pain scale (0 to 10) and strength were extracted. The ability to return to the full preoperative level of function and rates of rerupture and reoperation were the primary outcome measures. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis identified significant variables. A total of 257 patients with pectoralis major tendon repair were identified with a mean follow-up (and standard deviation) of 47.8 ± 17 months (range, 24 to 90 months). At the time of the latest follow-up, 242 patients (94%) were able to return to the full preoperative level of military function. Fifteen patients (5.8%) were unable to return to duty because of persistent upper-extremity disability. A total of 15 reruptures occurred in 14 patients (5.4%). Increasing body mass index and active psychiatric conditions were significant predictors of inability to return to function (odds ratio, 1.56 [p = 0.0001] for increasing body mass index; and odds ratio, 6.59 [p = 0.00165] for active psychiatric conditions) and total failure (odds ratio, 1.26 [p = 0.0012] for increasing body mass index; and odds ratio, 2.73 [p = 0.0486] for active psychiatric conditions). We demonstrate that 94% of patients were able to return to the full preoperative level of

  12. Mate guarding and territorial aggression vary with breeding synchrony in golden whistlers ( Pachycephala pectoralis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Wouter F. D.

    2008-06-01

    Male paternity assurance behaviour during the female fertile period has been widely documented amongst birds. In contrast, how sex-specific behavioural strategies vary with local breeding synchrony levels remains largely unknown. This is important because, in many species, intra-population patterns of extra-pair fertilisation rates, and hence cuckoldry risk, are known to vary with the number of simultaneously fertile females. Each sex may therefore differ in how they behave towards male conspecifics during different degrees of breeding synchrony. Here I provide evidence of such sex-specific differences in the golden whistler ( Pachycephala pectoralis), a species in which within-pair paternity assurance is negatively associated with breeding synchrony. Via simulated territorial intrusions using decoy males, I show that males, but not females, increase levels of aggression to male intruders during periods of low synchrony, possibly because cuckoldry risk is greatest during this period. In addition, males appear to invest more effort into mate guarding after, but not before, territorial intrusions during this period. These inter-sexual differences may reflect conflicts in interest between the sexes, with females consistently showing interest in males during the fertile period regardless of synchrony levels and males investing more resources into expelling intruders when the risk of paternity loss is greatest. This study thus provides evidence that males may be able to detect variation in breeding synchrony and cuckoldry risk and adjust their paternity assurance behaviour accordingly.

  13. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction: risk factors for fistula formation.

    PubMed

    Leite, A K N; de Matos, L L; Belli, M; Kulcsar, M A V; Cernea, C R; Garcia Brandão, L; Pinto, F R

    2014-12-01

    The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) is a safe and versatile flap used widely for head and neck cancer reconstructions, but one of the major and most feared complications is oro- or pharyngocutaneous fistula. Herein, we attempt to establish risk factors for fistula formation in reconstructions of mucosal defects in the head and neck using PMMF through retrospective analysis of PMMF performed during 3 years at a single institution, with a total of 84 procedures. There were 69 men and 15 women, with a mean age of 59.5 years. There were 15 cases of partial flap loss, two total flap losses and 31 fistulas. The independent risk factors for fistula formation were preoperative serum hemoglobin < 13 g/dl, preoperative serum albumin < 3.4 g/dl and hypopharynx reconstruction. The PMMF is still a very useful flap and this is the first multivariate analysis analysing risk factors for fistula formation. These findings are helpful in selecting patients with elevated risk of fistula formation, and therefore preventive measures can be undertaken to avoid potentially serious complications.

  14. [Traumatic rupture of the pectoralis major tendon--a case report].

    PubMed

    Kindt, A; Rott, O; Irlenbusch, U

    2010-09-01

    A 49-year-old male athlete sustained a complete rupture of the pectoralis major muscle while bench pressing. The inferior and the superior border of the clavicular lamina and the sternal lamina were fixed with mattress sutures. After that transosseous reinsertion via drill holes (no suture anchors). The lateral rim of both tendons was fixed with Mason-Allen sutures. Final adaption of the distal tendon stump above the reinserted tendon (doubling). Postoperative immobilisation for 3 weeks in Gilchrists sling was followed by active-assistive step-by-step mobilisation. A speedy rehabilitation was planned after 6 weeks, but at this time the patient was doing strength training, swimming, pull-ups and press-ups at his own responsibility. Normal mobility and previous sports activity were achieved in spite of the early and extremely high stress. We assume that the very strong and secure reinsertion technique with 4 mattress sutures, Mason-Allen sutures and doubling of the tendon close to the foot print region may be the reason for the good result in spite of the massive and early loading.

  15. Trophic ecology of introduced populations of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Eidam, Dona M.; Carlson, Matthew L.; Lassuy, Dennis R.; López, J. Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Introduced non-native fishes have the potential to substantially alter aquatic ecology in the introduced range through competition and predation. The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is a freshwater fish endemic to Chukotka and Alaska north of the Alaska Range (Beringia); the species was introduced outside of its native range to the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska in the 1950s, where it has since become widespread. Here we characterize the diet of Alaska blackfish at three Cook Inlet Basin sites, including a lake, a stream, and a wetland. We analyze stomach plus esophageal contents to assess potential impacts on native species via competition or predation. Alaska blackfish in the Cook Inlet Basin consume a wide range of prey, with major prey consisting of epiphytic/benthic dipteran larvae, gastropods, and ostracods. Diets of the introduced populations of Alaska blackfish are similar in composition to those of native juvenile salmonids and stickleback. Thus, Alaska blackfish may affect native fish populations via competition. Fish ranked third in prey importance for both lake and stream blackfish diets but were of minor importance for wetland blackfish. PMID:28082763

  16. Subclavicular Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Optimal Reconstruction of Large Orbitozygomatic Defects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pingarron, Lorena; Ruiz, Julian; Rey, Juan; Maniegas, Lourdes; Roson, Silvia; Martinez, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of microvascular free flaps, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) has been relegated to background for most reconstructive surgeons. The objective of this article is to show the advantages of cervicofacial defects reconstruction with PMMF using the subclavicular plane route in a challenging clinical case. An 83-year-old man presented with cutaneous temporomalar lesion with orbital spread. Tumor resection was performed, including 12 × 11 cm skin and subcutaneous tissue, overlying zygomatic and malar bone, and orbital exenteration. Radical parotidectomy and functional neck dissection were performed. PMMF was chosen as reconstructive option routing the pedicle to the subclavicular plane. The length of the pedicle was 31 cm. The subclavicular route for PMMF increases the flap's length and arc of rotation compared with the conventional supraclavicular one. This procedure decreases the bulk of the PMMF pedicle which makes it functionally and cosmetically favorable. By using this modification, we may widen the “safe” reconstructive possibilities. PMID:25136415

  17. Trophic ecology of introduced populations of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Eidam, Dona M; von Hippel, Frank A; Carlson, Matthew L; Lassuy, Dennis R; López, J Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Introduced non-native fishes have the potential to substantially alter aquatic ecology in the introduced range through competition and predation. The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is a freshwater fish endemic to Chukotka and Alaska north of the Alaska Range (Beringia); the species was introduced outside of its native range to the Cook Inlet Basin of Alaska in the 1950s, where it has since become widespread. Here we characterize the diet of Alaska blackfish at three Cook Inlet Basin sites, including a lake, a stream, and a wetland. We analyze stomach plus esophageal contents to assess potential impacts on native species via competition or predation. Alaska blackfish in the Cook Inlet Basin consume a wide range of prey, with major prey consisting of epiphytic/benthic dipteran larvae, gastropods, and ostracods. Diets of the introduced populations of Alaska blackfish are similar in composition to those of native juvenile salmonids and stickleback. Thus, Alaska blackfish may affect native fish populations via competition. Fish ranked third in prey importance for both lake and stream blackfish diets but were of minor importance for wetland blackfish.

  18. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and Pimenta racemosa var. grisea.

    PubMed

    Saenz, M T; Tornos, M P; Alvarez, A; Fernandez, M A; García, M D

    2004-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and P. racemosa var. grisea was determined against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. P. racemosa var. grisea demonstrated a more pronounced activity. These data would indicate the potential usefulness of the variety grisea as a microbiostatic, antiseptic or disinfectant agent.

  19. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  20. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  1. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd.

    PubMed

    Swarna, J; Lokeswari, T S; Smita, M; Ravindhran, R

    2013-12-15

    Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd is an erect, succulent, perennial herb belonging to the family Portulacaceae. Under extreme environmental conditions, the plant produces betalain pigments which get accumulated in the stem region. Hence, in the present study, the betaxanthin and betacyanin patterns from different samples of T. triangulare have been investigated by applying high-performance liquid chromatography photo-diode array detection (HPLC-PDA) coupled with positive ion electro-spray mass spectrometry. Two betacyanins and two betaxanthins were identified in aqueous methanolic extract of flower, stem and leaf. Betanin, isobetanin, immonium conjugates of betalamic acid with dopamine and tyrosine were elucidated. The total betalain content was estimated by photometric analysis. In vitro antioxidant activity for the betalain extract determined by various methods revealed potent scavenging ability. The current work may possibly be considered beneficial in utilisation of the plant T. triangulare as a natural colourant in food and beverage industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Ahmed, Touqeer; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna. PMID:26378574

  4. Polyphenolic Composition of Crataegus monogyna Jacq.: From Chemistry to Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Ahmed, Touqeer; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    The abundance of scientific evidence has shown that many synthetic drugs can cause serious adverse effects in patients. Recently, the search of natural therapeutic agents with low adverse effects has attracted much attention. In particular, considerable interest has focused on edible and medicinal plants, which play an important role in human diet, and have been used for disease treatment since ancient times. Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) is one of the most important edible plants of the Rosaceae family and is also used in traditional medicine. Growing evidence has shown that this plant has various interesting physiological and pharmacological activities due to the presence of different bioactive natural compounds. In addition, scientific evidence suggests that the toxicity of hawthorn is negligible. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the available scientific literature about pharmacological activities as well as botanical aspects, phytochemistry and clinical impacts of C. monogyna.

  5. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species.

  6. Development of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Based SCAR Marker for Identification of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq (Convolvulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Kambiranda; Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2011-01-01

    Vidari is an Ayurvedic herbal drug used as aphrodisiac, galactagogue and is also used in the preparation of Chyavanaprash. Tubers of Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (Convolvulaceae), Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) DC (Fabaceae), Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) de Wilde (Passifloraceae) and pith of Cycas circinalis L. (Cycadaceae) are all traded in the name of Vidari, creating issues of botanical authenticity of the Ayurvedic raw drug. DNA-based markers have been developed to distinguish I. mauritiana from the other Vidari candidates. A putative 600-bp polymorphic sequence, specific to I. mauritiana was identified using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Furthermore, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers (IM1F and IM1R) were designed from the unique RAPD amplicon. The SCAR primers produced a specific 323-bp amplicon in authentic I. mauritiana and not in the allied species. PMID:21738554

  7. Otolith shape variability and associated body growth differences in giant grenadier, Albatrossia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Charles E.; Harris, Jeremy P.; Vulstek, Scott C.; Guthrie, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Fish stocks can be defined by differences in their distribution, life history, and genetics. Managing fish based on stock structure is integral to successful management of a species because fishing may affect stocks disproportionately. Genetic and environmental differences can affect the shape and growth of otoliths and these differences may be indicative of stock structure. To investigate the potential for speciation or stock structure in giant grenadier, Albatrossia pectoralis, we quantified the shape of female giant grenadier otoliths and compared body growth rates for fish with three otolith shapes; shape types were classified visually by an experienced giant grenadier age reader, and were not defined by known distribution or life history differences. We found extreme variation in otolith shape among individuals; however, the shapes were a gradation and not clearly defined into three groups. The two more extreme shapes, visually defined as “hatchet” and “comb”, were discernable based on principal component analyses of elliptical Fourier descriptors, and the “mixed” shape overlapped both of the extreme shapes. Fish with hatchet-shaped otoliths grew faster than fish with comb-shaped otoliths. A genetic test (cytochrome c oxidase 1 used by the Fish Barcode of Life Initiative) showed almost no variability among samples, indicating that the samples were all from one species. The lack of young specimens makes it difficult to link otolith shape and growth difference to life history. In addition, shape could not be correlated with adult movement patterns because giant grenadiers experience 100% mortality after capture and, therefore, cannot be tagged and released. Despite these limitations, the link between body growth and otolith shape indicates measurable differences that deserve more study. PMID:28658326

  8. Instrumental texture characteristics of broiler pectoralis major with the wooden breast condition.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, D; Zhuang, H; Bowker, B C; Rincon, A M; Sanchez-Brambila, G

    2016-10-01

    The objective was to characterize texture properties of raw and cooked broiler fillets (Pectoralis major) with the wooden breast condition (WBC) using the instrumental texture techniques of Meullenet-Owens Razor Shear (MORS) and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). Deboned (3 h postmortem) broiler fillets were collected from a commercial plant and categorized as normal, moderate, or severe WBC based on the incidence and severity of diffuse hardened areas throughout fillets and the degree of palpable hardness. The fillets were then either stored at 4°C overnight or in a -20°C freezer. The MORS and TPA of the raw samples were determined at 24 h postmortem for fresh samples and after thawing overnight for frozen samples. The same measurements were also taken after the samples were cooked to 78°C. Regardless of freshness (fresh vs. frozen-thawed), cooking (raw vs. cooked), and degree of WBC, both MORS force and energy of the WBC samples were higher than that of the normal samples (P < 0.05). For TPA adhesiveness and resilience, there were no differences between normal and WBC samples (P > 0.05). However, average TPA hardness and chewiness measurements of the fillets with WBC were higher than the normal fillets (P < 0.05). Regardless of texture measurement, there were no interactions between freshness and the wooden condition or no differences between moderate and severe WBC fillets (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that there are significant differences in instrumental texture properties between normal fillets and those exhibiting the WBC. The WBC fillets required more force to cut through, harder, and chewier than normal breast muscles. These results suggest that cooked WBC meat would likely be tougher than cooked normal meat.

  9. The changing role of pectoralis major flap in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hin-Lun; Chan, Jimmy Yu-Wai; Wei, William Ignace

    2010-11-01

    Although pectoralis major flap (PM flap) has been used as the workhorse flap in head and neck reconstruction, its use in head and neck defects seems to fall out of favour in the era of free tissue transfer. The aim of this review is to find out the role of PM flap in modern head and neck surgery. Medical records of patients who underwent PM flap reconstruction for head and neck defect in our division were reviewed. The age, gender, flap type, indication and complication rate were described. Between January 1998 and December 2008, 202 PM flaps were used for head and neck reconstruction in 192 patients. In the early study period (1998-June 2003), out of the 119 PM flap reconstructions, 106 (89%) were performed for immediate reconstruction after resection of head and neck tumour, while 10 (8%) were performed as salvage procedures for complication after tumour resection e.g. failure of free flap, pharyngocutaneous fistula. In the late study period (July 2003-2008), out of the 83 PM flap reconstructions, 58 (70%) were performed for immediate reconstruction, while 24 (29%) were performed as salvage procedures. For immediate reconstruction after tumour extirpation, 51 flaps (48%) were performed for reconstruction of the tongue in the early study period, while only 14 (24%) were performed in the late study period. The number of PM flap used for immediate reconstruction for other head and neck defects remained relatively static throughout the two study periods. Over the study period, there were 10 (5%) cases of partial flap necrosis and 2 (1%) total flap loss, making the overall flap necrosis rate 6%. In the era of free tissue transfer, the role of PM flap in head and neck surgery has shifted from immediate reconstruction to salvage operation. However, PM flap still has an unique role in the repair of certain head and neck defects.

  10. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis.

  11. CT scan evaluation of glenoid bone and pectoralis major tendon: interest in shoulder prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Obert, Laurent; Peyron, Christelle; Boyer, Etienne; Menu, Gauthier; Loisel, François; Aubry, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The shoulder arthroplasty brings satisfaction to patients in terms of quality of life and indolence. However whether anatomic implant or reverse, it does not escape from the loosening of the glenoid component. Moreover, optimal implantation is required to ensure the functional outcome without shortening of the arm. The purpose of this study is obtain CT scan evaluation of the glenoid bone stock in order to optimize glenoid component implantation and obtain a reference to determine optimal humeral component placement in case of humeral proximal fracture. Materials and methods: Between 2010 and 2011 we have analyzed 200 intact shoulder’s CT. We measured maximal and minimal width in the transverse plane of the glenoid, the distance from the pectoralis major (PM) tendon to the humeral head, the greater tubercle, change of curvature and the anatomical neck. Results: Mean maximum width was 27.4 ± 3.4 mm and mean minimum width was 15.5 ± 2.8 mm. Distances between upper edge of PM tendon to: humeral head, greater tubercle, change of curvature and anatomical neck were respectively: 67.6 ± 9.98 mm, 57.8 ± 10.3 mm, 28.7 ± 9 mm, and 34.2 ± 9.7 mm. Conclusion: Our study has produced an assessment of glenoid bone stock for optimal positioning of the glenoid implant but also to obtain a reference to determine the ideal location of the humeral component in the case of proximal humerus fracture. PMID:27716461

  12. Pectoralis major tendon repair: a biomechanical study of suture button versus transosseous suture techniques.

    PubMed

    Thomas, William; Gheduzzi, Sabina; Packham, Iain

    2015-09-01

    Pectoralis major tendon avulsion injury benefits from surgical repair. The technique used and speed of rehabilitation in this demanding population remains subject to debate. We performed a biomechanical study comparing suture button (Pec Button™, Arthrex, Naples, FL) with a transosseous suture technique (FibreWire, Arthrex, Naples, FL). Freshly slaughtered porcine humeri were prepared to model a single transosseous suture or suture button repair. A static, tensile load to failure experiment and a cyclic, tensile load experiment to model standard (10,000 cycles) and accelerated rehabilitation (20,000 cycles) philosophies were tested. The mode of failure, yield and ultimate failure load, extension (clinical failure >10 mm) and the resistance to cyclic loading was measured. The mode of failure was suture fracture in all the static load experiments with 10/11 occurring as the suture passed through the button and 7/11 as the suture passed through the bone tunnels. There was a significant difference in yield load, favouring transosseous suture [p = 0.009, suture button (SB) 673.0 N (647.2-691.7 N), transosseous suture (TOS) 855.0 N (750.0-891.4 N)] and median extension, favouring suture button [p = 0.009, SB 8.8 mm (5.0-12.4 mm), TOS 15.2 mm (13.2-17.1 mm)]. 2/3 transosseous suture and 0/3 suture buttons failed before completing 20,000 cycles. The difference in mean number of cycles completed was non-significant. The difference in mean extension was 5.1 mm (SB 6.7 mm, TOS 11.7 mm). Both techniques show advantages. The difference in extension is likely to be more clinically relevant than load tolerated at failure, which is well above physiological levels. The findings do not support an accelerated rehabilitation model.

  13. A comparative study of the mechanics of the pectoralis muscle of the red-tailed hawk and the barred owl.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan E; Dobbins, Charles S

    2012-03-01

    A comparison of the isometric forces and levers of the pectoralis muscle in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and barred owls (Strix varia) was done to identify differences that may correlate with their different flight styles. The pectoralis consists of two heads, the anterior m. sternobrachialis (SB) and the posterior m. thoracobrachialis (TB). These are joined at an intramuscular tendon and are supplied by separate primary nerve branches. As in other birds, the two heads have distinct fiber orientations in red-tailed hawks and barred owls. SB's fiber orientation (posterolateral and mediolateral from origin to insertion) provides pronation and protraction of the humerus during adduction. Electromyographic studies in pigeons show that it is active in early downstroke and during level flight. TB is more active during take-off and landing in pigeons. The anterolateral orientation (from origin to insertion) of its fibers provides a retractive component to humeral adduction used to control the wing during landing. In our study, the maximum isometric force produced by the combined pectoralis heads did not differ significantly between the hawk and owl, however, the forces were distributed differently between the two muscle heads. In the owl, SB and TB were capable of producing equal amounts of force, but in the hawk, SB produced significantly less force than did TB. This may reflect the need for a large TB to control landing in both birds during prey-strike, with the owl maintaining both protractive (using SB) and retractive (using TB) abilities. Pronation and protraction may be less important in the flight behavior of the hawk, but its prey-strike behavior may require the maintenance of a substantial TB for braking and controlled stalling, as it initiates strike behavior.

  14. Contractile activity of the pectoralis in the zebra finch according to mode and velocity of flap-bounding flight.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W; Puccinelli, Lisa A; Sheridan, David C

    2005-08-01

    We studied flying zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N = 12), to provide a new test of a long-standing ;fixed-gear' hypothesis that flap-bounding birds use only intermittent non-flapping phases, instead of variation in muscle activity, to vary mechanical power output in flight. Using sonomicrometry and electromyography, we measured in vivo fascicle length and neuromuscular recruitment in the pectoralis as the birds flew in different flight modes (level, ascending, descending; mean velocity 1.6+/-0.3 m s(-1)) and across velocities in a new, variable-speed wind tunnel (0-12 m s(-1)). Synchronized high-speed digital video (250 Hz) provided a record of wing kinematics. Flight mode had a significant effect upon pectoralis strain, strain rate, fractional shortening and the relative timing of muscle activity (onset, offset and duration). Among flight velocities, we observed significant variation in pectoralis strain, fractional lengthening and shortening, strain rate, relative electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, and EMG duration and offset. In particular, variation in strain rate and relative EMG amplitude indicates that the fixed-gear hypothesis should be rejected. Instead, it appears that zebra finch vary work and power output within wingbeats by modulating muscle contractile behavior and between wingbeats using intermittent bounds. Muscle activity patterns and wing kinematics were similar between free flight and wind tunnel flight at similar speeds. Comparing flights with and without surgically implanted transducers and electrodes, zebra finch exhibited a reduction in maximum velocity (from 14 to 12 m s(-1)) and a significant increase in wingbeat frequency and percent time flapping. This identifies a potential limitation of in vivo flight measurements, and similar studies of bird flight should, therefore, include measurements of the extent to which flight performance is compromised by experimental protocol.

  15. Quantifying differences in the material properties of the fiber regions of the pectoralis major using ultrasound shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Leonardis, Joshua M; Desmet, David M; Lipps, David B

    2017-08-10

    The sternocostal and clavicular regions of the pectoralis major are independently harvested to provide shoulder stability, but surgical decision making does not consider the biomechanical consequences that disinsertion of one fiber region over the other has on shoulder function. Differences in material properties between the fiber regions could influence which tissue is more optimal for surgical harvesting. The current study utilized ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate whether the in vivo material properties differ between the fiber regions. Shear wave velocities (SWVs) were collected from the sternocostal and clavicular fiber regions of the pectoralis major from ten healthy young male participants. Participants produced isometric shoulder torques of varying magnitudes (passive, 15%, and 30% MVC) and directions (horizontal and vertical adduction). Four shoulder positions encompassing different vertical abduction and external rotation angles were examined. One-way ANOVAs tested the hypotheses that differences in SWVs during rest existed between the fiber regions asa function of shoulder position, and differences in SWVs during contraction existed asa function of shoulder position and torque direction. In all shoulder positions, the clavicular region exhibited greater SWVs during rest than the sternocostal region (P<0.001). In shoulder positions that did not include external rotation, the clavicular region exhibited greater SWVs during contraction when producing horizontal adduction torques (P<0.001), while the sternocostal region exhibited greater SWVs during contraction when producing vertical adduction torques at 30% MVC (P<0.01). Our results suggest that each fiber region of the pectoralis major provides unique contributions to passive and active shoulder function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental transition of pectoralis muscle from atrophy in late-term duck embryos to hypertrophy in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Tangara, Moussa; Xu, Jia; Peng, Jian

    2012-07-01

    Unlike the mammalian fetus, whose growth is supported by the sustained provision of maternal nutrients, poultry embryos undergo development in a relatively closed space, and the yolk sac serves as the sole nutrient supply for embryonic development throughout the whole incubation period. To increase our understanding of the muscle developmental patterns in the final stage of incubation and early days posthatching, we used late-term duck embryos and newly hatched ducklings as animal models. Pectoralis muscle samples were collected at 22 days (22E) of incubation, 25 days (25E) of incubation, hatching and day 7 posthatching. The pectoralis muscle mass, muscle fibre bundles and myofibre cross-sectional area showed a marked reduction from 22E to hatching, but they increased dramatically by day 7 posthatching. The mRNA expression of Atrogin-1, a key mediator of the ubiquitin system responsible for protein degradation, increased dramatically with the age of late-term duck embryos, but it decreased by day 7 and reached a very low level. The extent of mRNA expression of FoxO1, one of the transcription factors of the Atrogin-1 gene, exhibited a transient increase at 25E and then decreased from hatching to day 7. The phosphorylated p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)/S6K1 ratio exhibited a dramatic reduction from 22E to hatching (P < 0.05) and then increased by day 7. The results of the present study indicated that there was a developmental transition of pectoralis muscle from atrophy in late-term duck embryos to hypertrophy in neonates.

  17. Outcome of repair of chronic tear of the pectoralis major using corkscrew suture anchors by box suture sliding technique

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Deepak; Jain, Jitesh Kumar; Chaudhary, Deepak; Singh, Utkarsh; Jain, Vineet; Lal, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the functional and clinical results of repair of chronic tears of pectoralis major using corkscrew and sliding suture technique. METHODS In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of pectoralis major repair in 11 chronic cases (> 6 wk) done between September 2011 and December 2014 at our institute. In all cases repair was done by same surgeon using corkscrew suture anchors and box suture sliding technique. At 6 mo, after surgery magnetic resonance imaging was done to see the integrity of the repair. Functional evaluation was done using Penn and ASES scores. Pre and postoperative Isokinetic strength was measured. RESULTS Average follow-up was 48.27 ± 21.0 mo. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to evaluate the outcome scores. The average ASES score increased from an average of 54.63 ± 13.0 preoperatively to 95.09 ± 2.60 after surgery at their last follow-up. The average Penn score also increased from 5.72 ± 0.78, 2.81 ± 1.32 and 45.81 ± 1.72 to 9.36 ± 0.80, 8.27 ± 0.90 and 59 ± 1.34 for pain, satisfaction and function respectively. Follow up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (at 6 mo) showed continuity and the bulk of pectoralis major muscle in all cases. Average isokinetic strength deficiency in horizontal adduction at 60° was 13.63% ± 6.93% and at 120° was 10.18% ± 4.93% and in flexion at 60° was 10.72% ± 5.08% and at 120° was 6.63% + 3.74%. Results showed that both ASES and Penn score improved significantly (2 tailed P value = 0.0036). CONCLUSION We could conclude from this series that pectoralis major repair even in chronic cases using 5.5 mm corkscrew anchors give excellent functional and cosmetic results. In chronic cases the repairable length of the tendon is not available and sliding suture technique allows for fixation of worn out tendomuscular junction to bone without letting cutting through the muscle. PMID:27795949

  18. Incidence Rate and Results of the Surgical Treatment of Pectoralis Major Tendon Ruptures in Active-Duty Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Balazs, George C; Brelin, Alaina M; Donohue, Michael A; Dworak, Theodora C; Rue, John-Paul H; Giuliani, Jeffrey R; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2016-07-01

    Pectoralis major tendon ruptures are commonly described as rare injuries affecting men between 20 and 40 years of age, with generally excellent results after surgical repair. However, this perception is based on a relatively small number of case series and prospective studies in the orthopaedic literature. To determine the incidence of pectoralis major tendon ruptures in the active-duty military population and the demographic risk factors for a rupture and to describe the outcomes of surgical treatment. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. We utilized the Military Health System Data Repository (MDR) to identify all active-duty military personnel surgically treated for a pectoralis major tendon rupture between January 2012 and December 2014. Electronic medical records were searched for patients' demographic information, injury characteristics, and postoperative complications and outcomes. Risk factors for a rupture were calculated using Poisson regression, based on population counts obtained from the MDR. Risk factors for a postoperative complication, the need for revision surgery, and the inability to continue with active duty were determined using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 291 patients met inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 30.5 years, all patients were male, and the median follow-up period was 18 months. The incidence of injuries was 60 per 100,000 person-years over the study period. Risk factors for a rupture included service in the Army, junior officer or junior enlisted rank, and age between 25 and 34 years. White race and surgery occurring >6 weeks after injury were significant risk factors for a postoperative complication. Among the 214 patients with a minimum of 12 months' clinical follow-up, 95.3% were able to return to military duty. Junior officer/enlisted status was a significant risk factor for failure to return to military duty. Among military personnel, Army soldiers and junior officer

  19. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    PubMed

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities.

