Thakur, Jaya; Reddy, Harsha; Wilson, M Edward; Paudyal, Govind; Gurung, Rita; Thapa, Suman; Tabin, Geoffrey; Ruit, Sanduk
To describe the first pediatric cataract surgery case series report from Nepal. Tilganga Eye Center, Kathmandu, Nepal. This study comprised a consecutive series of 112 eyes of 85 children having cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. General anesthesia of ketamine combined with peribulbar block was used in all patients. Patients' demographics, cataract type and presenting symptoms, surgical intervention, preoperative and postoperative visual acuities, and follow-up clinical examinations were recorded. Seventy-three eyes (65.2%) of 53 patients had extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy, anterior vitrectomy, and posterior chamber IOL implantation (ECCE+PCAP+AV+PCIOL), and 39 eyes (34.8%) of 32 patients had cataract extraction and IOL implantation with an intact posterior capsule (ECCE+PCIOL). Of all patients, the mean age at surgery was 6.2 years +/- 4.3 (SD). The median age in the ECCE+PCAP+AV+PCIOL group was 4.7 years and in the ECCE+PCIOL group, 11.0 years. The mean follow-up was 5.4 +/- 5.3 months. The most common postoperative complication in the ECCE+PCIOL group was visual axis/posterior capsule opacification, which was seen in 18 eyes (46.2%) compared to 4 eyes (5.5%) in the ECCE+PCAP+AV+PCIOL group. Visual acuity improved with surgery in both groups. The leading cause of poor outcomes was deprivation amblyopia. There were no anesthesia-related complications. Implantation of an IOL at the time of cataract extraction under combined systemic ketamine and peribulbar lidocaine anesthesia appeared to be well tolerated and produced significant visual improvement in pediatric patients in Nepal. Primary posterior capsulotomy and AV helped prevent visual axis opacification without a significant increase in complications.
Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy). PMID:28440249
Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy).
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Cataracts Sections What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is ... Pictures and Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena ...
Schulze Schwering, M; Finger, Robert P; Barrows, John; Nyrenda, Michek; Kalua, Khumbo
To examine the demographic, sociocultural and socioeconomic factors that prevent families of cataract blind children from accepting free pediatric cataract surgery in Malawi. A total 58 parents of 62 children were recruited into the study. Of these, 53 parents partook in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions after the children were screened and the parents offered free cataract surgery. Overall, 37 parents accepted (acceptors) and 16 parents did not accept (non-acceptors) cataract surgery. All interviews were transcribed and iteratively analyzed. Household economic status was quantified using the Progress out of Poverty Index for Malawi. Acceptors were better off economically (p = 0.13). Understanding of cataract, its causing blindness and impairment, as well as treatment options, by the decision makers in the families was poor. Decision-making involved a complex array of aspects needing consideration before accepting, of which distance to the health facility was a frequently mentioned barrier. Non-acceptors were more likely to come from twice the distance compared to acceptors (p = 0.0098). Non-acceptors were more likely to be peasant (subsistence) farmers than acceptors (p = 0.048). Non-acceptors were more likely to live in a house made of mud bricks with a roof of grass thatch (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in acceptance rate between educated and non-educated mothers (p = 0.11). Intensive counseling as provided in this project increased the likelihood of accepting surgery. Economic hardship and long distances to health facilities decrease acceptance even of free pediatric cataract surgical services, highlighting that just providing surgery free of cost may not be sufficient for the most economically disadvantaged in rural Africa.
Lotfy, Ayman; Abdelrahman, Ayman
Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of staining the posterior capsule with trypan blue during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract surgery. Patients and methods This was a prospective randomized comparative study carried out at Alpha Vision Center, Zagazig, Egypt. This study included 2 groups of children with pediatric cataract randomly allocated to undergo irrigation and aspiration. In the trypan group, which included 11 eyes, trypan blue was used to stain the posterior capsule during posterior capsulorhexis. In the control group, which included 10 eyes, no staining was performed. All surgeries were performed by the same surgeon. The 2 groups were compared for criteria such as completion of capsulorhexis, disruption of vitreous face and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation. Results This study included 21 eyes of 16 patients (age range: 6 months–4 years). A statistically significant difference was observed for the following parameters between the 2 groups: capsulorhexis completion (P=0.04), vitreous face disruption (P=0.01) and in-the-bag intraocular lens implantation (P=0.022). Conclusion This study suggests that staining of the posterior capsule during capsulorhexis in pediatric cataract operation gives better results than capsulorhexis without staining. The stain changes the capsule texture making capsulorhexis easier with fewer complications. PMID:28182152
Ram, Jagat; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Thapa, Babu R.; Arya, Virendra K.
Purpose: To compare the outcomes of pediatric cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in an eye camp setting and tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Children aged 5-16 years with visually significant cataract underwent phacoaspiration with IOL implantation in an eye camp (eye camp group) or tertiary care center (TCC group). All surgeries incorporated contemporary microsurgical techniques with implantation of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) IOL. Major postoperative complications were managed at a tertiary care center. Postoperative complications, visual acuity and compliance were evaluated using the Chi-square test. A P value less then 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The cohort comprised 59 children in the eye camp group and 48 children in the TCC group. Thirty two of fifty nine (54.23%) eyes in the eye camp group and 30/48 (62.5%) eyes in the TCC group achieved 20/40 or better best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) postoperatively. Postoperatively, 36 (61%) eyes in the eye camp group and 22 (45.83%) eyes in the TCC group required Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy or a pars plana membranectomy. (P> 0.05) The most striking feature was loss to follow up. In the eye camp group, loss to follow was 20% at one year, 49% at two years, 62% at 3 years and 67% at 4 years compared to 12.5, 21, 27 and 33% respectively in the TCC group (P<0.05, all cases). Conclusions: The outcomes of camp and tertiary care center (hospital) based pediatric cataract surgery were similar. However, the major drawback of camp based surgery was loss to follow up which eventually affected the management of amblyopia and postoperative complications. PMID:22346130
Batur, Muhammed; Gül, Adem; Seven, Erbil; Can, Ertuğrul; Yaşar, Tekin
Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in preschool- and school-age children with cataract who underwent cataract surgery without posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Materials and Methods: The records of 30 eyes of 21 patients who underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ age, PCO status and duration, need for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment based on coverage of visual axis, and follow-up period were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.6±2.83 (4-12) years. Unilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in 12 patients (57.14%) and bilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in nine patients (42.86%). Average follow-up time was 17.7±22.67 (3-83) months. PCO developed in 21 eyes (70%) and covered the visual axis in 15 eyes (50%), which therefore required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The mean duration of postoperative PCO development was 8.91±18.7 months (1 week-71 months). Conclusion: We believe that with adequately experienced surgeons, performing both cataract surgery and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in the same session is appropriate for selected preschool- and school-age children with cataract. PMID:28058161
Batur, Muhammed; Gül, Adem; Seven, Erbil; Can, Ertuğrul; Yaşar, Tekin
We aimed to evaluate the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) in preschool- and school-age children with cataract who underwent cataract surgery without posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. The records of 30 eyes of 21 patients who underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' age, PCO status and duration, need for neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser treatment based on coverage of visual axis, and follow-up period were recorded. The mean age of the patients was 7.6±2.83 (4-12) years. Unilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in 12 patients (57.14%) and bilateral cataract surgery and IOL implantation were performed in nine patients (42.86%). Average follow-up time was 17.7±22.67 (3-83) months. PCO developed in 21 eyes (70%) and covered the visual axis in 15 eyes (50%), which therefore required Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. The mean duration of postoperative PCO development was 8.91±18.7 months (1 week-71 months). We believe that with adequately experienced surgeons, performing both cataract surgery and posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in the same session is appropriate for selected preschool- and school-age children with cataract.
Buzzonetti, Luca; Capozzi, Paolo; Petrocelli, Gianni; Valente, Paola; Petroni, Sergio; Menabuoni, Luca; Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto
To evaluate the efficacy of diode laser welding to close corneal wounds in penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and cataract surgery in pediatric patients. Ophthalmology Department, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy. Prospective observational study. Patients had surgery for congenital cataract (Group 1) or femtosecond laser-assisted PKP (Group 2). The surgery was followed by corneal wound closure using diode laser welding of the stroma. In Group 1, no standard suturing was used. In Group 2, the donor button was sutured onto the recipient using 8 single nylon sutures or a 10-0 nylon running suture (12 passages). Laser welding was then used as an adjunct to the traditional suturing procedure. Group 1 comprised 7 eyes (7 patients; mean age 8.1 years ± 5.3 [SD], range 1 to 15 years) and Group 2, 5 eyes (5 patients; mean age 10.6 ± 3.3 years, range 6 to 15 years). The adhesion of the laser-welded tissues was perfect; there were no collateral effects, and restoration of the treated tissues was optimum. Seidel testing showed no wound leakage during the follow-up. Postoperative astigmatism did not change significantly from the first day after cataract surgery and shifted moderately 3 months after PKP. Laser welding of corneal tissue appeared to be safe and effective in children for whom a sutureless surgical procedure is important to reduce the use of anesthesia for suture management, prevent endophthalmitis, and improve the antiamblyopic effect. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Swaminathan, Meenakshi; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Pilling, Rachel; Li, Junhong; Golnik, Karl
Pediatric cataract surgical skill assessment is important to ensure the competency of the trainees, especially pediatric ophthalmology fellows. Using a rubric would ensure objectivity in this process. The ICO-OSCAR pediatric cataract surgery rubric has been developed with global variations in techniques of pediatric cataract surgery in mind. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Ding; Gong, Xian-hui; Xie, He; Zhu, Xue-ning; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yun-e
Secondary glaucoma constitutes major sight-threatening complication of pediatric cataract surgery, yet the etiology remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term anterior segment configuration and the association with secondary glaucoma in pediatric pseudophakia. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was performed on 40 eyes of 26 children underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), central corneal thickness (CCT), structural abnormities, IOL position, IOP, and incidence of glaucoma were evaluated. High insertion of iris, in which the iris root is attached more anteriorly than normal, was seen in 13 eyes (32.50%). IOL was located in the capsular bag in 19 eyes and in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes. Logistic regression analysis identified high insertion of iris (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.03–11.17, p = 0.03) and IOL implantation in sulcus (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07–4.85, p = 0.04) as independent risk factors for glaucoma. The presence of high insertion of iris and IOL implantation in ciliary sulcus may increase the long-term risk of the development of secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. PMID:28220849
Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K
Cataract is a significant cause of visual disability in the pediatric population worldwide and can significantly impact the neurobiological development of a child. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention is critical to prevent irreversible amblyopia. Thorough ocular evaluation, including the onset, duration, and morphology of a cataract, is essential to determine the timing for surgical intervention. Detailed assessment of the general health of the child, preferably in conjunction with a pediatrician, is helpful to rule out any associated systemic condition. Although pediatric cataracts have a diverse etiology, with the majority being idiopathic, genetic counseling and molecular testing should be undertaken with the help of a genetic counselor and/or geneticist in cases of hereditary cataracts. Advancement in surgical techniques and methods of optical rehabilitation has substantially improved the functional and anatomic outcomes of pediatric cataract surgeries in recent years. However, the phenomenon of refractive growth and the process of emmetropization have continued to puzzle pediatric ophthalmologists and highlight the need for future prospective studies. Posterior capsule opacification and secondary glaucoma are still the major postoperative complications necessitating long-term surveillance in children undergoing cataract surgery early in life. Successful management of pediatric cataracts depends on individualized care and experienced teamwork. We reviewed the etiology, preoperative evaluation including biometry, choice of intraocular lens, surgical techniques, and recent developments in the field of childhood cataract. PMID:25609909
Agrawal, Rupesh; Murthy, Somashiela; Ganesh, Sudha K.; Phaik, Chee Soon; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotimai
Cataract surgery in uveitic eyes is often challenging and can result in intraoperative and postoperative complications. Most uveitic patients enjoy good vision despite potentially sight-threatening complications, including cataract development. In those patients who develop cataracts, successful surgery stems from educated patient selection, careful surgical technique, and aggressive preoperative and postoperative control of inflammation. With improved understanding of the disease processes, pre- and perioperative control of inflammation, modern surgical techniques, availability of biocompatible intraocular lens material and design, surgical experience in performing complicated cataract surgeries, and efficient management of postoperative complications have led to much better outcome. Preoperative factors include proper patient selection and counseling and preoperative control of inflammation. Meticulous and careful cataract surgery in uveitic cataract is essential in optimizing the postoperative outcome. Management of postoperative complications, especially inflammation and glaucoma, earlier rather than later, has also contributed to improved outcomes. This manuscript is review of the existing literature and highlights the management pearls in tackling complicated cataract based on medline search of literature and experience of the authors. PMID:22518338
The NASA-McGannon cataract surgery tool is a tiny cutter-pump which liquefies and pumps the cataract lens material from the eye. Inserted through a small incision in the cornea, the tool can be used on the hardest cataract lens. The cutter is driven by a turbine which operates at about 200,000 revolutions per minute. Incorporated in the mechanism are two passages for saline solutions, one to maintain constant pressure within the eye, the other for removal of the fragmented lens material and fluids. Three years of effort have produced a design, now being clinically evaluated, with excellent potential for improved cataract surgery. The use of this tool is expected to reduce the patient's hospital stay and recovery period significantly.
Matalia, J; Anaspure, H; Shetty, B K; Matalia, H
Purpose To analyze the intraoperative usefulness and postoperative results of endoilluminator use during pediatric cataract surgery. Methods Medical records of children <8 years of age who underwent lens aspiration with primary posterior capsulectomy (PPC) and anterior vitrectomy (AV) with or without intraocular lens implantation (IOL) were studied. An endoilluminator was used intraoperatively as an external light source in all cases to ensure the completeness of PPC and adequacy of AV. All children were divided into three groups depending upon the age at surgery and presence of IOL. We included only the first operated eye in bilateral cases. We studied the intraoperative performance for all and postoperative complications for those with >6 months follow-up. Results The charts of 79 eyes of 46 children (26 boys, 20 girls: 33 bilateral, 13 unilateral) were reviewed, of which we analyzed 46 eyes of 46 children for intraoperative performance and 42 eyes of 42 children for postoperative complications. The intraoperatively adequate size of PPC was obtained in all cases with no vitreous in the anterior chamber. Two cases in the first group developed peaking of the pupil, and one case developed visual axis contraction requiring membranectomy. None of the cases in the other groups developed any complication. Conclusion An endoilluminator is a simple, safe, and powerful tool for better visualization of the posterior capsule and anterior vitreous during pediatric cataract surgery. It helps in confirming a good vitrectomy, ensuring its completeness and thereby reducing the chances of any complication due to inadequate AV. PMID:24946844
AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-1-0531 TITLE: Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 20 Aug 2008 – 19 Aug 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery ...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer is a computer based, cognitive
Lin, Haotian; Lin, Duoru; Chen, Jingjing; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Zhuoling; Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hui; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Jinchao; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi
Axial length (AL) is a significant indicator of eyeball development, but reports on the overall status of axial development in congenital cataract (CC) patients and its relationship with patient demographics, such as age, sex, and laterality, are rare. We prospectively investigated the AL of 1,586 patients ≤18 years old and undergoing cataract surgery in China from January 2005 to December 2014. Of these 3,172 eyes, a logarithmic correlation between AL and age in CC patients was calculated, and an age of approximately 2 years was found to be a turning point in the growth rate of AL. A considerable variation was observed in CC patients of the same age. Furthermore, 2–6 years old boys had longer AL than girls. The AL of affected eye in unilateral patients was longer than that of the contralateral eye in 2–6 years age group and longer than that of eye in bilateral CC patients in all age groups. These findings indicate that the development of the length of eyeballs in CC patients is influenced by multiple factors in addition to age. A full understanding of the distribution of AL may provide a useful reference for judging the timing of surgery in CC patients. PMID:27022004
Progress in surgical methods and advances in the correction of aphakia with contact lenses or intraocular lenses on the one hand, and the greater demands made by patients on the other are the reasons why the cataract surgery is indicated much earlier today than 20 years ago. Occupational considerations and the visual acuity required to keep a driver's licence may be determining factors in the timing of surgery and the choice of one or the other methods o correcting aphakia. To advise the patient correctly, an accurate preoperative assessment of the visual function which can be expected postoperatively has be made. Of the preoperative examinations, results with the test wih the Moiré pattern following Lotmar are mentioned. If the patient's occupation places high demands on visual acuity, as e.g. for bus drivers - 1.0 on the better and 0.8 on the second eye - it seems less risky to go for a contact lens than for an intraocular lens (cystoid macular edema!). Advantages and disadvantages and the special indications and contraindications of correction with cataract glasses, with contact lenses or with different types of intraocular lenses are tabulated. The mathematical conditions which sampling statistics and the success rates of different types of intraocular lenses and surgical procedures have to fulfill, such as extracapsular versus intracapsular cataract extraction, are explained in order to provide a basis of knowledge rather than merely belief. Finally, the indications for different types of surgery in special situations and with different forms of cataract are described, e.g. phakolytic glaucoma, subluxation and luxation of the lens and congenital cataracts.
TITLE: Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Principal Investigator: John I. Loewenstein MD Co-Investigator: Bonnie A...AND SUBTITLE Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0531 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Virtual Mentor Cataract Surgery
Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Malandrini, Alex; Canovetti, Annalisa; Lenzetti, Ivo; Capozzi, Paolo; Valente, Paola; Buzzonetti, Luca
Diode laser welding of ocular tissues is a procedure that enables minimally invasive closure of a corneal wound. This procedure is based on a photothermal effect: a water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) is inserted in the surgical wound, in order to stain the corneal tissue walls. The stained tissue is then irradiated with a low power infrared diode laser, delivering laser light through a 300-μm core diameter optical fiber. This procedure enables an immediate closure of the wounds: it is thus possible to reduce or to substitute the use of surgical threads. This is of particular interest in children, because the immediate closure improves refractive outcome and anti-amblyopic effect; moreover this procedure avoids several general anaesthesia for suture management. In this work, we present the first use of diode laser welding procedure in paediatric patients. 5 selected patients underwent cataract surgery (Group 1), while 4 underwent fs-laserassisted penetrating keratoplasty (Group 2). In Group 1 the conventional surgery procedure was performed, while no stitches were used for the closure of the surgical wounds: these were laser welded and immediately closed. In Group 2 the donor button was sutured upon the recipient by 8 single stitches, instead of 16 single stitches or a running suture. The laser welding procedure was performed in order to join the donor tissue to the recipient bed. Objective observations in the follow up study evidenced a perfect adhesion of the laser welded tissues, no collateral effects and an optimal restoration of the treated tissues.
Gayton, J L; Ledford, J K
A patient with cataracts and congenital exotropia underwent combined cataract and strabismus surgery OU. A lateral rectus recession plus an extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation was done OD first; three months later, this procedure was repeated OS. The patient's postoperative course was benign in both cases, and her strabismus resolved after the second operation. A combined surgical approach to cataracts and strabismus (where only a single muscle is involved) was safe and useful in restoring this patient's vision, binocularity, and appearance.
Stefan, C; Dumitrica, Diana Melinte
To emphasize and measure the effect of post-cataract surgery Systane treatment. Eye Clinic - Central Clinical Hospital - Bucharest, Romania. Six months clinical, observational, prospective, double-masked study on two groups of patients with cataract surgery (phacoemulsification technique) performed by the same surgeon. Group A (19 patients) received topic treatment with Systane and group B (17 patients) topic treatment with purified water (both with the same presentation form), associated with classical postoperatively treatment. Each patient answered a standardized questionnaire about subjective symptoms of ocular discomfort Several clinical tests were performed for both groups: Schirmer 1 test, tear break-up time (TBUT) and fluorescein staining showing epithelial defects. The groups were homogeneous about the age and sex distribution. any ocular or general associated disease. Statistic analyse: t-student test. First examination (after one week treatment) show that 73,68% patients treated with Systane did not have subjective symptoms comparing with 47,05% patients without Systane. Final tests (3 week examination) results for subjective symptoms were improved in both groups: 94,73% group A and 70,58% group B (p<0,001). Abnormal values (under 10 mm) for Schirmer 1 test were found in 17,64% of group B patients comparing with 11,76% patients of group A at the first examination. Final Schirmer 1 test results are statistically better in group A 100%-normal values, comparing with 88,23%-normal values in group B. The stability of tear film (TBUT) is altered in 52,94% of purified water treated patients; only in 21,05% of Systane patients existing this problem at the first examination (p<0,001). After 3 weeks treatment 23,52% group B patients and 5,26% group A patients had TBUT altered. Initially fluorescein staining is present in 4 group B patients and in 1 group A patient, comparing with only 1 group B patient in final tests. Cataract surgery can affect ocular tear film
Gawęcki, Maciej; Grzybowski, Andrzej
The authors present systematic review of aetiology and treatment of diplopia related to cataract surgery. The problem is set in the modern perspective of changing cataract surgery. Actual incidence is discussed as well as various modalities of therapeutic options. The authors provide the guidance for the contemporary cataract surgeon, when to expect potential problem in ocular motility after cataract surgery. PMID:26998351
Ophthalmology was one of the most important specialties in Egyptian medicine, and more specialists are known in this field than in any other. This specialization seems, however, to have been of a purely noninvasive nature. Even though it has been claimed that cataract surgery was performed in pharaonic Egypt, careful analysis of the sources does not support the claim. No example of cataract surgery or of any other invasive ophthalmologic procedure can be found in the original sources.