  20. The mechanical power output of the pectoralis muscle of cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus): the in vivo muscle length trajectory and activity patterns and their implications for power modulation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Charlotte R; Askew, Graham N

    2010-08-15

    In order to meet the varying demands of flight, pectoralis muscle power output must be modulated. In birds with pectoralis muscles with a homogeneous fibre type composition, power output can be modulated at the level of the motor unit (via changes in muscle length trajectory and the pattern of activation), at the level of the muscle (via changes in the number of motor units recruited), and at the level of the whole animal (through the use of intermittent flight). Pectoralis muscle length trajectory and activity patterns were measured in vivo in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) at a range of flight speeds (0-16 m s(-1)) using sonomicrometry and electromyography. The work loop technique was used to measure the mechanical power output of a bundle of fascicles isolated from the pectoralis muscle during simulated in vivo length change and activity patterns. The mechanical power-speed relationship was U-shaped, with a 2.97-fold variation in power output (40-120 W kg(-1)). In this species, modulation of neuromuscular activation is the primary strategy utilised to modulate pectoralis muscle power output. Maximum in vivo power output was 22% of the maximum isotonic power output (533 W kg(-1)) and was generated at a lower relative shortening velocity (0.28 V(max)) than the maximum power output during isotonic contractions (0.34 V(max)). It seems probable that the large pectoralis muscle strains result in a shift in the optimal relative shortening velocity in comparison with the optimum during isotonic contractions as a result of length-force effects.

  1. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    PubMed

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  2. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  3. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-04-07

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps.

  4. Anxiolytic-like effects of standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis (SEJP) in mice: Involvement of GABA/benzodiazepine in receptor.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, E T; Rocha, N F M; Rios, E R V; Feitosa, M L; Linhares, M I; Melo, F H C; Matias, M S; Fonseca, F N; Sousa, F C F; Leal, L K A M; Fonteles, M M F

    2011-03-01

    Justicia pectoralis (Acanthaceae) is used as an antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and bronchodilator, and its extract exerts an anxiolytic-like effect profile in animal models. This work presents the behavioral effects of an aqueous standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis (SEJP) in animal models, such as the elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark, open field, rota rod and pentobarbital sleep time. The extract was administered intragastrically to male mice at single doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg was used as a standard drug and flumazenil 2.5 mg/kg was used to evaluate the participation of benzodiazepinic receptors. The results showed that, similar to diazepam (1 mg/kg), SEJP significantly modified all the observed parameters in the EPM test, without altering the general motor activity in the open field, rota rod and pentobarbital sleep time tests. Flumazenil reversed not only the diazepam effect but also the SEJP effect. In the same way, all doses of SEJP increased the time of permanence in the light box in the light/dark test. The results showed that SEJP presented an anxiolytic-like effect, disproving sedative effects. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inhibitory effects of a standardized extract of Justicia pectoralis in an experimental rat model of airway hyper-responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carlos T M; Batista-Lima, Francisco J; Brito, Teresinha S; Silva, Alfredo A V; Ferreira, Luan C; Roque, Cássia R; Aragão, Karoline S; Havt, Alexandre; Fonseca, Francisco N; Leal, Luzia K A M; Magalhães, Pedro J C

    2017-06-01

    Justicia pectoralis is a plant useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Here, we studied the antiasthmatic properties of a standardized extract of J. pectoralis (Jp). Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rats were actively challenged with saline or OVA to study airway hyper-responsiveness after oral treatment with saline or Jp. The ability of Jp to inhibit hyper-reactivity was evaluated in isolated trachea mounted in isolated organ bath chamber. Using KCl or carbachol as contractile agents, tracheal rings of OVA-challenged rats contracted with higher magnitude than trachea of rats challenged with saline. Such hyper-responsive phenotype of OVA-challenged tissues decreased with Jp administration. In Ca(+) -free medium, Jp or its major constituent coumarin inhibited preferentially the contractions induced by Ca(2+) addition in tissues of OVA-challenged rats stimulated with KCl or acetylcholine. In tissues depleted of their internal Ca(+) stores in the presence of thapsigargin, Jp inhibited the contraction induced by capacitative Ca(2+) entry. By gavage, Jp abolished the increase caused by challenge with OVA on the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the bronchoalveolar fluid and also impaired the changes in gene expression of canonical transient receptor proteins. Jp has antiasthmatic properties in an experimental model that reproduces tracheal hyper-reactivity. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-01-01

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps. PMID:28387356

  7. Chemical analyses and in vitro and in vivo toxicity of fruit methanol extract of Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum.

    PubMed

    Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Cadena-Íñiguez, Jorge; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Gómez-García, Guadalupe; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rosado-Pérez, Juana; Ruíz-Ramos, Mirna; Cisneros-Solano, Víctor Manuel; Ledesma-Martínez, Edgar; Delgado-Bordonave, Angel de Jesus; Soto-Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2017-12-01

    Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) is used in ethnomedicine, but the diversity of the varietal groups of this species has not often been considered. This is important because we previously reported that different variety of species exhibit different activities across different tumor cell lines. This study investigates the chemical composition and biological activities of extracts obtained from S. edule var. nigrum spinosum. The leukemia P388 cell line and mononuclear bone marrow cells (MNCBMs) were treated with the extract at a concentration ranging from 40 to 2370 μg/mL for cytotoxicity and viability assays. CD-1 mice were treated with 8-5000 mg/kg extract and monitored every hour for the first 24 h and subsequently for seven days for signs of toxicity (LD50). In addition, the chromatographic profile of the extract was determined by HPLC. The extract inhibits the proliferation of both P388 cells and MNCBMs, with IC50 values of 927 and 1911 μg/mL, respectively, but reduced the viability and induced the apoptosis of only leukemia cells. The LD50 was higher than 5000 mg/kg, and this concentration did not alter the blood chemistry or cell count but doubled the mitotic index in the bone marrow. The HPLC showed the presence of cucurbitacins, phloridzin, naringenin, phloretin, apigenin, and gallic, chlorogenic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids. Sechium edule var. nigrum spinosum contains bioactive compounds that explain the antiproliferative and nutraceutical activities, and its lack of physiological side effects constitutes an added value to a widely consumed vegetable.

  8. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  9. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  10. Analysis of tcRNA102 associated with myosin heavy chain-mRNPs in control and dystrophic chick pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Zezza, D J; Heywood, S M

    1986-06-05

    Translational control RNA (tcRNA102) is closely associated with nonpolysomal myosin heavy chain-mRNA in mRNP particles. The nucleotide sequence of tcRNA102 has revealed a heterogeneity at the 3' end. This heterogeneity is mostly with regard to an ambiguity between adenine and guanine residues. tcRNA102 (obtained from pectoralis muscle) runs as a single band on denaturing acrylamide gels. When this band is extracted and rerun on a native gel at low voltage, two individual bands appear (A the slower moving and B the faster moving). From the partial RNase U2 sequence analysis and our previous sequence determinations (McCarthy, T. L., Siegel, E., Mrockowski, B., and Heywood, S. M. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 935-941), we may now assign tcRNA102 (A) the 3'-terminal sequence ... GGUUGGACGG-3' and tcRNA102(B) and 3' terminal sequence ... GAUUAAGCAA-3'. Analysis of the tcRNA102s indicates that dystrophic pectoralis muscle contains much less tcRNA102 than a similar preparation from control muscle. The tcRNA102 found in dystrophic pectoralis muscle is of the "A" type while normal pectoralis muscle contains predominantly the "B" type. In addition, control leg muscle from dystrophic chick contains predominantly "B" type. These results suggest that the differences observed at the DNA level (see accompanying paper, Zezza, D. J., and Heywood, S. M. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 7455-7460) may be reflected in the RNA transcripts.

  11. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  12. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-...

  13. Effects of heat shock protein 90 expression on pectoralis major oxidation in broilers exposed to acute heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hao, Y; Gu, X H

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) expression on pH, lipid peroxidation, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression of pectoralis major in broilers exposed to acute heat stress. In total, 90 male broilers were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control (CON), heat stress (HS), or geldanamycin treatment (GA). On d 41, the broilers in the GA group were injected intraperitoneally with GA (5 μg/kg of BW), and the broilers in the CON and HS groups were injected intraperitoneally with saline. Twenty-four hours later, the broilers in the CON group were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 22°C for 2 h, and the broilers in the HS and GA groups were moved to environmental chambers controlled at 40°C for 2 h. The pH values of the pectoralis major after 30 min and 24 h of chilling after slaughter of HS and GA broilers were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the CON broilers. Heat stress caused significant increases in sera corticosterone and lactic dehydrogenase, the activity of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase, the expression of HSP90 and HSP70, and nuclear expression of GR protein in the pectoralis major (P < 0.05). Heat stress induced a significant decrease in GR protein expression in the cytoplasm and GR mRNA expression. Furthermore, the low expression of HSP90 significantly increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde and GR protein expression in the cytoplasm under heat stress (P < 0.01), and significantly decreased nuclear GR protein expression (P < 0.01). Heat shock protein 90 was positively correlated with corticosterone and superoxide dismutase activities (P < 0.01), and HSP90 mRNA was negatively correlated with pH after chilling for 24 h. The results demonstrated that HSP90 plays a pivotal role in protecting cells from oxidation. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. [Efficacy of the treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Liu, Y H; Hu, G Q; Zhao, Y

    2016-08-01

    To sum up the efficacy of treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 patients. A retrospective analysis of the therapeutic efficacy in 20 cases of laryngeal and laryngopharyngeal cancer with postoperative pharyngeal fistula, to whom double-deck repairing were operated on through pectoralis major myocutaneous island flap combined with inversion of skin around fistula from January 2010 to December 2013. 20 patients were treated by improved pharyngeal fistula inverting suture of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with the skin around the pharyngeal fistula. Flap around the fistula were sutured without tension formation. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps were sutured without tension formation covering the inner flanging flap wound. 20 patients were on a nasogastric liquid diet after operation for one week and received antibiotics to prevent infection. Then they all took liquid diet after one week, and had extubation safely later. Stitches were removed 10 more days later. All the twenty patients were recovered successfully, among them, 16 cases recovered in stage Ⅰ and left the hospital 10 days later, 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ and left the hospital 20 days later. All the 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ were treated with radiotherapy. Fistulas less than 1 cm occurred near their anastomotic stomas at 7 to 14 days after operation. They were healed well by dressing change and pressure dressing. No recurrence was observed during the six months follow-up. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion is a good way to repair pharyngeal fistula, and it is suitable for the laryngeal and laryngopharynx cancer patients with postoperative throat fistula in an internal diameter larger than 2 cm.

  15. Seasonal variation in pectoralis muscle and heart myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in small birds: a regulatory role for seasonal phenotypic flexibility?

    PubMed

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Seasonally variable environments produce seasonal phenotypes in small birds such that winter birds have higher thermogenic capacities and pectoralis and heart masses. One potential regulator of these seasonal phenotypes is myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, which may be downregulated under conditions promoting increased energy demand. We examined summer-to-winter variation in skeletal muscle and heart masses and used qPCR and Western blots to measure levels of myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2 for two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Winter pectoralis and heart masses were significantly greater than in summer for American goldfinches. Neither myostatin expression nor protein levels differed significantly between seasons for goldfinch pectoralis. However, myostatin levels in goldfinch heart were significantly greater in summer than in winter, although heart myostatin expression was seasonally stable. In addition, expression of both metalloproteinase activators was greater in summer than in winter goldfinches for both pectoralis and heart, significantly so except for heart TLL-2 (P = 0.083). Black-capped chickadees showed no significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses. Seasonal patterns of pectoralis and heart expression and/or protein levels for myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators in chickadees showed no consistent seasonal trends, which may help explain the absence of significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses for chickadees in this study. These data are partially consistent with a regulatory role for myostatin, and especially myostatin processing capacity, in mediating seasonal metabolic phenotypes of small birds.

  16. Exogenous nitrate induces root branching and inhibits primary root growth in Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    PubMed

    Celis-Arámburo, Teresita de Jesús; Carrillo-Pech, Mildred; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Miranda-Ham, María de Lourdes; Martínez-Estévez, Manuel; Echevarría-Machado, Ileana

    2011-12-01

    The effects of nitrate (NO₃⁻) on the root system are complex and depend on several factors, such as the concentration available to the plant, endogenous nitrogen status and the sensitivity of the species. Though these effects have been widely documented on Arabidopsis and cereals, no reports are available in the Capsicum genus. In this paper, we have determined the effect of an exogenous in vitro application of this nutrient on root growth in habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Exposure to NO₃⁻ inhibited primary root growth in both, dose- and time-dependent manners. The highest inhibition was attained with 0.1 mM NO₃⁻ between the fourth and fifth days of treatment. Inhibition of primary root growth was observed by exposing the root to both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions of the nutrient; in contrast, ammonium was not able to induce similar changes. NO₃⁻-induced inhibition of primary root growth was reversed by treating the roots with IAA or NPA, a polar auxin transport inhibitor. Heterogeneous NO₃⁻ application stimulated the formation and elongation of lateral roots in the segment where the nutrient was present, and this response was influenced by exogenous phytohormones. These results demonstrate that habanero pepper responds to NO₃⁻ in a similar fashion to other species with certain particular differences. Therefore, studies in this model could help to elucidate the mechanisms by which roots respond to NO₃⁻ in fluctuating soil environments.

  17. Leishmania mexicana cell death achieved by Cleoserrata serrata (Jacq.) Iltis: Learning from Maya healers.

    PubMed

    Alamilla-Fonseca, Lorena Noemi; Delgado-Domínguez, José; Zamora-Chimal, Jaime; Cervantes-Sarabia, Rocely Buenaventura; Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto; Becker, Ingeborg

    2017-09-28

    Aerial parts of Cleoserrata serrata (Jacq.) Iltis are widely used in South-Central Mexico to treat wounds and bacterial skin infections and in Panama by Kuna, Ngöbe-Buglé, and Teribe Indians for tropical warm baths and by Kunas in the form of "Ina kuamakalet" for snakebites. To evaluate the effect of Cleoserrata serrata extract on growth and viability of L. mexicana amastigotes and promastigotes in vitro, as well as on bacteria that usually co-infect skin ulcers. Cleoserrata serrata was collected in La Chontalpa, Tabasco, Mexico. The antiproliferative effect of the extract was tested on growth of Leishmania mexicana amastigotes and promastigotes in vitro, as well as on bacteria that usually co-infect skin ulcers. Our data show that Cleoserrata serrata significantly inhibits parasite growth (which was more important in infective amastigotes) and additionally inhibits growth of the co-infective bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Confocal microscopy showed a leishmanicidal effect. We conclude that Cleoserrata serrata extract is potentially an optimal treatment alternative for patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis infected with Leishmania mexicana, since it controls both the parasite as well as bacterial co-infections. Furthermore, it can be applied topically. The precise metabolites responsible for the anti-Leishmania and anti-bacterial effects remain to be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth Rate of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory on Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica and Its Climatic Background

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Kromer, Bernd; Schukraft, Gerd; Bubenzer, Olaf; Huang, Man-Rong; Wang, Ze-Min; Bian, Lin-Gen; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The ages of a fruticose lichen of Usnea aurantiacoatra (Jacq.) Bory, from Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Southwest Antarctic, were determined by radiocarbon (14C), and it is 1993–1996 at bottom and 2006–2007 at top of the lichen branch. The growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra calculated are 4.3 to 5.5 mm year−1 based on its length and ages. The comparisons show that the growth rates of U. aurantiacoatra are higher than those of U. antarctica (0.4 to 1.1 mm year−1). The growth rates of fruticose lichens are always higher, usually >2 mm year−1, than those of crustose ones, usually <1 mm year−1, in polar areas. A warming trend on Fildes Peninsula is recorded in the period from 1969 to 2010 obviously: the mean annual temperature rose from −2.75 to −1.9°C and the average temperature of summer months from 0.95 to 1.4°C, as well as the average temperature of winter months from −6.75 to −5.5°C. The alteration of lichen growth rates in polar areas may respond to the climatic and environmental changes, and the lichens may act as bio-monitor of natural condition. PMID:24968131

  19. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration.

  20. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Urbonaviciūte, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated.

  1. Development, characterisation, and across-taxa utility of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Billotte, N; Risterucci, A M; Barcelos, E; Noyer, J L; Amblard, P; Baurens, F C

    2001-06-01

    The results of the development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) microsatellite markers are given step by step, from the screening of libraries enriched in (GA)n, (GT)n, and (CCG)n simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) to the final characterisation of 21 SSR loci. Also published are primer sequences, estimates of allele size range, and expected heterozygosity in E. guineensis and in the closely related species E. oleifera, in which an optimal utility of the SSR markers was observed. Multivariate data analyses showed the ability of SSR markers to efficiently reveal the genetic-diversity structure of the genus Elaeis in accordance with known geographical origins and with measured genetic relationships based on previous molecular studies. High levels of allelic variability indicated that E. guineensis SSRs will be a powerful tool for genetic studies of the genus Elaeis, including variety identification and intra- or inter-specific genetic mapping. PCR amplification tests on a subset of 16 other palm species and allele-sequence data showed that E. guineensis SSRs are putative transferable markers across palm taxa. In addition, phenetic information based on SSR flanking region sequences makes E. guineensis SSR markers a potentially useful molecular resource for any researcher studying the phylogeny of palm taxa.

  2. Biotechnological enhancement of capsaicin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures were initiated from hypocotyl derived callus to induce capsaicin biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Naga King Chili (Capsicum chinense Jacq.). Efficient capsaicin production with high growth index (GI) was obtained by exposing cells to salicylic acid (SA) and calcium channel modulators in suspension cultures. The time course of capsaicin formation is related to the cell growth profile in a batch culture. Cells cultivated in the standard medium (SM) initially showed low level of capsaicin yield during active growth. When the cells approached stationary phase, cell growth and cell viability decreased whereas capsaicin production increased continuously. In the fed-batch cultures, the highest capsaicin yield (567.4 ± 8.1 μgg(1) fresh weight) (f.wt) was obtained by feeding the cells with 1 mM SA. However, SA feeding during cultivation repressed the cell growth. Enhanced cell growth (3.1 ± 0.1 GI/culture) and capsaicin yield (534 ± 7.8 μgg(-1)f.wt) were obtained when the cells were fed with calcium ionophore A23187 (0.5 mM) on day 25 as compared to the control. Addition of the calcium channel blocker verapamil hydrochloride (100 mM) inhibited cell growth and capsaicin production in Naga King Chili suspension cell cultures.

  3. QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Billotte, N; Jourjon, M F; Marseillac, N; Berger, A; Flori, A; Asmady, H; Adon, B; Singh, R; Nouy, B; Potier, F; Cheah, S C; Rohde, W; Ritter, E; Courtois, B; Charrier, A; Mangin, B

    2010-05-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 x 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed.

  4. De novo transcriptome analyses of host-fungal interactions in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Yeoh, Keat-Ai; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Yee, Wai-Yan; Hoh, Chee-Choong

    2016-01-19

    Basal stem rot (BSR) is a fungal disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which is caused by hemibiotrophic white rot fungi belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Molecular responses of oil palm to these pathogens are not well known although this information is crucial to strategize effective measures to eradicate BSR. In order to elucidate the molecular interactions between oil palm and G. boninense and its biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum, we compared the root transcriptomes of untreated oil palm seedlings with those inoculated with G. boninense and T. harzianum, respectively. Differential gene expression analyses revealed that jasmonate (JA) and salicylate (SA) may act in an antagonistic manner in affecting the hormone biosynthesis, signaling, and downstream defense responses in G. boninense-treated oil palm roots. In addition, G. boninense may compete with the host to control disease symptom through the transcriptional regulation of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging. The strengthening of host cell walls and production of pathogenesis-related proteins as well as antifungal secondary metabolites in host plants, are among the important defense mechanisms deployed by oil palm against G. boninense. Meanwhile, endophytic T. harzianum was shown to improve the of nutrition status and nutrient transportation in host plants. The findings of this analysis have enhanced our understanding on the molecular interactions of G. boninense and oil palm, and also the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harzianum, thus contributing to future formulations of better strategies for prevention and treatment of BSR.

  5. Characterization of the chloroplast genome sequence of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Uthaipaisanwong, P; Chanprasert, J; Shearman, J R; Sangsrakru, D; Yoocha, T; Jomchai, N; Jantasuriyarat, C; Tragoonrung, S; Tangphatsornruang, S

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is an economically important crop, which is grown for oil production. To better understand the molecular basis of oil palm chloroplasts, we characterized the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence obtained from 454 pyrosequencing. The oil palm cp genome is 156,973 bp in length consisting of a large single-copy region of 85,192 bp flanked on each side by inverted repeats of 27,071 bp with a small single-copy region of 17,639 bp joining the repeats. The genome contains 112 unique genes: 79 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. By aligning the cp genome sequence with oil palm cDNA sequences, we observed 18 non-silent and 10 silent RNA editing events among 19 cp protein-coding genes. Creation of an initiation codon by RNA editing in rpl2 has been reported in several monocots and was also found in the oil palm cp genome. Fifty common chloroplast protein-coding genes from 33 plant taxa were used to construct ML and MP phylogenetic trees. Their topologies are similar and strongly support for the position of E. guineensis as the sister of closely related species Phoenix dactylifera in Arecaceae (palm families) of monocot subtrees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    PubMed Central

    Jourjon, M. F.; Marseillac, N.; Berger, A.; Flori, A.; Asmady, H.; Adon, B.; Singh, R.; Nouy, B.; Potier, F.; Cheah, S. C.; Rohde, W.; Ritter, E.; Courtois, B.; Charrier, A.; Mangin, B.

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 × 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1284-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20182696

  7. Capsaicin accumulation is related to nitrate content in placentas of habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Monforte-González, Miriam; Guzmán-Antonio, Adolfo; Uuh-Chim, Francisco; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe

    2010-04-15

    The presence of capsaicin, the pungent principle of peppers, is restricted to the fruits of hot cultivars. This compound, which is produced in the fruits' placenta, requires 3 mol of nitrogen to be formed. Hence nitrogen availability may affect pepper pungency through its content in the fruit tissues. On the other hand, potassium may also affect pepper pungency given its positive effect on fruit development. In order to address this issue, plants of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were hydroponically cultured with various doses of nitrate and potassium and the contents of these ions and capsaicin were analyzed in the different fruit tissues. Treatments did not produce major effects on pod yield or size during the experimental period, and pepper pods from plants growing under low nitrate concentrations presented no significant differences in total nitrate content. However, lower nitrate, as well as low capsaicin contents, were found in the isolated placentas from peppers grown on the lowest nitrate doses. Variations in potassium availability resulted in differences in pod production per plant, but not in capsaicinoid accumulation. Under the assayed conditions, nitrate content in the placenta affects capsaicin synthesis. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Functional comparison after reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap or a pectoralis major flap for cancer of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Su, Wan-Fu; Hsia, Yi-Jan; Chang, Yen-Chine; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Sheng, Hwa

    2003-03-01

    Numerous patients in Taiwan with tongue carcinoma require tongue reconstruction. We compared the abilities of 2 methods of tongue reconstruction to reserve tongue function. Sixty patients underwent resection of the tumors and reconstruction with a pectoralis major flap or a radial forearm flap. The Chinese articulation test was used to evaluate the place and manner of error production, and a questionnaire on dietary habits was used to evaluate deglutition 6 months to 10 years after reconstruction. Patients with the free flap had more intelligible speech. The questionnaire study showed no significant difference between the 2 groups in swallowing rating. Motility caused by flap pliability increased speech intelligibility more than it did on swallowing function. Our experience in a few selected patients shows that the functional outcome of tongue surgery is related to the reconstruction methods used (for speech) and to the extent of tongue resection (for swallowing).

  9. The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods.

    PubMed

    Frade, D G; Santos, M J; Cavaleiro, F I

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

  10. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae) and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Crespo, Manuel B.; Dold, Anthony P.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of Albuca caudata are described as a new related species: Albuca bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed. PMID:22171189

  11. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae) and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Azorín, Mario; Crespo, Manuel B; Dold, Anthony P; Barker, Nigel P

    2011-01-01

    The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of Albuca caudata are described as a new related species: Albuca bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  12. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  13. Characterization of Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn.) germplasm at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota [Jacq.] H.E. Moore & Stearn) is a tropical tree fruit in the Sapotaceae, which is native to Central America and southern Mexico. The tree is used for timber and shade; however it is the sweet, nutrient and vitamin rich fruit that is eaten out of hand, in milkshakes...

  14. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  15. NOTES ON THREE NEW IMMIGRANT SPECIES OF SPILANTHES JACQ. (ASTERACEAE) IN INDIA AND THE IDENTITY OF THE COMMON ‘TOOTH – ACHE PLANT’

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, V. V.; Mathew, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Three new immigrant species of Spilanthes Jacq. (Asteraceae) is described for the first time from India. Their current nomenclature and an artificial key for the identification of the 5 Indian species are provided. The identity of the commonly used ‘tooth-ache’ plant is also discussed. PMID:22557401

  16. Understanding the Physiological Responses of a Tropical Crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature – leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature–leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions. PMID:25365043

  17. Evaluation of the diuretic and analgesic activities of the rhizomes of Rumex abyssinicus Jacq in mice.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Teshale; Urga, Kelbesa; Engidawork, Ephrem

    2010-02-03

    Rumex abyssinicus Jacq (Polygonaceae) has been used traditionally for treatment of hypertension, inflammatory and painful conditions in Ethiopia. The present study aimed to evaluate the diuretic and analgesic activities of extracts of Rumex abyssinicus at different doses in mice. The effect on urine volume and urinary electrolyte (Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-)) was assessed for a period of 5h following oral administration of aqueous (500 mg/kg, 750 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg) or 80% methanolic (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg or 750 mg/kg) extract or furosemide (10mg/kg). Acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were employed to study the analgesic effect of 80% methanolic extracts (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg, P.O.) and compared with that of aspirin (100mg/kg, P.O.) or morphine (10mg/kg, sc). The extracts displayed dose-dependent diuretic and analgesic effects. The highest doses of both extracts markedly and significantly increased (P<0.001) urine volume and urinary electrolytes, qualitatively similar to that of furosemide. 1000 mg/kg of the extract reduced the number of writhing by 67.6% (P<0.001) and conferred more than 70% protection against thermally induced pain stimuli after 45 min of treatment comparable to that of aspirin and morphine, respectively. These findings collectively indicate that the extracts exhibited significant diuretic and analgesic activities, providing evidence, at least in part, for its folkloric use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elemental composition of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. growing in tungsten-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Güleryüz, Gürcan; Erdemir, Ümran Seven; Arslan, Hülya; Güçer, Şeref

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the elemental (W, Mo, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Cr, Co, B, and Bi) composition of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (Lamiaceae), around the abandoned tungsten mine on Uludağ Mountain, Turkey, to determine if it is an appropriate candidate for phytomonitoring and/or phytoremediation purposes. Three sample sites were selected around the mine for soil and plant sampling. Two sites approximately 500 m from the mine were assumed to be unpolluted sites. The other site was selected from a waste removal pool (WRP) and was assumed to be a polluted site. The soil and different organs (roots, leaves, and flowers) of plant samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the elemental content. The classic open wet digestion procedure was applied to the samples with 5 mL HNO3 and 3 mL H2O2 in a borosilicate glass vessel for the roots, leaves, and the flowers of the plants. Kjeldahl digestion was used for the soil samples. The W, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, B, and Bi contents were found to be higher in the soil samples from the waste removal pools compared with the samples from the unpolluted sites. We also found that the elemental composition of M. astracanicum has generally been increased by the activity of the tungsten mine, and there were significant correlations between the elemental contents of the soil samples and plant parts, except for Mo and Cr. The high level of many elements in the soil samples indicates the presence of contamination related to tungsten-mining activity on Uludağ Mountain. Assessing the elemental contents of M. astracanicum, we can suggest this species as a candidate for phytoremediation purposes of W-contaminated sites due to its high W-accumulation capacity.