Zhou, Qing-hua; Li, Yun
To evaluate the characteristics, safety and therapeutic effect of cataract phacoemulsification after vitreoretinal surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 132 patients (132 eyes) which had phacoemulsification after vitreoretinal surgery between July 2001 and December 2004 in our hospital, among which 67 patients (50.75%) combined with silicon oil removal.We also analyzed the difficulties and complications of the surgery. Patients were followed up for 7-14 months.Three eyes with broken suspensory ligaments were implanted with one point transcleral fixed intraocular lens(iol).Corrected visual acuity improved in 123 patients (93.18%), no change in 6 patients (4.54%), and visual acuity loss in 3 patients (2.27%). Cataract surgery is high difficult after the vitreoretinal surgery. Phacoemulsification can easily adjust and control intraocular pressure, simplify the operation,and reduce complications during and after the surgery. Silicon oil removal combined with cataract phacoemulsification is safe and economic.
Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kang, Se Woong; Hyon, Joon Young; Park, Kyu Hyung
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67-43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97-42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91-45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30-8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80-6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41-9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of cataract and cataract surgery in Korean population. The 2008–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed, which included 20,419 participants aged ≥ 40 years. The survey is a multistage, probability-cluster survey, which can produce nationally representative estimates. Prevalence of cataract and cataract surgery was estimated. Clinical determinants for those were investigated using logistic regression analyses (LRAs). The prevalence of cataract was 42.28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.67–43.89); 40.82% (95% CI, 38.97–42.66) for men and 43.62% (95% CI, 41.91–45.33) for women (P = 0.606). The prevalence of cataract surgery was 7.75% (95% CI, 7.30–8.20); 6.38% (95% CI, 5.80–6.96) for men and 9.01% (95% CI, 8.41–9.61) for women (P < 0.001). Cataract was associated with older age (P < 0.001), men (P = 0.032), lower household income (P = 0.031), lower education (P < 0.001), hypertension (P < 0.001), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (P < 0.001). Cataract surgery was consistently associated with older age, occupation, DM, asthma, and anemia in two LRAs, which compared participants with cataract surgery to those without cataract surgery and those having a cataract but without any cataract surgery, respectively. Hypertension, arthritis, and dyslipidemia were associated with cataract surgery at least in one of these LRAs. These results suggest that there are 9.4 million individuals with cataract and 1.7 million individuals with cataract surgery in Korea. Further studies are warranted to reveal the causality and its possible mechanism of developing/exacerbating cataract in novel determinants (i.e., anemia, asthma, and arthritic conditions) as well as well-known determinants. PMID:27247507
Alió, Jorge L
Cataract surgery with femtosecond lasers is approaching its practical application in ophthalmology. These lasers, working in the near infrared wavelength (1030 nm) can penetrate the transparent and even opaque tissues of the anterior segment of the eye, with limitations related to vessels and mineral opacities. Femtosecond lasers, guided by image systems can precisely outline the anatomy of the anterior segment of the eye, acting in a very precise way, performing corneal incisions, capsulorhexis, softening and breaking of the nucleus, which are essential steps in cataract surgery. In this article we summarize the four technologies available and approaching commercial application in the coming future. The main differences between the systems are based on the diagnostic imaging techniques, which might either be based on optical coherence tomography or the Scheimpflug principles. One model (the Technolas Femtec 520 F custom lens, 20/10 Perfect Vision), offers the possibility of combined use in corneal and intraocular surgery. While clinical studies are being performed with all of them, and most probably becoming available on the market during 2011 and 2012, the main problem of this emerging technology is its practical application as the increase in costs will affect their availability in the market of cataract surgery. Research is needed to confirm the practicality and the advantages of femtosecond laser cataract surgery over conventional surgery. Meanwhile, a new path for the future of cataract surgery is opening.
Sangal, Neha; Chen, Teresa C
Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is characterized by the deposition of distinctive fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. It is an age-related process that is associated with open and narrow angle glaucomas and the formation of cataracts. Not only is PXF associated with the formation of dense nuclear cataracts, it is also well known that those presenting with PXF are at a higher risk of developing complications during, and even after, cataract surgery. Complications associated with cataract surgery in PXF can occur from poor pupillary dilation, zonular weakness leading to intraoperative or postoperative lens dislocation and vitreous loss, postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) spikes potentiating glaucomatous damage, capsular phimosis, prolonged inflammation, and postoperative corneal decompensation. The surgeon should be prepared to encounter the various potential intraoperative and postoperative complications in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome during cataract surgery. In this way, the surgeon can plan his/her surgical technique to help avoid surprises during cataract surgery and be prepared to manage the potential postoperative complications that can occur in pseudoexfoliation eyes.
Batlle, Juan Francisco; Lansingh, Van Charles; Silva, Juan Carlos; Eckert, Kristen Allison; Resnikoff, Serge
To provide an update of cataract data and barriers to cataract surgery in Latin America. Review and longitudinal study. Cataract surgery rates and other related indicators that have been reported to the VISION 2020 Latin America program since 2005 were reviewed. PubMed was searched for publications concerning regional epidemiologic studies related to cataract, cataract surgery, barriers, outcomes, and cataract prevalence between January 2012 and October 2013 to obtain the most up-to-date data from 19 countries. The weighted mean regional cataract surgery rate has increased by an impressive 70% since 2005, from 1562 to 2672 cataract surgeries per 1 million inhabitants. The weighted mean number of ophthalmologists per 1 million inhabitants in the region is approximately 62. Cataract surgery coverage varies widely in Latin America, from a meager 15% in El Salvador to a more satisfactory 77% in Uruguay. Five recent surveys indicate that lack of awareness of cataract and the surgery treatment option as well as the cost of the surgery are the main barriers to cataract surgery. In spite of the increasing rates of cataract surgery and the more-than-adequate number of ophthalmologists in Latin America, it is not known how many ophthalmologists actually perform surgery. Coverage remains less than satisfactory across the region. Barriers to cataract surgery hinder the efforts of eye care programming. More comprehensive eye care programs and training centers are needed so that they can focus on reaching the underserved and unaware communities, increase surgery output and uptake, and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kung, Jennifer S.; Choi, Daniel Y.; Cheema, Anjum S.; Singh, Kuldev
To summarize the role of cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient, in terms of the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for those with both conditions. Recent evidence suggests that cataract extraction may produce a significant and sustained IOP reduction in individuals with open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and angle-closure glaucoma. Cataract removal may improve the practitioner's ability to interpret perimetric testing, and re-establishing perimetric and optic nerve imaging baselines is recommended after cataract surgery. The sequence of cataract surgery relative to glaucoma surgery impacts the likelihood of complications and surgical success. There are multiple benefits to perform cataract surgery prior to glaucoma surgery while cataract surgery after trabeculectomy increases the risk of subsequent filtration failure. As “minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries” continue to improve in terms of efficacy, there is an evolving role for combined cataract and glaucoma surgery in patients with early to moderate stages of glaucoma. PMID:25624668
Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring IV, George O.
Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner. PMID:27433353
Saraiva, João; Neatrour, Kristin; Waring Iv, George O
Technology in cataract surgery is constantly evolving to meet the goals of both surgeons and patients. Recent major advances in refractive cataract surgery include innovations in preoperative and intraoperative diagnostics, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), and a new generation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). This paper presents the latest technologies in each of these major categories and discusses how these contributions serve to improve cataract surgery outcomes in a safe, effective, and predictable manner.
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Cataracts Sections What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is ... Cataracts Look Like? IOL Implants: Lens Replacement and Cataract Surgery Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elizabeth ...
Thomas, Benjamin J; Sanders, David S; Oliva, Matthew S; Orrs, Mark S; Glick, Peter; Ruit, Sanduk; Chen, Wei; Luoto, Jill; Tasfaw, Alemu Kerie; Tabin, Geoffrey C
To examine the relationships between blindness, the intervention of cataract surgery and all-cause mortality in a rural Ethiopian population. Population-based, interventional prospective study. Community-based detection methods identified blind Ethiopian persons from two selected kebeles in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data from 1201 blind patients were collected-628 cataract-blind and 573 blind from other conditions. Free cataract surgery was provided for consenting, cataract-blind patients. Follow-up surveys were conducted after 12 months (±1 month)-the main outcome measure for this report is all-cause mortality at 1 year. During the follow-up period, 110 persons died from the selected population (mortality 9.2%), which consisted of those cataract-blind patients who received cataract surgery (N=461), cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (N=167) and all non-cataract-blind patients (N=573). Of the 461 patients who received cataract surgery, 44 patients died (9.5%). Of the 740 patients who did not receive surgery, 66 died (8.9%)-28 patients from the cohort of cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (16.8%) and 38 patients from the cohort of non-cataract blind (6.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly increased odds of mortality for cataract-blind patients over 75 years of age who did not receive surgery and for unmarried patients of all age groups. In this population, mortality risk was significantly elevated for older cataract-blind patients when compared with non-cataract-blind patients-an elevation of risk that was not noted in an age-matched cohort of cataract-blind patients who underwent cataract surgery as early as 1-year follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Fenberg, Moss J; Hainsworth, Kenneth J; Rieger, Frank G; Hainsworth, Dean P
A retrospective review of 98 cases of complicated cataract surgery and/or delayed intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation examined the relationship between vitrectomy and cataract surgery complications. Nine (9.2%) of the 98 patients had a history of vitrectomy, before or after cataract surgery, and each had complicated cataract surgery. Six patients who underwent vitrectomy before cataract surgery experienced intraoperative complications. Three patients in whom vitrectomy was performed after uneventful cataract surgery subsequently had delayed IOL dislocation.
Gogate, Parikshit M; Sahasrabudhe, Mohini; Shah, Mitali; Patil, Shailbala; Kulkarni, Anil N; Trivedi, Rupal; Bhasa, Divya; Tamboli, Rahin; Mane, Rekha
Aim: To study long term outcome of bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery. Subjects: 258 pediatric cataract operated eyes of 129 children. Materials and Methods: Children who underwent pediatric cataract surgery in 2004-8 were traced and examined prospectively in 2010-11. Demographic and clinical factors were noted from retrospective chart readings. All children underwent visual acuity estimation and comprehensive ocular examination in a standardized manner. L. V. Prasad Child Vision Function scores (LVP-CVF) were noted for before and after surgery. Statistics: Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 16 including multi-variate analysis. Results: Children aged 9.1 years (std dev 4.6, range 7 weeks-15 years) at the time of surgery. 74/129 (57.4%) were boys. The average duration of follow-up was 4.4 years (stddev 1.6, range 3-8 years). 177 (68.6%) eyes had vision <3/60 before surgery, while 109 (42.2%) had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >6/18 and 157 (60.9%) had BCVA >6/60 3-8 years after surgery. 48 (37.2%) had binocular stereoacuity <480 sec of arc by TNO test. Visual outcome depended on type of cataract (P = 0.004), type of cataract surgery (P < 0.001), type of intra-ocular lens (P = 0.05), age at surgery (P = 0.004), absence of post-operative uveitis (P = 0.01) and pre-operative vision (P < 0.001), but did not depend on delay (0.612) between diagnosis and surgery. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the 20 questions of the LVP-CVF scale (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Pediatric cataract surgery improved the children's visual acuity, stereo acuity and vision function. Developmental cataract, use of phacoemulsification, older children and those with better pre-operative vision had betterlong-termoutcomes. PMID:24618489
Gogate, Parikshit M; Sahasrabudhe, Mohini; Shah, Mitali; Patil, Shailbala; Kulkarni, Anil N; Trivedi, Rupal; Bhasa, Divya; Tamboli, Rahin; Mane, Rekha
To study long term outcome of bilateral congenital and developmental cataract surgery. 258 pediatric cataract operated eyes of 129 children. Children who underwent pediatric cataract surgery in 2004-8 were traced and examined prospectively in 2010-11. Demographic and clinical factors were noted from retrospective chart readings. All children underwent visual acuity estimation and comprehensive ocular examination in a standardized manner. L. V. Prasad Child Vision Function scores (LVP-CVF) were noted for before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 16 including multi-variate analysis. Children aged 9.1 years (std dev 4.6, range 7 weeks-15 years) at the time of surgery. 74/129 (57.4%) were boys. The average duration of follow-up was 4.4 years (stddev 1.6, range 3-8 years). 177 (68.6%) eyes had vision <3/60 before surgery, while 109 (42.2%) had best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >6/18 and 157 (60.9%) had BCVA >6/60 3-8 years after surgery. 48 (37.2%) had binocular stereoacuity <480 sec of arc by TNO test. Visual outcome depended on type of cataract (P = 0.004), type of cataract surgery (P < 0.001), type of intra-ocular lens (P = 0.05), age at surgery (P = 0.004), absence of post-operative uveitis (P = 0.01) and pre-operative vision (P < 0.001), but did not depend on delay (0.612) between diagnosis and surgery. There was a statistically significant improvement for all the 20 questions of the LVP-CVF scale (P < 0.001). Pediatric cataract surgery improved the children's visual acuity, stereo acuity and vision function. Developmental cataract, use of phacoemulsification, older children and those with better pre-operative vision had betterlong-termoutcomes.
Stein, Joshua D.
Purpose Over the past several decades there have been many advances in the equipment, instrumentation and techniques of performing cataract surgery. This review will address the impact of these advances on the safety profile of cataract surgery. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated a decline in the risk of serious postoperative adverse events (endophthalmitis, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, retinal detachment) following cataract surgery. Factors that increase the risk of serious complications from cataract surgery include patient-related factors (male sex, concomitant diabetic retinopathy, same day cataract surgery combined with another intraocular surgery, tamsulosin use) and surgeon-related factors (low surgical volume, limited experience, operating on patients who are most prone to adverse events). Summary Cataract surgery continues to be a very safe surgical procedure with few patients experiencing serious sight-threatening adverse events. Studies in the literature have helped surgeons identify patients who are at high risk for surgical complications and to develop strategies to limit surgical complications when operating on these patients. As multifocal intraocular lenses, femtosecond laser technology, and other surgical innovations continue to gain popularity, it will be interesting in the coming years to determine whether there will be a continued reduction in complications of cataract surgery. PMID:22450221
Porter, L F; Khan, R U; Hannan, A; Kelly, S P
Postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis is a devastating complication of cataract surgery. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) endophthalmitis is rare. Recent debate over MRSA screening in United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS) hospital services has implications for cataract patients and ophthalmology services. To discuss issues for clinical practice as based on reflective experience at a UK district general NHS hospital in relation to care of MRSA-positive cataract patients. Retrospective case series and reflective practice. Three cases presented highlight practice points around cataract patients colonized with MRSA. Known or determined MRSA-colonized patients should be treated with anti-microbial agents at time of cataract surgery known to be active against MRSA. Preventative treatment with intracameral vancomycin or intravenous teicoplanin alongside appropriate topical treatments may be of merit. Importantly fluoroquinolones, often prescribed by cataract surgeons, may have a selective effect favoring the proliferation of MRSA. MRSA screening may cause unnecessary delays in cataract care and may represent a patient safety concern in its own right. Patients colonized with MRSA may safely undergo cataract surgery provided there is no evidence of periorbital infection and provided appropriate infection control and antibiotic prophylaxis measures are used. The well-prepared cataract surgeon needs to be aware of developments in infection control and should liaise with local clinical microbiology colleagues in relation to bacterial resistance to antibiotics.
Morris, Daniel; Fraser, Scott G; Gray, Christopher
Cataract surgery in the developed world has undergone a revolution over the last 20 years. An operation which used to require a stay in hospital and long visual rehabilitation is now a quick day-case procedure with immediate benefits. As with any surgery there is an associated morbidity, but there is now the potential to provide cataract surgery at an earlier stage of cataract maturation and save patients from a period of severe visual impairment. This article reviews the new techniques available to measure the impact that cataracts have not only on a patient’s visual acuity but also their general physical health, function, cognition, and emotional well-being. New research is described that takes into account these more holistic tests and how they can be used to judge the best time to refer and operate on a patient with cataracts. PMID:18044082
Sarwar, H; Modi, N
Cataract surgery has evolved greatly over the years, from the ancient practice of 'couching' where the lens is dislodged, to the modern surgical techniques of today. Sir Harold Ridley's invention of the intraocular lens (IOL) has altered the approach towards cataract surgery, benefitting individuals worldwide. This has been his most notable contribution, it is therefore interesting to explore the build up to this event and gain an understanding of the issues faced by Sir Ridley. This paper explores the significant events and key developments that influenced one of the most valuable innovations in the context of cataract surgery--the intraocular lens.
Sacca, S; Marletta, A; Pascotto, A; Barabino, S; Rolando, M; Giannetti, R; Calabria, G
AIM—To evaluate daily tonometric curves after cataract surgery in patients with cataract only and in patients with cataract and glaucoma. METHODS—108 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups: 57 patients with cataract only (normal) and 51 with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). All patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) (manual technique with long wound), phacoemulsification (automated technique with short wound), or nucleus capture (manual technique with short wound). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by Goldmann tonometry in all patients every 2 hours for 12 hours before the operation and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS—79 patients completed the 6 month examination. ECCE resulted in greater reductions in IOP than the other procedures (ECCE: 27% and 36% in normal patients and those with POAG, respectively; nucleus capture: 20% and 31%, respectively; phacoemulsification: 19% and 22%, respectively). The fluctuations in IOP before and after surgery were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION—Cataract surgery in normal patients reduces IOP but does not eliminate fluctuations which are directly proportional to the IOP value and result partly from circadian rhythms. This important finding might influence our approach to treatment of patients with glaucoma. PMID:11133707
Murphy, S B; Donderi, D C
Fifty-four elderly patients with cataracts were tested with a questionnaire and a series of visual-motor learning and performance tasks immediately before, 7 weeks after, and 16 weeks after cataract surgery. The goal was to learn whether postoperative performance and questionnaire responses could be predicted from the preoperative tasks. Twenty-two elderly people without diagnosed cataracts did the same tasks at comparable intervals to establish normal performance levels and reliabilities. The amount of activity before surgery (walking, shopping, gardening, sewing, etc.) and the ability to learn a new visual-motor coordination were positively correlated with successful recovery as assessed by several measures including spontaneously expressed satisfaction.
Kelley, J S; Doxanas, M T
PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery with capsulorhexis. METHODS: A consecutive series of 2,150 cataract operations were followed for incidence of retinal detachment. A series of 1,000 patients from this group were analyzed for high risk factors: myopia, age, sex, operative complications and capsulotomy. RESULTS: With minimum one year follow up in 90% of patients the incidence of retinal detachment was 0.25% (5 cases). CONCLUSION: The true incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery remains elusive. There is probably a trend toward lower incidence compared to previous reports. PMID:8719688
Jutamulia, Suganda; Wihardjo, Erning; Widjaja, Joewono
A laser diode device for pre cataract surgery test is proposed. The operation is based on the speckle generated on the retina by the cataract lens, when the cataract lens is illuminated with a coherent laser light.
Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.
Simon, Shira S; Chee, Yewlin E; Haddadin, Ramez I; Veldman, Peter B; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Brauner, Stacey C; Chang, Kenneth K; Chen, Sherleen H; Gardiner, Matthew F; Greenstein, Scott H; Kloek, Carolyn E; Chen, Teresa C
To evaluate the difference between target and actual refraction after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation at an academic teaching institution's Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service. Retrospective study. We examined 1275 eye surgeries for this study. All consecutive cataract surgeries were included if they were performed by an attending or resident surgeon from January through December 2010. Postoperative refractions were compared with preoperative target refractions. Patients were excluded if they did not have a preoperative target refraction documented or if they did not have a recorded postoperative manifest refraction within 90 days. The main outcome measure was percentage of cases achieving a postoperative spherical equivalent ± 1.0 diopter (D) of target spherical equivalent. We performed 1368 cataract surgeries from January through December of 2010. Of these, 1275 (93%) had sufficient information for analysis. Of the included cases, 94% (1196 of 1275) achieved ± 1.0 D of target refraction by 90 days after cataract surgery. This paper establishes a new benchmark for a teaching hospital, where 94% of patients achieved within 1.0 D of target refraction after cataract surgery. The refractive outcomes after cataract surgery at this academic teaching institution were higher than average international benchmarks. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
GALVIS, Virgilio; TELLO, Alejandro; M. RANGEL, Carlos
Anterior megalophthalmos is characterized by megalocornea associated with a very broad anterior chamber and ciliary ring elongation. It is also called X-linked megalocornea. It is accompanied by early development of cataracts, zonular anomalies, and, rarely, vitreoretinal disorders. Subluxation of a cataract can occur in cataract surgery because of zonular weakness. In addition, in most patients, standard intraocular lens (IOL) decentration is a risk because of the enlarged sulcus and capsular bag. These unique circumstances make cataract surgery challenging. To date, several approaches have been developed. Implantation of a retropupillary iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens may be a good option because it is easier than suturing the IOL and can have better and more stable anatomic and visual outcomes, compared to other techniques. PMID:27350950
van der Windt, C; Chana, H S
Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness worldwide, curable though, by a simple procedure. The backlog of cataract patients in developing countries is mounting despite sustainable and downright efforts by health ministries, international voluntary and non-governmental organisations . The current situation has put many developing countries in a difficult dilemma. The authors present a review of a pilot-project in decentralised eye-care in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe. Cataract surgery is performed by a district general doctor as an alternative to clearing the cataract back-log in developing countries, as suggested in several studies [2-5]. It is important to persuade the health ministries to adopt this simple and cheap policy [6,7].
Drexler, Wolfgang; Findl, Oliver; Menapace, Rupert; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Fercher, Adolf F.
In an earlier study we showed that precise axial eye length measurement on cataract eyes is possible with the dual beam partial coherence interferometry technique (PCI). A high correlation with the standard ultrasound technique has been obtained. Recently, in a prospective study, partially coherent interferometry and ultrasound biometry were compared in cataract surgery using the SRK II formula based on US applanation biometry. Three months after surgery PCI was repeated and refractive outcome was determined. The use of PCI would have improved refractive outcome by about 30%.
Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A
Background Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. Aim To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. Methods This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). Results The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. Conclusions This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care. PMID:23429413
Morris, D S; Wright, T; Somner, J E A; Connor, A
Climate change is predicted to be one of the largest global health threats of the 21st century. Health care itself is a large contributor to carbon emissions. Determining the carbon footprint of specific health care activities such as cataract surgery allows the assessment of associated emissions and identifies opportunities for reduction. To assess the carbon footprint of a cataract pathway in a British teaching hospital. This was a component analysis study for one patient having first eye cataract surgery in the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff. Activity data was collected from three sectors, building and energy use, travel and procurement. Published emissions factors were applied to this data to provide figures in carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq). The carbon footprint for one cataract operation was 181.8 kg CO2eq. On the basis that 2230 patients were treated for cataracts during 2011 in Cardiff, this has an associated carbon footprint of 405.4 tonnes CO2eq. Building and energy use was estimated to account for 36.1% of overall emissions, travel 10.1% and procurement 53.8%, with medical equipment accounting for the most emissions at 32.6%. This is the first published carbon footprint of cataract surgery and acts as a benchmark for other studies as well as identifying areas for emissions reduction. Within the procurement sector, dialogue with industry is important to reduce the overall carbon footprint. Sustainability should be considered when cataract pathways are designed as there is potential for reduction in all sectors with the possible side effects of saving costs and improving patient care.
Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Goh, Pik-Pin; Lee, Ming-Yueh; Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Ismail, Mariam
To investigate the change in the profile of patients who had cataract surgery at Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals in Malaysia. Secondary analysis on Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry data. The Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry, a MOH-initiated registry, collects data on patients who had cataract surgery at the 36 MOH ophthalmology departments including demography, causes of cataract, systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity (VA), operative details, and postoperative outcomes. This article reviews data on patient profiles from 2002 to 2004 and 2007 to 2011. The coverage of cataract surgery was 91.5% (171,482/185,388). Mean patient age was 64.5 years, and 51.6% were women. A high proportion of patients had hypertension (48.9%), diabetes mellitus (37.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (10.7%). Most had senile cataract (93.4%) and one third had second eye surgery. Most patients (82.0%) had preoperative unaided VA of worse than 6/12. Eyes presenting with unaided VA of worse than 3/60 decreased from 62.6% in 2002 to 47.7% in 2011, whereas those with 6/18 to 3/60 increased from 35.2% to 48.5% (P < 0.001). Patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction had worse preoperative VA than those who had phacoemulsification (81.3% vs 40% had vision worse than 3/60). The obvious change in patient profiles was the decreasing number of eyes presenting with worse than 3/60 vision. Compared with developed countries, patients who had cataract surgery at MOH hospitals in Malaysia were younger and had higher associations with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.
Al Mahmood, Ammar M.; Al-Swailem, Samar A.; Behrens, Ashley
Since the introduction of sutureless clear corneal cataract incisions, the procedure has gained increasing popularity worldwide because it offers several advantages over the traditional sutured scleral tunnels and limbal incisions. Some of these benefits include lack of conjunctival trauma, less discomfort and bleeding, absence of suture-induced astigmatism, and faster visual rehabilitation. However, an increasing incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis after clear corneal cataract surgery has been reported. Different authors have shown a significant increase up to 15-fold in the incidence of endophthalmitis following clear corneal incision compared to scleral tunnels. The aim of this report is to review the advantages and disadvantages of clear corneal incisions in cataract surgery, emphasizing on wound construction recommendations based on published literature. PMID:24669142
Amstutz, Ch; Thiel, M A; Kaufmann, Claude
Age-related cataracts are mainly caused by life-long accumulation of oxidative stress on the lens fibres. Symptoms include reduced visual acuity, requiring more light for reading, and glare. The only treatment that provides a cure for cataracts is surgery. Phacoemulsification represents the preferred method of lens removal. It involves fragmentation of the lens using ultrasound and insertion of an artificial intraocular lens. The preoperative assessment the general practitioner provides to surgeon and anesthesia team has an important share in the low complication rate of the procedure in the event of co-existing systemic disease. Growing patient expectation for spectacle independence following cataract surgery is met to some extent using techniques for astigmatism control and presbyo-pia-correcting intraocular lenses.
Gayton, J L; Van Der Karr, M; Sanders, V
To determine whether combined cataract surgery with endoscopic laser cycloablation produces less inflammation than cataract surgery combined with a filtering procedure. Taylor Regional Hospital (surgeries) and EyeSight Associates (examinations), Warner Robins, Georgia, USA. A randomized prospective study was conducted of 58 eyes of 58 patients comparing endoscopic laser cycloablation performed through a cataract incision at the time of cataract surgery with combined trabeculectomy and cataract surgery. Mean follow-up was 2 years. At the final available visit, 30% of endoscopic laser patients achieved intraocular pressure control (below 19 mm Hg) without medication and 65% with medication. Forty percent of trabeculectomy patients achieved control without medication and 52% with medication. Four endoscopic laser patients (14%) and 3 trabeculectomy patients (10%) were considered treatment failures (required additional surgical intervention). Endoscopic laser cycloablation performed through a cataract incision was a reasonably safe and effective alternative to combined cataract and trabeculectomy surgery, providing an option for cataract patients who have glaucoma requiring surgical intervention.
Dekkers, N W; Buijs, J
206 Consecutive cataract patients were at random divided into three groups according to the way the cataract incision was closed: virgin silk 8-0, interrupted nylon 9-0, and double running nylon 9-0. The nylon, whether interrupted or continuous, yielded in the majority of cases a postoperative astigmatism with the rule, whereas virgin silk caused in nearly all patients a postoperative astigmatism against the rule and therefore behaved like an absorbable suture. Silk is chemically non-absorbable, but in virgin silk a natural worm-produced polymer is still present, which provokes a tissue reaction. Softening of tissue diminishes the tensile strength of the suture. With respect to the postoperative astigmatism, the suture material (nylon or virgin silk) seems a more important factor than the way in which it is used (interrupted or continuous).
Broman, Aimee Teo; Hafiz, Gulnar; Muñoz, Beatriz; Rodriguez, Jorge; Snyder, Robert; Klein, Ronald; West, Sheila K
To report the prevalence of visually significant cataract and cataract surgery and to determine demographic and socioeconomic factors that influence use of cataract surgery in a US Hispanic population. Proyecto VER is a population-based study of Hispanic individuals, 40 years or older, living in southern Arizona. Visual acuity was measured monocularly, and a dilated ophthalmic examination was performed to determine lens opacities. Visually significant cataract was defined as severe levels of opacity and acuity worse than 20/40. Risk factors were compared between those who obtained cataract surgery in the past and those having visually significant cataract. A majority of the 4774 participants in this study were of Mexican descent; 2.8% had visually significant cataract and 5.1% had undergone bilateral cataract surgery. Among those currently or previously needing surgery, having medical insurance (odds ratio, 2.88; P<.001) and speaking English (odds ratio, 1.80; P = .04) were significantly associated with having obtained surgery in the past. Visually significant cataract appears to be high among US Hispanic individuals of Mexican descent, as evidenced by rates of cataract and cataract surgery. Language and financial barriers in this population impede access to surgery. Further work to remove these barriers and provide sight restoration is warranted among Hispanic individuals of Mexican descent living in the United States.
Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; Kaufman, B H; van Heerden, J A
The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to understand endocrine surgery and, therefore, is expected to develop considerable expertise in this area. In recent years numerous advances and changes have occurred in pediatric endocrine surgery that have led to greater understanding of the disease processes and syndromes and the development of new diagnostic techniques and surgical approaches.
Sikder, Shameema; Tuwairqi, Khaled; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Myers, William G; Banerjee, Pat
Virtual simulators have been widely implemented in medical and surgical training, including ophthalmology. The increasing number of published articles in this field mandates a review of the available results to assess current technology and explore future opportunities. A PubMed search was conducted and a total of 10 articles were reviewed. Virtual simulators have shown construct validity in many modules, successfully differentiating user experience levels during simulated phacoemulsification surgery. Simulators have also shown improvements in wet-lab performance. The implementation of simulators in the residency training has been associated with a decrease in cataract surgery complication rates. Virtual reality simulators are an effective tool in measuring performance and differentiating trainee skill level. Additionally, they may be useful in improving surgical skill and patient outcomes in cataract surgery. Future opportunities rely on taking advantage of technical improvements in simulators for education and research.
Zhang, Mingjuan Lisa; Hirunyachote, Phenpan; Jampel, Henry
Background Cataract and glaucoma are leading causes of blindness worldwide, and their co-existence is common in elderly people. Glaucoma surgery can accelerate cataract progression, and performing both surgeries may increase the rate of postoperative complications and compromise the success of either surgery. However, cataract surgery may independently lower intraocular pressure (IOP), which may allow for greater IOP control among patients with co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The decision between undergoing combined glaucoma and cataract surgery versus cataract surgery alone is complex. Therefore, it is important to compare the effectiveness of these two interventions to aid clinicians and patients in choosing the better treatment approach. Objectives To assess the relative effectiveness and safety of combined surgery versus cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) alone for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. The secondary objectives include cost analyses for different surgical techniques for co-existing cataract and glaucoma. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to October 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 3 October 2014. We checked the reference lists of the included trials to identify further relevant trials. We used the Science
Singh, Ajay; Strauss, Glenn H
The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery.
Cataract is the first blinding eye disease in the world and China. However, due to various reasons, cataract surgery rate (CSR) in China is much lower than in developed countries and even some developing countries. Properly and standardized training of cataract surgery for ophthalmologists from primary hospital and young eye doctors is one of the key point to improve CSR. For above, we had explored actively to establish an appropriate and suitable training model of cataract surgery. Ophthalmologist in primary hospital can provide high quality medical services to cataract patients in accordance with their own conditions after training and promote the sustainable development of blindness prevention work.
The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery. PMID:24996918
García-Martín, M J; Giménez-Gómez, R; García-Catalán, R; Herrador, M A; Gallardo, J M
Cataract surgery rates have dramatically increased in the last two decades. However, clinical practice variation in cataract surgery has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this review is to analyze clinical practice variation, including the causes and consequences of this phenomenon. Then, its role in health care planning and health care quality is focused, emphasizing the importance of reducing it and providing several practical strategies to accomplish it. The latest researches are presented in this article. They identify the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines as the best tool to standardize care processes. Managing unwarranted or unwanted variation would improve quality of care and may lead to a significant saving in health care spending. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Buckhurst, Phillip J; Wolffsohn, James S; Davies, Leon N; Naroo, Shehzad A
High levels of corneal astigmatism are prevalent in a significant proportion of the population. During cataract surgery pre-existing astigmatism can be corrected using single or paired incisions on the steep axis of the cornea, using relaxing incisions or with the use of a toric intraocular lens. This review provides an overview of the conventional methods of astigmatic correction during cataract surgery and in particular, discusses the various types of toric lenses presently available and the techniques used in determining the correct axis for the placement of such lenses. Furthermore, the potential causes of rotation in toric lenses are identified, along with techniques for assessing and quantifying the amount of rotation and subsequent management options for addressing post-operative rotation.
Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...
Haripriya, Aravind; Lalitha, Prajna; Mathen, Minu; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Kim, Ramasamy; Shukla, Dhananjay; Natchiar, Govindappa; Srinivasan, Muthiah
To analyze the clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and treatment outcome in cases of nocardial endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Retrospective, observational case series. setting: Tertiary referral hospital. patients: Retrospective analysis of 24 cases of culture-proven exogenous nocardial endophthalmitis following cataract surgery between January 2000 and December 2003. main outcome measures: Visual acuity and anatomic outcome. Visual outcome was poor in most patients, with 79% (19/24) of patients obtaining a final visual acuity of hand motions or worse and 46% (11/24) of patients with no light perception. Initial presenting visual acuity was strongly associated with final visual outcome (P = .0026). There was a statistically significant trend favoring better visual outcome in patients who presented early after the onset of symptoms (P = .01). The majority of the eyes (23/24) had an early onset with predominantly anterior segment involvement. Wound infection was noted in 46% (11/24) of the patients at presentation. Clinical features included scleral abscess, cotton ball exudates in the anterior chamber, fluffy exudates on the corneal endothelium, nodular exudates on the iris, and hypopyon. Among the specimens cultured, the highest positivity was seen with the anterior chamber aspirate (15/16 = 93.75%), which was significantly higher than the vitreous aspirate cultured (1/22 = 4.54%) (P = .001). Nocardia endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is an aggressive disease with poor visual prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment with good visual acuity at presentation may be associated with better visual outcome.
Havnaer, Annika G; Greenberg, Paul B; Cockerham, Glenn C; Clark, Melissa A; Chomsky, Amy
To describe current cataract surgery practices within the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Veterans Health Administration hospitals in the U.S. Retrospective data analysis. An initial e-mail containing a link to an anonymous 32-question survey of cataract surgery practices was sent to participants in May 2016. Two reminder e-mails were sent to nonresponders 1 week and 2 weeks after the initial survey was sent; the remaining nonresponders were called twice over a 2-week period. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The response rate was 75% (67/89). Cataract surgeons routinely ordered preoperative testing in 29 (45%) of 65 sections and preoperative consultations in 26 (39%) of 66 sections. In 22 (33%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons administered intracameral antibiotics. In 61 (92%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used toric intraocular lenses (IOLs). In 20 (30%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons used multifocal IOLs. Cataract surgeons in 6 (9%) of 66 sections performed femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. In 6 (9%) of 66 sections, cataract surgeons performed immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Forty-nine (74%) ophthalmology chiefs reported a high level of satisfaction with Veterans Affairs ophthalmology. The survey results indicate that in cataract surgery in the VHA, routine preoperative testing is commonly performed and emerging practices, such as femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery, have limited roles. The results of this survey could benchmark future trends in U.S. cataract surgery practices, especially in teaching hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohammadi, Mehran; Naderan, Mohammad; Pahlevani, Rozhin; Jahanrad, Ali
The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the prevalence and pattern of corneal astigmatism in cataract surgery candidates. In a prospective cross-sectional study, preoperative demographics, and keratometric and refractive values of cataract surgery candidates were collected from January 2013 to December 2014. Axial length (AL) and flat and steep keratometry measurements were optically measured by a partial coherence interferometry device (IOLMaster). This study consisted of 2156 eyes of 1317 patients with a mean age of 64.92 ± 11.48 (SD) (30-88 years). The mean of AL was 23.33 ± 1.37 mm, and the mean of corneal astigmatism was 1.12 ± 1.10 diopter (D) (range 0.0-7.00), in all patients. Furthermore, the mean of flat and steep keratometry were 43.70 ± 1.70 and 44.83 ± 1.79 D, respectively. Corneal astigmatism was 1.50 D or less in 1590 eyes (73.7 %), more than 1.50 D in 566 eyes (26.2 %), 3.00 D or more in 161 eyes (7.4 %), WTR in 796 eyes (36.9 %), ATR in 1010 eyes (46.8 %), and oblique in 350 eyes (16.2 %). ATR astigmatism axis significantly increased with the increase in age. Corneal astigmatism of most cataract surgery candidates fell between 0.50 and 1.50 D. The results of our study however is confined to our demographics might provide useful data for cataract patients, surgeons, and intraocular lens manufacturers for different purposes.
Kelkar, Aditya; Kelkar, Jai; Amuaku, Winfried; Kelkar, Uday; Shaikh, Aarofil
Postoperative endophthalmitis is a very devastating complication and every step should be taken to reduce its occurrence. Unattended air conditioning filter systems are often the culprits and regular maintenance of the filters is of paramount importance. Shedders of pathogenic organisms amongst the theater personnel should be identified by regular screening and should be promptly treated. In addition to the use of Povidone iodine 5% solution in the conjunctival sac few minutes prior to surgery, proper construction of wound, injectable intraocular lenses, use of prophylactic intracameral antibiotics or prophylactic subconjunctival antibiotic injection at the conclusion of cataract surgery, placing a patch after the surgery for at least 4 h and initiating topical antibiotics from the same day of surgery helps to lower the frequency of postoperative endophthalmitis. Intraoperative posterior capsule rupture and anterior vitrectomy are risk factors for acute endophthalmitis, and utmost care to prevent posterior capsular rent should be taken while performing cataract surgery. Also, in case of such complication, these patients should be closely monitored for early signs of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. In the unfortunate event of endophthalmitis the diagnosis should be prompt and treatment must be initiated as early as possible.
Leivo, Tiina; Sarikkola, Anna-Ulrika; Uusitalo, Risto J; Hellstedt, Timo; Ess, Sirje-Linda; Kivelä, Tero
To present an economic-analysis comparison of simultaneous and sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Helsinki University Eye Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Economic analysis. Effects were estimated from data in a study in which patients were randomized to have bilateral cataract surgery on the same day (study group) or sequentially (control group). The main clinical outcomes were corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, complications, Visual Function Index-7 (VF-7) scores, and patient-rated satisfaction with vision. Health-care costs of surgeries and preoperative and postoperative visits were estimated, including the cost of staff, equipment, material, floor space, overhead, and complications. The data were obtained from staff measurements, questionnaires, internal hospital records, and accountancy. Non-health-care costs of travel, home care, and time were estimated based on questionnaires from a random subset of patients. The main economic outcome measures were cost per VF-7 score unit change and cost per patient in simultaneous versus sequential surgery. The study comprised 520 patients (241 patients included non-health-care and time cost analyses). Surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction were similar in both groups. Simultaneous cataract surgery saved 449 Euros (€) per patient in health-care costs and €739 when travel and paid home-care costs were included. The savings added up to €849 per patient when the cost of lost working time was included. Compared with sequential bilateral cataract surgery, simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery provided comparable clinical outcomes with substantial savings in health-care and non-health-care-related costs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manning, Sonia; Barry, Peter; Henry, Ype; Rosen, Paul; Stenevi, Ulf; Young, David; Lundström, Mats
To compare the visual, refractive, and adverse outcomes of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Cataract surgery clinics in 9 European countries and Australia (femtosecond-assisted) and 18 European countries and Australia (conventional). Multicenter case-control study. Eyes having femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery were matched to eyes from the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery phacoemulsification cataract surgery database for preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), age, and preoperative risk factors. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative CDVA, and refractive outcome were compared. The follow-up was 7 to 60 days. The study matched 2814 femtosecond-assisted cases to 4987 conventional phacoemulsification cases. Femtosecond-assisted surgery compared as follows to conventional phacoemulsification: posterior capsule complications, 0.7% versus 0.4%; postoperative logMAR CDVA, 0.05 (6/6(-3)) versus 0.03 (6/6(-2)); worse postoperative CDVA at follow-up (by 5 letters or more), 1.0% versus 0.4%; CDVA 0.3 (6/12) or better, 96.3% versus 97.1%; absolute biometry prediction error, 0.43 diopter (D) versus 0.40 D; within ±0.5 D of target, 72% versus 74.3%; and postoperative complications, 3.4% versus 2.3%. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery did not yield better visual or refractive outcomes than conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraoperative complications were similar and low in both groups. Postoperative complications were lower in conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khandekar, Rajiv; Sudhan, Anand; Jain, B K; Deshpande, Madan; Dole, Kuldeep; Shah, Mahul; Shah, Shreya
The aim was to assess the impact of cataract surgeries in reducing visual disabilities and factors influencing it at three institutes of India. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2013. Data of 4 years were collected on gender, age, residence, presenting a vision in each eye, eye that underwent surgery, type of surgery and the amount the patient paid out of pocket for surgery. Visual impairment was categorized as; absolute blindness (no perception of light); blind (<3/60); severe visual impairment (SVI) (<6/60-3/60); moderate visual impairment (6/18-6/60) and; normal vision (≥6/12). Statistically analysis was performed to evaluate the association between visual disabilities and demographics or other possible barriers. The trend of visual impairment over time was also evaluated. We compared the data of 2011 to data available about cataract cases from institutions between 2002 and 2009. There were 108,238 cataract cases (50.6% were female) that underwent cataract surgery at the three institutions. In 2011, 71,615 (66.2%) cases underwent surgery. There were 45,336 (41.9%) with presenting vision < 3/60 and 75,393 (69.7%) had SVI in the fellow eye. Blindness at presentation for cataract surgery was associated to, male patients, Institution 3 (Dristi Netralaya, Dahod) surgeries after 2009, cataract surgeries without Intra ocular lens implant implantation, and patients paying <25 US $ for surgery. Predictors of SVI at time of cataract surgery were, male, Institution 3 (OM), phaco surgeries, those opting to pay 250 US $ for cataract surgeries. Patients with cataract seek eye care in late stages of visual disability. The goal of improving vision related quality of life for cataract patients during the early stages of visual impairment that is common in industrialized countries seems to be non-attainable in the rural India.