  19. Understanding the physiological responses of a tropical crop (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Orellana, Roger; Larque-Saavedra, Alfonso; Canto, Azucena

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is one of the main environmental factors involved in global warming and has been found to have a direct effect on plants. However, few studies have investigated the effect of higher temperature on tropical crops. We therefore performed an experiment with a tropical crop of Habanero pepper (Capsicum Chinense Jacq.). Three growth chambers were used, each with 30 Habanero pepper plants. Chambers were maintained at a diurnal maximum air temperature (DMT) of 30 (chamber 1), 35 (chamber 2) and 40°C (chamber 3). Each contained plants from seedling to fruiting stage. Physiological response to variation in DMT was evaluated for each stage over the course of five months. The results showed that both leaf area and dry mass of Habanero pepper plants did not exhibit significant differences in juvenile and flowering phenophases. However, in the fruiting stage, the leaf area and dry mass of plants grown at 40°C DMT were 51 and 58% lower than plants at 30°C DMT respectively. Meanwhile, an increase in diurnal air temperature raised both stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, causing an increase in temperature deficit (air temperature - leaf temperature). Thus, leaf temperature decreased by 5°C, allowing a higher CO2 assimilation rate in plants at diurnal maximum air temperature (40°C). However, in CO2 measurements when leaf temperature was set at 40°C, physiological parameters decreased due to an increase in stomatal limitation. We conclude that the thermal optimum range in a tropical crop such as Habanero pepper is between 30 and 35°C (leaf temperature, not air temperature). In this range, gas exchange through stomata is probably optimal. Also, the air temperature-leaf temperature relationship helps to explain how temperature keeps the major physiological processes of Habanero pepper healthy under experimental conditions.

  20. Wound healing potential of Elaeis guineensis Jacq leaves in an infected albino rat model.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Nilawatyi, Rajoo; Xavier, Rathinam; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Amala, Rajoo

    2010-04-30

    Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) is one of the plants that are central to the lives of traditional societies in West Africa. It has been reported as a traditional folkloric medicine for a variety of ailments. The plant leaves are also used in some parts of Africa for wound healing, but there are no scientific reports on any wound healing activity of the plant. To investigate the effects of E. guineensis leaf on wound healing activity in rats. A phytochemical screening was done to determine the major phytochemicals in the extract. The antimicrobial activity of the extract was examined using the disk diffusion technique and broth dilution method. The wound healing activity of leaves of E. guineensiswas studied by incorporating the methanolic extract in yellow soft paraffin in concentration of 10% (w/w). Wound healing activity was studied by determining the percentage of wound closure, microbial examination of granulated skin tissue and histological analysis in the control and extract treated groups. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids in the extract. The extract showed significant activity against Candida albicans with an MIC value of 6.25 mg/mL. The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing capacity, as evident from better wound closure, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site, and supporting histopathological parameters pertaining to wound healing. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in microbial count. E. guineensis accelerated wound healing in rats, thus supporting this traditional use.

  1. Physiological Changes in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. during a Summer Drought and Rewatering.

    PubMed

    Guralnick, L J; Ting, I P

    1987-10-01

    The changes of titratable acidity, enzyme activity, water status, and pigment composition were studied in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq. during a normal summer drought and rewatering. Two groups of plants were grown outside under a clear plastic canopy with water stress initiated at 2-week intervals in May 1986. Drought resulted in a linear decrease of fresh weight for 80 days and there was no further fresh weight change for the next 65 days. Nocturnal CO(2) uptake remained measurable for 83 days. Cessation of exogenous CO(2) uptake corresponded to the point where the pressure potential (Psi(p)) became zero. Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were reduced to 50% of this activity by the end of the drought period. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was undetectable after 120 to 140 days of drought. Chlorophyll (Chl) levels decreased with a preferential loss of Chl a over Chl b. Carotenoid content was relatively constant over the course of the drought period. After 145 days of drought, plants responded to rewatering within 24 hours; Psi(p) became positive and daytime CO(2) uptake resumed after 24 hours. After 3 days, RuBP carboxylase activity reached control levels. Activity of the CAM pathway recovered after 5 days, as noted by increased diurnal acid fluctuations. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity fully recovered within 6 days. Chl levels were greater than control levels within 5 days. Chl a/b ratios took 27 days to return to control levels. The results indicated that P. afra can withstand a normal summer drought by utilizing the CAM and CAM-idling pathway for 130 to 140 days. The plants respond rapidly to rewatering because of the conservation of enzyme activity and the quick recovery of Psi(p).

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation improve flooding tolerance in Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fougnies, L; Renciot, S; Muller, F; Plenchette, C; Prin, Y; de Faria, S M; Bouvet, J M; Sylla, S Nd; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M

    2007-05-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) seedlings inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, and the strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. (UAG 11A) were grown under stem-flooded or nonflooded conditions for 13 weeks after 4 weeks of nonflooded pretreatment under greenhouse conditions. Flooding of P. officinalis seedlings induced several morphological and physiological adaptive mechanisms, including formation of hypertrophied lenticels and aerenchyma tissue and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem. Flooding also resulted in an increase in collar diameter and leaf, stem, root, and total dry weights, regardless of inoculation. Under flooding, arbuscular mycorrhizas were well developed on root systems and adventitious roots compared with inoculated root systems under nonflooding condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas made noteworthy contributions to the flood tolerance of P. officinalis seedlings by improving plant growth and P acquisition in leaves. We report in this study the novel occurrence of nodules connected vascularly to the stem and nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizas on adventitious roots of P. officinalis seedlings. Root nodules appeared more efficient fixing N(2) than stem nodules were. Beneficial effect of nodulation in terms of total dry weight and N acquisition in leaves was particularly noted in seedlings growing under flooding conditions. There was no additive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and nodulation on plant growth and nutrition in either flooding treatment. The results suggest that the development of adventitious roots, aerenchyma tissue, and hypertrophied lenticels may play a major role in flooded tolerance of P. officinalis symbiosis by increasing oxygen diffusion to the submerged part of the stem and root zone, and therefore contribute to plant growth and nutrition.

  3. Combined use of gastric pull-up and pectoralis major flaps for massive defects after total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy in patients with advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caiyun; Chen, Shicai; Zhu, Minhui; Chen, Donghui; Chen, Hezhong; Zheng, Hongliang

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx (SCCHP) after radical surgery is a challenge for head and neck surgeons, especially when one flap alone cannot entirely cover the defects. In this report, we describe the successful use of gastric pull-up combined with pectoralis major flaps for single-stage reconstruction after total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy in patients with SCCHP. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 23 patients with stage IV SCCHP who underwent this reconstructive procedure. Surgical details and perioperative morbidity were described, and functional and oncologic outcomes were evaluated. We used the gastric pull-up and pectoralis major flap procedure to reconstruct the defects for all 23 patients. In 13 patients the combined flaps were used to restore intestinal continuity, and in 10 patients the defects were repaired using gastric pull-up alone and covered by the pectoralis major flap. All the combined flaps worked well, and patients recovered normal swallowing function a mean 19.6 days after surgery. After an overall mean follow-up time of 25.3 months, six patients were still alive at the time of this analysis with no evidence of disease. Our results indicate that for patients with advanced SCCHP after total laryngopharyngoesophagectomy, using a pectoralis major flap combined with gastric pull-up enables one-stage reconstruction even when gastric pull-up alone cannot restore intestinal continuity. Furthermore, the functional and oncologic outcomes from this study suggest that this reconstructive procedure is safe and reliable, and more patients with advanced disease could be considered.

  4. Application of Ultrasound-Guided Trigger Point Injection for Myofascial Trigger Points in the Subscapularis and Pectoralis Muscles to Post-Mastectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Results Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. Conclusion In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis. PMID:24719150

  5. Application of ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points in the subscapularis and pectoralis muscles to post-mastectomy patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyuk Jai; Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Wan Sung; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Sang Chul

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection for myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the internal rotator muscles of the shoulder in post-mastectomy patients. This pilot study was a non-controlled, prospective, clinical trial. Nineteen post-mastectomy patients with a diagnosis of at least one active MTrP in the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles were included. We performed trigger point injections into the subscapularis muscle deep behind the scapula as well as the pectoralis muscle for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose by the newly developed US-guided method. Visual analogue scale and range of motion of the shoulder for external rotation and of abduction showed significant improvement immediately after the first injection and 3 months after the last injection compared with baseline (p<0.05 for both). Duration from onset to surgery and duration of myofascial pain syndrome in the good responder group were significantly shorter than in the bad responder group (p<0.05). Patients did not report any complications related to the procedure or serious adverse events attributable to the treatment. In post-mastectomy patients with shoulder pain, US-guided trigger point injections of the subscapularis and/or pectoralis muscles are effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of shoulder pain is suspected to originate from active MTrPs in these muscles, particularly, the subscapularis.

  6. Effect of white striping myopathy on breast muscle (Pectoralis major) protein turnover and gene expression in broilers.

    PubMed

    Vignale, Karen; Caldas, Justina V; England, Judy A; Boonsinchai, Nirun; Magnuson, Andrew; Pollock, Erik D; Dridi, Sami; Owens, Casey M; Coon, Craig N

    2017-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( ) of broiler breast muscle ( Pectoralis major ) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping. Scoring was either normal ( , no WS) or severe ( ). Also, the same day, 17 birds (16 infused, one control) were randomly selected and infused with a solution of 15 N Phen 40% ( ). Breast muscle tissue was taken for gene expression analysis of the following genes: MuRF1, atrogin-1, IGF-1, insulin receptor ( ), fatty acid synthetase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase ( ). Each bird was humanely euthanized after 10 minutes of infusion and scored for WS (NORM or SEV). Samples of the breast muscle ( Pectoralis major ) were taken at different layers (3 samples per bird: ventral, medial, dorsal), along with a sample of excreta for 3-methylhistidine analysis. Out of the 16 breast samples taken, only 10 were selected for analysis based on the WS score (5 NORM and 5 SEV). No significant differences ( P > 0.05) were found in fractional synthesis rate ( ) between SEV WS, NORM and sample sites for breast meat. However, fractional breakdown rate ( ) was significantly higher in birds with SEV WS compared to NORM (8.2 and 4.28, respectively, P < 0.0001). Birds with SEV WS showed significantly higher ( P < 0.05) relative expression of MuRF1 and slightly higher ( P = 0.07) relative expression of atrogin-1 than the NORM birds. These birds also showed lower ( P < 0.05) relative expression of IGF-1 than NORM birds. Further studies are needed to better understand why birds with severe white striping are degrading more muscular protein and

  7. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  8. [Analysis of surgical treatment with pectoralis major muscle flap for deep sternal infection after cardiac surgery: a case series of 189 patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Wenzhang; Cai, Aibing; Han, Zhiyi; Li, Xiyuan; Ma, Jiagui

    2015-03-01

    To analyze and summarize the clinical features and experience in surgical treatment of deep sternal infection (DSWI). This was a retrospective study. From January 2008 to December 2013, 189 patients with secondary DSWI after cardiac surgery underwent the pectoralis major muscle flap transposition in our department. There were 116 male and 73 female patients. The mean age was (54 ± 21) years, the body mass index was (26. 1 ± 1. 3) kg/m2. The incidence of postoperation DSWI were after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 93 patients, after other heart surgery plus CABG in 13 patients, after valve surgery in 47 patients, after thoracic aortic surgery in 16 patients, after congenital heart disease in 18 patients, and after cardiac injury in 2 patients. Clean patients' wound and extract secretions, clear the infection thoroughly by surgery and select antibiotics based on susceptibility results, and then repair the wound with appropriate muscle flap, place drain tube with negative pressure. Of all the 189 patients, 184 used isolate pectoralis, 1 used isolate rectus, and 4 used pectoralis plus rectus. The operative wounds of 179 patients were primary healing (94. 7%). Hospital discharge was postponed by 1 week for 7 patients, due to subcutaneous wound infection. Subcutaneous wound infection occurred again in 8 patients 1 week after hospital discharge, and their wounds healed after wound dressing. Nine patients (4. 7%) did not recover, due to residue of the sequestrum and costal chondritis, whom were later cured by undergoing a second treatment of debridement and pectoralis major muscle flap transposition. Eight patients died, in which 2 died of respiratory failure, 2 died of bacterial endocarditis with septicemia, 2 died of renal failure, 1 died of intraoperative bleeding leading to brain death and the 1 died of heart failure. The mortality rate was 4. 2% . The average length of postoperative hospital stay was (14 ± 5) days. The longest postoperative

  9. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  10. Using a pedicle pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap in head and neck reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jen-Wu; Wu, Nai-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Ying

    2017-04-01

    A pedicle pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMMC) flap is one of the strategies for head and neck reconstruction. Seldom studies reported the case in which the skin area of previous modified radical mastectomy (MRM) had been used as a PMMC flap in head and neck reconstruction. An 84-year-old female who had suffered from left breast cancer and undergone a left modified radical mastectomy (MRM) more than 20 years earlier. She had squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and had undergone partial glossection and left modified radial neck dissection. Four months later, a left submandibular mass was noted with progressive enlargement and the biopsy revealed recurrent carcinoma. Left marginal mandibulectomy with radical neck dissection was performed and the neck area was reconstructed by a left pedicle PMMC flap harvested from the left chest wall which had the previous MRM scar. The post-operative course was uneventful with complete survival of the flap. The patient received post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy at the left neck and no delayed wound disruption or flap necrosis was noted six months after surgery. A pedicle PMMC flap may be harvested to achieve a functionally as well as an aesthetically pleasing outcome without compromising its viability despite the previous MRM.

  11. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines 'Tarzan' assault course.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan; Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-07-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the 'Tarzan' assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids.

  12. Case series of pectoralis major rupture requiring operative intervention sustained on the Royal Marines ‘Tarzan’ assault course

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris; Guyver, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present (with intra-operative imaging) four patients who sustained pectoralis major (PM) ruptures on the same piece of equipment of the ‘Tarzan’ assault course at the Commando Training Centre, Royal Marines (CTCRM). Recruits jump at running pace, carrying 21 lbs of equipment and a weapon (8 lbs) across a 6-feet gap onto a vertical cargo-net. The recruits punch horizontally through the net, before adducting their arm to catch themselves, and all weight, on their axilla. All patients presented with immediate pain and reduced function. Two had ruptures demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging, one on an ultrasound scan and one via clinical examination. All four patients were found, at operation, to have sustained type IIIE injuries. All patients underwent PM repair using a unicortical button fixation and had an uneventful immediate postoperative course. Patient 1 left Royal Marines training after the injury (out of choice; not because of failure to rehabilitate). All other patients are under active rehabilitation, hoping to return to training. Review of 10 years of records at CTCRM reveal no documented PM rupture prior to our first case in October 2013. There has been no change to the obstacle or technique used and all patients deny the use of steroids. PMID:27582974

  13. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Alias, Halimah; Boon, Soo-Heong; Shariff, Elyana M; Tan, Chi-Yee A; Ooi, Leslie Cl; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Raha, Abdul-Rahim; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Singh, Rajinder

    2008-05-29

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm whether these genes are suitable as

  14. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Alias, Halimah; Boon, Soo-Heong; Shariff, Elyana M; Tan, Chi-Yee A; Ooi, Leslie CL; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Raha, Abdul-Rahim; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Singh, Rajinder

    2008-01-01

    Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes. Results A total of 12 standard cDNA libraries, representing three main developmental stages in oil palm tissue culture, were generated in this study. Random sequencing of clones from these cDNA libraries generated 17,599 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). The ESTs were analysed, annotated and assembled to generate 9,584 putative unigenes distributed in 3,268 consensi and 6,316 singletons. These unigenes were assigned putative functions based on similarity and gene ontology annotations. Cluster analysis, which surveyed the relatedness of each library based on the abundance of ESTs in each consensus, revealed that lipid transfer proteins were highly expressed in embryogenic tissues. A glutathione S-transferase was found to be highly expressed in non-embryogenic callus. Further analysis of the unigenes identified 648 non-redundant simple sequence repeats and 211 putative full-length open reading frames. Conclusion This study has provided an overview of genes expressed during oil palm tissue culture. Candidate genes with expression that are modulated during tissue culture were identified. However, in order to confirm

  15. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  16. Pregnane glycosides from Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Olaf; Rao, Vijayalakshmi Gurunath; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Sujatha, Palatheeya; Sivagamy, Malayalam; Anuradha, Sandala; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Alex, Robert Michael; Schühly, Wolfgang; Kühnelt, Doris; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwara; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2008-02-01

    Eleven novel pregnane glycosides, 2-7 and 9-13, of which four, i.e., 10-13, comprised a new pregnane-type genin exhibiting a hydroxymethylene instead of a Me group at C(19), and the known pregnane glycoside stalagmoside V (8) were isolated from whole plants of Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata, a native Indian succulent plant. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies.

  17. Characterization of apigenin and luteolin derivatives from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Noor Idayu; Shaari, Khozirah; Abas, Faridah; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ishak, Zamzuri; Ramli, Umi Salamah

    2012-11-14

    The palm oil industry generates several byproducts, and more than half of the dry weight of the waste is of oil palm leaf whereby the tissue is underutilized. Recently, several research studies found promising potential of oil palm fronds as a source of nutraceutical due to its bioactive properties. However, the chemical composition of the tissue is still not deciphered. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), glycosylated apigenin and luteolin were separated and identified from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaf and structures of the constituents were elucidated by collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem MS. From 28 derivatives of the flavones, 9 compounds were conjugated with hydroxymethylglutaric (HMG) acid. Improved knowledge on oil palm especially on bioactive component of the leaf tissue will allow correlation of its beneficial effects and further promotes efficient utilization of this agriculture byproduct.

  18. [Use of kenaf fibre in the elaboration of specific substrates for Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer cultivation].

    PubMed

    Pardo Giménez, Arturo; Perona Zamora, Ma Aquilina; Pardo Núñez, José

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the viability of the kenaf fibre use, alone or combined with cereal straw, vine shoots and olive mill dried waste, in the elaboration of specific substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer, second mushroom in importance cultivated in Spain, is described. Furthermore, three different methods of preparation of the substrate have been considered in order to obtain selectivity for the growth and later fruiting of Pleurotus sporophore. As for the production parameters, the best results have been provided by the substrates that combined kenaf with straw and with vine shoots, being unfavourable the substrates based in just kenaf or combined with olive mill dried waste. As for the treatment applied to the materials, the immersion in water alone and subsequent pasteurization and thermophilic conditioning, together with the semi-anaerobic fermentation, has been favoured in front of the immersion in water with fungicide and later pasteurization.

  19. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  20. Efficacy of the myofascial pectoralis major flap in the reduction of salivary fistulas after salvage total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; González García, Jose Angel; Sistiaga Suarez, Jon Alexander; Thomas Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Larruscain Sarasola, Ekhiñe; Altuna Mariezcurrena, Xabier

    2017-08-30

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula is the most frequent complication after total laryngectomy. Its incidence varies between 9%-25% in post primary total laryngectomy patients, to 14%-57% in salvage laryngectomy post radiotherapy or post chemotherapy + radiotherapy. The pectoralis major myofascial flap (PMMF)is postulated as a useful tool to decrease the incidence of this complication. Retrospective analysis of a group of patients treated by salvage laryngectomy, associated or not with pharyngeal closure reinforcement with PMMF. Twenty patients were included, 18 males (90%) and 2 females (10%), in 10 of whom the PMMF was used. The average age was 66.65 years. Seventeen (85%) had a laryngeal tumour and 3 (15%) had a hypopharyngeal tumour. Eight (80%) patients in the non-PMMF group had postoperative fistula, whereas only 2 (20%) patients in the PMMF group had a fistula during the postoperative period (P=.005). The mean time for fistula closure was significantly shorter in the cases where PMMF flap was used (16±11 days vs. 76.8±67 days, P=.001), as was hospital stay (19. 6±18 days vs. 83.9±77 days, P=.001). The use of PMMF in our series is associated with a lower rate of post salvage laryngectomy fistulas in patients treated primarily by organ preservation protocol for laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. In turn, it promotes local healing by decreasing the mean duration of fistula closure and the mean hospital stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  1. Daily variations in dietary lysine content alter the expression of genes related to proteolysis in chicken pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Tesseraud, Sophie; Bouvarel, Isabelle; Collin, Anne; Audouin, Estelle; Crochet, Sabine; Seiliez, Iban; Leterrier, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are known to be anabolic factors that affect protein metabolism, but the response of animals to daily amino acid changes is little understood. We aimed to test the effects of feeding birds with alternations of diets varying in lysine content on the expression of genes related to proteolysis in chicken muscle. Cyclic feeding programs with 2 diets, each given for 24 h during 48-h cycles, were carried out from 10 d of age. Three programs were used: 1) control treatment with continuous distribution of a complete diet containing standard medium lysine level (ML; 11.9 g/kg); 2) alternation of diets with high (HL) and low (LL) lysine levels; 3) alternation of ML and LL diets, where LL = 70%, ML = 100%, HL = 130% of standard lysine level. The Pectoralis major muscles were sampled after 2 wk of cyclic feeding. Measurements included the expression patterns of 6 genes involved in proteolysis, and mammalian target of rapamycin and Forkhead box-O transcription factor (FoxO) signaling. Cathepsin B, m-calpain, and E3 ubiquitin ligases Muscle Ring Finger-1 and Muscle Atrophy F box were significantly overexpressed in chickens transiently fed the LL diet, whereas the mRNA levels of 20S proteasome C2 subunit and ubiquitin remained unchanged. Modifications of E3 ubiquitin ligase expression can be partly explained by significant changes in FoxO phosphorylation with cyclic dietary treatments. Our results suggest timing-sensitive regulation of proteolysis in chicken muscle according to dietary treatment and a high metabolism capacity to compensate for changes in amino acid supply, which might be used for nutritional purposes.

  2. Interrater and intrarater reliability of the pectoralis minor muscle length measurement in subjects with and without shoulder impingement symptoms.

    PubMed

    Struyf, Filip; Meeus, Mira; Fransen, Erik; Roussel, Nathalie; Jansen, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Nijs, Jo

    2014-08-01

    Measuring the pectoralis minor muscle length (PML) is of clinical interest, as a short PML has been associated with a decrease of scapular posterior tilting and shoulder pain. However, as no reliability data are available at present, the objective of this study was to examine the inter- and intrarater reliability of the PML measurement in both subjects with and without shoulder impingement symptoms (SIS). Therefore, two assessors performed the PML measurement (3 times/shoulder) in 25 patients with SIS and 25 pain-free controls. Both assessors were blinded for each other's findings. For reliability testing, intra-class coefficients (ICCs; model 2,1) and standard errors of measurements were calculated. Intrarater reliability analysis resulted with ICCs ranging from 0.87 (Standard error of measurement (SEM) 0.21-0.27%) (symptomatic) to 0.93 (SEM 0.19-0.30%) (asymptomatic) in patients with SIS, representing excellent test-retest agreement. Healthy subjects presented with ICCs ranging from 0.76 (SEM 0.29-0.32%) (dominant side) to 0.87 (SEM 0.21-0.32%) (non-dominant side), representing good test-retest agreement. ICCs and SEMs on the symptomatic and asymptomatic side (0.48 and 0.46%; 0.56 and 0.61%) in SIS patients, and on the two sides (non-dominant; 0.47 and 0.45%, dominant; 0.53 and 0.38% respectively) in healthy subjects showed moderate interrater reliability and low dispersion of the measurement errors. We concluded that the PML measurement has good to excellent intrarater reliability and poor to moderate interrater reliability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Clinical and Functional Outcomes Using Pectoralis Major and Cutaneous Free Flaps for Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeyul; Chang, Yongjoon; Kim, Jaehyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative morbidities and functional outcomes of pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap and cutaneous free flap reconstruction approaches in hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records from 99 patients who underwent hypopharyngeal reconstruction with a cutaneous free flap (n=85) or PMMC flap (n=14) between 1995 and 2013. Morbidity was classified into hospitalization, medical, or flap-related complications. Functional outcomes were classified into oral re-alimentation and decannulation time. Results The overall flap-related complication rate was higher in the PMMC flap group (n=8, 57.1%; P=0.019), but the medical morbidity rate was higher in the cutaneous free flap group (n=68, 80%; P=0.006). The rate of pneumonia was higher in the cutaneous free flap group (n=48, 56.5%; P=0.020). Pulmonary premorbidity was the variable most significantly associated with pneumonia (odds ratio=3.012, P=0.012). There was no statistically significant difference in oral re-alimentation and decannulation time between the two groups. Conclusions Although the functional superiority of free flaps has been reported in many studies, our results do not support this hypothesis. One limitation of our study is the relatively smaller flap size and fewer PMMC flap cases compared with the cutaneous free flap group. The low postoperative medical morbidity incidence rate in the PMMC flap group was clinically significant; however, the free flap group had more flap-related complications. Thus, PMMC flaps should be considered a viable option, especially for patients with pulmonary premorbidities. PMID:26430633

  4. The role of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi muscles in a biomechanical model of massive rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sean T; Ecklund, Kier J; Chu, Eileen H; McGarry, Michelle H; Gupta, Ranjan; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-08-01

    Superior migration of the humeral head after massive rotator cuff tear (mRCT) is thought to lead to cuff tear arthropathy. Previous biomechanical studies have demonstrated the ability of the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi (PM/LD) muscles to resist this migration. This study examined the role of PM/LD muscles on glenohumeral joint forces and acromiohumeral contact pressures in a mRCT model. Six cadaveric shoulders were tested using a custom shoulder-testing system. Muscle insertions of the rotator cuff, deltoid, and PM/LD were preserved and used for muscle loading. Specimens were tested in 3 different humeral rotation positions at 0° abduction and 2 rotation positions at 60° abduction. Testing was performed for intact specimens, after supraspinatus removal, and after supraspinatus/infraspinatus/teres minor removal. PM/LD were loaded or unloaded to determine their effect. Humeral head kinematics, glenohumeral joint forces, and acromiohumeral contact area and pressure were measured. For the mRCT condition at 0° abduction, unloading the PM/LD resulted in superior shift of the humeral head. Acromiohumeral contact pressures were undetectable when the PM/LD were loaded but increased significantly after PM/LD unloading. After mRCT, superior joint forces were increased and compressive forces were decreased compared with intact; loading the PM/LD resolved these abnormal forces in some testing conditions. In mRCT, the PM and LD muscles are effective in improving glenohumeral kinematics and reducing acromiohumeral pressures. Strengthening or neuromuscular training of this musculature, or both, may delay the progression to cuff tear arthropathy. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Regulation of hemagglutinin/protease expression by the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeyoun; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2010-06-01

    In this study, through the analysis of Vibrio cholerae 2740-80 mutant strains produced by the cholera toxin subunit B gene containing Mariner-based transposon, we found that disruption of the varS gene, a member of the recently reported sensory system VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D, resulted in altered expression of hemagglutinin/protease A. To further investigate the connection between VarS and HapA, we generated an additional varS mutant, V. cholerae 2740-80-VS, and examined the effect of this mutation on expression of HapA and of genes in the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system. 2740-80-VS showed decreased expression of varS, csrB/C, hapR, and hapA along with increased biofilm production. Interestingly, expression of the alternative sigma factor sigma(s), which is important for adaptation to environmental stress, was also decreased in this mutant. These results indicate that the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system is involved in the control of HapA expression and biofilm production in V. cholerae 2740-80 through HapR regulation, and also that VarS/VarA controls expression of sigma(s) for HapA regulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Aster ageratoides var. pilosus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fu-Lin; Wang, Ai-Xia; Jia, Zhong-Jian

    2004-11-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, 2beta,3beta,16alpha-trihydroxyl-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2beta,3beta-dihydroxyl-16-O-beta-D-glucopyranose-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and two known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Aster ageratoides var. pilosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR). In addition, the anti-bacterial activity and anti-tumor activity of compound 2 were tested.

  8. Fatal Actinomucor elegans var. kuwaitiensis Infection following Combat Trauma▿

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Charla C.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first case of invasive mucormycosis secondary to Actinomucor elegans infection. A severely injured soldier with a fatal A. elegans var. kuwaitiensis infection is described. The identification of this fungus was performed by classical and molecular methods, and this report documents the pathogenicity of the recently described variety Actinomucor elegans var. kuwaitiensis. PMID:19675213

  9. Characterization of proopiomelanocortin in the snakeskin gourami (Trichopodus pectoralis) and its expression in relation to food intake.

    PubMed

    Boonanuntanasarn, S; Jangprai, A; Yoshizaki, G

    2015-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor of several hormones involved in physiological systems including feed intake. The snakeskin gourami (Trichopodus pectoralis) POMC complementary DNA (TpPOMC) was cloned and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that TpPOMC was clustered in a major POMC lineage in fish. Analysis of the Ka to Ks ratios for the entire POMC sequence and for each hormonal segment suggested that different POMC-derived peptide segments were subject to different evolutionary pressures. High expression level of TpPOMC was observed in all brain regions, with the highest levels in the diencephalon and pituitary gland. In situ hybridization also revealed that TpPOMC-expressing cells were distributed in discrete brain regions. The transcription level of TpPOMC was also found at moderate levels in several peripheral tissues, including gills, liver, head kidney, trunk kidney, stomach, intestine, spleen, ovary and testis, and at a low level in muscle. The expression level of TpPOMC was evaluated in each brain region (telencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and diencephalon together with the pituitary gland) at 1 h before the first and the last meals of the day and compared with expression levels at a time interval between the first and the last meals of the day. Low expression levels of TpPOMC were found at 1 h before the last meal of the day (P < 0.05). These finding suggest that decreased POMC expression level may lead to reduced melanocyte-stimulating hormones, which may in part be responsible for stimulating food intake. The effect of short-term fasting (24 h) on TpPOMC expression level in each brain region was also investigated. In telencephalon and diencephalon together with the pituitary gland, TpPOMC messenger RNA reached a nadir at 12 h of fasting, whereas TpPOMC transcript showed a nadir at 6 h of fasting in metencephalon and mesencephalon. A peak of TpPOMC level was observed at 18 h of fasting in metencephalon and

  10. Temperature-dependence of L-type Ca2+ current in ventricular cardiomyocytes of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Kubly, Kerry L.; Stecyk, Jonathan A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To lend insight into the overwintering strategy of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), we acclimated fish to 15°C or 5°C and then utilized whole-cell patch-clamp to characterize the effects of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the density and kinetics of ventricular L-type Ca2+ current (ICa). Peak ICa density at 5°C (−1.1± 0.1 pA pF−1) was 1/8th that at 15°C (−8.8 ± 0.6 pA pF−1). However, alterations of the Ca2+- and voltage-dependent inactivation properties of L-type Ca2+ channels partially compensated against the decrease. The time constant tau (τ) for the kinetics of inactivation of ICa was ~4.5-times greater at 5°C than at 15°C, and the voltage for half-maximal inactivation was shifted from −23.3 ± 1.0 mV at 15°C to - 19.8 ± 1.2 mV at 5°C. These modifications increase the open probability of the channel and culminated in an approximate doubling of the L-type Ca2+ window current, which contributed to approximately 15% of the maximal Ca2+ conductance at 5°C. Consequently, the charge density of ICa (QCa) and the total Ca2+ transferred through the L-type Ca channels (Δ[Ca2+]) were not as severely reduced at 5°C as compared to peak ICa density. In combination, the results suggest that while the Alaska blackfish substantially down-regulates ICa with acclimation to low temperature, there is sufficient compensation in the kinetics of the L-type Ca2+ channel to support the level of cardiac performance required for the fish to remain active throughout the winter. PMID:26439127

  11. Temperature-dependence of L-type Ca(2+) current in ventricular cardiomyocytes of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis).

    PubMed

    Kubly, Kerry L; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2015-12-01

    To lend insight into the overwintering strategy of the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis), we acclimated fish to 15 or 5 °C and then utilized whole-cell patch clamp to characterize the effects of thermal acclimation and acute temperature change on the density and kinetics of ventricular L-type Ca(2+) current (I Ca). Peak I Ca density at 5 °C (-1.1 ± 0.1 pA pF(-1)) was 1/8th that at 15 °C (-8.8 ± 0.6 pA pF(-1)). However, alterations of the Ca(2+)- and voltage-dependent inactivation properties of L-type Ca(2+) channels partially compensated against the decrease. The time constant tau (τ) for the kinetics of inactivation of I Ca was ~4.5 times greater at 5 °C than at 15 °C, and the voltage for half-maximal inactivation was shifted from -23.3 ± 1.0 mV at 15 °C to -19.8 ± 1.2 mV at 5 °C. These modifications increase the open probability of the channel and culminate in an approximate doubling of the L-type Ca(2+) window current, which contributes to approximately 15% of the maximal Ca(2+) conductance at 5 °C. Consequently, the charge density of I Ca (Q Ca) and the total Ca(2+) transferred through the L-type Ca(2+) channels (Δ[Ca(2+)]) were not as severely reduced at 5 °C as compared to peak I Ca density. In combination, the results suggest that while the Alaska blackfish substantially down-regulates I Ca with acclimation to low temperature, there is sufficient compensation in the kinetics of the L-type Ca(2+) channel to support the level of cardiac performance required for the fish to remain active throughout the winter.

  12. Proteome basis of pale, soft, and exudative-like (PSE-like) broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat.

    PubMed

    Desai, Monil A; Jackson, Viodelda; Zhai, Wei; Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Beach, Carol M; Schilling, M Wes

    2016-11-01

    Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE) broiler breast meat has poor protein functionality, which leads to quality problems and economic loss in the poultry industry. Proteomics has been applied to characterize the biochemical mechanisms governing tenderness, color, and water-holding capacity in meat. However, the proteome basis of PSE has not yet been characterized for broiler breast meat. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the differences in meat quality (cooking loss and shear force), descriptive sensory characteristics, consumer acceptance, and whole muscle proteome between normal and PSE-like broiler breast meat. Male Hubbard × Cobb 500 birds (n = 1,050) were raised in commercial houses. Prior to harvest, a sample of the broilers (n = 900) were subjected to short-term stress (38°C for 2 h), and the remaining broilers (n = 150) were maintained at control conditions (21°C for 2 h). Broiler breast (Pectoralis major) meat was collected and characterized by pH24 and L*24 as normal (pH24 5.8 to 6.2, L*24 45 to 55) or PSE-like (pH24 5.4 to 5.7, L*24 55 to 65) samples. Normal broiler breast meat had lower shear force values than PSE-like meat (P < 0.05). Based on sensory descriptive analysis, normal cooked chicken breast meat was more tender and juicier than PSE-like breast meat (P < 0.05). Consumer sensory analysis results indicated that 81% of consumer panelists liked normal breast meat whereas 62% of the panelists liked PSE-like breast meat. Whole muscle proteome profiling identified fifteen differentially abundant proteins in normal and PSE-like broiler breast samples. Actin alpha, myosin heavy chain, phosphoglycerate kinase, creatine kinase M type, beta-enolase, carbonic anhydrase 2, proteasome subunit alpha, pyruvate kinase, and malate dehydrogenase were over-abundant (P < 0.05) in PSE-like broiler breast whereas phosphoglycerate mutase-1, alpha-enolase, ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase were over-abundant (P < 0

  13. Arthroscopic stabilisation of an acute acromioclavicular dislocation grade III in a patient with ectopic insertion of the pectoralis minor: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Minuesa-Asensio, Alvaro; Barrio-Asensio, Carmen; González-Gómez, Ignacio; Murillo-González, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The different approaches used in arthroscopic stabilisation of the acromioclavicular joint are well known. However, and despite a great incidence of ectopic pectoralis minor insertion, an alternative choice for the use of arthroscopic portal has not being sufficiently described. Here, we describe a case of acute acromioclavicular dislocation grade III. The arthroscopic stabilisation was achieved using the TightRope (Arthrex, Naples, USA) implant. Through this technique, the approach to the articular portion of the coracoid process can be made intra-articularly or from the subacromial space. We accessed intra-articularly, by opening the rotator interval to reach the coracoid process from the joint cavity. After opening the rotator interval, an ectopic insertion of the pectoralis minor was observed. The choice of approach of the coracoid process from the subacromial space would have complicated the intervention, making it necessary to sever the ectopic tendon to complete the technique, lengthening the surgical time and increasing the chance of complications. For this reason, the use of a standard posterior portal providing intra-articular arthroscopic access through the rotator interval is recommended since the aforementioned anatomical variation is not infrequent. Level of evidence Therapeutic studies-investigating the results of treatment, Level V.

  14. Radial free forearm flap versus pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in patients with tongue cancer: Assessment of quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Li, Rui; Liu, Yiming; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the quality of life of Chinese patients with tongue cancer who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. In addition, we compared 2 groups of patients: those who had received radial forearm free flap (RFFF) surgery and others who had received pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) surgery. Material and Methods Patients who received RFFF or PMMF reconstruction after primary tongue cancer treated with total and subtotal tongue resection were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores (14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires) were collected. Results A total of 41 of 63 questionnaires were returned (65.08%). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the gender (p< .05). Patients reconstructed with RFFF performed better in the shoulder domains, in addition to worse appearance domains. Conclusions Using either RFFF or PMMF for reconstruction of defects after tongue cancer resection significantly influences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for tongue cancers. Key words:Quality of life, radial forearm free flaps, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, tongue cancer, oral function. PMID:27694786

  15. Genetic maps for Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis using AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M; Cross, M; Dieters, M J; Henry, R

    2003-05-01

    Genetic maps for individual Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis trees were generated using a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A total of 329 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) and 12 microsatellite markers were found to segregate in a sample of 93 interspecfic F(1) progeny. The male P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent was more heterozygous than the female P. elliottii var. elliottii parent with 19% more markers segregating on the male side. Framework maps were constructed using a LOD 5 threshold for grouping and interval support threshold of LOD 2. The framework map length for the P. elliottii var. elliottii megagametophyte parent (1,170 cM Kosambi; 23 linkage groups) was notably smaller than the P. caribaea var. hondurensis pollen parent (1,658 cM Kosambi; 27 linkage groups). The difference in map lengths was assumed to be due to sex-related recombination variation, which has been previously reported for pines, as the difference in map lengths not be accounted for by the larger number of markers mapping to the P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent - 109 compared with 78 in P. elliottii var. elliottii parent. Based on estimated genome sizes for these species, the framework maps for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis covered 82% and 88% of their respective genomes. The pseudo-testcross strategy was extended to include AFLP and microsatellite markers in an intercross configuration. These comprehensive maps provided further genome coverage, 1,548 and 1,828 cM Kosambi for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, respectively, and enabled homologous linkage groups to be identified in the two parental maps. Homologous linkage groups were identified for 11 out of 24 P. elliottii var. elliottii and 10 out of 25 P. caribaea var. hondurensis groups. A higher than expected level of segregation distortion was found for both AFLP and microsatellite markers. An explanation for this segregation

  16. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  18. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  19. Ozone stomatal flux and O3 concentration-based metrics for Astronium graveolens Jacq., a Brazilian native forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Cassimiro, Jéssica C; Moura, Bárbara B; Alonso, Rocio; Meirelles, Sérgio T; Moraes, Regina M

    2016-06-01

    The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics - phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) - for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m(-2) PLA s(-1)), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R(2) = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species.

  20. Cryopreservation of chayote (Sechium edule JACQ. SW.) zygotic embryos and shoot-tips from in vitro plantlets.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour-Esquivel, Ana; Engelmann, Florent

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of cryopreservation protocols for zygotic embryos and apices of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw.), a tropical plant species with recalcitrant seeds. Zygotic embryos of two cultivars, Ccocro negro (CN) and Claudio (Cl) could withstand cryopreservation, with survival percentages of 10 and 30 %, after desiccation to 23 and 19 % moisture content (fresh weight basis), respectively. Apices sampled on in vitro plantlets of cultivars Cl, 13 and JM were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification technique. Optimal conditions included the culture of mother-plants for 22 days on medium containing 0.3 M sucrose, culture of excised apices on the same medium for 1 day, loading of apices for 20 min with 2M glycerol + 0.4M glycerol, treatment with a series of diluted PVS2 solution (60 % PVS2 followed by 80 % PVS2 solution for 15 min (cultivar Cocoro Blanco [CB]) or 30 min (cultivars CN and Cl) at each concentration), rapid freezing and thawing, washing of shoot-tips with a 1.2 M sucrose solution, followed by recovery on media with progressively decreasing sucrose concentrations until the standard concentration of 0.1 M was reached. The highest survival percentages achieved ranged between 17 and 38 %, depending on the cultivar.

  1. Enrichment of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases the capsaicinoids content in Habanero peppers (Capsicum chinense Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Garruña-Hernández, René; Monforte-González, Miriam; Canto-Aguilar, Azucena; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Orellana, Roger

    2013-04-01

    The effects of the increase of atmospheric CO2 on agricultural productivity have been mainly analyzed through its impact on biomass yield, and little attention has been directed to quality traits, such as nutritional or organoleptic attributes. For this study, plants of hot Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were grown in growth chambers under three different CO2 levels: 380 (normal atmospheric value), 760 and 1140 µmol mol(-1), and their effects on pod yield, size, color and pungency, were monitored. The total number of pods per plant increased by 88.5% at the highest CO2 , in comparison to plants grown at normal CO2 conditions. Pod size and yield per plant also increased when plants were grown at the highest CO2 concentration (partial pressure). Furthermore, total capsaicinoids contents in ripe peppers under a high CO2 atmosphere were 27% higher than those from plants under lower concentrations, but it was not the case for immature pods. These data suggest that the increase of atmospheric CO2 could modify specific routes of secondary metabolism as well as others desirable traits, thus affecting the quality of Capsicum pepper products. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro plantlet regeneration from nodal segments and shoot tips of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili.

    PubMed

    Kehie, Mechuselie; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-03-01

    An in vitro regeneration protocol was developed for Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King Chili, a very pungent chili cultivar and an important horticultural crop of Nagaland (Northeast India). Maximum number of shoot (13 ± 0.70) was induced with bud-forming capacity (BFC) index of 10.8, by culturing nodal segments in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 18.16 μM Thidiazuron (TDZ) followed by 35.52 μM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Using shoot tips as explants, multiple shoot (10 ± 0.37) (BFC 8.3) was also induced in MS medium fortified with either 18.16 μM TDZ or 35.52 μM BAP. Elongated shoots were best rooted in MS medium containing 5.70 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Rooted plantlets thus developed were hardened in 2-3 weeks time in plastic cups containing potting mixture of a 1:1 mix of soil and cow dung manure and then subsequently transferred to earthen pots. The regenerated plants did not show any variation in the morphology and growth as compared to the parent plant.

  3. Effect of autohydrolysis and enzymatic treatment on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frond fibres for xylose and xylooligosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Hanim, Saleh; Noor, Mohd Azemi Mohd; Rosma, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important commercial crops for the production of palm oil, which generates 10.88 tons of oil palm fronds per hectare of plantation as a by-product. In this study, oil palm frond fibres were subjected to an autohydrolysis treatment using an autoclave, operated at 121 °C for 20-80 min, to facilitate the separation of hemicelluloses. The hemicellulose-rich solution (autohydrolysate) was subjected to further hydrolysis with 4-16 U of mixed Trichoderma viride endo-(1,4)-β-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) per 100 mg of autohydrolysate. Autoclaving of palm fronds at 121°C for 60 min (a severity factor of 2.40) recovered 75% of the solid residue, containing 57.9% cellulose and 18% Klason lignin, and an autohydrolysate containing 14.94% hemicellulose, with a fractionation efficiency of 49.20%. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the autohydrolysate with 8 U of endoxylanase at 40 °C for 24 h produced a solution containing 17.5% xylooligosaccharides and 25.6% xylose. The results clearly indicate the potential utilization of oil palm frond, an abundantly available lignocellulosic biomass for the production of xylose and xylooligosaccharides which can serve as functional food ingredients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of flavonoids of Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) different edible organs by liquid chromatography photodiode array mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Tiziana; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Morelli, Ivano; Braca, Alessandra

    2004-10-20

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based method was developed for the characterization of flavonoids from Sechium edule (Jacq) Swartz (Cucurbitaceae) edible organs, a plant cultivated since pre-Colombian times in Mexico where the fruit is called chayote. Chayote is used for human consumption in many countries; in addition to the fruits, stems, leaves and the tuberous part of the roots are also eaten. Eight flavonoids, including three C-glycosyl and five O-glycosyl flavones, were detected, characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data, and quantified in roots, leaves, stems, and fruits of the plant by LC-photodiode array-MS. The aglycone moieties are represented by apigenin and luteolin, while the sugar units are glucose, apiose, and rhamnose. The results indicated that the highest total amount of flavonoids was in the leaves (35.0 mg/10 g of dried part), followed by roots (30.5 mg/10 g), and finally by stems (19.3 mg/10 g). Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  5. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii... supporting data may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other... may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR...

  6. Isolation of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii from a dog.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Suzuki, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shinichi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2010-06-01

    A rare anthropophilic dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii, was isolated for the first time from a case of animal dermatophytosis. We morphologically and physiologically identified the isolate from a case of canine dermatophytosis. Molecular typing of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences suggest that human and canine isolates of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii are genetically identical. Therefore, T. rubrum, including T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, might be pathogenic to humans and dogs.

  7. Reconstruction of elbow flexion in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita type I: results of transfer of pectoralis major muscle with follow-up at skeletal maturity.

    PubMed

    Chomiak, Jiří; Dungl, Pavel; Včelák, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of a pectoralis major transfer to restore active elbow flexion in patients with extension elbow contracture in arthrogryposis. The hypotheses were: (1) this transfer ensures permanent useful elbow flexion; and (2) flexion elbow deformity will not progress during growth and after its cessation. Unipolar transfer of the 3 distal parts of the pectoralis major muscle was used in 9 extremities of 5 patients (age range, 5 to 9 y; average age, 6.3 y) and the results were prospectively followed in the period of 13 to 16 years. Posterior elbow release was necessary in 5 extremities to achieve passive flexion of 90 degrees before the transfer. The subjective evaluation of daily living activities and data on the physical examination of the range of movement of the elbow, muscle strength, and electrical activity of the transferred muscle were assessed. Two specimens from transferred muscles were histologically examined. All extremities achieved the active elbow flexion. Significant improvement of function for daily living activities was achieved in 5 extremities (55.5%). It includes the following results: 1 very good with flexion of 90 degrees and a deficit of extension of 35 degrees; 2 good with flexion of 92 and 100 degrees and a lack of extension of 42 and 45 degrees; and 2 satisfactory with a limited arc of motion between 20 and 45 degrees. Four extremities remained unsatisfactory with the arc of motion of 5 to 15 degrees. Significant elbow flexion contracture of 70 to 80 degrees developed in 4 extremities. Extremities with a necessity of posterior elbow release achieved a limited range of movement or significant elbow flexion contracture. Electromyography corresponded to a partial denervation of the transferred muscle followed by reinervation. Histologic examinations showed partial atrophy with signs of ongoing regeneration. The hypotheses of the study were not confirmed, because this muscle transfer restores useful

  8. New pseudoguaiane derivatives from Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Genova, Viktoriya; Shestakova, Pavletta; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Jadranine, Milka; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2014-08-01

    The aerial parts of Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana afforded parthenolide, diepoxycostunolide, inusoniolide, chrysosplenol C and four new pseudoguaiane-type sesquiterpenoids. Their structures were determined using spectral methods and relative stereochemistry by NOESY correlations.

  9. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  10. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

  11. Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh K; Verma, Suman K

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves were studied for their phytochemical constituents and termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. The 5% chloroform extract was found to be significantly effective against termite workers.

  12. Immunomodulatory Activity of Xanthones from Calophyllum teysmannii var. inuphylloide.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M J; Nascimento, M S; Cidade, H M; Pinto, M M; Kijjoa, A; Anantachoke, C; Silva, A M; Herz, W

    1999-05-01

    Nine xanthones, including 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metnylbutyl)-4,8-dihydroxyxanthone, were isolated from the wood of a Thai collection of CALOPHYLLUM TEYSMANNII Miq. var. INUPHYLLOIDE (King) P. Stephen. Immunomodulatory activities of eight of these have been investigated.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C; Narvaez, Gabriel A; Perez, Leandro R R; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-12-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line.

  14. Significance of the Lateral Thoracic Artery in Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap Reconstruction: Quantitative Assessment of Blood Circulation Using Indocyanine Green Angiography.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Iwai, Toshinori; Wada, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Yoshinori; Asamura, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    Free tissue transfer is the preferred reconstruction option in most major head and neck reconstructions. The pectoralis major muscle musculocutaneous (PMMC) flap is commonly used in salvage of necrotic free flaps and is the first choice for patients who are not candidates for free flaps. The lateral thoracic artery (LTA), which is thought to contribute to blood perfusion of the inferior and lateral mammary area, is not preserved in a conventionally harvested PMMC flap. With regard to blood supply, it has been suggested that the LTA should be preserved, in addition to the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery, when a skin island is designed in the lower chest to attain a pedicle length sufficient for head and neck reconstruction. However, an effect on hemodynamic improvement using the LTA has not been shown quantitatively. In this study, we examined 8 patients with oral cancer who underwent reconstruction procedures with a bipedicle PMMC flap that included the LTA, in addition to the thoracoacromial artery. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography was performed to examine circulation to the PMMC flap with or without LTA clamping after harvesting. After image processing, data were analyzed using a new quantitative perfusion assessment system with parameters that we recently established for assessment of peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs. All patients had good clinical courses with whole-flap survival, no vascular insufficiency of the skin island, and no fistula formation. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography showed an increased inflow rate into the skin island in an LTA-declamped condition in all cases, implying that the preserved LTA increased the blood supply to skin islands in the pectoralis major muscle. We conclude that preserving the LTA in a PMMC flap can increase blood perfusion and stabilize the vascularity of the flap, making the reconstruction more effective and reliable than with use of a conventionally harvested flap

  15. Development of a large set of microsatellite markers in Zapote Maney (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) (H.E. Moore & Stearn) and their potential use in the study of the species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tropical plant Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) is known for its edible fruits that contain unique carotenoids, and for the chemicals extracted from its bark, leaves and roots having fungitoxic, insecticidal, anti-inflamatory, anti-oxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Currently, there is no gen...

  16. [Triterpenoid saponins from Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Yang, Yin-Jun; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cen, Shan

    2016-04-01

    Twelve compounds were obtained by phytochemical investigation of 70% EtOH ( containing 0.5%NH3•H2O )extract of the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum. Based on comparison of their spectral data, including HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR data, with those of the literature, their structures were elucidated as saikosaponin b2 (1), saikosaponin a(2), saikosaponin b1(3), saikosaponin d (4), hydroxysaikosaponin a (5), saikosaponin b3 (6), saikosaponin c(7),saikosaponin i (8), saikosaponin f (9), chikusaikosides Ⅱ(10), saikosaponin s (11), and saikosaponin I(12). All compounds belong to olean-type triterpenoid saponin and compounds 1, 3, 5, 8-9,11, and 12 were isolated from this plant for the first time. At a concentration of 20 μmol•L⁻¹, compounds 2, 4, 6, 8, 11 and 12 showed strong inhibition activity against influenza virus WSN33 with the inhibition rate of 91.3%,88.6%,53.4%,61.3%,77.3% and 57.4%,respectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. The Role of Leaf Volatiles of Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven in the Attraction of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mitra, Saubhik; Karmakar, Amarnath; Mukherjee, Abhishek; Barik, Anandamay

    2017-07-10

    Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae. In contrast, feeding by adults caused the release of 2Z-penten-1-ol only after 12 and 36 h; whereas geraniol and 1-tridecanol appeared only after 36 h. Farnesyl acetone was detected after 12 and 36 h of feeding by larvae and after 36 h of feeding by adults. Farnesene was detected after 36 h of feeding by larvae and adults. Linalool was unique after 36 h of feeding by larvae. In Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays, A. cyanea females were attracted to volatiles after 36 h of feeding by larvae or adults compared to volatiles released by undamaged plants. The insects were attracted to five synthetic compounds: 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol. Synthetic blends were more attractive than individual compounds. Compared to undamaged plants, volatiles released by plants, damaged by conspecific individuals, were more attractive to A. cyanea females, due to elevated emissions of 3-hexanol, α-pinene, linalool oxide, geraniol, and phytol.

  18. Biochemical characterization and immunolocalization studies of a Capsicum chinense Jacq. protein fraction containing DING proteins and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Brito-Argáez, Ligia; Tamayo-Sansores, José A; Madera-Piña, Dianeli; García-Villalobos, Francisco J; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Kú-González, Ángela; Villanueva, Marco A; Islas-Flores, Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    The DING protein family consists of proteins of great biological importance due to their ability to inhibit carcinogenic cell growth. A DING peptide with Mr ∼7.57 kDa and pI ∼5.06 was detected in G10P1.7.57, a protein fraction from Capsicum chinense Jacq. seeds. Amino acid sequencing of the peptide produced three smaller peptides showing identity to the DING protein family. G10P1.7.57 displayed a phosphatase activity capable of dephosphorylating different phosphorylated substrates and inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Western immunoblotting with a custom-made polyclonal antibody raised against a sequence (ITYMSPDYAAPTLAGLDDATK), derived from the ∼7.57 kDa polypeptide, immunodetected an ∼ 39 kDa polypeptide in G10P1.7.57. Purification by electroelution followed by amino acid sequencing of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide yielded seven new peptide sequences and an additional one identical to that of the initially identified peptide. Western immunoblotting of soluble proteins from C. chinense seeds and leaves revealed the presence of the ∼39 kDa polypeptide at all developmental stages, with increased accumulation when the organs reached maturity. Immunolocalization using Dabsyl chloride- or Alexa fluor 488-conjugated antibodies revealed a specific fluorescent signal in the cell cytoplasm at all developmental stages, giving support to the idea that the ∼39 kDa polypeptide is a soluble DING protein. Thus, we have identified and characterized a protein fraction with a DING protein from C. chinense.