Böhringer, Daniel; Vach, Werner; Hagenlocher, Kai; Eberwein, Philipp; Maier, Philip; Reinhard, Thomas
Purpose The German Ophthalmological Society (GOS) recently proposed surgical entry criteria, i.e. 300 cataract surgeries. We herein correlate the surgical hands-on experience with the risk of posterior capsule ruptures in order to assess whether this number is appropriate. Methods We identified all cataract operations that had been performed at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg since 1995. For each surgeon, we assigned a running number to his/her procedures in the order they had been performed. Thereafter, we excluded all combined procedures and the second eyes. We then selected the 5475 surgical reports between November 2008 and November 2012 for detailed review. We additionally classified each surgery into low- vs. high- à priori risk for posterior capsule ruptures. We fitted a multifactorial logistic regression model to assess the GOS recommendation of 300 surgeries under supervision. In the low-risk group, we additionally visualized the 'typical' learning curve by plotting the posterior capsule ruptures against the respective rank numbers. Results The odds ratio for posterior capsule ruptures of 'learning-mode' (one of the respective surgeon's 300 first procedures) vs. the non-learning-mode was 3.8 (p<0.0001). By contrast, classification into the low-risk group lowered the risk of posterior capsule ruptures three fold (p<0.0001). According to the low-risk plot, the surgeons started with a complication rate of 4% and continuously improved towards 0.5% after 1500 operations. Thereafter, the rate increased again and stabilized around one percent. Conclusion The learning curve with respect to posterior capsule ruptures is surprisingly flat. The GOS entry criterion of 300 cataract procedures is therefore most likely justified. Careful selection of low-risk patients for the training surgeons may help in reducing the rate of posterior capsule ruptures during training. PMID:25401738
Hoffman, Richard S.; Braga-Mele, Rosa; Donaldson, Kendall; Emerick, Geoffrey; Henderson, Bonnie; Kahook, Malik; Mamalis, Nick; Miller, Kevin M.; Realini, Tony; Shorstein, Neal H.; Stiverson, Richard K.; Wirostko, Barbara
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have become an important adjunctive tool for surgeons performing routine and complicated cataract surgery. These medications have been found to reduce pain, prevent intraoperative miosis, modulate postoperative inflammation, and reduce the incidence of cystoid macular edema (CME). Whether used alone, synergistically with steroids, or for specific high-risk eyes prone to the development of CME, the effectiveness of these medications is compelling. This review describes the potential preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative uses of NSAIDs, including the potency, indications and treatment paradigms and adverse effects and contraindications. A thorough understanding of these issues will help surgeons maximize the therapeutic benefits of these agents and improve surgical outcomes. PMID:27697257
Venkatesh, Rengaraj; van Landingham, Suzanne W; Khodifad, Ashish M; Haripriya, Aravind; Thiel, Cassandra L; Ramulu, Pradeep; Robin, Alan L
This article raises awareness about the cost-effectiveness and carbon footprint of various cataract surgery techniques, comparing their relative carbon emissions and expenses: manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS), phacoemulsification, and femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. As the most commonly performed surgical procedure worldwide, cataract surgery contributes significantly to global climate change. The carbon footprint of a single phacoemulsification cataract surgery is estimated to be comparable to that of a typical person's life for 1 week. Phacoemulsification has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 4.7 times more expensive than MSICS; however, given the lower degree of postoperative astigmatism and other potential complications, phacoemulsification may still be preferable to MSICS in relatively resource-rich settings requiring high levels of visual function. Limited data are currently available regarding the environmental and financial impact of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery; however, in its current form, it appears to be the least cost-effective option. Cataract surgery has a high value to patients. The relative environmental impact and cost of different types of cataract surgery should be considered as this treatment becomes even more broadly available globally and as new technologies are developed and implemented.
Gollogly, Heidrun E.; Hodge, David O.; St. Sauver, Jennifer L.; Erie, Jay C.
PURPOSE To estimate the incidence of cataract surgery in a defined population and to determine longitudinal cataract surgery patterns. SETTING Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN Cohort study. METHODS Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) databases were used to identify all incident cataract surgeries in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated and adjusted to the 2010 United States white population. Data were merged with previous REP data (1980 to 2004) to assess temporal trends in cataract surgery. Change in the incidence over time was assessed by fitting generalized linear models assuming a Poisson error structure. The probability of second-eye cataract surgery was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS Included were 8012 cataract surgeries from 2005 through 2011. During this time, incident cataract surgery significantly increased (P < .001), peaking in 2011 with a rate of 1100 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval, 1050–1160). The probability of second-eye surgery 3, 12, and 24 months after first-eye surgery was 60%, 76%, and 86%, respectively, a significant increase compared with the same intervals in the previous 7 years (1998 to 2004) (P < .001). When merged with 1980 to 2004 REP data, incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 3 decades (P < .001). CONCLUSION Incident cataract surgery steadily increased over the past 32 years and has not leveled off, as reported in Swedish population-based series. Second-eye surgery was performed sooner and more frequently, with 60% of residents having second-eye surgery within 3-months of first-eye surgery. PMID:23820302
Camps, J I
Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.
Abdelghany, Ahmed A; Alio, Jorge L
Refractive errors are frequently found following cataract surgery and refractive lens exchange. Accurate biometric analysis, selection and calculation of the adequate intraocular lens (IOL) and modern techniques for cataract surgery all contribute to achieving the goal of cataract surgery as a refractive procedure with no refractive error. However, in spite of all these advances, residual refractive error still occasionally occurs after cataract surgery and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) can be considered the most accurate method for its correction. Lens-based procedures, such as IOL exchange or piggyback lens implantation are also possible alternatives especially in cases with extreme ametropia, corneal abnormalities, or in situations where excimer laser is unavailable. In our review, we have found that piggyback IOL is safer and more accurate than IOL exchange. Our aim is to provide a review of the recent literature regarding target refraction and residual refractive error in cataract surgery.
Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Wan-Soo
AIM To evaluate factors influencing stereoacuity after surgery to correct unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. METHODS We retrospectively surveyed 110 patients who had undergone removal of unilateral acquired developmental cataracts and primary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation between February 1992 and December 2009. In all patients, stereoacuity was assessed using the Titmus test at the last follow-up period of minimum 2 years after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the extent of stereoacuity: group 1 (n=42) had stereoacuity values≤100sec/arc and group 2 (n=68) values >100sec/arc. The values of ten parameters associated with stereoacuity were measured in each group: Cataract types, preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the affected eyes, preoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, age at cataract surgery, operative method, secondary cataract, postoperative strabismus, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, postoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, and anisometropia. RESULTS The extent of stereoacuity was significantly associated with both operative method and secondary cataract (P=0.000 and P=0.016, respectively). All patients in whom the posterior capsule was preserved, had poor stereoacuity >100sec/arc. Significant correlations with the extent of stereoacuity were found with postoperative strabismus (P=0.048), postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes (P=0.002), anisometropia (P=0.034). CONCLUSION : Postoperative stereoacuity was better in patients who underwent either optic capture or anterior vitrectomy after posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and who didn't develop secondary cataracts or strabismus postoperatively. Furthermore, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, and anisometropia influenced the stereoacuity of the patients surgically treated for unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. PMID:23826528
Gayton, J L; Van der Karr, M A; Sanders, V
To evaluate whether separating the procedures in a combined procedure by performing a temporal cataract incision and superior trabeculectomy induces the lower astigmatism of a temporal cataract incision without sacrificing intraocular pressure (IOP) control. EyeSight Associates, Warner Robins, Georgia. This study evaluated 50 consecutive eyes receiving a superior cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy and 65 eyes receiving a temporal cataract incision with a superonasal trabeculectomy. After 3 months, a substantially greater proportion of temporal incision cases had controlled IOP without medication. A substantially higher proportion in the superior incision group had uncontrolled IOP at each time period. Mean surgically induced cylinder was higher in the superior incision group at every time period. The superior group had early with-the-rule mean induced cylinder that decayed to against-the-rule, with a mean induced cylinder with keratometry at the final available visit (more than 3 months) of -1.01 diopter (D). The temporal group started with a negligible induced cylinder (-0.13 D) that drifted slightly with the rule to a final mean induced cylinder of +0.49 D. At the last visit, 31% in the superior incision group and 57% in the temporal incision group had an uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 72% and 94%, respectively, had a best corrected acuity of 20/40 or better. Separating the cataract and glaucoma procedures frees the surgeon to use newer astigmatically neutral techniques for the cataract incision.
Mansour, Ahmad M; Salti, Haytham I
We present two patients with active, foul-smelling, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) wounds of the forehead and sternum following craniotomy or open heart surgery. Both had debilitating cataracts and were told by the infectious diseases team that cataract surgery is very risky. Both underwent sequential bilateral phacoemulsification with no sign of infection. Patients with active MRSA wound infections may safely undergo cataract surgery with additional precautions observed intraoperatively (good wound construction) and postoperatively (topical antibiotics and close observation). Banning such surgeries can unnecessarily jeopardize the lifestyles of such patients.
Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul
Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms "barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB)." The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa.
Aboobaker, Shaheer; Courtright, Paul
Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms “barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC), and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB).” The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa. PMID:26957856
Crispim, Joao; Chamon, Wallace
According to the World Health Organization, cataract is the major cause of reversible visual impairment in the world. It is present as the cause of decreased visual acuity in 33% of the visual impaired citizens. With the increase of life expectancy in the last decades, the number of patients with cataract is expected to grow for the next 20 years. Nowadays, the only effective treatment for cataracts is surgery and its surgical outcomes have been increasingly satisfactory with the technological advancement.Pharmaceutical development has been also responsible for surgical outcomes enhancement. This includes the development of new ophthalmic viscoelastic devices (OVDs), intraocular dyes, mydriatics, miotics, anesthetics, irrigating solutions, and antibiotics. However, the increased costs and demand for cataract surgery may be hard to meet in the future unless clinical preventive and curative options are evaluated.In this chapter, we review the studies that addressed pharmacological applications in cataract.
Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel V.
Application of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has added unprecedented precision and reproducibility but ocular safety limits for the procedure are not well-quantified. We present an analysis of safety during laser cataract surgery considering scanned patterns, reduced blood perfusion, and light scattering on residual bubbles formed during laser cutting. Experimental results for continuous-wave 1030 nm irradiation of the retina in rabbits are used to calibrate damage threshold temperatures and perfusion rate for our computational model of ocular heating. Using conservative estimates for each safety factor, we compute the limits of the laser settings for cataract surgery that optimize procedure speed within the limits of retinal safety.
Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Chan, Colin Ck; Jacobs, Mark; Ng, David; Bali, Shveta J; Hodge, Chris; Sutton, Gerard
The recent introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has generated much interest among ophthalmologists around the world. Laser cataract surgery integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging systems with a femtosecond laser, allowing key steps of the procedure, including the primary and side-port corneal incisions, the anterior capsulotomy and fragmentation of the lens nucleus, to be performed with computer-guided laser precision. There is emerging evidence of reduced phacoemulsification time, better wound architecture and a more stable refractive result with femtosecond cataract surgery, as well as reports documenting an initial learning curve. This article will review the current state of technology and discuss our clinical experience.
Watson, Martin P; Anand, Seema; Bhogal, Maninder; Gore, Daniel; Moriyama, Aline; Pullum, Kenneth; Hau, Scott; Tuft, Stephen J
To review the refractive outcome of cataract surgery in eyes with keratoconus. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 64 consecutive patients (92 eyes) who underwent cataract surgery with implantation of a spherical intraocular lens (IOL). We recorded the method of refractive correction and the effect of the keratometry (K) on the biometry prediction error (BPE). 35 eyes had mild keratoconus (mean K<48 dioptres (D)), 40 had moderate keratoconus (mean K 48 D to 55 D) and 17 had severe keratoconus (mean K>55 D). Actual K values were used in all eyes with mild or moderate keratoconus with a target refraction of approximately -1.0 D in mild keratoconus and -1.5 D in moderate keratoconus that resulted in a mean BPE of 0.0 D and +0.3 D, respectively. The actual K values were used in eight of the 17 eyes with severe keratoconus with a mean target refraction of -5.4 D, which resulted in a mean BPE of +6.8 D. In the remaining nine eyes, a standard K value of 43.25 D was used with a mean target refraction of -1.8 D, which resulted in a mean BPE of +0.6 D. Using the actual K values with a target of low myopia is a suitable option for spherical IOL selection for eyes with a mean K of ≤55 D. When there is severe keratoconus, the use of actual K values can result in a large hyperopic error and the use of standard K value in these eyes should be considered.
Background The incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis has reduced during last several years to <0.01%; however, its associated complications continue to be devastating. Several sources of infection, including contamination by air, solutions, surgical instruments, intraocular lens, and wound leakage have been identified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical technique, antibiotics, and asepsis that are used to reduce the risk of infection during cataract surgery. Methods This was a transversal prospective study, in which 64 cataract surgeries were evaluated from 32 patients, with 1 month recovery time; and cultures from preoperative and postoperative aspirates were analyzed. Two groups were established based on whether preoperative antibiotics were given or not. The analysis employed descriptive statistics. Results Of the 32 patients whose aspirates were obtained, three (9.37%) and 10 (31.25%) yielded positive cultures preoperative and postoperatively respectively. Staphylococcus species was the most common contaminating bacteria. The isolation of Staphylococcus species may indicate its potential as exogenous contaminant at time of wound closure. The cultures obtained from patients using preoperative antibiotics were positive for S. aureus in 10% (n = 2) of cases, and positive in 8.33% (n = 1) of cases not using antibiotics. The mean transoperative time with positive growth was 67 ± 17.8 minutes, and with negative growth was 76.3 ± 25.2 minutes. Two surgical techniques were evaluated: phacoemulsification and extracapsular extraction. The extracapsular technique showed a contamination rate of 33.33% (n = 8) compared to phacoemulsification with a rate of 25% (n = 2) (RR = 1.33). Conclusions Common contaminating microorganisms included the Staphylococcus species, which was isolated from the eyelids and ocular annexes at the time of wound closure. The isolation of microorganisms postoperatively could have been
Cabric, Emir; Zvornicanin, Jasmin; Jusufovic, Vahid
ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate safety and efficacy of day care cataract surgery in developing country. Patients and Methods: This prospective study included 200 patients planned for cataract surgery during October and November 2012 divided in to two groups, day care cataract surgery (DCCS) and inpatient cataract surgery (ICS), with same number of male and female patients right and left eyes. All patients had same operative conditions and postoperative follow up. Results: The average age of patients in this study was 68.4 ± 7.47 years. Visual acuity before cataract extraction was 0.1754 where 44.5% of patients had severe visual impairment and another 23% had complicated cataract. Posterior capsule rupture was noted in 4.5% of cases. The main risk factors in both groups were: higher age, female gender, left side, complicated cataract, higher dioptric power of IOL and ECCE. Regular control opthalmologic examinations 30, 90 and 180 days after the cataract extraction did not reveal signs bullous keratopathy, wound dehiscence, cystoid macular edema and endophtalmitis in any of patients. Postoperative visual acuity 180 days after the operation in DCCS was 0.920 ± 0.154 and 0.928 ± 0.144 in ICS. Visual acuity less than 0.5 was noted in 4.5% due to posterior eye segment changes. Patients in DCCS group had 30 control examinations more and 95 days of hospitalization less than ICS with 16.5% cost reduction. Conclusion: The concept of day care cataract surgery is equally safe and more cost effective than inpatient cataract surgery. PMID:24937936
Kavitha, V.; Balasubramanian, Preethi; Heralgi, Mallikarjun M.
Purpose: To evaluate the postoperative visual outcomes and complications of posterior iris fixated intraocular lens (IFIOL) implantation for pediatric traumatic cataract. Methods: A retrospective clinical audit was performed of all the pediatric traumatic cataract patients who underwent lens removal and iris fixated lens implantation due to inadequate capsular support with or without corneal tear repair between January 2009 and December 2013. Data were collected and analyzed on the preoperative and postoperative visual outcomes and complications. Results: Twenty-five children (25 eyes; 21 males and 4 females) were enrolled with the mean age of 11 ± 4.0 years. There were 72% of eyes that underwent primary cataract removal with IFIOL implantation. Twenty-eight percent of eyes underwent corneal tear repair prior to intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in 32% eyes, counting fingers in 24%, and perception of light in 44%. Postoperative BCVA of 0-0.2 logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was reported in the 64% of eyes. One eye developed secondary glaucoma, one eye underwent re-enclavation, and none developed retinal complications. Conclusion: Posterior IFIOL implantation resulted in an improved visual outcome, low incidence of postoperative complications, and is a good alternative to other IOL, in the cases of pediatric traumatic cataract without adequate capsular support. PMID:27162456
Dada, Tanuj; Bhartiya, Shibal; Begum Baig, Nafees
The problem of cataract management in the patients of glaucoma who have undergone fltering surgery is a challenging proposition for any surgeon, as the surgery can lead to several complications in the already compromised eye. As glaucoma requires lifelong management, the development of cataract is a significant concern because its treatment may lead to loss of intraocular pressure (IOP) control. This review aims to highlight the intra- and postoperative measures that may increase the chances of bleb survival following cataract surgery. How to cite this article: Dada T, Bhartiya S, Baig NB. Cataract Surgery in Eyes with Previous Glaucoma Surgery: Pearls and Pitfalls. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3):99-105.
Kim, Hyeong Min; Lee, Byung Joo; Kim, Jeong Hun
Purpose To evaluate the long-term visual outcomes and complications of cataract surgery in eyes previously treated for retinoblastoma. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation at Seoul National University Children's Hospital for a secondary cataract that developed after retinoblastoma treatment. Results During the period between 1990 and 2014, 208 eyes of 147 patients received eye-salvaging treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and local therapy) for retinoblastoma at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Among these eyes, a secondary cataract was detected in 17 eyes of 14 patients, and five eyes of five patients underwent cataract surgery. The median age of cataract formation was 97 months (range, 38 to 153 months). The medial interval between the diagnosis of retinoblastoma and cataract formation was 79 months (range, 29 to 140 months). All patients received posterior chamber intraocular lens insertion after irrigation and aspiration of the lens through a scleral tunnel incision. Anterior vitrectomy and posterior capsulotomy were performed in two eyes and a laser capsulotomy was subsequently performed in one eye. No intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred. The median follow-up after surgery was 36 months (range, 14 to 47 months). The final best corrected visual acuities were improved in all five eyes. No intraocular tumor recurrences or metastases occurred. Conclusions After retinoblastoma regression, cataract extraction in our series was not associated with tumor recurrence or metastasis. Visual improvement was noted in every patient. PMID:28243024
Ali, Muhammad Hassaan; Javaid, Mamoona; Jamal, Samreen; Butt, Nadeem Hafeez
The purpose of this article is to analyze and understand the mechanism of action, effectiveness, cost and time benefits, advantages and disadvantages of the femtosecond laser (FSL) assisted cataract surgery. A PubMed search was done using the topic and the keywords. Research shows considerable improvements in corneal incisions, anterior capsulotomy, and phacofragmentation using FSL. We will also discuss and compare FSL with conventional cataract extraction techniques in terms of both short-term and long-term advantages and disadvantages. Limitations of the studies reviewed include small sample size and short-term follow-up. The major dilemma is still considered to be its heavy financial feasibility to date. PMID:26903717
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF.
Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma
A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF. PMID:25370401
Vaidyanathan, K.; Limburg, H.; Foster, A.; Pandey, R. M.
Cataract is a major cause of blindness in Asia. Efforts in India to provide cataract surgical services have had limited success in reaching the cataract-blind population. Earlier studies identified the major barriers to cataract surgery as poverty, lack of transportation or felt need, or sex related; and the critical barriers in rural areas as lack of awareness, difficult access, and cost. Compared with these earlier data, the results of the present study in Karnataka State indicate a shift in the character of the barriers. They now appear to be more related to case selection and service provision. These shifts are analysed and alternative strategies to increase the uptake to cataract surgery are recommended. PMID:10083707
Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald
Older adults who undergo cataract extraction have roughly half the rate of motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement per mile driven compared to cataract patients who do not elect cataract surgery. Currently in the U.S., most insurers do not allow payment for cataract surgery based upon the findings of a vision exam unless accompanied by an individual's complaint of visual difficulties that seriously interfere with driving or other daily activities and individuals themselves may be slow or reluctant to complain and seek relief. As a consequence, surgery tends to occur after significant vision problems have emerged. We hypothesize that a proactive policy encouraging cataract surgery earlier for a lesser level of complaint would significantly reduce MVCs among older drivers. We used a Monte Carlo model to simulate the MVC experience of the U.S. population from age 60 to 89 under alternative protocols for the timing of cataract surgery which we call "Current Practice" (CP) and "Earlier Surgery" (ES). Our base model finds, from a societal perspective with undiscounted 2010 dollars, that switching to ES from CP reduces by about 21% the average number of MVCs, fatalities, and MVC cost per person. The net effect on total cost - all MVC costs plus cataract surgery expenditures - is a reduction of about 16%. Quality Adjusted Life Years would increase by about 5%. From the perspective of payers for healthcare, the switch would increase cataract surgery expenditure for ages 65+ by about 8% and for ages 60-64 by about 47% but these expenditures are substantially offset after age 65 by reductions in the medical and emergency services component of MVC cost. Similar results occur with discounting at 3% and with various sensitivity analyses. We conclude that a policy of ES would significantly reduce MVCs and their associated consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kearns, James T; Gundeti, Mohan S
We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide.