  19. Improved cryopreservation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) polyembryoids using droplet vitrification approach and assessment of genetic fidelity.

    PubMed

    Gantait, Saikat; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Suranthran, Periasamy; Palanyandy, Sharrmila Rengeswari; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.

  20. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hayssam M; El-Mahrouk, El-Sayed M; Hassan, Fatma A; El-Tarawy, Mohamed A

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters.

  1. Usage of sewage effluent in irrigation of some woody tree seedlings. Part 3: Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Hayssam M.; EL-Mahrouk, EL-Sayed M.; Hassan, Fatma A.; EL-Tarawy, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment was investigated to study the effect of sewage irrigation treatments (primary and secondary effluents) compared with tap water on the growth and chemical constituents of mahogany seedlings (Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq.) as well as soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at a greenhouse in the nursery of Timber Trees Research Department of Sabahia, Horticultural Research Station in Alexandria, Egypt, from June 2003 to December 2004 for three irrigation periods (6, 12 and 18 months). The sewage effluent waters were taken from oxidation ponds located in New Borg EL-Arab city and used directly for irrigation. The primary effluent treatment was superior than other treatments in improving the growth parameters (plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, leaves number, fresh and dry weights of leaves, shoots and roots and shoot/root ratio) and showed the highest concentration and total uptake of N, P, K, Cd, Ni, Pb and Fe in plant parts, followed by secondary effluent then tap water. The data revealed that soil salinity in terms of electrical conductivity of saturated paste (EC), CaCO3%, organic matter% and soluble anions and cations were influenced significantly by primary or secondary effluent treatment. The data also showed that the use of sewage effluent for irrigation increased N, P, K and DTPA-extractable-heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of sewage effluent on growth parameters and elements content in plant parts and treated soil were more pronounced as water treatments were used for long period. The results suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating mahogany trees grown on calcareous sandy loam soil was an important agriculture practice for improving soil properties, increasing fuel and timber production, and is an economic and safe way to dispose wastewaters. PMID:23961125

  2. Physico-chemical, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties and stability of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) procyanidins microcapsules with inulin and maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Wyspiańska, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kolniak-Ostek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) were isolated and purified. Qualitative and quantitative composition was compared with that of the extract of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Stability and antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of procyanidins before and after micro-encapsulation were estimated. The effects of the carrier type (inulin and maltodextrin) and procyanidins:carrier ratio (1:1, 1:3) and the influence of storage temperature (20 °C, -20 °C, -80 °C) on the content of procyanidins were evaluated. Samples before and after micro-encapsulation contained from 651 to 751 mg of procyanidins in 1 g. Among the procyanidins, (-)-epicatechin, dimer B2, and trimer C1 dominated. The use of inulin during spray drying resulted in greater efficiency of micro-encapsulation than the use of maltodextrin. During storage of the samples at 20 °C degradation of procyanidins was observed, whereas at -20 °C and -80 °C concentrations of them increased. The microcapsules with procyanidins from the bark of hawthorn, as well as the extract of procyanidins, have valuable biological activity, and strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is better to prepare microcapsules with a greater amount of carrier, with the procyanidin/carrier ratio 1:3. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  4. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  5. Neuromuscular organization of avian flight muscle: architecture of single muscle fibres in muscle units of the pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeon (Columba livia)

    PubMed Central

    Sokoloff, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The M. pectoralis (pars thoracicus) of pigeons (Columba livia) is comprised of short muscle fibres that do not extend from muscle origin to insertion but overlap 'in-series'. Individual pectoralis motor units are limited in territory to a portion of muscle length and are comprised of either fast twitch, oxidative and glycolytic fibres (FOG) or fast twitch and glycolytic fibres (FG). FOG fibres make up 88 to 90% of the total muscle population and have a mean diameter one-half of that of the relatively large FG fibres. Here we report on the organization of individual fibres identified in six muscle units depleted of glycogen, three comprised of FOG fibres and three comprised of FG fibres. For each motor unit, fibre counts revealed unequal numbers of depleted fibres in different unit cross-sections. We traced individual fibres in one unit comprised of FOG fibres and a second comprised of FG fibres. Six fibres from a FOG unit (total length 15.45 mm) ranged from 10.11 to 11.82 mm in length and averaged (± s.d.) 10.74 ± 0.79 mm. All originated bluntly (en mass) from a fascicle near the proximal end of the muscle unit and all terminated intramuscularly. Five of these ended in a taper and one ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 70% of the muscle unit length. Six fibres from a FG unit (total length 34.76 mm) ranged from 8.97 to 18.38 mm in length and averaged 15.32 ± 3.75 mm. All originated bluntly and terminated intramuscularly; one of these ended in a taper and five ended bluntly. Fibres coursed on average for 44% of the muscle unit length. Because fibres of individual muscle units do not extend the whole muscle unit territory, the effective cross-sectional area changes along the motor unit length. These non-uniformities in the distribution of fibres within a muscle unit emphasize that the functional interactions within and between motor units are complex.

  6. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    PubMed

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  7. Genetic diversity of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) germplasm collections from Africa: implications for improvement and conservation of genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Hayati, A; Wickneswari, R; Maizura, I; Rajanaidu, N

    2004-05-01

    A total of 723 accessions of oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) from 26 populations representing ten countries in Africa and one Deli dura family were screened for allelic variation at seven enzyme loci from six enzyme systems using starch gel electrophoresis. On average, 54.5% of the loci were polymorphic (0.99 criterion). The average and effective number of alleles per locus was 1.80 and 1.35, respectively. Mean expected heterozygosity was 0.184, with values ranging from 0.109 (population 8, Senegal) to 0.261 (population 29, Cameroon). The genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST)=0.301), indicating high genetic divergence. The calculation of F(ST) by geographic zones revealed that the high F(ST) was largely due to F(ST) among populations in West Africa, suggesting diversifying selection in this region. The mean genetic distance across populations was 0.113. The lowest genetic distance (D) was observed between population 5 from Tanzania and population 7 from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (0.000) and the highest was found between population 4 from Madagascar and population 13 from Sierra Leone (0.568). The total gene flow across oil palm populations was low, with an Nm of 0.576, enhancing genetic structuring, as evident from the high F(ST) values. UPGMA cluster analysis revealed three main clusters; the western outlying populations from Senegal and Sierra Leone were in one cluster but separated into two distinct sub-clusters; the eastern outlying populations from Madagascar were in one cluster; the populations from Angola, Cameroon, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Tanzania, Nigeria and Guinea were in one cluster. The Deli dura family seems to be closely related to population 6 from Guinea. Oil palm populations with high genetic diversity-i.e. all of the populations from Nigeria, Cameroon and Sierra Leone, population 6 of Guinea, population 1 of Madagascar and population 2 of Senegal should be used in improvement programmes

  8. Atheroprotective effects of Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. in New Zealand rabbits fed with cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Lorena Neris; Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida Dos Reis; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Budel, Jane Manfron; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Acco, Alexandra; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Gasparotto, Arquimedes

    2016-07-01

    Although Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) J. F. Macbr. is used in Brazilian folk medicine in the treatment of atherosclerosis and circulatory disorders, no study evaluating these effects has been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypolipemiant and antiatherogenic activity of the ethanol soluble fraction obtained from C. carthagenensis (ES-CC) in an experimental atherosclerosis model using New Zealand (NZ) rabbits undergoing cholesterol-rich diet (CRD). Dyslipidemia and atherogenesis were induced by administration of standard commercial diet increased of 1% cholesterol (CRD) for 8 weeks. ES-CC was orally administered at doses of 10, 30 and 100mg/kg, once daily for four weeks, starting from the 4th week of CRD diet. Body weight measurements were weekly carried out from the beginning of experiments for 8 weeks. Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and their fractions (LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C) were measured at the beginning of experiments and at weeks four and eight. After euthanasia of rabbits, aorta segments (aortic arc, thoracic, abdominal and iliac segments) were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated and the intima and media layers of the arteries were measured. Additionally, the antioxidant activity of ES-CC and its influence on the functioning of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were also determined. CRD induced dyslipidemia and major structural changes in the aortic wall. In addition, an increase in lipid peroxidation and a reduction of hepatic glutathione and serum nitrite levels were observed. Treatment with ES-CC was able to prevent the increase in TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and triglycerides and promoted an increase in HDL-C levels in NZ rabbits. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and modulation of the catalase and superoxide dismutase function. Moreover, the intima and media layers of the arterial segments were significantly reduced by ES-CC treatment. This study

  9. Larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activities of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) (Leguminosae) against the malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae: Diptera).

    PubMed

    Krishnappa, Kaliyamoorthy; Dhanasekaran, Shanmugam; Elumalai, Kuppusamy

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the potentiality of mosquitocidal activity of Gliricidia sepium (G. sepium) (Jacq.) (Leguminosae). Twenty five early third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) were exposed to various concentrations (50-250 ppm) and the 24 h LC(50) values of the G. sepium extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm under laboratory conditions. The eggs hatchability was assessed 48 h post treatment. The pupicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi to various concentrations ranging from 25-100 ppm. Mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the extract. Results pertaining to the experiment clearly revealed that ethanol extract showed significant larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activity against the An. stephensi. Larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of G. sepium showed maximum mortality in 250 ppm concentration (96.0±2.4)%. Furthermore, the LC(50) was found to be 121.79 and the LC(90) value was recorded to be 231.98 ppm. Ovicidal activity of ethanol extract was assessed by assessing the egg hatchability. Highest concentration of both solvent extracts exhibited 100% ovicidal activity. Similarly, pupae exposed to different concentrations of ethanol extract were found dead with 58.10% adult emergence when it was treated with 25 ppm concentration. Similarly, 18.36 (n=30; 61.20%); 21.28(70.93) and 27.33(91.10) pupal mortality was recorded from the experimental pupae treated with 50, 75 and 100 ppm concentration of extracts. Three fractions have been tested for their larvicidal activity of which the Fraction 3 showed the LC(50) and LC(90) values of 23.23 and 40.39 ppm. With regard to the ovicidal effect fraction 3 showed highest ovicidal activities than the other two fractions. Furthermore, there were no hatchability was recorded above 50 ppm (100% egg mortality) in the experimental group. Statistically significant

  10. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  11. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  12. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  13. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy M; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions.

  14. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Yen-Jen Anna; Shen, Yu-Chi; Lu, Wen-Jung; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chen, Yu-Hou; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines; Walmsley, Adrian Robert

    2017-01-01

    The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var) regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR), which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG) and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF). We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB) strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  15. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Yen-Jen Anna; Shen, Yu-Chi; Lu, Wen-Jung; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chen, Yu-Hou; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines

    2017-01-01

    The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var) regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR), which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG) and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF). We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB) strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures. PMID:28898293

  16. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Aguilar, Sandra; Ruiz-Posadas, Lucero Del Mar; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Rivera-Martínez, Ana Rocío; Aguirre-Medina, Juan Francisco

    2017-07-25

    The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL(-1)), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL(-1)). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL(-1). Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  17. Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Aguilar, Sandra; Ruiz-Posadas, Lucero del Mar; Cadena-Iñiguez, Jorge; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Aguiñiga-Sánchez, Itzen; Rivera-Martínez, Ana Rocío; Aguirre-Medina, Juan Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC), identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions). Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1), but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1). Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents. PMID:28757593

  18. Biogenic synthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles using aqueous extract of mahogany (Swietenia mahogani JACQ.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samiran; Roy, Nayan; Laskar, Rajibul A; Sk, Ismail; Basu, Saswati; Mandal, Debabrata; Begum, Naznin Ara

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time, the superb efficiency of aqueous extract of dried leaves of mahogany (Swietenia mahogani JACQ.) in the rapid synthesis of stable monometallic Au and Ag nanoparticles and also Au/Ag bimetallic alloy nanoparticles having spectacular morphologies. Our method was clean, nontoxic and environment friendly. When exposed to aqueous mahogany leaf extract, competitive reduction of Au(III) and Ag(I) ions present simultaneously in same solution leads to the production of bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of nanoparticles formation. UV-visible spectroscopic data and TEM images revealed the formation of bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles. Mahogany leaf extract contains various polyhydroxy limonoids which are responsible for the reduction of Au(III) and Ag(I) ions leading to the formation and stabilization of Au and Ag nanopaticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-edible parts of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. - a new potent source of bioactive extracts rich in phenolic compounds for functional foods.

    PubMed

    Svobodova, Blanka; Barros, Lillian; Sopik, Tomas; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Heleno, Sandrina; Alves, Maria Jose; Walcott, Simone; Kuban, Vlastimil; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-05-24

    Extracts prepared from leaves, roots, and stems of Solanum stramoniifolium Jacq. (Solanaceae) in 80% ethanol have been tested for their in vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities with an aim to find new sources of substances for functional foods and food additives. The root extract revealed the highest antioxidant activity in all assays exceeding the trolox capacity, and was the only extract that inhibited nitric oxide production in mouse macrophage cells, showing also the capacity to suppress the growth of all tested human tumor cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2). The leaf extract showed the strongest antimicrobial activity inhibiting all tested clinical isolates. To the author's best knowledge it was the first time that all individual parts of this plant were tested for biological activity together with the phenolic compound characterization.

  20. Extremely high boron tolerance in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. related to root boron exclusion and a well-regulated antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Hamurcu, Mehmet; Hakki, Erdogan E; Demiral Sert, Tijen; Özdemir, Canan; Minareci, Ersin; Avsaroglu, Zuhal Z; Gezgin, Sait; Ali Kayis, Seyit; Bell, Richard W

    Recent studies indicate an extremely high level of tolerance to boron (B) toxicity in Puccinellia distans (Jacq.) Parl. but the mechanistic basis is not known. Puccinellia distans was exposed to B concentrations of up to 1000 mg B L-1 and root B uptake, growth parameters, B and N contents, H2O2 accumulation and ·OH-scavenging activity were measured. Antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase, and lipid peroxidation products were determined. B appears to be actively excluded from roots. Excess B supply caused structural deformations in roots and leaves, H2O2 accumulation and simultaneous up-regulation of the antioxidative system, which prevented lipid peroxidation even at the highest B concentrations. Thus, P. distans has an efficient root B-exclusion capability and, in addition, B tolerance in shoots is achieved by a well-regulated antioxidant defense system.

  1. Pectoralis Major Tear with Retracted Tendon: How to Fill the Gap? Reconstruction with Hamstring Autograft and Fixation with an Interference Screw

    PubMed Central

    Messedi, K.; Piétu, G.; Crenn, V.; Gouin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is considered an uncommon injury and a significant number of ruptures are missed or diagnosed late, leading to a chronic tear. We report an open reconstruction technique and its outcomes in a case of chronic and retracted PM tear. At the last follow-up (12 months), the patient was pain-free, with a visual analogic scale at 0 all the time. He was very satisfied concerning the cosmetic and clinical results. The constant score was 93%, the SST value 95%, and the Quick DASH score 4.5. MRI performed one year postoperatively confirmed the continuity between PM tendon and graft, even if the aspect of the distal tendon seemed to be thinner than normal PM tendon. The excellent clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up suggest that PM tear with major tendon retraction can be reliably reconstructed with hamstring autograft, using a bioabsorbable screw to optimize the fixation device. This technique has proven its simplicity and efficiency to fill the gap. PMID:28251005

  2. Pectoralis Major Tear with Retracted Tendon: How to Fill the Gap? Reconstruction with Hamstring Autograft and Fixation with an Interference Screw.

    PubMed

    Baverel, L; Messedi, K; Piétu, G; Crenn, V; Gouin, F

    2017-01-01

    Rupture of the pectoralis major tendon is considered an uncommon injury and a significant number of ruptures are missed or diagnosed late, leading to a chronic tear. We report an open reconstruction technique and its outcomes in a case of chronic and retracted PM tear. At the last follow-up (12 months), the patient was pain-free, with a visual analogic scale at 0 all the time. He was very satisfied concerning the cosmetic and clinical results. The constant score was 93%, the SST value 95%, and the Quick DASH score 4.5. MRI performed one year postoperatively confirmed the continuity between PM tendon and graft, even if the aspect of the distal tendon seemed to be thinner than normal PM tendon. The excellent clinical outcomes at one-year follow-up suggest that PM tear with major tendon retraction can be reliably reconstructed with hamstring autograft, using a bioabsorbable screw to optimize the fixation device. This technique has proven its simplicity and efficiency to fill the gap.

  3. Creatine Monohydrate Enhances Energy Status and Reduces Glycolysis via Inhibition of AMPK Pathway in Pectoralis Major Muscle of Transport-Stressed Broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Jiaolong; Zhu, Xudong; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-08-16

    Creatine monohydrate (CMH) contributes to reduce transport-induced muscle rapid glycolysis and improve meat quality of broilers, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of CMH on muscle glycolysis metabolism of transported broilers during summer. The results showed that 3 h transport during summer elevated chicken live weight loss and plasma corticosterone concentration; decreased muscle concentrations of ATP, creatine, and energy charge value; increased muscle AMP concentration and AMP/ATP ratio; and upregulated muscle mRNA expression of LKB1 and AMPKα2, as well as protein expression of p-LKB1(Thr189) and p-AMPKα(Thr172), which subsequently resulted in rapid glycolysis in the pectoralis major muscle and consequent reduction of meat quality. Dietary addition of CMH at 1200 mg/kg ameliorated transport-induced rapid muscle glycolysis and reduction of meat quality via enhancement of the energy-buffering capacity of intramuscular phosphocreatine/creatine system and inhibition of AMPK pathway.

  4. Radial free forearm flap versus pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in patients with tongue cancer: Assessment of quality of life.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zhang, P; Li, R; Liu, Y; Kan, Q

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the quality of life of Chinese patients with tongue cancer who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. In addition, we compared 2 groups of patients: those who had received radial forearm free flap (RFFF) surgery and others who had received pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) surgery. Patients who received RFFF or PMMF reconstruction after primary tongue cancer treated with total and subtotal tongue resection were eligible for the current study. The patients' demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores (14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires) were collected. A total of 41 of 63 questionnaires were returned (65.08%). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the gender (p< .05). Patients reconstructed with RFFF performed better in the shoulder domains, in addition to worse appearance domains. Using either RFFF or PMMF for reconstruction of defects after tongue cancer resection significantly influences a patient's quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for tongue cancers.

  5. Comparison between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps and pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in oral cancer patients--a quality of life analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Zhu, Juanfang; Cai, Xiangping; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Haibin

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the differences between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps (ALTFF) and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) for reconstruction in oral cancer patients. Method Patients: who received free flap or PMMF reconstruction after ablation surgeries were eligible for the current study. The patients' demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores(Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires were collected. 81 of 118 questionnaires were returned (68.64%). There was significant differences between two groups in the gender (P<0.005). Patients reconstructed with ALTFF had better appearance domains and better shoulders domains, in addition to better role emotion domains. Using either PMMF or ALTFF for reconstruction of oral defects after cancer resection significantly influences a patient's quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for oral cancers.

  6. Comparison between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps and pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in oral cancer patients-A quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yan; Cai, Xiangping; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the differences between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps (ALTFF) and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) for reconstruction in oral cancer patients. Method and Patients: who received free flap or PMMF reconstruction after ablation surgeries were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores(Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires were collected. Results: 81 of 118 questionnaires were returned (68.64%). There was significant differences between two groups in the gender (P<0.005). Patients reconstructed with ALTFF had better appearance domains and better shoulders domains, in addition to better role emotion domains. Conclusions: Using either PMMF or ALTFF for reconstruction of oral defects after cancer resection significantly influences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for oral cancers. Key words:Quality of life, ALTFF,PMMF, oral cancer. PMID:24121914

  7. A Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) of Capsicum chinense Jacq. Is Induced during Incompatible Interactions and Displays Mn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    León-Galván, Fabiola; de Jesús Joaquín-Ramos, Ahuizolt; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; González-Chavira, Mario M.; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalía V.; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    A germin-like gene (CchGLP) cloned from geminivirus-resistant pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. Line BG-3821) was characterized and the enzymatic activity of the expressed protein analyzed. The predicted protein consists of 203 amino acids, similar to other germin-like proteins. A highly conserved cupin domain and typical germin boxes, one of them containing three histidines and one glutamate, are also present in CchGLP. A signal peptide was predicted in the first 18 N-terminal amino acids, as well as one putative N-glycosylation site from residues 44–47. CchGLP was expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein displayed manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. Molecular analysis showed that CchGLP is present in one copy in the C. chinense Jacq. genome and was induced in plants by ethylene (Et) and salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA) applications in the absence of pathogens. Meanwhile, incompatible interactions with either Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) or Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV) caused local and systemic CchGLP induction in these geminivirus-resistant plants, but not in a susceptible accession. Compatible interactions with PHYVV, PepGMV and oomycete Phytophthora capsici did not induce CchGLP expression. Thus, these results indicate that CchGLP encodes a Mn-SOD, which is induced in the C. chinense geminivirus-resistant line BG-3821, likely using SA and Et signaling pathways during incompatible interactions with geminiviruses PepGMV and PHYVV. PMID:22174599

  8. Transcriptome analysis of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum - var silencing is not dependent on antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Stuart A; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mattei, Denise; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Guigon, Ghislaine; Coppee, Jean-Yves; David, Peter H; Scherf, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, undergoes antigenic variation through successive presentation of a family of antigens on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes. These antigens, known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins, are subject to a mutually exclusive expression system, and are encoded by the multigene var family. The mechanism whereby inactive var genes are silenced is poorly understood. To investigate transcriptional features of this mechanism, we conducted a microarray analysis of parasites that were selected to express different var genes by adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) or CD36. Results In addition to oligonucleotides for all predicted protein-coding genes, oligonucleotide probes specific to each known var gene of the FCR3 background were designed and added to the microarray, as well as tiled sense and antisense probes for a subset of var genes. In parasites selected for adhesion to CSA, one full-length var gene (var2csa) was strongly upregulated, as were sense RNA molecules emanating from the 3' end of a limited subset of other var genes. No global relationship between sense and antisense production of var genes was observed, but notably, some var genes had coincident high levels of both antisense and sense transcript. Conclusion Mutually exclusive expression of PfEMP1 proteins results from transcriptional silencing of non-expressed var genes. The distribution of steady-state sense and antisense RNA at var loci are not consistent with a silencing mechanism based on antisense silencing of inactive var genes. Silencing of var loci is also associated with altered regulation of genes distal to var loci. PMID:16277748

  9. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus.

  10. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  11. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  12. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  13. C.V. Riley’s lost aphids: Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata and Aphis rapae var. laevigata (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The syntypes of Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata Riley were rediscovered in the Aphidoidea collection of the United States of America National Museum of Natural History. Previously, S. fragariae immaculata was largely lost and forgotten. Through examination of the specimens, we hereby establ...

  14. An In Vivo and In Vitro Model of Plasmodium falciparum Rosetting and Autoagglutination Mediated by varO, a Group A var Gene Encoding a Frequent Serotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1α1 (DBL1α1) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1α1 recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1α1-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology. PMID:18809668

  15. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    PubMed

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  16. Clinical considerations for the surgical treatment of pectoralis major muscle ruptures based on 60 cases: a prospective study and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antonio; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Cohen, Carina; Andrade, Marilia dos Santos; Cohen, Moises; Ejnisman, Benno

    2014-01-01

    Early recognition of the clinical signs of ruptures of the pectoralis major muscle (PMM) in athletes by orthopaedic surgeons, physical therapists, and physical trainers may prove to be critical for patient access to surgical treatment while the injury is still in the acute phase. Total ruptures of the PMM may yield a better outcome with surgical treatment than with nonoperative treatment in athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective study was performed on 60 patients with total ruptures of the PMM. The patients were followed from 1997 to 2012, with a physical examination every 6 months for the first 2 years and every 12 months thereafter. The patients' mean age was 31.21 years, and the mean length of follow-up was 48.25 months. The surgical treatment methods included reinsertion of the tendon in 51% of the patients and nonoperative treatment in 49% of the patients. All of the patients were evaluated using the Bak criteria. The bench-press exercise was associated with 80% of the PMM ruptures (48 patients). Forty-one of the patients with chronic ruptures were seen after 3 months (80%). The outcomes were poor in 9 patients from the nonoperative group (31%) and in 3 patients from the surgical group (9.7%); the outcomes were fair in 12 patients from the nonoperative group and in no patients from the surgical group. Excellent results were not observed in any patient from the nonoperative group and were observed in 21 patients from the surgical group (67.7%). The isokinetic evaluation at 60 deg/s showed a decrease in strength of 41.7% in the nonsurgical group and 14.3% for the surgical group, which was significant at P < .05. Total ruptures of the PMM exhibit better outcomes with surgical treatment than with nonoperative treatment based on the Bak criteria in athletes.

  17. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake () in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard was reduced by ∼30–50%. Pcrit was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in Pcrit, gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. PMID:25394628

  18. Postmortem aging and freezing and thawing storage enhance ability of early deboned chicken pectoralis major muscle to hold added salt water.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M

    2012-05-01

    The effects of postdeboning aging and frozen storage on water-holding capacity (WHC) of chicken breast pectoralis major muscle were investigated. Broiler breast muscle was removed from carcasses either early postmortem (2 h) or later postmortem (24 h). Treatments included: no postdeboning aging; 1-d postdeboning aging at 2°C, 7-d postdeboning aging (2-h deboned meat only), and 6-d storage at -20°C plus 1-d thawing at 2°C (freezing and thawing treatment, 2-h deboned meat only). The WHC was determined by cooking loss, drip loss, a filter paper press method (results were presented as expressible fluid), and a salt-induced swelling and centrifugation method (results were presented as percentage of salt-induced water gain). There were no differences for WHC estimated by cooking loss and expressible fluid between the treatments. Only the freezing and thawing treatment resulted in a significant increase in drip loss. The average percentage of salt-induced water gains by the 24-h deboned samples, postdeboning aged 2 h samples, and frozen 2 h sample, which did not differ from each other, were significantly higher than that by the 2-h deboned sample. These results indicate that regardless of method (carcass aging vs. postdeboning aging) and time (aging for 1 d vs. for 7 d), postmortem aging more than 1 d does not affect WHC of the early deboned samples measured by dripping, cooking, and pressing. However, postmortem carcass aging, postdeboning aging, and freezing and thawing storage can significantly enhance the ability of chicken breast meat to hold added salt water or WHC measured by the salt-induced swelling and centrifuge method.

  19. A comparison of pectoralis versus lumbar skeletal muscle indices for defining sarcopenia in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - two are better than one

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haa-Na; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Myoung Hee; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Hye Ree; Lee, Gyeong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds Sarcopenia is known to be associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There is no consensus concerning the optimal method to define sarcopenia in DLBCL. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 193 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. Sarcopenia was classified by the region where the pretreatment skeletal muscle index (SMI) was measured. Results Both the sarcopenia-L3 and sarcopenia-pectoralis muscle (PM) groups had increased incidences of severe treatment-related toxicities and treatment discontinuation compared with the non-sarcopenia-L3 and non-sarcopenia-PM groups, respectively. The sarcopenia-L3 and non-sarcopenia-L3 groups had 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 40.5% and 67.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. The sarcopenia-PM and non-sarcopenia-PM groups had 5-year OS rates of 35.9% and 69.0% (p < 0.001), respectively. When the sarcopenia-L3 alone and sarcopenia-PM alone groups were compared, there were no differences in baseline characteristics, treatment toxicity, or survival. In multivariate analysis, when compared with the non-sarcopenia-both group, OS was significantly worse in the sarcopenia-both group (HR, 2.480; 95% CI, 1.284 – 4.792; p = 0.007), but not in patients with either sarcopenia-L3 alone or sarcopenia-PM alone (p = 0.151). Conclusions L3- and PM-SMIs are equally useful to define sarcopenia, which is related to intolerance to R-CHOP therapy and to worse survival in patients with DLBCL. More prognostic information can be obtained when these two SMIs are combined to define sarcopenia. PMID:28388585

  20. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2014-12-15

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate.

  1. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  2. Autofluorescence of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida.

    PubMed

    Zižka, Z; Gabriel, J

    2011-03-01

    Autofluorescence (primary fluorescence (AF)) of fruiting bodies and stems of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida was studied by fluorescence microscopy including sporangia and ascospores. The ascospores were characterized by a weak green-yellow AF at blue excitation. Using a green excitation, no AF was observed. The hyphae located under the layer of asci with ascospores exhibited a higher primary fluorescence, namely their walls that had green-yellow color at blue excitation. Also, their red AF observed when a green excitation was used was significant. Similarly, the hyphae located in the fungal stem exhibited a significant AF, especially their walls when the blue light was used for excitation. In addition, large, yellow-to-yellow/green, oval-to-round bodies with strong fluorescence were detected whose morphological equivalents were not clearly visible in the white halogen light. The AF of the fungus M. conica var. rigida was lower compared with the other higher fungi studied so far.

  3. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  4. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  5. Analysis of 4D Var Data Assimilation Application Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Harrop, C.; Govett, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarizes the challenges encountered with our ongoing development and use of a software system designed to facilitate exploration of computational optimizations and strategies for Data Assimilation (DA). The software system is designed and constructed from scratch using modern software development methods and tools, though it incorporates components of pre-existing systems where appropriate. We present results of experiments that employ this system to test approaches for assimilation of observations using a four-dimensional variational (4D Var) scheme. We propose a modular DA system software architecture and demonstrate its utility using a set of models of varying realism and complexity. The software system design and implementation was initially tested and validated using a simple chaotic atmospheric model. A Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model was used to conduct DA experiments of increased difficulty and to validate the software design at larger scales of model complexity. Our QG DA study focused on 2016 winter weather data where a Nature run was used to represent the "true" state of the atmosphere and observations, whereas observation error covariance and observation operator were adapted from pre-existing DA systems. To increase performance, a parallel-in-time algorithm was applied to solve the proposed 4D Var data assimilation problem. That is, the assimilation window was divided into multiple sub-intervals, which allowed for parallelization of the cost function and gradient computations. Continuity equations of the solution were added as constraints across interval boundaries. This approach produced a different formulation of the variational data assimilation problem than weakly constrained 4D Var. We explored a combination of serial and parallel 4D Var algorithms to increase performance.

  6. Identification of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi by PCR.

    PubMed

    Schlenzig, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The following chapter describes a PCR method for the identification of the raspberry root rot pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi. Furthermore, a nested PCR suitable for the detection of the pathogen in infected raspberry roots and validated against the "Duncan bait test" (EPPO Bull 35:87-91, 2005) is explained. Protocols for different DNA extraction methods are given which can be transferred to other fungal pathogens.

  7. Synthesis of Calocybe indica var. APK2 polysaccharide repeating unit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiangming

    2014-06-04

    The first total synthesis of p-methoxyphenyl α-l-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) was achieved starting from five monosaccharide building blocks. This structure represents the repeating unit of the polysaccharide isolated from edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2, and was synthesized in high overall yield via a convergent '3+2' glycosylation strategy.

  8. VarSCAN: Variables in and Near Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janík, J.; Parimucha, vS.; Paunzen, E.; Zejda, M.; Dróżdż, M.; Ogłóza, W.; Hegedüs, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present our project to produce an online database of photometric observations of variables in star clusters and their vicinity (VarSCAN). The database now contains more than 145,000 of our own CCD measurements of the two open clusters NGC 6738 and NGC 7142. This poster describes the structure and organization of the database, and shows phased-folded and non-phased-folded light curves for selected variable stars.

  9. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  11. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven M.; Riggs, Erin R.; Maglott, Donna R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Azzariti, Danielle R.; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M.; Martin, Christa L.; Landrum, Melissa J.; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar with by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. PMID:27037489

  12. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  13. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

  14. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  15. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  16. Comparison of pectoralis major and serratus anterior muscle activities during different push-up plus exercises in subjects with and without scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2014-09-01

    To examine the differences between men with and without scapular winging in the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and activity ratio between the pectoralis major (PM) and serratus anterior (SA) during 3 push-up plus exercises: (a) the standard push-up plus (SPP), (b) the knee push-up plus (KPP), and (c) the wall push-up plus (WPP), and to determine which exercise induced the lowest PM/SA ratio in each group. Twenty-eight men participated in this study (13 scapular winging group: age, 21.8 ± 2.1 years; 15 control group: age, 23.3 ± 2.0 years). Surface EMG of the PM, SA, and activity ratio between the PM and SA were collected during 3 push-up plus exercises, and the EMG data were expressed as a percentage of the reference voluntary contraction (%RVC). The normalized PM activity for subjects in the scapular winging group was significantly greater than that in the control group (79.16 ± 6.65 %RVC vs. 39.66 ± 6.19 %RVC, p ≤ 0.05). The normalized SA activity was significantly lower in the scapular winging group compared with the control group (39.80 ± 4.09 %RVC vs. 56.28 ± 3.81 %RVC, p ≤ 0.05) and was significantly decreased in the following order: SPP > KPP > WPP; 77.09 ± 5.12 %RVC > 39.48 ± 3.38 %RVC > 27.55 ± 3.07 %RVC, p < 0.016). The PM/SA EMG ratio was significantly greater in the scapular winging group compared with that in the control group across all exercises and was significantly lower during SPP than that during KPP and WPP in both groups (1.13 ± 0.58 vs. 0.53 ± 0.25 for SPP, 3.50 ± 2.07 vs. 0.92 ± 0.63 for KPP, 4.04 ± 3.13 vs. 1.19 ± 0.66 for WPP, p < 0.016). Greater PM activity was found in the scapular winging group, and the SPP is an optimal exercise for subjects with scapular winging, where maximum SA activation with minimal PM activation is desired.

  17. Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

  18. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer.

    PubMed

    Kortei, N K; Dzogbefia, V P; Obodai, M

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.

  19. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer

    PubMed Central

    Kortei, N. K.; Dzogbefia, V. P.; Obodai, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. PMID:25580299

  20. Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia”

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vipin; Saikia, Ankur Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations. PMID:25632354

  1. Expression profiles of defence related cDNAs in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated with mycorrhizae and Trichoderma harzianum Rifai T32.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yung-Chie; Wong, Mui-Yun; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2015-11-01

    Basal stem rot is one of the major diseases of oil palm (Elaies guineensis Jacq.) caused by pathogenic Ganoderma species. Trichoderma and mycorrhizae were proposed to be able to reduce the disease severity. However, their roles in improving oil palm defence system by possibly inducing defence-related genes in the host are not well characterized. To better understand that, transcript profiles of eleven putative defence-related cDNAs in the roots of oil palm inoculated with Trichoderma harzianum T32 and mycorrhizae at different time points were studied. Transcripts encoding putative Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (EgBBI2) and defensin (EgDFS) increased more than 2 fold in mycorrhizae-treated roots at 6 weeks post inoculation (wpi) compared to those in controls. Transcripts encoding putative dehydrin (EgDHN), glycine-rich RNA binding protein (EgGRRBP), isoflavone reductase (EgIFR), type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (EgT2RIP), and EgDFS increased in the oil palm roots treated with T. harzianum at 6 and/or 12 wpi compared to those in the controls. Some of these genes were also expressed in oil palm roots treated with Ganoderma boninense. This study provides an insight of some defence-related genes induced by Trichoderma and mycorrhizae, and their roles as potential agents to boost the plant defence system.

  2. Topical toxicity of two acetonic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Jacq. and four insecticides to larvae and adults of Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    PubMed

    Huerta, A; Medina, P; Smagghe, G; Castañera, P; Viñuela, E

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of botanical origin compounds such as two acetonic fractions of the seed kernels of the Meliacea Trichilia havanensis Jacq with insecticide properties (azadirone (F12) and the mixture F18 [1,7+3,7-di-O-acethylhavanensin (4:1)], three insecticides commercially available (imidacloprid, natural pyrethrins+PBO, triflumuron) and phloxine B, were tested in the laboratory. Topical bioassays using third instar and newly emerged adults of the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) at the maximum field recommended rate in Spain for commercials and at 1,000 ppm of active ingredient for T. havanensis acetone fractions and phloxine-B, were carried out. Imidacloprid and triflumuron were very toxic to third instar larvae inhibiting adult emergence, being the rest of insecticides harmless. Fecundity and fertility were not affected by the non-toxic compounds. Concerning adults, only imidacloprid and natural pyrethrins killed them significantly 24 hours after treatment. Phloxine B, triflumuron and T. havanensis fractions were harmless and did not cause any effect on fecundity and fertility with the exception of triflumuron, which reduced considerably the egg hatch. It can be concluded that T. havanensis acetonic fractions and phloxine B were non-toxic to larvae and adults of C. carnea when treated topically, whereas triflumuron, natural pyrethrins and imidacloprid affected one or more of the evaluated parameters under our conditions.

  3. Identification of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) involved in the biosynthesis of linoleic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruhao; Gao, Lingchao; Yu, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Xinguang

    2016-10-10

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the highest oil-yield crops in the world. A Δ12-desaturases associated with the primary steps of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis were successfully cloned from oil palm and their functions identified. The open reading frames (ORFs) of egFAD2 (GenBank accession: KT023602) consisted of 1176bp and code for 391 amino acids. Their deduced polypeptides showed 75-93% identity to microsomal Δ12-desaturases from other higher plants, and each contained the three histidine clusters typical of the catalytic domains of such enzymes. RT-PCR experiment indicated that the egFAD2 gene exhibited the highest accumulation in the mesocarp of fruits at 120-140 DAP (i.e. the fourth period of fruit development) and, despite having different expression levels, the other four stages were at significantly lower levels compared with the fourth stage. Plasmid pYES2-egFAD2 was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INVSc1 using lithium acetate method for expression under the induction of galactose. Yeast cells transformed with plasmid constructs containing egFAD12 produced an appreciable amount of linoleic acids (18:2(Δ9,)(12)), not normally present in wild-type yeast cells, indicating that the genes encoded functional Δ12-desaturase enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Mesocarp and Kernel Lipids from Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Elaeis oleifera [Kunth] Cortés, and Their Interspecific Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lieb, Veronika M; Kerfers, Margarete R; Kronmüller, Amrei; Esquivel, Patricia; Alvarado, Amancio; Jiménez, Víctor M; Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Steingass, Christof B

    2017-05-10

    Morphological traits, total lipid contents, and fatty acid profiles were assessed in fruits of several accessions of Elaeis oleifera [Kunth] Cortés, Elaeis guineensis Jacq., and their interspecific hybrids. The latter featured the highest mesocarp-to-fruit ratios (77.9-78.2%). The total lipid contents of both E. guineensis mesocarp and kernel were significantly higher than for E. oleifera accessions. Main fatty acids comprised C16:0, C18:1n9, and C18:2n6 in mesocarp and C12:0, C14:0, and C18:1n9 in kernels. E. oleifera samples were characterized by higher proportions of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids. Saturated medium-chain fatty acids supported the clustering of E. guineensis kernels in multivariate statistics. Hybrid mesocarp lipids had an intermediate fatty acid composition, whereas their kernel lipids resembled those of E. oleifera genotypes. Principal component analysis based on lipid contents and proportions of individual fatty acids permitted clear-cut distinction of E. oleifera, E. guineensis, and their hybrids.

  5. Integrating mixed-effect models into an architectural plant model to simulate inter- and intra-progeny variability: a case study on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Perez, Raphaël P A; Pallas, Benoît; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Rey, Hervé; Griffon, Sébastien; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Costes, Evelyne; Dauzat, Jean

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of plants is time-consuming and involves considerable levels of data acquisition. This is possibly one reason why the integration of genetic variability into 3D architectural models has so far been largely overlooked. In this study, an allometry-based approach was developed to account for architectural variability in 3D architectural models of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) as a case study. Allometric relationships were used to model architectural traits from individual leaflets to the entire crown while accounting for ontogenetic and morphogenetic gradients. Inter- and intra-progeny variabilities were evaluated for each trait and mixed-effect models were used to estimate the mean and variance parameters required for complete 3D virtual plants. Significant differences in leaf geometry (petiole length, density of leaflets, and rachis curvature) and leaflet morphology (gradients of leaflet length and width) were detected between and within progenies and were modelled in order to generate populations of plants that were consistent with the observed populations. The application of mixed-effect models on allometric relationships highlighted an interesting trade-off between model accuracy and ease of defining parameters for the 3D reconstruction of plants while at the same time integrating their observed variability. Future research will be dedicated to sensitivity analyses coupling the structural model presented here with a radiative balance model in order to identify the key architectural traits involved in light interception efficiency.

  6. Characterization of phenolics by LC-UV/vis, LC-MS/MS and sugars by GC in Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. ‘Montgomery’ fruits

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Laura M.; Lewis, Betty A.; Brown, Dan L.; Rodriguez, Eloy; Obendorf, Ralph L.

    2008-01-01

    Fruits of the native South American tree Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq. (Sapindaceae) are consumed for both dietary and medicinal purposes, but limited information is available about the phytochemistry and health value of M. bijugatus fruits. Fruit tissues of the Florida Montgomery cultivar were assessed for sugars, using gas chromatography, and for total phenolics, using UV spectroscopy. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of crude methanolic pulp, embryo and seed coat extracts were obtained at 280 nm. Phenolics were characterised by both HPLC UV/vis analysis and HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Major sugars detected in the pulp and embryo extracts were sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. The glucose:fructose ratio was 1:1 in the pulp and 0.1:1 in the embryo. Total phenolic concentrations of the fruit tissues were in the order: seed coat > embryo > pulp. Phenolic acids were identified mostly in pulp tissues. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, procyanidins and catechins were identified in embryo tissues, and higher molecular weight procyanidins were identified in seed coat tissues. This study provides new information about the phytochemistry and the potential health value of the Montgomery cultivar M. bijugatus fruit tissues. PMID:21709744

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  8. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Italian clinical Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zamfirova, Ralika R; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii is the major etiological agent of cryptococcal meningitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The current PCR-based molecular methods are not sufficient to discriminate among the different populations of this yeast. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the genotypes of the Italian clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 53 isolates, each representative of a single case, were studied. Genotyping was performed using the ISHAM Cryptococcus MLST consensus scheme and the results were compared to the publically available global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset. A total of 16 genotypes were identified; 14 were new genotypes, one was identical to sequence type (ST) ST81, which had been previously reported from Thailand, and one to ST23 already identified in Uganda, the USA and Korea. Sequence type ST61 was the most numerous, including 16 isolates. Network phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian isolates could be divided into at least three clusters with similarities with those recovered in Africa, Asia and Americas. Distribution of the STs among the isolates could not be correlated to the hospital in which they were recovered or to the HIV status of the patients. The majority of the isolates belonged to the molecular type VNI; three belonged to the rare molecular type VNII and one to the VNB group, which until now had not been described in Europe. The results reveal that the Italian C. neoformans var. grubii population presents a distinct variability, displaying a high number of new genotypes, and probably recombines sexually.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  11. Spasmolytic constituents from Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, S; Farhat, F; Sultana, I; Siddiqui, B S; Shaheen, F; Gilani, A H

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical studies on the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa have resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenoid camaldulin (3beta-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4), and beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR studies. Compounds 1-3 were tested for spasmolytic activity and were found to possess calcium antagonist activity.

  12. A flicker reduction control strategy using an adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Jatskevich, J.; Wasynczuk, O.; Conrad, L.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed computer model of a power network with loads, resistance welders and an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) has been developed and used to determine the effectiveness of the AVC on the reduction of observable flicker at neighboring loads. Flicker severity is determined using the UIE/IEC flickermeter methodology. Different control strategies for the AVC are considered and compared with respect to flicker reduction. A new flicker adaptive control (FAC) strategy is proposed that can be used for both power factor correction and flicker reduction. The measurement technique used in the FAC is shown to be accurate even in presence of significant harmonic distortion.

  13. Analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of Sideritis lotsyi var. Mascaensis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Margarita; Rabanal Gallego, Rosa M

    2002-05-01

    The antiinflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of crude ethanol extracts of Sideritis lotsyi var. mascaensis (Lamiaceae), and chloroform and aqueous fractions were evaluated in mice using paw and ear oedema induced by carrageenan and 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA), respectively, as inflammation models, the writhing test induced by acetic acid for evaluating analgesic activity and the disk-diffusion method for testing antimicrobial actions. The results obtained demonstrated significant topical antiinflammatory and analgesic activities for the ethanol extract and chloroform fraction, but no relevant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested.

  14. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  15. Adaptive fuzzy logic control of a static VAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Routray, A.; Panda, P.C.; Panda, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A fuzzy gain scheduling scheme for PID controller for transient and dynamic voltage stabilization of power transmission systems has been presented in this paper. Fuzzy rules and reasoning are utilized on-line to determine the controller parameters based on the error signal and its derivative. The static VAR controller is designed with the bus angle deviation and its rate as the input signal to a fuzzy PI or PID control loop. This control is tested for a power transmission system supplying dynamic loads and provides superior performance.

  16. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  17. A new languidulane diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Escárcega-Bobadilla, Martha Verónica; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

    2011-10-21

    From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β) of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  18. [Coumarins from Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Chen, Erlin

    2009-05-01

    The root of Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum was extracted with methanol, then separated with solvents at different polarity into four fractions: aqueous (H2O), ethyl acetate (AcOEt), chloroform (CHCl3) and petroleum ether (DAB-6). From AcOEt psoralen, bargapten, xanthotoxin, marmesin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, (+/-) peuformosin, Pd-I b, (+/-) selinidin, praeruptorin D were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, using petroleum ether/ethyl acetate as eluent. The structures of the coumarins were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  19. Alkaloid content of the seeds from Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca.

    PubMed

    Casale, John F; Toske, Steven G; Colley, Valerie L

    2005-11-01

    Alkaloid extracts from the seeds of Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca grown in the Chapare Valley of Bolivia were subjected to gas and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. Several alkaloids from these seeds were detected and characterized, including methylecgonidine, tropine, 3alpha-acetoxytropane, ecgonine methyl ester, cuscohygrine, N-norbenzoyltropine, benzoyltropine, hexanoylecgonine methyl ester, cocaine, cis-cinnamoylcocaine, and trans-cinnamoylcocaine. Methylecgonidine was determined to be the primary constituent and not an analytical artifact. Additionally, two significant new uncharacterized alkaloids were established as present. Recent evidence suggests that some cocaine processors are adding this seed extraction material to cocaine extracted from coca leaf and may impact cocaine impurity signature profiles.

  20. Pungent Alkamides from Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Nagashima, M

    1992-01-01

    A main pungent amide, spilanthol (1), and three alkamides, (2E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)-2-undecene-8,10-diynamide (2), (2E,7Z)-N-isobutyl-2,7-tridecadiene-10,12-diynamide (3), and (7Z)-N-isobutyl-7-tridecene-10,12-diynamide (4) were isolated from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2 and 4 were new and 3 was found for the first time in Spilanthes species. Chemotaxonomic aspects are discussed.

  1. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  2. Environmental assessment of the degradation potential of mushroom fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. towards synthetic azo dyes and contaminating effluents collected from textile industries in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Prasanna, Apoorva; Manjunath, Sirisha P; Karanth, Soujanya S; Nazre, Ambika

    2016-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. is one of the edible mushrooms currently gaining attention as environmental restorer. The present study explores the potential of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. in degradation of textile dyes and effluents. The mushroom cultivation was carried out using paddy bed as substrate. The fully grown mushroom fruit bodies were used as a bioremediation agent against two industrially important azo dyes such as nylon blue and cotton yellow and few effluents collected from various textile industries in Karnataka, India. The ideal growth parameters such as temperature, pH, and dye concentrations for effective degradation were carried out. One of the main enzymes, laccase, responsible for biodegradation, was partially characterized. The degradation was found to be ideal at pH 3.0 and temperature at 26-28 °C. This study demonstrated a percentage degradation of 78.10, 90.81, 82.5, and 64.88 for dye samples such as nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), KSIC effluents, and Ramanagar effluents at 28 °C within 15th days respectively in comparison with other temperature conditions. Similarly, a percentage degradation of 35.99, 33.33, 76.13 and 25.8 for nylon blue (50 ppm), cotton yellow (350 ppm), Karnataka Silk Industries Corporation (KSIC) effluents and Ramnagar effluents were observed at pH 3.0 within 15 days, respectively (p < 0.05). Thus, the current study concluded that the utilization of P. ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) P. Kumm. at ideal environmental conditions is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach for the degradation of various azo dyes and textile effluents which are harmful to the ecosystem.

  3. Ultrastructural Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego on Midgut Cells of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Stuart H. Pankratz

    1992-01-01

    Sequential observations of the ultrastructural effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego were made on midgut epithelial cells of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F. Larvae imbibed a droplet of B. thuringiensis var. san diego containing endotoxin and live...

  4. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Treesearch

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  5. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  6. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  7. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  8. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  9. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable. (i) For a facility which uses in-line meters to measure detergent usage, the total volume of... formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii... supporting data may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or...

  10. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1983-01-01

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E. 1983. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 626-632. Growth, phenology, and cold hardiness of seedlings from 74 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) from central Idaho were compared in four...

  11. Two matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors from Ferula persica var. persica.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Saadat, F; Khorramizadeh, M R; Iranshahi, M; Khoshayand, M R

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in several physiologic and pathologic events. There is some evidence indicating the involvement of MMPs in tumor invasion and inflammatory diseases. Here we studied the chloroform extract of Ferula persica var. persica. The influence of these extracts vs. a reference drug, diclofenac sodium, on MMP production by the fibrosarcoma cell line was investigated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide, and gelatin zymography. The total extract of the roots was found to exhibit a selective inhibitory effect on tumor cell invasion. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of two compounds. These compounds showed highest MMP inhibitory effect at minimal toxic dose levels. Using conventional spectroscopy methods, the active fractions were identified as t-butyl 3-[(1-methylthiopropyl)dithio]-2-propenyl malonate (persicasulphide B) and umbelliprenin, previously isolated from F. persica var. latisecta. Since inhibition of MMP activity has been employed in modality therapy in diseases such as cancer, this compound might be promising in the preparation of anti-MMP therapeutic derivatives.

  12. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  13. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  14. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  15. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  16. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  17. 1D-Var assimilation of TMI and SSM/I observations in rainy areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, E.; Lopez, P.; Bauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The assimilation of observations related to cloud and precipitation has become a very important issue for most operational weather services including ECMWF. A 1D-Var method was developed by Marécal and Mahfouf (2000) for correcting individual profiles of the model's control variables in order to decrease the discrepancies that often exist between the simulated surface rainfall rates and corresponding retrievals obtained from TMI or SSM/I microwave measurements. Instead of performing the 1D-Var on surface rainfall rates that are derived from multi-channel microwave brightness temperatures (BTs) thanks to various algorithms, the 1D-Var calculations have been applied to the BTs directly. The multiple sensitivities of the BTs to the vertically integrated amounts of rain water and cloud water should provide a stronger constraint on the 1D-Var minimization. Another advantage of this method could result from the better knowledge of the errors on observed BTs than on derived rainfall rates. The potential of applying 1D-Var directly to TMI and SSM/I microwave brightness temperatures has been investigated in this study and its results have been compared with the 1D-Var with derived rainfall rates. Results are presented for a pacific super-typhoon and for a north-atlantic extratropical front. A comparison of the retrieved rain profiles using both methods with rain information deduced from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) is also presented. Additional direct comparisons with the PR reflectivities will be shown by A. Benedetti (2003). Following the work by Marécal and Mahfouf (2002), indirect "1D-Var + 4D-Var" assimilation experiments will be performed. In this approach, the temperature and humidity increments provided by the 1D-Var are first converted into total column water vapour pseudo-observations that are in turn assimilated in ECMWF's 4D-Var system.

  18. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  19. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  20. Isolation and expression analysis of genes encoding MET, CMT, and DRM methyltransferases in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in relation to the 'mantled' somaclonal variation.

    PubMed

    Rival, Alain; Jaligot, Estelle; Beulé, Thierry; Finnegan, E Jean

    2008-01-01

    In oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), approximately 5% of somatic embryo-derived regenerants show homeotic changes during floral development, involving an apparent feminization of male parts in flowers of both sexes, called the 'mantled' phenotype. This variant phenotype is associated with a reduction in the level of global DNA methylation. To explore possible relationships between DNA methylation level and accumulation of DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferase (DNMT) transcripts, the full-length coding sequences corresponding to three different DNMT families in oil palm, namely the MET, CMT, and DRM classes, have been isolated and characterized. The corresponding genes were designated as EgMET1, EgCMT1, and EgDRM1, and encode predicted polypeptides of 1543, 925, and 591 amino acid residues, respectively. Expression of oil palm DNMTs was compared between normal and variant calli and inflorescence tissues using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. A consistent increase in transcript levels of EgMET1 and EgCMT1 was found in variant fast-growing calli relative to nodular-compact calli. Nodular-compact calli give rise to about 5% of abnormal regenerants whereas fast-growing calli generate 95% of 'mantled' palms in their clonal offspring and were previously demonstrated as having markedly hypomethylated DNA. In immature abnormal inflorescences only EgMET1 transcript levels were increased, while no changes in relative abundance of the EgCMT1 or EgDRM1 transcripts were observed. Therefore, the genome-wide hypomethylation previously described in 'mantled' material cannot be explained by a decrease in expression levels of the de novo or maintenance DNMTs, a paradox which has been previously reported in tumour cells, where there is evidence for global hypomethylation of DNA.

  1. Ecophysiological Competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. Used in Plantations for the Recovery of Riparian Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanera, Jose A.; Martínez-Chacón, Maria F.

    2007-12-01

    In many semi-arid environments of Mediterranean ecosystems, white poplar ( Populus alba L.) is the dominant riparian tree and has been used to recover degraded areas, together with other native species, such as ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). We addressed three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of some specific relationships between environmental parameters and leaf-level physiological factors in these riparian forest species, (2) to compare the leaf-level physiology of these riparian species to each other, and (3) to compare leaf-level responses within native riparian plots to adjacent restoration plots, in order to evaluate the competence of the plants used for the recovery of those degraded areas. We found significant differences in physiological performance between mature and young white poplars in the natural stand and among planted species. The net assimilation and transpiration rates, diameter, and height of white poplar plants were superior to those of ash and hawthorn. Ash and hawthorn showed higher water use efficiency than white poplar. White poplar also showed higher levels of stomatal conductance, behaving as a fast-growing, water-consuming species with a more active gas exchange and ecophysiological competence than the other species used for restoration purposes. In the restoration zones, the planted white poplars had higher rates of net assimilation and water use efficiency than the mature trees in the natural stand. We propose the use of white poplar for the rapid restoration of riparian vegetation in semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Ash and hawthorn can also play a role as accompanying species for the purpose of biodiversity.

  2. Mechanisms underlying the endothelium-dependent vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis Guineensis Jacq. (Arecaceae) in porcine coronary artery rings.