Kearns, James T.; Gundeti, Mohan S.
We seek to provide a background of the current state of pediatric urologic surgery including a brief history, procedural outcomes, cost considerations, future directions, and the state of robotic surgery in India. Pediatric robotic urology has been shown to be safe and effective in cases ranging from pyeloplasty to bladder augmentation with continent urinary diversion. Complication rates are in line with other methods of performing the same procedures. The cost of robotic surgery continues to decrease, but setting up pediatric robotic urology programs can be costly in terms of both monetary investment and the training of robotic surgeons. The future directions of robot surgery include instrument and system refinements, augmented reality and haptics, and telesurgery. Given the large number of children in India, there is huge potential for growth of pediatric robotic urology in India. Pediatric robotic urologic surgery has been established as safe and effective, and it will be an important tool in the future of pediatric urologic surgery worldwide. PMID:25197187
Priglinger, Siegfried G; Palanker, Daniel; Alge, Claudia S; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Haritoglou, Christos; Grueterich, Martin; Kampik, Anselm
Background The pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK‐fc) is a new pulsed electrosurgical device that allows for precise, “cold” and traction‐free tissue dissection. Aim To evaluate the surgical applicability, safety and potential complications of PEAK‐fc in complicated cataract surgery. Methods The study included five children with congenital cataracts, two patients with advanced senile cataracts, six adults with mature cataracts, three of them with posterior iris synechia, three patients with post‐traumatic cataracts with zonulolysis, one patient with intumescent traumatic cataract and three patients with massive anterior capsule opacification. Anterior and posterior capsulotomies, iris synechiolysis, dissection of anterior capsule opacification and fibrotic scar tissue were performed. PEAK‐fc was set at voltages of 500–700 V, pulse duration of 0.1 m and repetition rate of 40–100 Hz. Results Anterior and posterior capsulotomies were successfully and safely performed in all eyes. The edges of capsulotomies appeared sharp, showing only limited collateral damage. PEAK‐fc worked best by just gently touching the capsule, thereby avoiding tractional forces or pressure on the lens capsule. Posterior iris synechiae could be released and anterior capsule opacification was dissected without complications. Conclusions PEAK‐fc is a very helpful cutting device for complicated cases of cataract surgery, especially for mature and congenital cataracts, traumatic zonulolysis or anterior segment complications after intraocular inflammation. PMID:17229798
Stein, Joshua D.; Grossman, Daniel S.; Mundy, Kevin M.; Sugar, Alan; Sloan, Frank A.
Purpose To determine rates and risk factors associated with severe post-operative complications following cataract surgery and whether they have been changing over the past decade. Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort study Participants 221,594 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent cataract surgery during 1994–2006. Methods Beneficiaries were stratified into 3 cohorts, those who underwent initial cataract surgery during 1994-5, 1999–2000, or 2005-6. One year rates of post-operative severe adverse events (endophthalmitis, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, retinal detachment) were determined for each cohort. Cox regression analyses determined the hazard of developing severe adverse events for each cohort with adjustment for demographic factors, ocular and medical conditions, and surgeon case-mix. Main Outcome Measures Time period rates of development of severe post-operative adverse events. Results Among the 221,594 individuals who underwent cataract surgery, 0.5% (1,086) had at least one severe post-operative complication. After adjustment for confounders, individuals who underwent cataract surgery during 1994-5 had a 21% increased hazard of being diagnosed with a severe post-operative complication (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.21; [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.41]) relative to individuals who underwent cataract surgery during 2005-6. Those who underwent cataract surgery during 1999–2000 had a 20% increased hazard of experiencing a severe complication (HR: 1.20 [95% CI: 1.04–1.39]) relative to the 2005-6 cohort. Risk factors associated with severe adverse events include a prior diagnosis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (HR: 1.62 [95% CI: 1.07–2.45]) and cataract surgery combined with another intraocular surgical procedure on the same day (HR: 2.51 [95% CI: 2.07–3.04]). Individuals receiving surgery by surgeons with the case-mix least prone to developing a severe adverse event (HR: 0.52 [95% CI: 0.44–0.62]) had a 48% reduced hazard of a severe
Demirci, Goktug; Karabaş, Levent; Maral, Hale; Ozdek, Şengül; Gülkılık, Gökhan
Purpose: Intense inflammation after cataract surgery can cause cystoid macular edema, posterior synechia and posterior capsule opacification. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of air bubble on inflammation when given to anterior chamber of rabbit eyes after cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: 30 eyes of 15 rabbits were enrolled in the study. One of the two eyes was in the study group and the other eye was in the control group. After surgery air bubble was given to the anterior chamber of the study group eye and balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon) was left in the anterior chamber of control eye. Results: On the first, second, fourth and fifth days, anterior chamber inflammations of the eyes were examined by biomicroscopy. On the sixth day anterior chamber fluid samples were taken for evaluation of nitric oxide levels as an inflammation marker. When the two groups were compared, in the air bubble group there was statistically less inflammation was seen. (1, 2, 4. days P = 0,001, and 5. day P = 0,009). Conclusions: These results have shown that when air bubble is left in anterior chamber of rabbits’ eyes after cataract surgery, it reduced inflammation. We believe that, air bubble in the anterior chamber may be more beneficial in the cataract surgery of especially pediatric age group, uveitis patients and diabetics where we see higher inflammation. However, greater and long termed experimental and clinical studies are necessary for more accurate findings. PMID:23571264
Demirci, Goktug; Karabas, Levent; Maral, Hale; Ozdek, Sengul; Gülkilik, Gokhan
Intense inflammation after cataract surgery can cause cystoid macular edema, posterior synechia and posterior capsule opacification. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of air bubble on inflammation when given to anterior chamber of rabbit eyes after cataract surgery. 30 eyes of 15 rabbits were enrolled in the study. One of the two eyes was in the study group and the other eye was in the control group. After surgery air bubble was given to the anterior chamber of the study group eye and balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon) was left in the anterior chamber of control eye. On the first, second, fourth and fifth days, anterior chamber inflammations of the eyes were examined by biomicroscopy. On the sixth day anterior chamber fluid samples were taken for evaluation of nitric oxide levels as an inflammation marker. When the two groups were compared, in the air bubble group there was statistically less inflammation was seen. (1, 2, 4. days P = 0,001, and 5. day P = 0,009). These results have shown that when air bubble is left in anterior chamber of rabbits' eyes after cataract surgery, it reduced inflammation. We believe that, air bubble in the anterior chamber may be more beneficial in the cataract surgery of especially pediatric age group, uveitis patients and diabetics where we see higher inflammation. However, greater and long termed experimental and clinical studies are necessary for more accurate findings.
Haldipurkar, S S; Shikari, Hasanain T; Gokhale, Vishwanath
The basis of manual small incision cataract surgery is the tunnel construction for entry to the anterior chamber. The parameters important for the structural integrity of the tunnel are the self-sealing property of the tunnel, the location of the wound on the sclera with respect to the limbus, and the shape of the wound. Cataract surgery has gone beyond just being a means to get the lens out of the eye. Postoperative astigmatism plays an important role in the evaluation of final outcome of surgery. Astigmatic consideration, hence, forms an integral part of incisional considerations prior to surgery. PMID:19075401
... Names Cataract extraction; Cataract surgery Patient Instructions Bathroom safety - adults Cataracts - what to ask your doctor Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Images Eye Slit-lamp exam Cataract - close-up of the eye Cataract ...
Fernández Jiménez-Ortiz, H; Puy Gallego, P; Toledano Fernández, N; Fernández Escamez, C S; Reche Sainz, J A
To study the relationship between refraction after cataract surgery and the use of spectacles in patients older than 65 years. Retrospective case control study. The study included 40 retired subjects older than 65 years-old who fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Clinical ophthalmic and optical information was collected, and patients were requested to complete a validated questionnaire of visual function (VF14) and a test of independence of spectacles. The difference between VF14 test results with and without glasses (difVF14) was calculated. The study included 16 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 74 years. There was a significant correlation between difVF14 and postoperative refraction, with lower difVF14 values associated with postsurgical refraction in the range -0.50 to -1.00 D (OD 0.479 [95% CI; 0.286-0.804]). The questionnaire of independency of lenses did not show significant correlation with postoperative refraction. Patients with postsurgical refraction between -0.50 and -1.00 diopters displayed better visual function without glasses than those with refraction out of that range. Neutral distant refraction and positive lenses for near vision might not be the ideal solution for every patient. Postsurgical refraction should be individualized for each patient according to their personal preferences, in order to achieve the best visual function and the best vision-related quality of life. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Recent advances in pediatric surgery have been made in several fields. Hydrocephalus is again being treated by draining the cerebrospinal fluid into either the ureter, the mastoid antrum or the peritoneal cavity. Funnel chest should be corrected surgically. Congenital atresia of the esophagus is best treated by a one-stage operative repair. Patent ductus should be closed. Operations are available for cyanotic children. Intussusception is again being treated by barium enema in selected cases. Megacolon can be benefited by surgical procedures, which now are directed at the distal spastic segment rather than the proximal dilated segment. PMID:13009476
... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Cataracts Sections What Are Cataracts? Cataract Symptoms Who Is ... Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? What Are Cataracts? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Elena M ...
Shrestha, U D; Shrestha, M K
The aim of the study was to determine the average axial length reading of the bilateral pediatric cataract undergoing cataract surgery. Pre-operative axial length measurement was done in 80 children below 15 years who had bilateral pediatric cataract. Axial length measurement was done in 56 fellow eyes. The axial length was measured under general anesthesia with the Accutome A-scan. The mean age was 69.7 months (SD=52.6), range from one month to 168 months. The mean axial length reading was 21.3 mm in operated eyes and 21.1 mm in fellow eyes. The range of axial length reading was 16.2 -31.5 mm in operated eyes and it was 16.5 -31.5 mm in fellow eyes. This short observation found that in bilateral pediatric cataract, the axial length value is similar in both operated and fellow eyes. Based on the axial length value of the operated eye, the patients with bilateral congenital cataract can undergo surgery in those eye hospitals where facilities of measurement of axial length is not available.
Gogate, P; Parbhoo, D; Ramson, P; Budhoo, R; Øverland, L; Mkhize, N; Naidoo, K; Levine, S; du Bryn, A; Benjamin, L
To study the visual outcomes of congenital and developmental cataract surgery and determine variables for presentation for pediatric cataract surgery in KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. Care-givers of children presenting with cataract to a quaternary centre were asked when they first detected the condition. The reasons for delay between detection and surgery were studied. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination and then appropriate surgery. They were prospectively followed up for 3 months and visual acuity and stereopsis were noted. Delay in presentation for surgery and visual outcomes were co-related with demographic and clinical factors. Eighty-three non-traumatic cataract surgeries in 50 children were studied. Twenty-six (52%) were males, mean age was 3 years 10 months (SD 3yrs 4 months). The mean delay between identification and surgery was 20.7 months (SD 18 months). Twenty-six (52%) children had >15 months interval between diagnosis and surgery. Only mother's occupation was significantly associated with delay (P=0.017). Post-surgery 17/69 (24.7%) had visual acuity ≥6/18, 20/69 (29.0%) had vision between 6/24-6/60, whereas 32/69 (46.3%) had visual acuity ≤6/60. The final vision was associated with age (P=0.031), delay between diagnosis and surgery (P<0.001), type of surgery (P=0.046) and preoperative vision (P<0.001). Although the children's vision improved substantially, a longer follow-up and amblyopia treatment would be necessary to optimize the visual outcome, which depended on age and preoperative vision. Health promotion activities aimed at mothers are important in improving visual outcomes.
Gogate, P; Parbhoo, D; Ramson, P; Budhoo, R; Øverland, L; Mkhize, N; Naidoo, K; Levine, S; du Bryn, A; Benjamin, L
Purpose To study the visual outcomes of congenital and developmental cataract surgery and determine variables for presentation for pediatric cataract surgery in KwaZulu Natal province of South Africa. Methods Care-givers of children presenting with cataract to a quaternary centre were asked when they first detected the condition. The reasons for delay between detection and surgery were studied. The children underwent a comprehensive eye examination and then appropriate surgery. They were prospectively followed up for 3 months and visual acuity and stereopsis were noted. Delay in presentation for surgery and visual outcomes were co-related with demographic and clinical factors. Results Eighty-three non-traumatic cataract surgeries in 50 children were studied. Twenty-six (52%) were males, mean age was 3 years 10 months (SD 3yrs 4 months). The mean delay between identification and surgery was 20.7 months (SD 18 months). Twenty-six (52%) children had >15 months interval between diagnosis and surgery. Only mother's occupation was significantly associated with delay (P=0.017). Post-surgery 17/69 (24.7%) had visual acuity ≥6/18, 20/69 (29.0%) had vision between 6/24–6/60, whereas 32/69 (46.3%) had visual acuity ≤6/60. The final vision was associated with age (P=0.031), delay between diagnosis and surgery (P<0.001), type of surgery (P=0.046) and preoperative vision (P<0.001). Conclusion Although the children's vision improved substantially, a longer follow-up and amblyopia treatment would be necessary to optimize the visual outcome, which depended on age and preoperative vision. Health promotion activities aimed at mothers are important in improving visual outcomes. PMID:26611841
Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M
We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, P<001. The decrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Martin, Aifric Isabel; Sutton, Gerard; Hodge, Christopher
Cataracts have been in public consciousness since ancient times. Throughout the ages, the comfort of established practices, at times, has obstructed the implementation of improved policies. The opposition to lensectomy, hygiene practices, intraocular lenses, and phacoemulsification (phaco) are explored. As femtosecond laser cataract surgery attempts to secure a foothold in cataract treatment, we consider whether it is destined to be a forgotten footnote or if, like other contributions to the history books, the difficulties of establishing a new technique are abstracting the benefits represented.
Draganić, Vladimir; Vukosavljević, Miroslav; Milivojević, Milorad; Resan, Mirko; Petrović, Nenad
Cataract surgery has become one of the safest procedures in medicine thanks to advances in technology and surgical techniques. Although minimal, we still witness different complications. The aim of this study was to compare visual outcome and complication rate in different techniques of cataract surgery, ie in cataract surgeries with various corneal incision width. The study included 3,457 consecutive patients, ie 4,670 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery. The used surgical techniques were: extracapsular cataract extraction, phacoemulsification/forceps IOL implantation, phacoemulsification/injector IOL implantation, microincision cataract surgery (MICS). Patient follow up was 6 months. Patients were evaluated for: visual aquity, corneal astigmatism, cellular reaction in the anterior chamber, IOL position. Uncorrected visual aquity 30 days postoperatively was > or = 0.5 in 30% of the eyes - ECCE; 54.7% of the eyes - phacoemulsification/forceps IOL implantation; 63.0% of the eyes - phacoemulsification/injector IOL implantation; 5/8 of the eyes - MICS. Endophthalmitis was detected in 0.15% of the eyes - ECCE and 0.1% of the eyes - phacoemulsification/forceps IOL implantation. In eyes with phacoemulsification/injector IOL implantation or microincision cataract surgery (MICS) there were no cases of endophthalmitis. After a 6-month period intraocular lens were dislocated in 7.2% of the eyes - ECCE, and 0.6% of the eyes - phacoemulsification/PMMA IOL. There was no IOL dislocation in other surgical techniques. Shorter corneal incision implies less complications, less operative trauma, faster visual rehabilitation and better visual outcome.
Patel, Chirag; Kim, Stephen Jae; Chomsky, Amy; Saboori, Mazeyar
To determine the incidence of and associated risk factors for uveitis after cataract surgery. A total of 17,757 eyes were identified and records of 42 eyes that developed uveitis and 2320 eyes that did not were reviewed. Postsurgical uveitis was defined as persistent inflammation for ≥ 6 months after surgery. Forty-two eyes of 35 patients developed uveitis (0.24%). Eleven patients underwent consecutive cataract surgery but developed unilateral uveitis, and intraoperative complications occurred in 55% of uveitic eyes compared to 0% in fellow eyes (p < 0.05). Median duration of inflammation was 8 and 11.5 months in eyes with and without vitrectomy (p < 0.05). Intraocular complications occurred in 44 and 8.3% of eyes that did and did not develop uveitis, respectively (p = 0.01). Postsurgical uveitis developed after approximately 1 in 400 cataract surgeries and occurred more frequently in eyes experiencing intraoperative complications.
Girard, B; Chouard, B; Hardy, F
Cataract surgery for 50 Alzheimer patients (55 eyes). Cinquante Alzheimer's patients with 0≤MMS≤25, with bilateral disabling cataracts were included for surgery. The surgical technique is analyzed. The preoperative examination of Alzheimer's patients is time consuming and requires experience in this area, which is important to integrate into the practice of ophthalmology. The type of cataract is unusual, with a predilection for pseudoexfoliation syndrome and zonular fragility that has to be managed during surgery. The procedure may be performed under local anesthesia. Three months after surgery, Alzheimer's patients demonstrated improved visual acuity (P<0.001) with no worsening of their dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Kaliaperumal, Subashini; Deb, Amit Kumar; Babu, K. Ramesh; Srinivasan, Renuka
We report a case of bimatoprost induced serous macular detachment and choroidal folds following uneventful cataract surgery. A 66-year-old male using topical bimatoprost in both eyes for open angle glaucoma underwent uneventful cataract surgery in the right eye. Postoperatively, he was restarted on topical bimatoprost and antibiotic-steroids combination drops. One week after surgery, he presented with conjunctival hyperemia, serous macular detachment, and choroidal folds at the posterior pole. Fundus fluorescein angiography showed perifoveal leaks in early stage with pooling of dye in late stage. Discontinuation of bimatoprost led to resolution of serous detachment and choroidal folds within 3 weeks with significant improvement in visual acuity. Occurrence of serous macular detachment and choroidal folds in this case could be probably related to the proinflammatory property of bimatoprost. Hence, it should be used with caution in the immediate postoperative period after cataract surgery. PMID:27957367
Hakenová, J; Rozsíval, P
The authors investigate in a retrospective study complications of cataract operations which were performed in their department during the last 2.5 years by vitreoretinal surgery. They divided the operations into three basic groups: retinal detachment, luxation of the lens into the vitreous body and endophthalmitis. The largest group was formed by pseudophakic detachments--0.29% of operated cataracts. Luxation of the lens into the vitreous body and endophthalmitis treated by vitrectomy accounted for 0.06% each of operated cataracts. In the first part of the paper the authors analyze peroperative complications of cataract surgery, risk factors enhancing the risk of retinal detachment and evaluate anatomical and functional results of operations of pseudophakic retinal detachments. Peroperative rupture of the posterior capsule before cataract surgery was found in 63.6% of pseudophakic detachments, anterior vitrectomy was performed in 40%, YAG capsulotomy preceded the development of detachments in 13.3% of patients. The retina was applied in 76.4% of the eyes. Functional improvement was recorded in 65.8%, deterioration in 15.6% and an unaltered function after surgery was recorded in 18.6% eyes.
Cameron, J A; Huaman, A
An 82-year-old man had pain and decreased vision in his right eye 15 months after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Examination revealed a large corneoscleral abscess with a 2 mm x 1 mm area of fluorescein staining at the base of a broken protruding 10-0 nylon suture. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from both the suture and base of the ulcer. Despite intensive topical, subconjunctival, and systemic antibiotics, a large corneal perforation developed, necessitating a 10 mm tectonic penetrating keratoplasty. Long-term follow-up of patients after cataract surgery is important and should include an inspection of the limbal wound and removal of loose or broken exposed sutures. Suture-related complications will be eliminated if clinical studies prove the safety and efficacy of sutureless cataract surgery.
Skiadaresi, Eirini; McAlinden, Colm; Pesudovs, Konrad; Polizzi, Silvio; Khadka, Jyoti; Ravalico, Giuseppe
To investigate the effect of cataract surgery on subjective quality of vision. The Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire (Italian translation) was completed before and 3 months after cataract surgery in 4 groups of patients recruited from September through December 2010: first eye with ocular comorbidity, first eye without ocular comorbidity, second eye with ocular comorbidity, and second eye without ocular comorbidity. The questionnaire measures 3 aspects of quality of vision: frequency, severity, and bothersome nature of symptoms. The Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III was used for cataract grading. Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were performed to compare QoV scores within and between groups. Spearman rank correlations (rs) were calculated to investigate the correlation between LOCS III and QoV symptoms. Two hundred twelve patients (mean [SD] age, 74.2 [8.7] years) were recruited, and 212 eyes were included in the study. Improvements in QoV scores were found in all 4 groups (P < .05). There were no statistically significant (P > .05) differences among the 4 groups in the improvement in QoV scores or in the preoperative or postoperative scores. Blurred vision was correlated with posterior subcapsular cataract (rs = 0.420, P = .04). Cataract in one or both eyes causes a similar loss in subjective quality of vision, which is also irrespective of the presence of ocular comorbidity. Posterior subcapsular cataract causes the specific symptom "blurred vision." Cataract surgery resulted in a large and comparable improvement in subjective quality of vision, regardless of ocular comorbidity and first or second eye surgery.
Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu
Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165
Lundström, Mats; Barry, Peter; Henry, Ype; Rosen, Paul; Stenevi, Ulf
In March 2008, the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery (EUREQUO) commenced. This 3-year project was cofunded by the European Union (EU) and the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS). The ESCRS became the lead partner in the project with 11 national societies as associated partners. The aims of the project were to improve treatment and standards of care for cataract and refractive surgery and to develop evidence-based guidelines for cataract and refractive surgery across Europe. Surgeons from all participating societies contributed to the database, which contained data on 820,000 cataract surgeries in November 2011. The present guidelines are based on data entered from January 1, 2009, to August 28, 2011 (523,921 cataract extractions). The guidelines include only those steps in the cataract surgery process that can be analyzed by the database. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lundström, Mats; Barry, Peter; Henry, Ype; Rosen, Paul; Stenevi, Ulf
To analyze the visual outcome after cataract surgery. Cataract surgery clinics in 15 European countries. Database study. Data were drawn from case series of cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for Cataract and Refractive Surgery database. These data were entered into the database via the Web by surgeons or by transfer from existing national registries or electronic medical record systems. The database contains individual anonymous data on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative measurements. Data on 368,256 cataract extractions were available for analysis. The best visual outcome was achieved in age groups 40 to 74 years, and men showed a higher percentage of excellent vision (1.0 [20/20] or better) than women. A corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) of 0.5 (20/40) or better and of 1.0 (20/20) or better was achieved in 94.3% and 61.3% of cases, respectively. Ocular comorbidity and postoperative complications were the strongest influences on the visual outcome; however, surgical complications and ocular changes requiring complex surgery also had a negative influence. Deterioration of visual acuity after the surgery (n= 6112 [1.7% of all cases]) was most common in patients with a good preoperative visual acuity. The visual outcomes of cataract surgery were excellent, with 61.3% of patients achieving a corrected distance visual acuity of 1.0 (20/20) or better. Age and sex influenced the visual outcomes, but the greatest influences were short-term postoperative complications, ocular comorbidity, surgical complications, and complex surgery. A weakness of the study could be that some of the data is self-reported to the registry. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dhallu, Sandeep K; Maurino, Vincenzo; Wilkins, Mark R
Objectives To describe the initial outcomes following installation of a cataract surgery laser system. Setting National Health Service cataract surgery day care unit in North London, UK. Participants 158 eyes of 150 patients undergoing laser-assisted cataract surgery. Interventions Laser cataract surgery using the AMO Catalys femtosecond laser platform. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome measure: intraoperative complications including anterior and posterior capsule tears. Secondary outcome measures: docking to the laser platform, successful treatment delivery, postoperative visual acuities. Results Mean case age was 67.7±10.8 years (range 29–88 years). Docking was successful in 94% (148/158 cases), and in 4% (6/148 cases) of these, the laser delivery was aborted part way during delivery due to patient movement. A total of 32 surgeons, of grades from junior trainee to consultant, performed the surgeries. Median case number per surgeon was 3 (range from 1–20). The anterior capsulotomy was complete in 99.3% of cases, there were no anterior capsule tears (0%). There were 3 cases with posterior capsule rupture requiring anterior vitrectomy, and 1 with zonular dialysis requiring anterior vitrectomy (4/148 eyes, 2.7%). These 4 cases were performed by trainee surgeons, and were either their first laser cataract surgery (2 surgeons) or their first and second laser cataract surgeries (1 surgeon). Conclusions Despite the learning curve, docking and laser delivery were successfully performed in almost all cases, and surgical complication rates and visual outcomes were similar to those expected based on national data. Complications were predominately confined to trainee surgeons, and with the exception of intraoperative pupil constriction appeared unrelated to the laser-performed steps. PMID:27466243
Kalantzis, George; Papaconstantinou, Dimitris; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Koutsandrea, Chryssanthi; Stavropoulou, Dora; Georgalas, Ilias
Diplopia is an infrequent but distressing adverse outcome after uncomplicated cataract surgery. Many factors may contribute to the occurrence of this problem, including prolonged sensory deprivation resulting in disruption of sensory fusion, paresis of one or more extraocular muscles, myotoxic effects of local anaesthesia, optical aberrations (for example, aniseikonia) and pre-existing disorders (for example, thyroid orbitopathy). The purpose of this review is to present the aetiology and clinical features of diplopia after cataract surgery and to discuss the possible modalities for the prevention and treatment of this frustrating complication.
Hyun, Dong Won; Cho, Sung Won
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of unilateral scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (SF-PCIOLs) in pediatric complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support. Methods This study involved five eyes of five children who underwent unilateral SF-PCIOL. All patients had a unilateral complicated traumatic cataract associated with anterior or posterior segment injury. Visual acuity (VA), IOL position, and postoperative complications were assessed during follow-up. Results The mean age of patients at the time of SF-PCIOL was 90 months (range, 66-115). The mean duration of follow-up time after surgery was 22 months (range, 5-55). In all patients, the best-corrected VA was either improved or was stable at last follow-up following SF-PCIOL implantation. There were no serious complications. Conclusions Unilateral scleral fixation of PCIOL can be a safe and effective procedure for pediatric, unilateral, complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support in selected cases. PMID:19794939
Javadiyan, Shari; Craig, Jamie E; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Sharma, Shiwani; Lower, Karen M; Mackey, David A; Staffieri, Sandra E; Elder, James E; Taranath, Deepa; Straga, Tania; Black, Joanna; Pater, John; Casey, Theresa; Hewitt, Alex W; Burdon, Kathryn P
Pediatric cataract is a leading cause of childhood blindness. This study aimed to determine the genetic cause of pediatric cataract in Australian families by screening known disease-associated genes using massively parallel sequencing technology. We sequenced 51 previously reported pediatric cataract genes in 33 affected individuals with a family history (cases with previously known or published mutations were excluded) using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Variants were prioritized for validation if they were predicted to alter the protein sequence and were absent or rare with minor allele frequency <1% in public databases. Confirmed mutations were assessed for segregation with the phenotype in all available family members. All identified novel or previously reported cataract-causing mutations were screened in 326 unrelated Australian controls. We detected 11 novel mutations in GJA3, GJA8, CRYAA, CRYBB2, CRYGS, CRYGA, GCNT2, CRYGA, and MIP; and three previously reported cataract-causing mutations in GJA8, CRYAA, and CRYBB2 The most commonly mutated genes were those coding for gap junctions and crystallin proteins. Including previous reports of pediatric cataract-associated mutations in our Australian cohort, known genes account for >60% of familial pediatric cataract in Australia, indicating that still more causative genes remain to be identified. Copyright © 2017 Javadiyan et al.
Sapkota, Y D; Pokharel, G P; Nirmalan, P K; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M; Prakash, K
Himalaya Eye Hospital (HEH), established in 1993, is rendering eye care services in the Gandaki and Dhaulagiri zones. The hospital has extensive community outreach activities along with services for outpatients, emergencies, and subspecialties such as vitreoretinal, paediatric, and low vision. The operation theatre is well equipped to match the surgical needs including phaco surgery for cataract. The hospital has performed more than 14 000 cataract surgeries and 250 000 treatment services during this period. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage among the older adult population of three districts of Gandaki Zone, where 80% of the hospital's service recipients reside. People aged 45 years and older were enrolled in the study using a stratified cluster design. Subjects in 25 randomly selected clusters from the listed 806 were recruited through door to door visits. Each recruited subject had visual acuity (VA) and clinical examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. The survey was preceded by pre-pilot and pilot studies to refine the operational method. To assess quality assurance the interobserver variation in VA measurement was also carried out in five different clusters. Out of 5863 selected subjects 85.3% were examined. Blindness defined as presenting VA <6/60 in both eyes was found in 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 3.9), whereas 16.8% individuals examined had vision <6/19 in one or both eyes. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in 60.5%, and refractive error was the dominant cause of vision impairment (<6/19) 83.3%. Cataract surgical coverage was 59.5% among the cataract blind and associated with younger age, literacy, and male sex. The finding suggests a positive impact of the HEH programme on the prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical services in the survey area. Strategies to further improve access and utilisation of facilities and increase cataract
Kendrick, R; Kollarits, C R; Khan, N
When cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery are combined, the theoretical advantages of pressure control, removal of the visual impairment, and protection against an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the immediate postoperative period are gained. The authors' objective was to determine whether ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy (LTS) combined with cataract surgery would be as effective as trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery. Ab interno LTS was compared with trabeculectomy, retrospectively, for patients who had undergone combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. There was no significant difference in the numbers of patients using no medications or fewer medications at 6 and 12 months. There was a greater reduction in IOP in the LTS group. LTS may be better than trabeculectomy in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery because it reduces the IOP more. Compared with trabeculectomy, LTS is simpler to perform and adds less operating time to cataract surgery. Continued follow-up is recommended.
Limburg, H.; Foster, A.; Vaidyanathan, K.; Murthy, G. V.
Two simple methods of assessing visual outcome following cataract surgery were evaluated in India. The first used data obtained from standardized patient records of cataract surgery. The second used data from population-based rapid epidemiological assessments. Analysis of 4168 hospital and eye camp records showed that, with the available standard correction, a good outcome (visual acuity > or = 6/18) was achieved in 37.8%, a borderline outcome (visual acuity 6/246-6/60) in 45.6% and a poor outcome (visual acuity 6/60) in 16.6% of instances. Of 2401 aphakic/pseudophakic eyes examined in a cross-sectional population-based study, outcome was good in 43.5% and poor in 26.4%. For 776 eyes examined in a similar study in a different state, outcome was good in 49.9% and poor in 23.9%. These assessments indicate that outcome with available correction was poor in 15-25% of eyes following cataract surgery. Visual outcome is likely to improve when better correction for aphakia can be provided. Further assessment of the causes of poor visual outcome is needed. The visual outcome following cataract surgery could be monitored on a regular basis by ophthalmologists, using either of the methods evaluated, an exercise which in itself is likely to improve the outcome of surgery. When the proportion of poor outcomes is high (> 10%) further investigation into the causes is warranted. PMID:10427929
Desco, M C; Navea, A; Ferrer, E; Menezo, J L
To evaluate the effect of prophylactic brimonidine on bleeding complications after cataract surgery. The authors performed a prospective, double-masked, two-surgeon study of 137 patients (137 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation with or without prophylactic brimonidine before cataract surgery. The authors also compared the effect of brimonidine among patients with systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (types I and II), hypertension, and anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment. Subconjunctival hemorrhage was observed in 73.70% of the patients not treated with brimonidine before surgery and in only 23.75% of the patients who were given prophylactic brimonidine (p<0.001, chi2). The grade of hemorrhage was also statistically significant (p<0.001, Mann-Whitney). No statistically significant difference with regard to the presence of hemorrhage in diabetic patients or in the anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment group was observed. However, a statistically significant difference (p<0.027, chi2) was found between hypertensive patients treated and not treated with prophylactic brimonidine before cataract surgery. This study suggests that brimonidine administered before cataract surgery may significantly reduce subconjunctival hemorrhage in the general population. It has been shown to be beneficial in hypertensive patients. A strong statistical trend, but not significance has been found in diabetic patients or in patients treated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, but further studies are needed to reach conclusive results.
Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr; Moein, Hamid-Reza
Purpose To determine the clinical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty (PK), cataract removal and intraocular lens implantation (triple procedure), and to compare the safety and efficacy of two different cataract extraction techniques during the course of PK. Methods This retrospective comparative study was conducted on patients who had undergone a triple procedure. The technique of cataract extraction was either open- sky extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) or phacoemulsification (PE). In the ECCE group, the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) was implanted in the ciliary sulcus, while in the PE group PCIOLs were fixated within the capsular bag. Outcome measures included best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), refractive results, graft clarity and complications. Results Seventy-six eyes of 69 consecutive patients with mean age of 61.4±14.2 years were enrolled. Mean follow-up period was 61.4±37.2 months over which mean BSCVA was significantly improved from 1.40±0.68 to 0.44±0.33 LogMAR (P<0.001). Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error was -2.13±3.02 D, which significantly differed from the target refraction (-0.73±0.29 D, P=0.004). At final follow-up, 89.5% of the corneal grafts remained clear. Conclusion The triple procedure is a safe and effective approach to restore vision in patients with coexisting corneal pathologies and cataracts. However, unacceptable postoperative refractive error can be anticipated. PMID:23825711
Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Claoué, Charles
Immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) is currently a "hot topic" in ophthalmology. There are well-documented advantages in terms of quicker visual rehabilitation and reduced costs. The risk of bilateral simultaneous endophthalmitis and bilateral blindness is now recognized to be minuscule with the advent of intracameral antibiotics and modern management of endophthalmitis. Refractive surprises are rare for normal eyes and with the use of optical biometry. Where a general anesthetic is indicated for cataract surgery, the risk of death from a second anesthetic is much higher than the risk of blindness. A widely recognized protocol from the International Society of Bilateral Cataract Surgeons needs to be adhered to if surgeons wish to start practicing ISBCS.
Schwartz, Roy; Yatziv, Yossi
Purpose The aim of this study is to assess whether eye dominance may change after cataract surgery. Methods This is a prospective case series. Cataract surgery candidates were examined prior to surgery for best-corrected visual acuity, eye dominance, and handedness. Patients with ocular conditions that may affect visual acuity were excluded from the study. A month following surgery, best-corrected visual acuity and eye dominance examinations were repeated. Results The study included 33 patients with a mean age of 70.5±9.4 years. Eighteen patients (54.5%) had right eye dominance. Following surgery, seven patients (21.2%) had a change in eye dominance. The change in dominance was linked to improved visual acuity in the operated eye and to a younger age, although with no statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study reported in the literature to show that ocular dominance is a plastic characteristic following cataract surgeries. The results may change the importance given to eye dominance measurement prior to surgeries that rely on this examination, such as monovision surgeries. PMID:26715837
Maki, J; Kusakul, S; Morley, K; Sanguansak, T; Seddon, J; Hartung, L; Morley, M
To investigate visual and functional impact of glasses following cataract surgery in a high-volume cataract camp as measured by the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Visual Function Questionnaire (WHO/PBD-VFQ-20). Subjects were administered the WHO/PBD-VFQ three times: (1) preoperatively; (2) 3 months postoperatively, before glasses; and (3) 6 months postoperatively, after 3 months with glasses. Patients were given prescription glasses or +2.50 readers at the 3-month follow-up. 315 patients enrolled in the study; 113 patients had complete WHO/PBD-VFQ and visual acuity data from all three administrations. The mean preoperative visual acuity in the surgical eye was 20/327. Following cataract surgery but before glasses, visual acuity improved to 20/57. Total WHO/PBD-VFQ and subscale scores improved significantly at the 3-month point. With glasses, visual acuity improved to 20/43. Total WHO/PBD-VFQ scores did not change following glasses, although the overall and near vision subscales did improve significantly. Glasses were worn once per week or less in 56% of patients. Postoperative glasses result in modest improvements in visual acuity. Total WHO/PBD-VFQ scores did not change significantly following glasses, but the overall and near vision subscales did improve. The net beneficial effect of glasses was small relative to cataract surgery itself.
Michalska-Małecka, Katarzyna; Nowak, Mariusz; Gościniewicz, Piotr; Karpe, Jacek; Słowińska-Łożyńska, Ludmiła; Łypaczewska, Agnieszka; Romaniuk, Dorota
Aim The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation (IOL) for patients aged 90 years or older, whom we define as “very elderly.” Methods The study involved a total number of 122 patients (122 eyes) with senile cataracts. The mean age of patients was 91.2 ± 2.3 years (range 90–100 years old). Phacoemulsification (phaco) was done on 113 of 122 eyes, and 9 of 122 eyes had extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). Postoperative visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP) were analyzed on the first postoperative day, 3 months after surgery, and 6 months after surgery. Results Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in 100 of 122 eyes (82.0%). BCVA remained the same in 20 of 122 eyes (16.4%) and decreased in 2 of 122 eyes (1.6%), mainly because of coexisting age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The BCVA 3 months after surgery was ≥0.8 in 23 of 122 eyes (18.9%), between 0.5 and 0.7 in 28 of 122 eyes (22.3%), and between 0.2 and 0.4 in 33 of 122 eyes (27.1%). We found significant implications of cataract surgery on decreasing IOP in the studied group of patients suffering from glaucoma compared to the patients without glaucoma. Conclusion Advanced age is not a contraindication for cataract surgery. The results of the study showed that when systemic conditions are stable, both phaco and ECCE with IOL for very elderly patients are effective and safe. PMID:23966774
Gaskin, Gregory L; Pershing, Suzann; Cole, Tyler S; Shah, Nigam H
Purpose To quantify the relationship between aggregated preoperative risk factors and cataract surgery complications, as well as to build a model predicting outcomes on an individual-level—given a constellation of demographic, baseline, preoperative, and intraoperative patient characteristics. Setting Stanford Hospital and Clinics between 1994 and 2013. Design Retrospective cohort study Methods Patients age 40 or older who received cataract surgery between 1994 and 2013. Risk factors, complications, and demographic information were extracted from the Electronic Health Record (EHR), based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9) codes, Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes, drug prescription information, and text data mining using natural language processing. We used a bootstrapped least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model to identify highly-predictive variables. We built random forest classifiers for each complication to create predictive models. Results Our data corroborated existing literature on postoperative complications—including the association of intraoperative complications, complex cataract surgery, black race, and/or prior eye surgery with an increased risk of any postoperative complications. We also found a number of other, less well-described risk factors, including systemic diabetes mellitus, young age (<60 years old), and hyperopia as risk factors for complex cataract surgery and intra- and post-operative complications. Our predictive models based on aggregated outperformed existing published models. Conclusions The constellations of risk factors and complications described here can guide new avenues of research and provide specific, personalized risk assessment for a patient considering cataract surgery. The predictive capacity of our models can enable risk stratification of patients, which has utility as a teaching tool as well as informing quality/value-based reimbursements. PMID:26692059
Stevens, G; Long, B; Hamann, J M; Allen, R C
To assess the safety and efficacy of erbium:YAG laser-assisted cataract removal. A total of 15 patients underwent cataractous lens removal. All the patients had a visual acuity of 20/50 or worse secondary to senile cataract. The endothelial cell count was calculated preoperatively and at 6 weeks postoperatively. A 2.94-micron-wavelength erbium: YAG laser with a zirconium-fluoride fiber optic and silica tip was used to fracture and emulsify the nucleus. The erbium:YAG laser was chosen due to its high absorption in water, a primary component of a cataractous lens. The postoperative visual acuity was 20/30 or better in all the eyes that were treated with surgery. The endothelial cell loss at 3 months was 0% to 10%. No laser-related complications were noted. A conversion to an ultrasound surgical technique was utilized in six cases. Vitreous loss occurred in one case due to the posterior extension of an anterior capsulotomy tear. This study demonstrated the ability of an erbium:YAG laser system to safely and effectively emulsify the lens nucleus. Laser-assisted cataract surgery is a promising new clinical procedure.
Ma Quintana, José; Escobar, Antonio; Bilbao, Amaia
Background Consensus techniques have been used previously to create explicit criteria to prioritize cataract extraction; however, the appropriateness of the intervention was not included explicitly in previous studies. We developed a prioritization tool for cataract extraction according to the RAND method. Methods Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgment process. A panel of 11 ophthalmologists was assembled. Ratings were analyzed regarding the level of agreement among panelists. We studied the effect of all variables on the final panel score using general linear and logistic regression models. Priority scoring systems were developed by means of optimal scaling and general linear models. The explicit criteria developed were summarized by means of regression tree analysis. Results Eight variables were considered to create the indications. Of the 310 indications that the panel evaluated, 22.6% were considered high priority, 52.3% intermediate priority, and 25.2% low priority. Agreement was reached for 31.9% of the indications and disagreement for 0.3%. Logistic regression and general linear models showed that the preoperative visual acuity of the cataractous eye, visual function, and anticipated visual acuity postoperatively were the most influential variables. Alternative and simple scoring systems were obtained by optimal scaling and general linear models where the previous variables were also the most important. The decision tree also shows the importance of the previous variables and the appropriateness of the intervention. Conclusion Our results showed acceptable validity as an evaluation and management tool for prioritizing cataract extraction. It also provides easy algorithms for use in clinical practice. PMID:16512893
Girard, B; Chouard, B; Levy, P; Luquel, L; Seux, M-L; Drunat, O
Evaluation of neuropsychological benefits of cataract surgery for 46 Alzheimer patients on the basis of neuropsychiatric index (NPI), as the principal criterion of analysis of the VIVA study. Prospective, monocentric neuropsychiatric study, performed from 2005 to 2011. All Alzheimer's patients with 10
Moschini, V; Dabrowska, D; Iorno, V
Retrospective study in patients undergoing cataract surgery by facoemulsification in order to evaluate the incidence of regional peribulbar anaesthesia compared with MAC (Monitored Anesthesia Care). Between January 1999 and December 2000, 1902 patients were studied. Peribulbar anaesthesia was performed by using a double or single inferior-lateral injection with a mixture of Lidocaine 2% and Bupivacaine 0.5% or, as a single agent, of Ropivacaine 0.75%. Jaluronydase 10 UI/ml was added to either agents. Only in 8% of patients intravenous drugs were added during surgery to correct bradycardia in 3%, hypertension 3% and for sedation in 2%. Regional anesthesia represents the most suitable anesthesia technique in patients undergoing cataract surgery by facoemulsification. Only in 8% of patients MAC was suitable, due to excessive anxiety or cardiovascular imbalance. Compared to other anesthesia techniques, regional anaesthesia is significantly safer. The utility of preoperative tests in reducing the morbidity associated with surgery, is also discussed.
Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Valaguru, Vijayakumar; Frick, Kevin D
Purpose: Literature investigating barriers to cataract surgery is mostly done from the patient's point of view. However, many medical decisions are jointly taken by household members, especially in developing countries such as India. We investigated from the household head's (or representative's) perspective, households’ view on those not willing to undergo cataract surgery along with the economic and social factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of four randomly selected village clusters in rural areas of Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India, was conducted to elicit the willingness to pay for cataract surgery by presenting “scenarios” that included having or not having free surgery available. The presentation of scenarios allowed the identification of respondents who were unwilling to undergo surgery. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships between economic and social factors and unwillingness to undergo cataract surgery. Results: Of the 1271 respondents, 49 (3.85%) were not willing to undergo surgery if they or their family members have cataract even if free surgery were available. In the regression results, those with good understanding of cataract and its treatment were less likely to be unwilling to undergo cataract surgery. Those not reporting household income were more likely to be unwilling to undergo cataract surgery. Conclusions: As a good understanding of cataract was an important predictor of willingness to undergo cataract surgery, health education on cataract and its intervention can improve uptake. PMID:26458477
Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Valaguru, Vijayakumar; Frick, Kevin D
Literature investigating barriers to cataract surgery is mostly done from the patient's point of view. However, many medical decisions are jointly taken by household members, especially in developing countries such as India. We investigated from the household head's (or representative's) perspective, households' view on those not willing to undergo cataract surgery along with the economic and social factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey of four randomly selected village clusters in rural areas of Theni district, Tamil Nadu, India, was conducted to elicit the willingness to pay for cataract surgery by presenting "scenarios" that included having or not having free surgery available. The presentation of scenarios allowed the identification of respondents who were unwilling to undergo surgery. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships between economic and social factors and unwillingness to undergo cataract surgery. Of the 1271 respondents, 49 (3.85%) were not willing to undergo surgery if they or their family members have cataract even if free surgery were available. In the regression results, those with good understanding of cataract and its treatment were less likely to be unwilling to undergo cataract surgery. Those not reporting household income were more likely to be unwilling to undergo cataract surgery. As a good understanding of cataract was an important predictor of willingness to undergo cataract surgery, health education on cataract and its intervention can improve uptake.
Park, Yuli; Hwang, Hyung Bin; Kim, Hyun Seung
Introduction To evaluate meibomian gland function, changes of lacrimal tears and ocular surface parameters and tear inflammatory mediators following cataract surgery. Methods 48 eyes of 34 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification were involved and divided into 2 groups with those who had preexisting dry-eye before cataract surgery and those who did not. Ocular symptom score, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal sensitivity threshold, corneal staining, inflammatory cytokine activities, lid margin abnormalities, meibum expressibility, meibum quality and meibomian gland imaging were evaluated preoperatively, at 1 day, 1 and 2 months postoperatively. Results Ocular symptom scores were worse at 1 and 2 months postoperatively but, TBUT, corneal staining score and corneal sensitivity threshold showed gradual improvements at 1 month and 2 months postoperatively (p<0.05, respectively). Interestingly there were statistically significant improvements in TBUT, corneal staining score and corneal sensitivity threshold at 1 month postoperatively when topical eye drops were used compared to the period without topical therapy which is the months 2 postoperatively. There were statistically significant decreases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations at 1 and 2 months postoperatively. Lid margin abnormalities, meibum quality and expressibility scores increased significantly (p < 0.05, respectively) at postoperative period. Compared with the no dry eye group, dry eye group revealed significantly higher ocular symptom scores, lower TBUT, higher lid margin abnormalities, meibum quality and expressibility scores after cataract surgery. There were significant correlations between IL-6 and parameters of dry eye, and between MGD parameters and ocular symptom scores. Conclusions Our study revealed that meibomian gland function is influenced after cataract surgery accompanying structural changes and these were correlated with
Turalba, Angela; Payal, Abhishek R; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Chomsky, Amy S; Vollman, David E; Baze, Elizabeth F; Lawrence, Mary; Daly, Mary K
To compare visual acuity outcomes, vision-related quality of life, and complications related to cataract surgery in eyes with and without glaucoma. Retrospective cohort study. Cataract surgery outcomes in cases with and without glaucoma from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project were compared. We identified 608 glaucoma cases and 4306 controls undergoing planned cataract surgery alone. After adjusting for age, pseudoexfoliation, small pupil, prior ocular surgery, and anterior chamber depth, we found that glaucoma cases were more likely to have posterior capsular tear with vitrectomy (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, P = .03) and sulcus intraocular lens placement (OR 1.65, P = .03) during cataract surgery. Glaucoma cases were more likely to have postoperative inflammation (OR 1.73, P < .0001), prolonged elevated intraocular pressure (OR 2.96, P = .0003), and additional surgery within 30 days (OR 1.92, P = .03). Mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) scores significantly improved after cataract surgery in both groups (P < .0001), but there were larger improvements in BCVA (P = .01) and VFQ composite scores (P < .0001) in the nonglaucoma vs the glaucoma group. A total of 3621 nonglaucoma cases (94.1%) had postoperative BCVA 20/40 or better, compared to 466 glaucoma cases (89.6%) (P = .0003). Eyes with glaucoma are at increased risk for complications and have more modest visual outcomes after cataract surgery compared to eyes without glaucoma. Despite this, glaucoma patients still experience significant improvement in vision-related outcomes after cataract extraction. Further study is needed to explore potential factors that influence cataract surgery outcomes in glaucomatous eyes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Patel, Nisha; Anand, Deepti; Monies, Dorota; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Khan, Arif O; Algoufi, Talal; Alowain, Mohammed; Faqeih, Eissa; Alshammari, Muneera; Qudair, Ahmed; Alsharif, Hadeel; Aljubran, Fatimah; Alsaif, Hessa S; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alsedairy, Haifa; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Lachke, Salil A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S
Pediatric cataract is highly heterogeneous clinically and etiologically. While mostly isolated, cataract can be part of many multisystem disorders, further complicating the diagnostic process. In this study, we applied genomic tools in the form of a multi-gene panel as well as whole-exome sequencing on unselected cohort of pediatric cataract (166 patients from 74 families). Mutations in previously reported cataract genes were identified in 58% for a total of 43 mutations, including 15 that are novel. GEMIN4 was independently mutated in families with a syndrome of cataract, global developmental delay with or without renal involvement. We also highlight a recognizable syndrome that resembles galactosemia (a fulminant infantile liver disease with cataract) caused by biallelic mutations in CYP51A1. A founder mutation in RIC1 (KIAA1432) was identified in patients with cataract, brain atrophy, microcephaly with or without cleft lip and palate. For non-syndromic pediatric cataract, we map a novel locus in a multiplex consanguineous family on 4p15.32 where exome sequencing revealed a homozygous truncating mutation in TAPT1. We report two further candidates that are biallelically inactivated each in a single cataract family: TAF1A (cataract with global developmental delay) and WDR87 (non-syndromic cataract). In addition to positional mapping data, we use iSyTE developmental lens expression and gene-network analysis to corroborate the proposed link between the novel candidate genes and cataract. Our study expands the phenotypic, allelic and locus heterogeneity of pediatric cataract. The high diagnostic yield of clinical genomics supports the adoption of this approach in this patient group.
Mehmet, Borazan; Abuzer, Gunduz
Purpose The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the effect of cataract surgery on visual acuity (VA) and daily living activities in participants aged over 80 years. Methods For eighty-three eyes from eighty three eligible patients aged 80 or above who had undergone cataract surgery between 2000 and 2005, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), satisfaction score for daily living activities, surgical complications, and retinal pathologies affecting vision were recorded from the patient's file. Results The mean age of the patients was 86.80±5.24 years (range, 80-98). VA improved in the operated eye for patients aged 80 to 89 and for those over 90 years. Postoperative VA of 0.5 or better was more frequently observed in those aged 80 to 89 than in those aged over 90 years (90.6% and 73.4%, respectively). Mean postoperative scores for the daily living activities scale were significantly better in both groups as compared to preoperative levels, and were better in the 80 to 89-year age group than for those older than 90. Intraoperative posterior capsule perforation occurred in two participants, cystoid macular edema in one, iridodialysis in one and postoperative refractory stromal edema occurred in one case. Conclusions Our results showed that better VA levels for daily living activities can be obtained after cataract surgery in elderly patients aged over 80 years, thereby suggesting that cataract removal is effective removal in this population.
Fizia-Orlicz, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta
According to the World Health Organization, cataract remains the leading cause of the curable visual impairment worldwide. Cataract can only be cured by surgery during which the cloudy lens is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens. It is one of the most common surgeries being performed worldwide. There are age-related, congenital, traumatic and metabolic types of cataract which have been distinguished. Age-related cataract is the most common one and it affects people over 60 with the greatest frequency. In reference to patients whose cornea does not fulfill the requirements for a standard refractive surgery, the number of refractive intraocular lens replacement is increasing. Manufacturers aim to enhance materials in order to minimize surgical complication while increasing the patient’s eyesight. The increase in average lifespan along with patients’ expectations stimulate competition among manufacturers who bring new products and solutions into to the market. There is an augmented demand for premium lenses such as toric, multifocal or accommodating. These lenses bring patients the promise of life without the need for wearing glasses. As far as the main materials used in the production of intraocular lens are concerned, there are hydrophobic, hydrophilic, acrylic and silicone lenses in use. In this paper the author discusses characteristics as well as advantages and disadvantages of the above-mentioned materials. The associated surgical complications and the new areas of development regarding the materials used in lenses manufacturing are also examined.
... cataract operations. 1001.1701 Section 1001.1701 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at...
... cataract operations. 1001.1701 Section 1001.1701 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at...
... cataract operations. 1001.1701 Section 1001.1701 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract... surgery during a cataract operation, or (ii) Charges that include a charge for an assistant at...
Iribarren, Rafael; Iribarren, Guillermo
Modern cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is a widely accepted procedure with a rapid recovery time. The prescription of specific intraocular lens, implanted during surgery, makes it possible to anticipate whether the patient will need reading glasses after the procedure. The present study analyses a sample of cataract surgery patients to show the frequency of myopic shifts related to nuclear opacity, which can result in clear near vision before surgery. A non-selected sample of consecutive patients who underwent elective cataract surgery in a private clinic was studied retrospectively. The myopic shift in refraction was assessed by comparing the old prescription with the spectacle correction at the time of interviewing.The mean age of the 229 subjects studied was 71.5 ± 10.4 years (109, 47.6%, males). A myopic shift in refraction, defined as at least - 0.5 diopters, was present in 37.1% of subjects (95% CI: 30.8%-43.4%). The mean change in refraction in these subjects was -2.52 ± 1.52 diopters. The percentage of subjects who had developed a myopic shift was significantly greater in those who presented greater nuclear opalescence. There were also differences in the mean myopic shift by refractive group, with the emmetropes having the greatest myopic shift. In this study of patients seeking cataract surgery in a clinical setting, more than one third had myopic shifts in refraction. This must be taken into account in order that patients maintain the benefit of clear near vision after surgery.
Delahunt, Peter B.; Webster, Michael A.; Ma, Lei; Werner, John S.
The optical density of the human crystalline lens progressively increases with age, the greatest increase in the visible spectrum being at short wavelengths. This produces a gradual shift in the spectral distribution of the light reaching the retina, yet color appearance remains relatively stable across the life span, implying that the visual system adapts to compensate for changes in spectral sensitivity. We explored properties of this adaptive renormalization by measuring changes in color appearance following cataract surgery. When the lens is removed, cataract patients often report a large perceptual shift in color appearance that can last for months. This change in color appearance was quantified for four cataract patients (63–84 years) by determining the chromaticity of stimuli that appeared achromatic before surgery, and at various intervals after surgery for up to 1 year. Stimuli were presented on a calibrated CRT as 9.5-deg spots, with 3-s duration and 3-s interstimulus intervals (ISIs). Chromaticity was adjusted by the subjects in CIE L*a*b* color space with luminance fixed at 32 cd/m2, on a dark background. We also estimated the optical density of the cataractous lens by comparing absolute scotopic thresholds from 410 nm to 600 nm before and after surgery. The results demonstrated that immediately following surgery there is a large increase in the short-wave light reaching the retina, mainly below 500 nm. The achromatic settings generally showed an initial large shift in the “yellow” direction after surgery that gradually (but never fully) returned to the original achromatic point before surgery. The shifts in the achromatic point occur over a number of months and appear to occur independently of the fellow eye. PMID:15518204
Nagy, Zoltan Z
Femtosecond lasers represent a new frontier in cataract surgery. Since their introduction and first human treatment in 2008, a lot of new developments have been achieved. In this review article, the physical principle of femtolasers is discussed, together with the indications and side effects of the method in cataract surgery. The most important clinical results are also presented regarding capsulotomy, fragmentation of the crystalline lens, corneal wound creation, and refractive results. Safety issues such as endothelial and macular changes are also discussed. The most important advantage of femtolaser cataract technology at present is that all the important surgical steps of cataract surgery can be planned and customized, delivering unparalleled accuracy, repeatability, and consistency in surgical results. The advantages of premium lenses can be maximally used in visual and presbyopia restoration as well. The advantages of premium lenses can be maximally used, not only in visual, but in presbyopia restoration as well. Quality of vision can be improved with less posterior chamber lens (PCL) tilt, more centralized position of the PCL, possibly less endothelial damage, less macular edema, and less posterior capsule opacification (PCO) formation. This technological achievement should be followed by other technical developments in the lens industry. Hopefully this review article will help us to understand the technology and the results to demonstrate the differences between the use of femtolasers and phacoemulsification-based cataract surgery. The most important data of the literature are summarized to show ophthalmologists the benefits of the technology in order to provide the best refractive results to the patient. PMID:24970994
Baranyovits, P R
Refraction was performed at frequent, regular intervals for six months following routine intracapsular cataract extraction. Patients were divided into two groups, those whose limbal sections were closed with 8-0 virgin silk or with 9-0 nylon. The stabilisation of refraction was observed, and the most suitable time to prescribe 'first glasses' was estimated retrospectively. In the silk group this was found to be at three months in the nylon group at four months. However, results in the latter were less predictable with greater variation. PMID:3061448
Yi, Boey Pui; Leng, Seah Lay; Kwang, Loh Boon; Rootman, Jack
To report a case series of patients who had manifestation or aggravation of thyroid related orbitopathy (TRO) following cataract surgery in an Asian eye centre. A systematic review of clinical records of patients with manifestation or aggravation of TRO was conducted. Inclusion criteria were manifestation or aggravation of TRO within 6 months of cataract surgery. Five patients treated for TRO at Singapore National Eye Centre from January 2007 to December 2008 were included in the study. There were 2 males and 3 females with mean age of 54.6 years (range 51-86). Surgery included phacoemulsification with implantation of intraocular lens. The mean interval between surgery and manifestation of symptoms was 7.4 weeks. Contralateral eye involvement was seen in all patients. Clinical presentation of orbitopathy ranged from increased soft issue swelling, proptosis and progression of myopathy to compressive optic neuropathy. One patient had total loss of vision. Mean follow-up was 21 months (range 2-60). TRO can present shortly after cataract surgery and lead to serious vision threatening complications. Patients will need to be counseled pre-operatively regarding the risk of post-operative period.
de Juan, V; Martín, R; Pérez, I; Herreras, J M
To analyse the influence of axial length (AL) and age on refractive outcome after cataract surgery in terms of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and subjective refraction. A retrospective review of 171 consecutive cases of uncomplicated cataract surgery was done. The refractive outcome was analysed (UCVA, BCVA and postoperative retraction) according AL before surgery (AL < 22 mm, between 22 and 25 mm and AL > 25 mm) and age (< 40, between 40-60 years and > 60 years). After surgery mean UCVA was 0.6 ± 0.33 Diopters (D) and mean BCVA was 0.93 ± 0.23 D. Mean refractive outcome was 0.89 ± 0.78 D. There were no significant differences in post-operative UCVA, BCVA and refraction between the three age groups. There were statistically significant differences (p = 0.004) in UCVA between the three AL groups. The group with AL between 22 and 25 mm had better UCVA. Mean refractive outcome was -0.95 ± 1.91 D in the group with AL < 22 mm, -0.36 ± 0.88 D in the group with AL between 22 and 25 mm and 0.23 ± 1.15 D in the group with AL > 25 mm. AL influences refractive outcome and UCVA after cataract surgery. Eyes with AL < 22 mm have a worse refractive outcome.
Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Bashir, Hafsa; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Mishra, Anurag
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcome of manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) in eyes with uveitic cataract. Setting: Medical college hospital of the subcontinent. Design: Retrospective case series. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, patients who underwent SICS with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation for uveitic cataract from 2006 to 2009 were evaluated. Patients with less than 3 months follow-up were excluded. Post-operative vision and complications were analyzed. Results: A total of 54 patients completed the study. The mean age was 52.3 ± 9.3 years. The mean follow-up was 11.53 ± 5.05 months. The mean surgical time was (10.2 ± 3.8 min). Etiological diagnosis was possible in 31.41% (17/54) of patients. There was a statistically significant improvement in vision after surgery (P < 0.001). When uveitis was well-controlled, pre-operative corticosteroids did not change post-operative inflammation (P = 0.796). However, pre-operative corticosteroids were statistically significantly associated to final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (P = 0.010). Conclusion: SICS with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation is safe in most cataracts due to uveitis and improves BCVA at 6 months. Inflammation should be well-controlled pre-operatively for at least 3 months. Posterior capsule opacification, macular edema and persistent uveitis were the main factors affecting visual outcome. SICS requires minimal instrumentation, surgical time is short and can also be performed in rural clinics and eye-camps, where phacoemulsification machines are unavailable. SICS may be a more practical and cost-effective technique for uveitic cataract, in such circumstances. PMID:24669151
Grosso, Andrea; Pertile, Grazia; Marchini, Giorgio; Scarpa, Giuseppe; Ceruti, Piero; Prigione, Guido; Romano, Mario R; Bert, Fabrizio; Gili, Renata; Panico, Claudio; Siliquini, Roberta; Engelbert, Michael
To survey the surgical routines with regards to prophylactic strategies in a sample of Italian hospitals and compare these with European Society for Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ESCRS) guidelines. Six private and 18 public hospitals were included in this clinical-based retrospective study. The overall volume of cataract operations in the 24 centers in 2013 was 43,553. Main outcome measure was incidence of endophthalmitis per 1,000. An incidence of less than 0.13% was considered acceptable. Our study provides the first Italian data on the use of intracameral antibiotics in cataract surgery as recommended by the ESCRS. Thirteen centers (54%) used intracameral cefuroxime at the end of surgery. Of the 13 centers that used cefuroxime, 8 (62%) had an incidence of endophthalmitis less than 0.13%. Of the 7 (29%) centers that did not use intracameral cefuroxime, all had an endophthalmitis rate of greater than 0.13%. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Among the 4 centers not included, 2 used vancomycin in the infusion bottle, 1 a fluoroquinolone, and the last a combination of antibiotics. The majority of surgeons (71%) used preoperative antibiotic eyedrops, but this measure was not shown to be significantly protective. Slightly more than half of the centers surveyed in this study adhered to the recommendations of the ESCRS and routinely employed prophylactic intracameral cefuroxime. An incidence of endophthalmitis greater than 0.13% was encountered significantly more frequently among centers that did not employ intracameral cefuroxime.