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Anselm, Eric; Séne, Madièye; Diatta, Williams; Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Faye, Babacar; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2009-12-30

    This study was undertaken to investigate the vasodilatory effect of an aqueous extract of Elaeis guineensis Jacq (EGE) in the porcine coronary artery and elicit its possible mechanism(s) of action. Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered leaves of Elaeis guineensis were evaluated on isolated coronary arteries on organ chambers. Determination of eNOS expression and the phosphorylation level of eNOS were determined by Western blot analysis. In the presence of indomethacin, EGE caused pronounced relaxations in endothelium-intact but not in endothelium-denuded coronary artery rings. Relaxations to EGE were significantly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA, a competitive inhibitor of NO synthase), slightly but not significantly by charybdotoxin plus apamin (two potent inhibitors of EDHF-mediated responses) and abolished by the combination of L-NA and charybdotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to EGE were abolished by the membrane permeant, SOD mimetic, MnTMPyP, and significantly reduced by wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3-kinase. Exposure of endothelial cells to EGE increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS at Ser1177 in a time and concentration-dependent manner. MnTMPyP abolished the EGE-induced phosphorylation of eNOS.In conclusion, the obtained data indicate that EGE induces pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations of the porcine coronary artery, which involve predominantly NO. The stimulatory effect of EGE on eNOS involves the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177 most likely via the PI3-kinase pathway.

  3. EgRBP42 encoding an hnRNP-like RNA-binding protein from Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is responsive to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Wan-Chin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Ho, Chai-Ling

    2012-10-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been implicated as regulatory proteins involved in the post-transcriptional processes of gene expression in plants under various stress conditions. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a gene, designated as EgRBP42, encoding a member of the plant heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-like RBP family from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). EgRBP42 consists of two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a glycine-rich domain at the C-terminus. The upstream region of EgRBP42 has multiple light-responsive, stress-responsive regulatory elements and regulatory elements associated with flower development. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of EgRBP42 showed that EgRBP42 was expressed in oil palm tissues tested, including leaf, shoot apical meristem, root, female inflorescence, male inflorescence and mesocarp with the lowest transcript level in the roots. EgRBP42 protein interacted with transcripts associated with transcription, translation and stress responses using pull-down assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The accumulation of EgRBP42 and its interacting transcripts were induced by abiotic stresses, including salinity, drought, submergence, cold and heat stresses in leaf discs. Collectively, the data suggested that EgRBP42 is a RBP, which responds to various abiotic stresses and could be advantageous for oil palm under stress conditions. Key message EgRBP42 may be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of stress-related genes important for plant stress response and adaptation.

  4. Mediational influence of spent mushroom compost on phytoremediation of black-oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq.

    PubMed

    Asemoloye, Michael Dare; Jonathan, Segun Gbolagade; Jayeola, Adeniyi A; Ahmad, Rafiq

    2017-09-15

    Ability of a plant to develop different adaptive strategies can also determine its capability for effective soil remediation. In this study, influence of spent mushroom compost (SMC) was tested on the phytoremediation of black oil hydrocarbon polluted soil and the response of Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass). Studies were carried out in microcosm conditions by mixing different concentration of SMC viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40% in a 5 kg of contaminated soil along with control. Seeds of M. maximus was sown in tray for two weeks and allowed to grow for height of 10 cm and transplanted in to the different experimental pots. Soil nutrient, heavy metal and PAH contents were analyzed before and after the experiment. Ecophysiological and anatomical responses due to the contaminants in the soil by M. Maximus were analyzed after 120 days. Phytomass efficiency, potential photosynthesis (Amax) and contents of chlorophylls (a and b) as well as the total chlorophyll along with anatomical evaluations were recorded. Plant alone (control) reduced the soil heavy metal and PAH contents but further improvements were observed in SMC treatments, similar results were also observed as regards to the plant's phytoremediation efficiency (PE), phytomass and potential photosynthetic rates (m mol O2 M(-2)S(-1)). The plant's root and shoot anatomical responses were enhanced in treatments compared to control, study infers that the treatment enhances the biostimulation and development of adaptive characteristics for M. maximus survival in contaminated soils and promotes its co-degradation of hydrocarbon. SMC supports remediation and as well enhances the anatomical evaluations, we therefore recommend the use of SMC on response of Megathyrsus maximus Jacq for remediation of petrochemical based phytoremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic diversity patterns and functional traits of Bradyrhizobium strains associated with Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. in Caribbean islands and Amazonian forest (French Guiana).

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Christine; Muller, Félix; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Dreyfus, Bernard; Béna, Gilles; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou M

    2014-08-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. is a legume tree native to the Caribbean islands and South America growing as a dominant species in swamp forests. To analyze (i) the genetic diversity and (ii) the symbiotic properties of its associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, root nodules were collected from P. officinalis distributed in 16 forest sites of the Caribbean islands and French Guiana. The sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) showed that all bacteria belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Bacteria isolated from insular zones showed very close sequence homologies with Bradyrhizobium genospecies V belonging to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum super-clade. By contrast, bacteria isolated from continental region displayed a larger genetic diversity and belonged to B. elkanii super-clade. Two strains from Puerto Rico and one from French Guiana were not related to any known sequence and could be defined as a new genospecies. Inoculation experiments did not show any host specificity of the Bradyrhizobium strains tested in terms of infectivity. However, homologous Bradyrhizobium sp. strain-P. officinalis provenance associations were more efficient in terms of nodule production, N acquisition, and growth than heterologous ones. The dominant status of P. officinalis in the islands may explain the lower bacterial diversity compared to that found in the continent where P. officinalis is associated with other leguminous tree species. The specificity in efficiency found between Bradyrhizobium strains and host tree provenances could be due to a coevolution process between both partners and needs to be taken in consideration in the framework of rehabilitation plantation programs.

  6. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.

    2015-01-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession. PMID:26610554

  7. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  8. Silencing of a Germin-Like Protein Gene (CchGLP) in Geminivirus-Resistant Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) BG-3821 Increases Susceptibility to Single and Mixed Infections by Geminiviruses PHYVV and PepGMV.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Teniente, Laura; Joaquin-Ramos, Ahuizolt de Jesús; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Guevara-Olvera, Lorenzo; Rico-García, Enrique; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G

    2015-11-25

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are encoded by a family of genes found in all plants, and in terms of function, the GLPs are implicated in the response of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. CchGLP is a gene encoding a GLP identified in a geminivirus-resistant Capsicum chinense Jacq accession named BG-3821, and it is important in geminivirus resistance when transferred to susceptible tobacco in transgenic experiments. To characterize the role of this GLP in geminivirus resistance in the original accession from which this gene was identified, this work aimed at demonstrating the possible role of CchGLP in resistance to geminiviruses in Capsicum chinense Jacq. BG-3821. Virus-induced gene silencing studies using a geminiviral vector based in PHYVV component A, displaying that silencing of CchGLP in accession BG-3821, increased susceptibility to geminivirus single and mixed infections. These results suggested that CchGLP is an important factor for geminivirus resistance in C. chinense BG-3821 accession.

  9. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  10. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  11. Fungal endophytes of South China blueberry (Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum).

    PubMed

    Li, Z-J; Shen, X-Y; Hou, C-L

    2016-12-01

    A total of 374 fungal endophyte strains were isolated from of Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum (Ericaceae), a well-known cultivated blueberry in southern China. These fungal endophytes could be categorized into 25 morphotypes according to culture characteristics and molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer region. All of these isolates belonged to Ascomycota. Jaccard's (Jc) and Sorenson's similarity indices indicated that the species communities from the fruits and branches were closer to each other than to those from leaves. The leaves appeared to host the highest fungal biodiversity, and the fruits displayed the lowest diversity. This study is the first on endophytic fungi isolated from fruits, branches and leaves of blueberry plants. The results contribute to the body of knowledge on the biocontrol of pathogens associated with blueberry and develop the improvement of plant growth. By comparing with the different fungal communities, the leaves appeared to host the highest biodiversity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Minor pregnanes from Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kommidi Devendar; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Braca, Alessandra; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwar; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora (Asclepiadaceae) whole plant extracts allowed to isolate one pregnane glycoside and two pregnanes characterized as 12β,20-O-dibenzoyl-5α,6-dihydrosarcostin β-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxypyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranoside (1), 12β-O-benzoyl-3β,11α,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (2), and 11α-O-benzoyl-3β,12β,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (3), respectively. Their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. Three known pregnane glycosides along with lupeol and β-sitosterol were also isolated and characterized.

  13. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  14. A new compound from Senecio cannabifolius var integrilifolius.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Yan; Yang, Li; Zhang, Mian; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-06-01

    Senecio cannabifolius var integrilifolius (Compositae), locally known as "Fanhuncao" in China, is a folk herb used for the treatment of pneumonia, virus influenza and bronchitis. To investigate the chemical constituents of this herb, water extract of the aerial parts was subjected to various chromatography on normal/reversed phase silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Eleven compounds were obtained and identified on the basis of their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis as senecine (1), p-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (2), protocatechuic acid (3), 2,5-dihydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), vanillic acid (6), caffic acid (7), succinic acid (8), 2-furoic acid (9), 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrahydro-jacaranone (10), and 4-(pyrrolidin-2-one)-phenylacetic acid (11). Compound 1 was structurally identified to be a new compound; the other compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. Factors influencing the activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis treatments.

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Zgomba, M; Ludwig, M; Petric, D; Rettich, F

    1992-09-01

    Environmental factors influence the effectiveness of microbial control agents in mosquito control programs. Four of these factors (water temperature, larval density, sunlight and the effect of associated filter feeders) were studied with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis under laboratory and semifield conditions in Europe using different instars of Aedes vexans, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens. Bioassays conducted at a low temperature (5 degrees C) yielded 10-fold higher LC50 and LC90 values compared with those conducted at a high temperature (25 degrees C). The efficacy of B.t.i. decreased in a linear manner with increasing larval density. Sunlight can reduce the effectiveness of B.t.i. by several times. Competition in food intake by filter feeding Daphnia resulted in lower mortality of mosquito larvae after B.t.i. applications.

  16. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  17. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  18. Acylated apigenin glycosides from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) var. Artal.

    PubMed

    Stochmal, A; Simonet, A M; Macias, F A; Oliveira, M A; Abreu, J M; Nash, R; Oleszek, W

    2001-08-01

    Three flavones, including 4'-O-[2'-O-E-feruloyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin, 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-4'-O-[2'-O-E-feruloyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin and 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-4'-O-[2'-O-p-E-coumaroyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin have been identified in alfalfa var. Artal. The known flavone 7-O-[2-O-E-feruloyl-[beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucurono-pyranoside] apigenin was also isolated. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of their spectral data.

  19. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  20. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I.; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L.; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K. L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Methods. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. Results. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa. Conclusions. The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. PMID:27279526

  1. Cloning of the repertoire of individual Plasmodium falciparum var genes using transformation associated recombination (TAR).

    PubMed

    Gaida, Annette; Becker, Marion M; Schmid, Christoph D; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-03-07

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member.

  2. Origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Diploid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria C.; Clarke, David L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Viviani, Maria A.

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATα. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the present study, 133 isolates, mostly from Italian patients, were investigated to detect the presence of diploid strains in the Igiene Università Milano culture collection. All of the diploid isolates were further investigated by different methods to elucidate their origins. Forty-nine diploid strains were identified by flow cytometry. PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer showed that the diploid state was associated with two specific genotypes identified as VN3 and VN4. Determination of mating type on V8 juice medium confirmed that the majority of the strains were sterile. PCR and dot blotting using the two pheromone genes (MFa and MFα) as probes identified 36 of the 49 diploid isolates as MATa/α. The results of pheromone gene sequencing showed that two allelic MFα genes exist and are distinct for serotypes A and D. In contrast, the MFa gene sequence was conserved in both serotype alleles. Amplification of serotype-specific STE20 alleles demonstrated that the diploid strains contained one mating locus inherited from a serotype A parent and one inherited from a serotype D parent. The present results suggest that diploid isolates may be common among the C. neoformans population and that in Italy and other European countries serotype A and D populations are not genetically isolated but are able to recombine by sexual reproduction. PMID:11682503

  3. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  4. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: Separate Varietal Status for Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Franzot, Sarah P.; Salkin, Ira F.; Casadevall, Arturo

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans presently includes isolates which have been determined by the immunologic reactivity of their capsular polysaccharides to be serotype A and those which have been determined to be serotype D. However, recent analyses of the URA5 sequences and DNA fingerprinting patterns suggest significant genetic differences between the two serotypes. Therefore, we propose to recognize these genotypic distinctions, as well as previously reported phenotypic differences, by restricting C. neoformans var. neoformans to isolates which are serotype D and describing a new variety, C. neoformans var. grubii, for serotype A isolates. PMID:9986871

  5. Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica in China (Acari, Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Yan-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica, namely Aculops jilinensis sp. n. and Phyllocoptes terniflores sp. n., are described. Both species infest the tender leaves of host plants, inducing severe curling and blistering. PMID:27833416

  6. Bahiensol, a new glycerolipid from a cultured myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense.

    PubMed

    Misono, Yuka; Ishibashi, Masami; Ito, Akira

    2003-05-01

    Bahiensol (1), a new glycerolipid with antimicrobial activity has been isolated from a cultured plasmodium of myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense and its planar structure was elucidated by spectral data.

  7. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  8. [Mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-xia; Wang, Zhi-an; Yu, Xu-ping

    2007-06-01

    To study the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen. Physiological and mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds were studied. The germination percentage, seeding survival, seeding height and root length of M1 plants and the frequency of chlorophyll mutation in M2 generation were selected as criteria. The gamma-rays showed obvious inhibitory action to the seedling growth, and a strong ability in inducing the chlorophyll mutation. The gamma-rays is one kind of C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen effective mutagen. The appropriate dose of gamma-rays is 450 Gy for C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds.

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a paediatric patient from the Chad Republic, Africa.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guiñon, A; Torres-Rodríguez, J M; Ndidongarte, D Torangar; Cortadellas, F; Labrín, L

    2009-06-01

    Histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is an endemic mycosis of sub-Saharan Africa that usually affects the skin, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes and bones. We present a case of a 10-year-old immunocompetent girl with severe cutaneous and subcutaneous abscesses affecting the head and upper body. Microscopic examination showed polar budding yeasts and short mycelium compatible with H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Cultures were not possible but serology showed antibodies against both H. capsulatum var. duboisii and H. capsulatum var. capsulatum antigens. Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis was done but treatment with itraconazole was inefficacious. After 15 days of treatment with Amphotericin B i/v, improvement was evident and, three months later, the patient was discharged with only residual lesions. Seven months later, no relapses were observed.

  10. A new diterpene from Cupressus goveniana var. abramasiana: 5 beta-hydroxy-6-oxasugiol (cupresol).

    PubMed

    Jolad, S D; Hoffmann, J J; Schram, K H; Cole, J R; Bates, R B; Tempesta, M S

    1984-01-01

    The petroleum ether-EtOH extract of Cupressus goveniana var. abramasiana (Cupressaceae) yielded sugiol (1) and the new diterpene, cupresol (5 beta-hydroxy-6-oxasugiol), for which structure 2 was established by spectroscopic and chemical means.

  11. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  12. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  13. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves. PMID:22171181

  14. ClinVar: public archive of relationships among sequence variation and human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Melissa J.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Riley, George R.; Jang, Wonhee; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Church, Deanna M.; Maglott, Donna R.

    2014-01-01

    ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) provides a freely available archive of reports of relationships among medically important variants and phenotypes. ClinVar accessions submissions reporting human variation, interpretations of the relationship of that variation to human health and the evidence supporting each interpretation. The database is tightly coupled with dbSNP and dbVar, which maintain information about the location of variation on human assemblies. ClinVar is also based on the phenotypic descriptions maintained in MedGen (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen). Each ClinVar record represents the submitter, the variation and the phenotype, i.e. the unit that is assigned an accession of the format SCV000000000.0. The submitter can update the submission at any time, in which case a new version is assigned. To facilitate evaluation of the medical importance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions with the same variation/phenotype combination, adds value from other NCBI databases, assigns a distinct accession of the format RCV000000000.0 and reports if there are conflicting clinical interpretations. Data in ClinVar are available in multiple formats, including html, download as XML, VCF or tab-delimited subsets. Data from ClinVar are provided as annotation tracks on genomic RefSeqs and are used in tools such as Variation Reporter (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/variation/tools/reporter), which reports what is known about variation based on user-supplied locations. PMID:24234437

  15. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  16. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  17. Genomic organization and expression of 23 new genes from MATalpha locus of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Roncaglia, Paola; Springer, Deborah J; Fan, Jinjiang; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-07

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease of the brain. Molecular studies of Cn variety gattii have lagged behind other two varieties (var. grubii and var. neoformans) although they have distinct biology and disease patterns. We focused on gene discovery in MATalpha locus because it predominates in clinical strains. A var. gattii cosmid library was screened with DNA probes from other two varieties. Two positive clones were sequenced to identify ORFs based on similarities to known proteins, and to ESTs using bioinformatics, and manually by a curator. Approximately 76kb sequenced DNA revealed 23 genes and ORFs. The existence of predicted genes was verified by RT-PCR analyses designed to amplify spliced sequences. The results confirmed that the transcripts were expressed both at 30 and 37 degrees C. The var. gattii MATalpha locus genes showed rearrangements in order and orientation vis-a-vis other two varieties. Mating-specific genes showed higher nonsynonymous mutation rates, and gene trees showed var. gattii strains in a distinct clade. The identification of the largest number, thus far, of var. gattii structural genes should set the stage for future molecular pathogenesis studies.

  18. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  19. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  20. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans.

  1. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    PubMed

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  2. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  3. Isolation of Su(var)3-7 mutations by homologous recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Seum, Carole; Pauli, Daniel; Delattre, Marion; Jaquet, Yannis; Spierer, Anne; Spierer, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Su(var)3-7 gene, a haplo-suppressor and triplo-enhancer of position-effect variegation (PEV), encodes a zinc finger heterochromatin-associated protein. To understand the role of this protein in heterochromatin and genomic silencing, mutations were generated by homologous recombination. The donor fragment contained a yellow(+) gene and 7.6 kb of the Su(var)3-7 gene inserted between two FRTs. The Su(var)3-7 sequence contained three stop codons flanking an I-SceI cut site located in the 5' half of the gene. Using two different screening approaches, we obtained an allelic series composed of three mutant alleles. The three mutations are dominant suppressors of PEV. One behaves as a null mutation and results in a maternal-effect recessive lethal phenotype that can be rescued by a zygotic paternal wild-type gene. A P transposon zygotically expressing a Su(var)3-7 full-length cDNA also rescues the mutant phenotype. One hypomorphic allele is viable and the pleiotropic phenotype showed by adult flies indicates that rapidly and late dividing cells seem the most affected by reduced amounts of Su(var)3-7 protein. All three mutants were characterized at the molecular level. Each expresses a portion of the Su(var)3-7 protein that is unable to enter the nucleus and bind chromatin. PMID:12136016

  4. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  5. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  6. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  7. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population.

  8. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  9. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. haldia leaves.

    PubMed

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-02-15

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin(®) as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; El-Massry, Khaled F; Marx, Friedhelm; Fadel, Hoda M

    2003-02-01

    Leaves from Eucalvptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris trees, planted in the Nile delta in Egypt, were examined for the antioxidant activity of their nonvolatile compounds. The extracts obtained by ethanol digestion and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE; CO2 with 15% ethanol) showed the most promising antioxidative activities. In order to identify the most active compounds, both extracts were subjected to a semipreparative reversed-phase HPLC separation, the main fractions were collected, tested for antioxidative activity and analysed by different chromatographical and spectroscopical methods for identification of the most relevant compounds. Gallic and ellagic acid were found to be the prevailing antioxidants in the ethanolic extract. The main two compounds of the SFE extract with antioxidative activity revealed to be flavones. To a high degree of probability they were identified as 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methyl flavone, respectively. The extracts obtained by ethanoldigestion were dried and administered to rats for toxicity evaluation (up to 3 g/kg body weight). No mortality was observed which indicates a very low lethality of the tested extract.

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Zou, Qingcheng; Guo, Deping; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jiashu

    2007-09-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY), as a key regulatory enzyme for carotene biosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating color formation in many species. In the present study, a protocol was developed for the transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var chinensis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 plasmid which contained an antisense phytoene synthase gene, a reporter beta-glucuronidase gene and a selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Effects of some factors on efficiency of transformation and regeneration were examined. Preculture of the explants for 6 days before inoculation enhanced the transient GUS expression. The addition of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 micromol l(-1) for inoculation and a period of 3 days co-cultivation yielded efficient transient GUS expression. Transformants were obtained through selection on MS medium containing 5 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1 mg l(-1)alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 40 mg l(-1) hygromycin. The transformation frequency was 1.24% based on PCR analysis of gus gene. One or two copies of transgene were demonstrated in different transformations by Southern blotting analyses. Northern blotting results confirmed that the transcription of the endogenous psy gene in transgenic plants was inhibited or silenced. The method reported here provides new opportunities for improvement of quality traits of Narcissus tazzeta via genetic transformation.

  12. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  13. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  14. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  16. ACAT inhibitory activity of exudates from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an enzyme controlling cholesterol esterification in cells. Large amounts of cholesterol esters accumulate in macrophages and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls resulting in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, atherosclerosis might be inhibited through inhibition of the activity of ACAT. In the present study, we identified by spectral analysis and chromatographic quantification that ferruginol was the most abundant component of exudates secreted from the wounding site of Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana. Results obtained from the cholesterol absorption assay revealed that ferruginol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in mice macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell). Based on the results from analyzing the ratio of cholesterol esterification, ferruginol dose-dependently suppressed cholesterol esterification and the IC50 value was 2.0 microg/mL. In conclusion, ferruginol revealed strong inhibitory activities that retarded the absorption and esterification of cholesterol in cells. Our finding indicates that ferruginol might possess a potential for development as a pharmaceutical product for preventing arteriosclerosis.

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Extracts of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Ronald E.

    1970-01-01

    Extracts of cells of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens strain 31 incorporated 14CO2 into aspartate. Dialyzed extracts produced radioactive oxalacetate in the absence of exogenously added glutamate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate and produced radioactive aspartate in the presence of these components. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate could not be substituted for adenosine triphosphate (ATP); phosphoenolpyruvate even in the presence of nucleoside diphosphates could not replace pyruvate plus ATP; propionate plus coenzyme A (CoA) could not replace pyruvate in supporting CO2 fixation by cell extracts. Fixation by dialyzed cell extracts required pyruvate, ATP, MgSO4, and was stimulated by biotin, KCl, 2-mercaptoethanol, CoA, and acetyl CoA. Inhibition of fixation occurred when avidin, NaCl, oxalacetate, or aspartate was added to dialyzed extracts. On the basis of the products formed and the effects of substrates and cofactors on the fixation reaction, it was concluded that pyruvate carboxylase is responsible for CO2 fixation in this microorganism. PMID:4986758

  19. Antioxidant properties of European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule).

    PubMed

    Rop, Otakar; Reznicek, Vojtech; Valsikova, Magdalena; Jurikova, Tunde; Mlcek, Jiri; Kramarova, Daniela

    2010-06-23

    In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars Leningradskaya otbornaya , Souzga and Taezny rubiny of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r(2) = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r(2) = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  20. Bioactivity assay of extracts from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana bark.

    PubMed

    Chao, Louis Kuoping; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Su, Yu-Chang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-12-01

    Alcoholic extracts from bark of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana Florin (Cupressaceae) were extracted successively using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water, which gave 34.8%, 34.1%, 24.1%, 3.3% and 3.7% soluble fractions, respectively. Antioxidation activity of these fractions by DPPH assay and dissimilar IC50 values of the DPPH showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the best antioxidant activity; its IC50 was 2.6 microg/ml. Analyses of the composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the subfractions from n-C6H14 fraction showed that the T3 and H5ppt had the best anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage J774A. 1 cells, respectively; moreover, their major constituent was sugiol (T3 37.1%, H5ppt 81.1%), which at dosages of 10 microg/ml inhibited proIL-1beta protein production completely. Furthermore, the T1 also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, and its major constituent was ferruginol (above 85.6%).

  1. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroprotective Lignans from the Fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Yu, Heng-Yi; Wang, Yan-Mei; Tian, Tian; Wu, Wen-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Meng, Xiang-Gao; Ruan, Han-Li

    2017-04-28

    Nine new lignans (1-9) and ten known analogues (10-19) were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata. The structures of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation techniques, and the absolute configurations of compounds 2-9 were deduced by comparing their experimental ECD spectra and optical rotations with those of compound 1 or similar compounds. All isolates were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against CoCl2, H2O2, and Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury, and were found to exhibit different degrees of neuroprotective effects. At a low concentration of 3.2 nM, compounds 3, 8, 9, and 14-19 in CoCl2-induced, compounds 7, 8, 13, 17, and 18 in H2O2-induced, and compounds 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12-19 in Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury models, showed statistically significant neuroprotective activities, when compared with each negative control group.

  3. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  4. Genetic parameters of white striping in relation to body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in two broiler lines divergently selected for the ultimate pH of the pectoralis major muscle.

    PubMed

    Alnahhas, Nabeel; Berri, Cécile; Chabault, Marie; Chartrin, Pascal; Boulay, Maryse; Bourin, Marie Christine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2016-04-19

    White striping (WS) is an emerging quality defect with adverse consequences for the sensorial, technological, and nutritional qualities of breast meat in broiler chickens. The genetic determinism of this defect is little understood and thus the aim of the study presented here was to estimate the genetic parameters of WS in relation to other traits of economic importance such as body weight, carcass composition, and technological meat quality in an experimental population consisting of two divergent lines selected for high (pHu + line) or low (pHu- line) ultimate pH (pHu) of the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The incidence of WS in the whole population was 50.7%, with 36.7% of broilers being moderately and 14% being severely affected. A higher incidence of moderate (p < 0.001) and severe (p < 0.0001) WS was observed in the pHu + line, and strong genetic determinism (h(2) = 0.65 ± 0.08) was evidenced for WS in the studied lines. In addition, WS was significantly genetically correlated with body weight (rg = 0.33 ± 0.15), and breast meat yield (0.68 ± 0.06), but not with the percentage of leg or abdominal fat. Increased body weight and breast muscle yield were significantly associated with increased incidence and severity of WS regardless of the line. Significant rg were observed between WS and several meat quality traits, including breast (0.21 ± 0.08) and thigh (0.31 ± 0.10) pHu, and breast cooking loss (0.30 ± 0.15). WS was also strongly genetically correlated with the intramuscular fat content of the pectoralis major muscle (0.64 ± 0.09), but not with the lipid oxidation index of this muscle. This study highlighted the role of genetics as a major determinant of WS. The estimated genetic correlations showed that WS was more highly related to muscle development than to the overall growth of the body. The positive genetic association reported in this study between WS and muscle pHu indicated a possible relationship between the ability of muscle to store

  5. VARS-TOOL: A Comprehensive, Efficient, and Robust Sensitivity Analysis Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Sheikholeslami, R.; Haghnegahdar, A.; Esfahbod, B.

    2016-12-01

    VARS-TOOL is an advanced sensitivity and uncertainty analysis toolbox, applicable to the full range of computer simulation models, including Earth and Environmental Systems Models (EESMs). The toolbox was developed originally around VARS (Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces), which is a general framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) that utilizes the variogram/covariogram concept to characterize the full spectrum of sensitivity-related information, thereby providing a comprehensive set of "global" sensitivity metrics with minimal computational cost. VARS-TOOL is unique in that, with a single sample set (set of simulation model runs), it generates simultaneously three philosophically different families of global sensitivity metrics, including (1) variogram-based metrics called IVARS (Integrated Variogram Across a Range of Scales - VARS approach), (2) variance-based total-order effects (Sobol approach), and (3) derivative-based elementary effects (Morris approach). VARS-TOOL is also enabled with two novel features; the first one being a sequential sampling algorithm, called Progressive Latin Hypercube Sampling (PLHS), which allows progressively increasing the sample size for GSA while maintaining the required sample distributional properties. The second feature is a "grouping strategy" that adaptively groups the model parameters based on their sensitivity or functioning to maximize the reliability of GSA results. These features in conjunction with bootstrapping enable the user to monitor the stability, robustness, and convergence of GSA with the increase in sample size for any given case study. VARS-TOOL has been shown to achieve robust and stable results within 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller sample sizes (fewer model runs) than alternative tools. VARS-TOOL, available in MATLAB and Python, is under continuous development and new capabilities and features are forthcoming.

  6. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the ‘var expression site’. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. PMID:27466391

  7. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. A comparison between EDA-EnVar and ETKF-EnVar data assimilation techniques using radar observations at convective scales through a case study of Hurricane Ike (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feifei; Xu, Dongmei; Xue, Ming; Min, Jinzhong

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impacts of assimilating radar radial velocity (Vr) data for the simulation of hurricane Ike (2008) with two different ensemble generation techniques in the framework of the hybrid ensemble-variational (EnVar) data assimilation system of Weather Research and Forecasting model. For the generation of ensemble perturbations we apply two techniques, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) and the ensemble of data assimilation (EDA). For the ETKF-EnVar, the forecast ensemble perturbations are updated by the ETKF, while for the EDA-EnVar, the hybrid is employed to update each ensemble member with perturbed observations. The ensemble mean is analyzed by the hybrid method with flow-dependent ensemble covariance for both EnVar. The sensitivity of analyses and forecasts to the two applied ensemble generation techniques is investigated in our current study. It is found that the EnVar system is rather stable with different ensemble update techniques in terms of its skill on improving the analyses and forecasts. The EDA-EnVar-based ensemble perturbations are likely to include slightly less organized spatial structures than those in ETKF-EnVar, and the perturbations of the latter are constructed more dynamically. Detailed diagnostics reveal that both of the EnVar schemes not only produce positive temperature increments around the hurricane center but also systematically adjust the hurricane location with the hurricane-specific error covariance. On average, the analysis and forecast from the ETKF-EnVar have slightly smaller errors than that from the EDA-EnVar in terms of track, intensity, and precipitation forecast. Moreover, ETKF-EnVar yields better forecasts when verified against conventional observations.

  9. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    PubMed

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10(5) CFU/mL in 1.0 cm(2) of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  10. Indolizidine, antiinfective and antiparasitic compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Ashfaq, Mohammad K; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Manly, Susan P; Joshi, Vaishali C; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    A new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride (1) was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa. Three additional new (2-4) and one known (5) indolizidines were also isolated, and the dihydrochloride salts of 1-3 (compounds 6, 7, and 8) were prepared. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra. Compound 1 showed potent in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus (IC(50) values = 0.4 and 3.0 microg/mL, respectively) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare (IC(50) values of 0.35 and 0.9 microg/mL, respectively). The remarkable in vitro fungicidal activity of 1-4 against C. neoformans (MFCs = 0.63-1.25 microg/mL) and 2, 3, and 5 against A. fumigatus (MFCs = 0.63-2.5 microg/mL) were similar to amphotericin B, but >2-4-fold more potent than 6-8. Prosopilosidine (1) showed potent in vivo activity at 0.0625 mg/kg/day/ip for 5 days in a murine model of cryptococcosis by eliminating approximately 76% of C. neoformans infection from brain tissue compared to approximately 83% with amphotericin B at 1.5 mg/kg/day. Compounds 1 and 4 exhibited potent activity and high selectivity index (SI) values against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values of 39 and 95 ng/mL and 42 and 120 ng/mL, respectively (chloroquine, IC(50) = 17 and 140 ng/mL). Prosopilosine (1) also showed in vivo antimalarial activity, with an ED(50) value of approximately 2 mg/kg/day/ip against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice after 3 days of treatment.

  11. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  12. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  13. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  14. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  15. Identification of parental genomes and genomic organization in Aster microcephalus var. ovatus.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Soejima, Akiko; Hoshi, Yoshikazu

    2007-09-01

    The karyotype of diploid Aster iinumae is morphologically similar to that of diploid Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides, however, its chromosome size is apparently smaller (S-type chromosomes versus L-type chromosomes, respectively). The hybrid origin of tetraploid Aster microcephalus var. ovatus (LS-type chromosomes) has previously been suggested by cytogenetics and chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) data. The cp DNA phylogeny also implies that the S-type chromosome is apomorphic, which means that genome size reduction occurred on the evolutionary way to A. iinumae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the chromosome size difference does not depend on the intensity of chromosome condensation but on the DNA content. The simultaneous genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) results show the similarity between S-type chromosomes of A. iinumae and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, and between L-type chromosomes of A. ageratoides and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, which provide additional evidence for A. microcephalus var. ovatus being a tetraploid amphidiploid produced by hybridization between S-type chromosomes and L-type chromosomes. The distribution patterns of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons were similar in L- and S-type chromosomes. The copies of this retrotransposon dispersed uniformly on all chromosomes, and it is not yet apparent how the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon affects the size difference between them.

  16. VarMod: modelling the functional effects of non-synonymous variants.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Morena; Wass, Mark N

    2014-07-01

    Unravelling the genotype-phenotype relationship in humans remains a challenging task in genomics studies. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean there are now thousands of sequenced human genomes, revealing millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). For non-synonymous SNVs present in proteins the difficulties of the problem lie in first identifying those nsSNVs that result in a functional change in the protein among the many non-functional variants and in turn linking this functional change to phenotype. Here we present VarMod (Variant Modeller) a method that utilises both protein sequence and structural features to predict nsSNVs that alter protein function. VarMod develops recent observations that functional nsSNVs are enriched at protein-protein interfaces and protein-ligand binding sites and uses these characteristics to make predictions. In benchmarking on a set of nearly 3000 nsSNVs VarMod performance is comparable to an existing state of the art method. The VarMod web server provides extensive resources to investigate the sequence and structural features associated with the predictions including visualisation of protein models and complexes via an interactive JSmol molecular viewer. VarMod is available for use at http://www.wasslab.org/varmod.

  17. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  18. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  19. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  20. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  1. Evidence of a Multicopper Oxidase in Mn Oxidation by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ian A; Huber, Don M; Schulze, Darrell G

    2006-02-01

    ABSTRACT Manganese (Mn) oxidation by the plant-pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has been correlated with virulence in take-all disease. The mechanism of Mn oxidation has not, however, been investigated adequately. Research on bacteria and other fungi indicates that Mn oxidation is most often the result of the activity of multicopper oxidases. To determine if G. graminis var. tritici oxidizes Mn by similar means, the Mn oxidizing factor (MOF) produced by G. graminis var. tritici was characterized by cultural, spectrophotometric, and cellulose acetate electrophoresis methods. Based on our results, the MOF is an extracellular enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 50 to 100 kDa. Electrophoresis and spectrophotometry indicate that the MOF is a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity.

  2. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  3. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed Central

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-01-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl. Images PMID:2280022

  4. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl.

  5. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do

    PubMed Central

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea. PMID:24808739

  6. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  7. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  8. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana, P. densata, P. tabuliformis, and P. yunnanensis, with one to seven alleles per locus. Conclusions: The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species. PMID:28224057

  9. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  11. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development].

    PubMed

    Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhai, Juan-Yuan; Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Wu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana. Five plant growth regulators: chlormequat chloride (CCC), Mepiquat chloride (PIX), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Maleic Hydrazide (MH) were sprayed in rosette stage, the effects of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosanaw were observed. The biological traits were first measured and then imperatorin and isoimperatorin contents in roots were determined by HPLC. Low concentration GA3 increased the yield while not influenced the premature bolting rate and the coumarin content. Spraying of GA3 (30 mg x L(-1)) could guarantee the growth and development of A. dahurica var. formosana to have a higher yield and maintain the active ingredients content in the root as well.

  12. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  13. Antigenic variation in malaria: in situ switching, relaxed and mutually exclusive transcription of var genes during intra-erythrocytic development in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, A; Hernandez-Rivas, R; Buffet, P; Bottius, E; Benatar, C; Pouvelle, B; Gysin, J; Lanzer, M

    1998-01-01

    Members of the Plasmodium falciparum var gene family encode clonally variant adhesins, which play an important role in the pathogenicity of tropical malaria. Here we employ a selective panning protocol to generate isogenic P.falciparum populations with defined adhesive phenotypes for CD36, ICAM-1 and CSA, expressing single and distinct var gene variants. This technique has established the framework for examining var gene expression, its regulation and switching. It was found that var gene switching occurs in situ. Ubiquitous transcription of all var gene variants appears to occur in early ring stages. However, var gene expression is tightly regulated in trophozoites and is exerted through a silencing mechanism. Transcriptional control is mutually exclusive in parasites that express defined adhesive phenotypes. In situ var gene switching is apparently mediated at the level of transcriptional initiation, as demonstrated by nuclear run-on analyses. Our results suggest that an epigenetic mechanism(s) is involved in var gene regulation. PMID:9736619

  14. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kivçak, B; Akay, S

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus, leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in P. lentiscus var. chia.

  15. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  16. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  17. Virulence in the chick model and stress tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Coles, K E; Jørgensen, F; Humphrey, T J; Woodward, M J

    2001-03-01

    Three Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+ isolates of distinct provenance were tested for survival in various stress assays. All were less able to survive desiccation than a virulent S. Enteritidis strain, with levels of survival similar to a rpoS mutant of the S. Enteritidis strain, whereas one isolate (F3720) was significantly more acid tolerant. The S. Orion var. 15+ isolates were motile by flagellae and elaborated type-1 and curli-like fimbriae; surface organelles that are considered virulence determinants in Salmonella pathogenesis. Each adhered and invaded HEp-2 tissue culture cells with similar proficiency to the S. Enteritidis control but were significantly less virulent than S. Enteritidis in the one-day-old and seven-day-old chick model. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(3) cfu to one-day-old chicken, S. Orion var. 15+ isolates colonised 25% of liver and spleens examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 100% of organs by the same with the same dose. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(7) cfu at seven-day old, S. Orion var. 15+ failed to colonise livers and spleens in any bird examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 50% of organs by the same with the same dose. Based on the number of internal organs colonised, one of the three S. Orion var. 15+ isolates tested (strain F3720) was significantly more invasive than the other two (B1 and B7). Also, strain F3720 was shed less than either B1 or B7 supporting the concept that there may be an inverse relationship between the ability to colonise deep tissues and to persist in the gut. These data are discussed in the light that S. Orion var. 15+ is associated with sporadic outbreaks of human infection rather than epidemics.

  18. Diversity, virulence and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined whether isolates of the take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici become less sensitive to 2,4-DAPG during wheat monoculture as a result of exposure to the antibiotic over multiple growing seasons. Over 177 isolates of G. graminis var. tritici were baited from roots of nat...

  19. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  3. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  4. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Se

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea. PMID:28154493

  5. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Taehyun; Lee, Yong Se

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea.

  6. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  7. Strain Rate Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    45, pp 60-66 March, 1978. 17. C.F. Hickey, Jr. and A. A. Anctil, "Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR and VAR 4340 Steel ", A•MMRC...Embrittlement in High Hardness ESR 4340 Steel Forgings", ANMRC Technical Report 82-1, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Watertown, Mass, January, 1982...Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel . 0 by S. Tanimura and J. Duffy DTICr:fti Army Research Office . . 1

  8. Literature Review and Case Histories of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Infections in HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Loulergue, Pierre; Bastides, Frédéric; Baudouin, Véronique; Chandenier, Jacques; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Dupont, Bertrand; Viard, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    African histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is an invasive fungal infection endemic in central and west Africa. Most of its ecology and pathogenesis remain unknown. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum is an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients who are living in or have traveled to histoplasmosis-endemic areas. In contrast, reports concerning African histoplasmosis during HIV infection are rare, although both pathogens coexist in those regions. We report 3 cases of imported African histoplasmosis diagnosed in France in HIV-infected patients and a literature review on similar cases. PMID:18217546

  9. A new method for sequencing the hypervariable Plasmodium falciparum gene var2csa from clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Dara, Antoine; Travassos, Mark A; Adams, Matthew; Schaffer DeRoo, Sarah; Drábek, Elliott F; Agrawal, Sonia; Laufer, Miriam K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-08-17

    VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence. Published var2csa sequences, mostly limited to specific domains, have been generated through the sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons using capillary electrophoresis, a method that is both time consuming and costly, and that performs poorly when applied to clinical samples that are commonly polyclonal. A next-generation sequencing platform, Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), offers an alternative approach to overcome these issues. PCR primers were designed that target a 5 kb segment in the 5' end of var2csa and the resulting amplicons were sequenced using PacBio sequencing. The primers were optimized using two laboratory strains and were validated on DNA from 43 clinical samples, extracted from dried blood spots on filter paper or from cryopreserved P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Sequence reads were assembled using the SMRT-analysis ConsensusTools module. Here, a PacBio sequencing-based approach for recovering a segment encoding the majority of VAR2CSA's extracellular region is described; this segment includes the totality of the first four domains in the 5' end of var2csa (~5 kb), from clinical malaria samples. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, showing a high success rate from cryopreserved samples and more limited success from dried blood spots stored at room temperature, and characterized the genetic variation of the var2csa locus. This method will facilitate a detailed analysis of var2csa genetic variation and can be adapted to sequence other

  10. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  11. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds. PMID:26504534

  12. Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

    2011-07-01

    Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp.

  13. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  14. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  15. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  16. Evidence that the Human Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii May Have Evolved in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Carbone, Ignazio; Rossouw, Jenny; Thakur, Rameshwari; Govender, Nelesh P.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis – an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm. PMID:21589919

  17. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Johanna; Desjardins, Christopher A; Sykes, Sean M; Beale, Mathew A; Vanhove, Mathieu; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Chen, Yuan; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lawson, Daniel John; Ponzio, Vinicius; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Meyer, Wieland; Engelthaler, David M; Hagen, Ferry; Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria Teresa; Alanio, Alexandre; Vreulink, Jo-Marie; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Bicanic, Tihana; Harrison, Thomas S; Fisher, Matthew C; Cuomo, Christina A

    2017-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterize the major subdivisions, their relative diversity, and the level of genetic exchange between them. While most isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii belong to one of three major lineages (VNI, VNII, and VNB), some haploid isolates show hybrid ancestry including some that appear to have recently interbred, based on the detection of large blocks of each ancestry across each chromosome. Many isolates display evidence of aneuploidy, which was detected for all chromosomes. In diploid isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype AA) and of hybrids with C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype AD) such aneuploidies have resulted in loss of heterozygosity, where a chromosomal region is represented by the genotype of only one parental isolate. Phylogenetic and population genomic analyses of isolates from Brazil reveal that the previously "African" VNB lineage occurs naturally in the South American environment. This suggests migration of the VNB lineage between Africa and South America prior to its diversification, supported by finding ancestral recombination events between isolates from different lineages and regions. The results provide evidence of substantial population structure, with all lineages showing multi-continental distributions; demonstrating the highly dispersive nature of this pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Rhodes et al.

  18. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Johanna; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sykes, Sean M.; Beale, Mathew A.; Vanhove, Mathieu; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Chen, Yuan; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lawson, Daniel John; Ponzio, Vinicius; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Meyer, Wieland; Engelthaler, David M.; Hagen, Ferry; Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria Teresa; Alanio, Alexandre; Vreulink, Jo-Marie; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Bicanic, Tihana; Harrison, Thomas S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterize the major subdivisions, their relative diversity, and the level of genetic exchange between them. While most isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii belong to one of three major lineages (VNI, VNII, and VNB), some haploid isolates show hybrid ancestry including some that appear to have recently interbred, based on the detection of large blocks of each ancestry across each chromosome. Many isolates display evidence of aneuploidy, which was detected for all chromosomes. In diploid isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype AA) and of hybrids with C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype AD) such aneuploidies have resulted in loss of heterozygosity, where a chromosomal region is represented by the genotype of only one parental isolate. Phylogenetic and population genomic analyses of isolates from Brazil reveal that the previously “African” VNB lineage occurs naturally in the South American environment. This suggests migration of the VNB lineage between Africa and South America prior to its diversification, supported by finding ancestral recombination events between isolates from different lineages and regions. The results provide evidence of substantial population structure, with all lineages showing multi-continental distributions; demonstrating the highly dispersive nature of this pathogen. PMID:28679543

  19. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  20. Differences in volatile profiles between populations of Ceratoides lanata var. subspinosa (Rydb.)

    Treesearch

    J.T. Howell; Mary Lucero; Rick Estell; Dean Anderson; Ed Fredrickson; Marta Remmenga

    2007-01-01

    Ceratoides lanata (Rydb.) J.T. Howell, common winterfat, is valued for its nutrient content and palatability to livestock; however, the subspecies Ceratoides lanata var. subspinosa (Rydb.) J.T. Howell, (‘subspinosa’) is considered unpalatable. Curiously, observations of ‘subspinosa’ revealed several populations...

  1. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  2. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) Mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Philip E.; Dev, Vasu; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Moore, Peggy E.

    2000-01-01

    β-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. β-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while δ-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil.

  3. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  4. Bioactivity evaluations of ingredients extracted from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Yan; Yang, Li; Wei, Jian; Huang, Ming; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-12-15

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl, a member of genus Citrus (Rutaceae), widespread in China, is used as folk medicine for the treatment of helping digest, phlegm, enteritidis, stomachic and other deceases. In the present research, silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20, mass spectrometer (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to separate and identify the chemical compounds from the flowers of C. aurantium var. amara, and several bioactivity assays were used to evaluate their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and antitumour activities. Two major compounds, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) and limonexic acid (LA), were isolated and identified from C. aurantium var. amara for the first time. The results of the bioactivity assays showed that HTF and LA displayed significant antioxidant activities and showed significant inhibition effects on the B16 cell lines at a concentration range from 6.25 to 50 μg/ml, and on the SMCC-7721 cell lines from 12.5 to 200 μg/ml. The antitumour effect, anti-inflammatory activity and the inhibiting expression of HBsAg and HBeAg of 2.2.15 cells displayed the tendency in a concentration-dependent manner. These two compounds from C. aurantium var. amara could potentially be used as a promising natural agent in the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. VAR-I IN DIFFERENT SOILS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Sathish; Jegadeesan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated. PMID:22557225

  7. Physico-chemical profile of cissus quadrangularis L. Var-I in different soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T Sathish; Jegadeesan, M

    2006-07-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures.

  9. First Case of Human Cryptococcosis Due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Colom, M. Francisca; Frasés, Susana; Ferrer, Consuelo; Jover, Alejandro; Andreu, Mariano; Reus, Sergio; Sánchez, Manuel; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii described in our country, which was presented as brain cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. An extensive sampling of the patient's environment was carried out to find the source of infection. PMID:16000503

  10. Characterization of a cinnamoyl derivative from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Ko, Eunyoung; Lee, Choonghwan; Choi, Jung Nam; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Se Won

    2010-12-01

    A new intact glucosinolate Cinnamoyl derivative [6'-O-trans-(4″- hydroxy cinnamoyl)-4-(methylsulphinyl) butyl glucosinolate] (A) has been isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. The compound was isolated and characterized by LC, MS-ESI, FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as (1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135° spectrometric experiments.

  11. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Melissa J; Lee, Jennifer M; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R

    2016-01-04

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions.

  12. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  13. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must be...

  14. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must be...

  15. In vitro interactions between Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and other fungi.

    PubMed

    Muotoe-Okafor, F A; Gugnani, H C

    1997-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii has only recently been shown to occur naturally in soil admixed with bat guano in a bat cave. We report our observations on the in vitro interaction of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii with other fungi recovered from the same habitat or other sources by employing co-culture technique and by investigating antibiosis between H. capsulatum var. duboisii and other fungi. The range of interactions varied from total overgrowth of Histoplasma by Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum gypseum, through partial antagonism by Lecythophora mutabilis, to mutual inhibition by Wangiella dermatitidis. Those fungi that exhibited a competitive advantage in terms of growth did not affect the viability of Histoplasma. Lysis and mycoparasitic structures were not observed in the co-cultures. However, the cultural filtrate of Chrysosporium indicum inhibited the growth of the Histoplasma strains. The results suggest the ability of H. capsulatum var. duboisii to co-exist with a variety of other potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi in an ecological niche.

  16. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  17. VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies.

  18. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Treesearch

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  19. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.145 Alpha-Galactosidase derived from... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme alpha-galactosidase and the mycelia of the microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer which produces the enzyme. (b) The nonpathogenic...

  20. Response of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer

    1990-01-01

    A standardized laboratory bioassay was used to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal responses of larval and adult cottonwood leaf beetles, Chrysomela scripta F., to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, formulated as M-One standard powder (Mycogen Corporation, San Diego). The median lethal concentration (LC

  1. The first case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei isolated in Chile.

    PubMed

    Concha, Marcela; Nicklas, Claudia; Balcells, Elvira; Guzmán, Ana María; Poggi, Helena; León, Eugenia; Fich, Felix

    2012-03-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted by hedgehogs which human infections manifest as highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions. We report a 21-year-old woman who presented with a two-week history of a pruritic scaly erythematous plaque on the nose. The patient had kept hedgehogs as pets, and one had bitten her on the tip of the nose two months prior to the appearance of the nasal lesion. Fungal culture from the scales on the tip of the patient's nose was compatible with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei. The strains isolated from cultures made from samples taken from the noses and ears of the pet hedgehogs were morphologically similar to the strain isolated from the patient. Morphological identification was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer. The lesion was diagnosed as tinea faciei, and therapy was initiated with topical and systemic terbinafine 250mg/day for eight weeks, which resulted in complete improvement. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is the most common dermatophyte isolated in hedgehogs. Usually T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei infection manifests as an extremely inflammatory and pruritic eruption that is confined to the site of contact with the hedgehog. Although the identification of T. mentagrophytes by traditional methods is possible, identification by ITS region analysis is a fast, simple, and increasingly available method. The increasing frequency of the practice of keeping exotic animals as pets has resulted in the emergence of several zoonotic diseases that can potentially be transmitted to humans. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  3. Effects of fire and restoration seeding on establishment of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)

    Treesearch

    Alison Whittaker; Scott L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa), herein referred to simply as knapweed, is a noxious weed that invades both disturbed and healthy sagebrush communities. Fire, grazing, mining, recreation, and farming have all played a large part in the establishment of knapweed in Tintic Valley, Utah. This study was designed to look at the...

  4. Development and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia (narrowleaf silkplant), is an herbaceous perennial indigenous to northern Alabama and east Tennessee. Pityopsis graminifolia is a tetraploid (2n=4x=36) and is a sympatric species of the federally endangered plant P. ruthii, which grows along the Hiwassee and Oco...

  5. Hydroxyurea enhances post-fusion hyphal extension during sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Naim; Kaur, Jan Naseer; Panepinto, John C

    2012-03-01

    Mating and sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii strains of the H99 background is often less robust than that laboratory generated isogenic C. neoformans var. neoformans strains in the JEC21 background. In Candida albicans and Saccharomyces serevisiae, slowing of DNA synthesis and engagement of the replication stress response, such as that caused by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU), induces filamentation and pseudohyphal growth, respectively. In this study, we investigated the effect of HU treatment on C. neoformans var. grubii morphogenesis. Treatment with HU did not induce filamentation of yeast cells either in liquid culture or on solid YPD or V8 agar. In the presence of the opposite mating partner, we observed early emergence of hyphae in the presence of HU. Semi-quantitative analysis of fusion using marked strains demonstrated that no significant enhancement of fusion in the presence of HU. Transfer of fusion colonies from crosses performed in the absence of HU to V8 + HU revealed enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of HU. Analysis of expression of the target of HU, ribonucleotide reductase, revealed that a phylogenetically divergent catalytic subunit is replication stress responsive in C. neoformans. These results suggest that induction of replication stress promotes post-fusion hyphal growth of C. neoformans var. grubii strains in the H99 background.

  6. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  8. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  9. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  10. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    PubMed

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  11. CanProVar 2.0: An Updated Database of Human Cancer Proteome Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghuan; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jia; Wang, Xiaojing; Xie, Lu; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yixue; Li, Jing

    2017-02-03

    Identification and annotation of the mutations involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression are crucial for both cancer biology and clinical applications. Previously, we developed a public resource CanProVar, a human cancer proteome variation database for storing and querying single amino acid alterations in the human cancers. Since the publication of CanProVar, extensive cancer genomics efforts have revealed the enormous genomic complexity of various types of human cancers. Thus, there is an overwhelming need for comprehensive annotation of the genomic alterations at the protein level and making such knowledge easily accessible. Here, we describe CanProVar 2.0, a significantly expanded version of CanProVar, in which the amount of cancer-related variations and noncancer specific variations was increased by about 10-fold as compared to the previous version. To facilitate the interpretation of the variations, we added to the database functional data on potential impact of the cancer-related variations on 3D protein interaction and on the differential expression of the variant-bearing proteins between cancer and normal samples. The web interface allows for flexible queries based on gene or protein IDs, cancer types, chromosome locations, or pathways. An integrated protein sequence database containing variations that can be directly used for proteomics database searching can be downloaded.

  12. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  13. InterVar: Clinical Interpretation of Genetic Variants by the 2015 ACMG-AMP Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-02

    In 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) published updated standards and guidelines for the clinical interpretation of sequence variants with respect to human diseases on the basis of 28 criteria. However, variability between individual interpreters can be extensive because of reasons such as the different understandings of these guidelines and the lack of standard algorithms for implementing them, yet computational tools for semi-automated variant interpretation are not available. To address these problems, we propose a suite of methods for implementing these criteria and have developed a tool called InterVar to help human reviewers interpret the clinical significance of variants. InterVar can take a pre-annotated or VCF file as input and generate automated interpretation on 18 criteria. Furthermore, we have developed a companion web server, wInterVar, to enable user-friendly variant interpretation with an automated interpretation step and a manual adjustment step. These tools are especially useful for addressing severe congenital or very early-onset developmental disorders with high penetrance. Using results from a few published sequencing studies, we demonstrate the utility of InterVar in significantly reducing the time to interpret the clinical significance of sequence variants.

  14. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  15. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  16. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  17. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. GraphVar: a user-friendly toolbox for comprehensive graph analyses of functional brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, J D; List, D; Waller, L; Rubinov, M; Walter, H

    2015-04-30

    Graph theory provides a powerful and comprehensive formalism of global and local topological network properties of complex structural or functional brain connectivity. Software packages such as the Brain-Connectivity-Toolbox have contributed to graph theory's increasing popularity for characterization of brain networks. However, comparably comprehensive packages are command-line based and require programming experience; this precludes their use by users without a computational background, whose research would otherwise benefit from graph-theoretical methods. "GraphVar" is a user-friendly GUI-based toolbox for comprehensive graph-theoretical analyses of brain connectivity, including network construction and characterization, statistical analysis on network topological measures, network based statistics, and interactive exploration of results. GraphVar provides a comprehensive collection of graph analysis routines for analyses of functional brain connectivity in one single toolbox by combining features across multiple currently available toolboxes, such as the Brain Connectivity Toolbox, the Graph Analysis Toolbox, and the Network Based Statistic Toolbox (BCT, Rubinov and Sporns, 2010; GAT, Hosseini et al., 2012; NBS, Zalesky et al., 2010). GraphVar was developed under the GNU General Public License v3.0 and can be downloaded at www.rfmri.org/graphvar or www.nitrc.org/projects/graphvar. By combining together features across multiple toolboxes, GraphVar will allow comprehensive graph-theoretical analyses in one single toolbox without resorting to code. GraphVar will make graph theoretical methods more accessible for a broader audience of neuroimaging researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  20. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.