Guay, Joanne; Sales, Karl
Local anaesthesia for cataract surgery can be provided by sub-Tenon's or topical anaesthesia. Both techniques offer possible advantages. This review, which originally was published in 2007 and was updated in 2014, was undertaken to compare these two anaesthetic techniques. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of topical anaesthesia (with or without intracameral local anaesthetic) versus sub-Tenon's anaesthesia in providing pain relief during cataract surgery. We reviewed pain during administration of anaesthesia, postoperative pain, surgical satisfaction with operating conditions and patient satisfaction with pain relief provided, and we looked at associated complications. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE (last search in November 2014) and the reference lists of published articles. We looked for conferences abstracts and trials in progress and placed no constraints on language or publication status. We included all randomized studies that compared sub-Tenon's anaesthesia versus topical anaesthesia for cataract surgery. We assessed trial quality and extracted data in the format allowing maximal data inclusion. We included eight studies in this updated review but could retain in the analysis only seven studies on 742 operated eyes of 617 participants. Two cross-over trials included 125 participants, and five parallel trials included 492 participants. These studies were published between 1997 and 2005. The mean age of participants varied from 71.5 years to 83.5 years. The female proportion of participants varied from 54% to 76%. Compared with sub-Tenon's anaesthesia, topical anaesthesia (with or without intracameral injection) for cataract surgery increases intraoperative pain but decreases postoperative pain at 24 hours. The amplitude of the effect (equivalent to 1.1 on a score from 0 to 10 for intraoperative pain, and to 0.2 on the same scale for postoperative pain at 24 hours), although statistically
Giles, Kagmeni; Christelle, Domngang; Yannick, Bilong; Fricke, Otto Herrmann; Wiedemann, Peter
The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation at the Mana eye Clinic Nkongsamba between 2006 and 2015 Main outcome measures were: best-corrected post operative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Mean age at surgery was 10.18 ± 3.21 years. Mean follow up length was 15.75 ± 3.36 weeks. Etiology included: 10 congenital cataracs (16.12%). 35 developmental cataracts (56.45%) and 17 traumatic cataracts (27.41%). The mean preoperative BCVA was logMAR 1.19 ± 0.33. (range 0.6-2.3). After cycloplegia refraction 2 weeks after surgery, the mean postoperative BCVA was log MAR 0.58 ± 0.88 ( range 0.5-1.8). The mean implanted IOL power was 22.01 ±3.16 D. IOL was succefuly implanted in 54 eyes (87.07%). Eight eyes (9.67%) were left aphakic. Increase in BCVA of 4 logMAR lines and above was recorded in 27 patients (43.55%). Intraoperative complications included: 4 posterior capsule holes with vitrous lost, 3 lenses subluxation and 1 case of iris dialyse. Late postoperative complications included: posterior capsular opacity which occurred in 16 patients, 3 posterior synechia, 2 retinal detachment. Peribulbar anaesthesia can be considered as a viable option in selected patients presenting developmental cataract undergoing cataract surgery in developing countries. Effort should be made to improve the early identification of congenital cataract and its early surgical intervention and prompt optical rehabilitation to prevent amblyopia.
Giles, Kagmeni; Christelle, Domngang; Yannick, Bilong; Fricke, Otto Herrmann; Wiedemann, Peter
The aim of this study was to report feasibility, the visual outcomes and complications of pediatric cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation in children aged 5 to15 years in local anesthesia. This retrospective interventional case series included 62 eyes from 50 children who underwent pediatrc cataract surgery with primary intraocular lens implantation at the Mana eye Clinic Nkongsamba between 2006 and 2015 Main outcome measures were: best-corrected post operative visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Mean age at surgery was 10.18 ± 3.21 years. Mean follow up length was 15.75 ± 3.36 weeks. Etiology included: 10 congenital cataracs (16.12%). 35 developmental cataracts (56.45%) and 17 traumatic cataracts (27.41%). The mean preoperative BCVA was logMAR 1.19 ± 0.33. (range 0.6-2.3). After cycloplegia refraction 2 weeks after surgery, the mean postoperative BCVA was log MAR 0.58 ± 0.88 ( range 0.5-1.8). The mean implanted IOL power was 22.01 ±3.16 D. IOL was succefuly implanted in 54 eyes (87.07%). Eight eyes (9.67%) were left aphakic. Increase in BCVA of 4 logMAR lines and above was recorded in 27 patients (43.55%). Intraoperative complications included: 4 posterior capsule holes with vitrous lost, 3 lenses subluxation and 1 case of iris dialyse. Late postoperative complications included: posterior capsular opacity which occurred in 16 patients, 3 posterior synechia, 2 retinal detachment. Peribulbar anaesthesia can be considered as a viable option in selected patients presenting developmental cataract undergoing cataract surgery in developing countries. Effort should be made to improve the early identification of congenital cataract and its early surgical intervention and prompt optical rehabilitation to prevent amblyopia. PMID:27795795
Trinavarat, Adisak; Atchaneeyasakul, La-ongsri
To compare the incidence and characteristics of patients with endophthalmitis after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) to those after phacoemulsification Records of patients receiving intravitreal antibiotic injection to treat endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between Jan 2001 and Dec 2004 were reviewed. Demographic data and other characteristics including associated diseases, details of cataract surgical procedure and intraoperative complication, onset of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, presenting symptoms and signs of endophthalmitis, how endophthalmitis was managed, causative organisms, duration of hospitalization and results of treatment were collected. This information was compared between those of endophthalmitis patients after ECCE and those after phacoemulsification. There were 5 cases who developed endophthalmitis after ECCE and 31 cases after phacoemulsification. The incidence was 0.365% after ECCE and 0.279% after phacoemulsification (p = 0.589). Visual acuity (VA) before cataract surgery in ECCE group was worse than the phacoemulsification group (median VA: counting fingers vs 6/36, p = 0.001). Median onset of endophthalmitis was 8 days after ECCE and 6 days after phacoemulsification. Presenting symptoms and signs were similar. Causative agents were identified in 4 (80%) and 14 (45%) cases in the ECCE and phacoemulsification groups respectively. Gram-positive bacteria were the major cause of infection in both groups. Endophthalmitis caused by citrobacter sp. in ECCE group and enterococcus or streptococcus sps. the phacoemulsification in the group ended up with enucleation or no light perception. The present study has not demonstrated an apparent difference between endophthalmitis after ECCE and those after phacoemulsification. Endophthalmitis after either procedure can be managed as the same condition.
Sapkota, Y D; Pokharel, G P; Nirmalan, P K; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M; Prakash, K
Background/aim Himalaya Eye Hospital (HEH), established in 1993, is rendering eye care services in the Gandaki and Dhaulagiri zones. The hospital has extensive community outreach activities along with services for outpatients, emergencies, and subspecialties such as vitreoretinal, paediatric, and low vision. The operation theatre is well equipped to match the surgical needs including phaco surgery for cataract. The hospital has performed more than 14 000 cataract surgeries and 250 000 treatment services during this period. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and cataract surgical coverage among the older adult population of three districts of Gandaki Zone, where 80% of the hospital's service recipients reside. Methods People aged 45 years and older were enrolled in the study using a stratified cluster design. Subjects in 25 randomly selected clusters from the listed 806 were recruited through door to door visits. Each recruited subject had visual acuity (VA) and clinical examination conducted by an ophthalmologist. The survey was preceded by pre‐pilot and pilot studies to refine the operational method. To assess quality assurance the interobserver variation in VA measurement was also carried out in five different clusters. Results Out of 5863 selected subjects 85.3% were examined. Blindness defined as presenting VA <6/60 in both eyes was found in 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 3.9), whereas 16.8% individuals examined had vision <6/19 in one or both eyes. Cataract was the principal cause of blindness in 60.5%, and refractive error was the dominant cause of vision impairment (<6/19) 83.3%. Cataract surgical coverage was 59.5% among the cataract blind and associated with younger age, literacy, and male sex. Conclusion The finding suggests a positive impact of the HEH programme on the prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical services in the survey area. Strategies to further improve access and
Hodge, William; Horsley, Tanya; Albiani, David; Baryla, Julia; Belliveau, Michel; Buhrmann, Ralf; O'Connor, Michael; Blair, Jason; Lowcock, Elizabeth
Background Cataract surgery is the most common operative procedure performed in Canada, and how patients are affected by wait times for this surgery has important clinical, public health and health policy considerations. We conducted a systematic review to understand the relation between wait time for cataract surgery and patient outcomes and the variables that modify this relation. Methods We performed an electronic search of 11 databases and the proceedings of 4 conferences. The search was restricted to studies published after the transition to phacoemulsification (1990). We assessed the quality of the included studies using the Jadad Scale for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for cohort and case–control studies. The data were found to be inappropriate for meta-analysis, thus we performed a qualitative synthesis. Results We found a total of 27 studies that met our inclusion criteria. When these studies were reviewed, a dichotomy was observed for the wait time–outcome relation: outcomes associated with wait times of ≤ 6 weeks were better than outcomes associated with wait times of ≥ 6 months. Patients who waited more than 6 months to receive cataract surgery experienced more vision loss, a reduced quality of life and had an increased rate of falls compared with patients who had wait times of less than 6 weeks. The outcomes associated with wait times between 6 weeks and 6 months remain unclear. Interpretation Patients who wait more than 6 months for cataract surgery may experience negative outcomes during the wait period, including vision loss, a reduced quality of life and an increased rate of falls. PMID:17452662
Wang, Jenny; Sramek, Christopher; Paulus, Yannis M.; Lavinsky, Daniel; Schuele, Georg; Anderson, Dan; Dewey, David; Palanker, Daniel
Femtosecond lasers have added unprecedented precision and reproducibility to cataract surgery. However, retinal safety limits for the near-infrared lasers employed in surgery are not well quantified. We determined retinal injury thresholds for scanning patterns while considering the effects of reduced blood perfusion from rising intraocular pressure and retinal protection from light scattering on bubbles and tissue fragments produced by laser cutting. We measured retinal damage thresholds of a stationary, 1030-nm, continuous-wave laser with 2.6-mm retinal spot size for 10- and 100-s exposures in rabbits to be 1.35 W (1.26 to 1.42) and 0.78 W (0.73 to 0.83), respectively, and 1.08 W (0.96 to 1.11) and 0.36 W (0.33 to 0.41) when retinal perfusion is blocked. These thresholds were input into a computational model of ocular heating to calculate damage threshold temperatures. By requiring the tissue temperature to remain below the damage threshold temperatures determined in stationary beam experiments, one can calculate conservative damage thresholds for cataract surgery patterns. Light scattering on microbubbles and tissue fragments decreased the transmitted power by 88% within a 12 deg angle, adding a significant margin for retinal safety. These results can be used for assessment of the maximum permissible exposure during laser cataract surgery under various assumptions of blood perfusion, treatment duration, and scanning patterns.
Santos-Bueso, E; Jiménez-Santos, M; Díaz-Valle, D; Gegúndez-Fernández, J A; Cuiña-Sardiña, R; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J
a 75-year old woman who had had cataract surgery in her left eye and showed a visual acuity of 0.8 twenty-four hours post-surgery. Biomicroscopy revealed a foreign body attached to the iris in the nasal sector that coincided with the main incision of the phacoemulsification, which was then removed in a second surgical procedure. It was analysed and described as an inert structure made of plastic. The possible origin of the presence of a fragment of plastic in the postoperative period following cataract surgery is established. In this case, its inert nature did not cause any further intraocular inflammation. Its rigid structure also favoured its attachment to the iris, thus avoiding any other complications. There must be greater preventative measures during cataract surgery, including checking the instruments and accessories before and after the surgical procedure. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ayaki, Masahiko; Muramatsu, Masahiro; Negishi, Kazuno; Tsubota, Kazuo
Gait speed and sleep quality are health indices related to longevity and mortality. In the present study, we measured sleep quality, quality of life, gait speed, and visual acuity before and after cataract surgery to evaluate the efficacy of the procedure on systemic health. The study was conducted on 155 patients (93 women; average age 74.8 years) undergoing cataract surgery with the implantation of a yellow soft acrylic lens. Patients were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (VFQ-25; vision-related quality of life) before and then 2 and 7 months after surgery. Four-meter gait speed was also determined. Of the 155 patients, 68 (43.9%) were classified as poor sleepers (PSQI>5.5) prior to surgery. Significant improvements were noted in sleep 2 months after surgery (p<0.05, paired t-test), but thereafter the improvements were not significant. Prior to surgery, 117 patients (77.0%) were classified as slow walkers (speed<1.0 meter/s). Gait speed increased significantly in these patients 2 months after surgery (p<0.001, paired t-test). Multiple regression analysis revealed significant correlations between the preoperative VFQ-25 score and both PSQI (p<0.05) and gait speed (p<0.001). Postoperative increases in the VFQ-25 score were positively correlated with decreases in the PSQI (p<0.05). Improvements in visual acuity were correlated with improvements in the VFQ-25 score, but not with either PSQI or gait speed. Cataract surgery effectively improves sleep quality and slow gait speed.
Cheung, D; Gillow, T
The prevalence of reactions against natural rubber latex (NRL) is thought to be increasing in both the general public and healthcare workers. These can vary from mild benign skin reactions to bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, and death. Difficulties exist for ophthalmic departments wishing to establish protocols in providing 'latex-free environments' for patients undergoing cataract surgery. Currently no legislation exists regarding the labelling of NRL-containing products in the United Kingdom with information on a product's NRL content provided by the manufacturer on a voluntary basis only. It is hoped this review article will act as a basic guide in the management of NRL-sensitive patients undergoing cataract surgery in the United Kingdom.
Migliorini, R; Fratipietro, M; Segnalini, A; Arrico, L
Diplopia is an event that can occur following cataract surgery, although its rate of occurrence is limited and ranges from 0.67% to 0.85%. The authors present a case of vertical diplopia arising after peribulbar anaesthesia for cataract surgery in a 78-year-old woman. Diplopia appeared at distance in primary position, while at near there was binocular single vision. Stereopsis was present at the Lang I - II Test, but the Wirth Test was incomplete. Although in the literature the frequency of these "accidents" is very limited, we think it is relevant to emphasize the need to perform pre-operative routine using a careful orthoptic examination along with a thorough medical, especially strabological, history.
Samarawickrama, Chameen; Beltz, Jacqueline; Chan, Elsie
Descemet's membrane detachments (DMD) are relatively common after cataract surgery and most do not require any treatment. However, if large DMD are not treated appropriately, significant visual morbidity can ensue. We aim to develop a guideline for the management of DMD post cataract surgery based on a retrospective review of all cases encountered at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. We suggest conservative management if the visual axis is not involved; however, after 3mo surgical intervention may be warranted to prevent corneal sequelae. In cases where the visual axis is involved we suggest early intervention with air tamponade. The main risk factor for irreversible corneal oedema and subsequent endothelial transplant appears to be direct endothelial trauma rather than the DMD itself. PMID:28003989
Khatavkar, Sonal S; Jagtap, S R
Eight year old girl, weighing 14 kg with VACTERL syndrome V: Vertebral anomalies, A: Anal malformation, C: Cardiovascular defect, TE: Tracheal and esophageal malformation, R: Renal agenesis, L: Limb anomalies. underwent cataract surgery under general anaesthesia. She had multiple congenital anomalies like esophageal atresia, imperforate anus (corrected), single kidney & radial aplasia. Anticipating problems of gastro-esophageal reflux & chronic renal failure, successful management was done.
Matossian, Cynthia; Makari, Sarah; Potvin, Richard
Clear corneal incisions are routinely used in cataract surgery, but watertight wound closure may not always be achieved, which can increase the risk for anterior chamber fluid egress or ocular surface fluid ingress. A new US Food and Drug Administration-approved ocular sealant appears to have good efficacy in sealing clear corneal incisions; its use may be indicated when wound integrity is in question. PMID:26045656
Kocher, Mininder S
Value has become the buzzword of contemporaneous health care reform. Value is defined as outcomes relative to costs. Orthopaedic surgery has come under increasing scrutiny due to high procedural costs. However, orthopaedic surgery may actually be a great value given the benefits of treatment. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Value Project team was tasked to develop a model for assessing the benefits of orthopaedic surgery including indirect costs related to productivity and health-related quality of life. This model was applied to 5 orthopaedic conditions demonstrating robust societal and economic value. In all cost-effectiveness models, younger patients demonstrated greater cost-effectiveness given increased lifespan and productivity. This has tremendous implications within the field of pediatric orthopedic surgery. Pediatric orthopaedics may be the best value in medicine!
Villegas, Victor M.; Emanuelli, Andres; Flynn, Harry W.; Berrocal, Audina M.; Miller, Darlene; Kao, Andrew A.; Dubovy, Sander R.; Alfonso, Eduardo
Purpose To report Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a cause of both acute-onset and delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Methods A non-comparative, consecutive case series of patients with culture-proven A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis between 1970 and 2012. Cataract surgery and intraocular lens placement were performed in all patients prior to endophthalmitis. Positive cultures were obtained from the vitreous, capsular bag, and/or the removed intraocular lens. Results The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in 4 patients with positive cultures. Two endophthalmitis patients had a preliminary culture report of Pseudomonas species. In addition to receiving intravitreal antibiotics, all patients underwent capsulectomy and intraocular lens removal at the time of pars plana vitrectomy. Visual acuity at last follow up was 20/40 or better in 2 of 4 (50%) but the remaining 2 patients were 20/200 or worse. Conclusion A. xylosoxidans may be a cause of acute, recurrent, and delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Complete capsulectomy and intraocular lens removal can be considered in recurrent and recalcitrant patients. PMID:24150240
Taner, Mehmet Tolga
The article's aim is to focus on the application of Six Sigma to minimise intraoperative and post-operative complications rates in a Turkish public hospital cataract surgery unit. Implementing define-measure-analyse-improve and control (DMAIC) involves process mapping, fishbone diagrams and rigorous data-collection. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), pareto diagrams, control charts and process capability analysis are applied to redress cataract surgery failure root causes. Inefficient skills of assistant surgeons and technicians, low quality of IOLs used, wrong IOL placement, unsystematic sterilisation of surgery rooms and devices, and the unprioritising network system are found to be the critical drivers of intraoperative-operative and post-operative complications. Sigma level was increased from 2.60 to 3.75 subsequent to extensive training of assistant surgeons, ophthalmologists and technicians, better quality IOLs, systematic sterilisation and air-filtering, and the implementation of a more sophisticated network system. This article shows that Six Sigma measurement and process improvement can become the impetus for cataract unit staff to rethink their process and reduce malpractices. Measuring, recording and reporting data regularly helps them to continuously monitor their overall process and deliver safer treatments. This is the first Six Sigma ophthalmology study in Turkey.
Villegas, Victor M; Emanuelli, Andres; Flynn, Harry W; Berrocal, Audina M; Miller, Darlene; Kao, Andrew A; Dubovy, Sander R; Alfonso, Eduardo
To report Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a cause of both acute-onset and delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A noncomparative consecutive case series of patients with culture-proven A. xylosoxidans endophthalmitis between 1970 and 2012. Cataract surgery and intraocular lens placement were performed in all patients before endophthalmitis. Positive cultures were obtained from the vitreous, capsular bag, and/or the removed intraocular lens. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in four patients with positive cultures. Two patients with endophthalmitis had a preliminary culture report of Pseudomonas species. In addition to receiving intravitreal antibiotics, all patients underwent capsulectomy and intraocular lens removal at the time of pars plana vitrectomy. Visual acuity at last follow-up was 20/40 or better in 2 (50%) of the 4 patients, but the remaining 2 patients were 20/200 or worse. A. xylosoxidans may be a cause of acute, recurrent, and delayed-onset postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Complete capsulectomy and intraocular lens removal can be considered in recurrent and recalcitrant patients.
Effects of Cataract Surgery on Endothelium in Transplanted Corneal Grafts: Comparison of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction and Phacoemulsification for Complicated Cataract after Penetrating Keratoplasty
Zhou, Hong-Wei; Xie, Li-Xin
Background: The endothelium should be carefully evaluated when choosing a surgical technique for cataract removal. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of different cataract surgery techniques on endothelial cell loss in transplanted corneal grafts. Methods: A total of 54 patients who received complicated cataract surgery in post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes at the Shandong Eye Institute between February 2001 and June 2014 were included, and clinical records were reviewed. Baseline demographic details, clinical characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to test the equality of medians. A regression model was constructed to compare the reduced rate of ECD. Results: Of the 54 eyes included in this study, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed in 34 eyes of 33 patients (ECCE group) whereas phacoemulsification was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients (phacoemulsification group). There was no significant difference in the median age (P = 0.081) or preoperative ECD (P = 0.585) between the two groups. At 6 months after cataract surgery, ECD in ECCE group was significantly higher than that in phacoemulsification group (P = 0.043). In addition, the endothelial cell loss rate in ECCE group was significantly lower than that in phacoemulsification group at 2 months (P = 0.018), 4 months (P < 0.001), and 6 months (P < 0.001) after cataract surgery. Endothelial cell loss rate after cataract surgery increased over the 6-month study duration in both ECCE group (P < 0.001) and phacoemulsification group (P < 0.001), but phacoemulsification resulted in a greater reduction in ECD than that of ECCE in transplanted corneal grafts (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between the two groups (P = 0.065). Conclusion: ECCE is more suitable than phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in complicated cataract
Effects of Cataract Surgery on Endothelium in Transplanted Corneal Grafts: Comparison of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction and Phacoemulsification for Complicated Cataract after Penetrating Keratoplasty.
Zhou, Hong-Wei; Xie, Li-Xin
The endothelium should be carefully evaluated when choosing a surgical technique for cataract removal. Therefore, we aimed to study the effects of different cataract surgery techniques on endothelial cell loss in transplanted corneal grafts. A total of 54 patients who received complicated cataract surgery in post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes at the Shandong Eye Institute between February 2001 and June 2014 were included, and clinical records were reviewed. Baseline demographic details, clinical characteristics, endothelial cell density (ECD), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to test the equality of medians. A regression model was constructed to compare the reduced rate of ECD. Of the 54 eyes included in this study, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed in 34 eyes of 33 patients (ECCE group) whereas phacoemulsification was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients (phacoemulsification group). There was no significant difference in the median age (P = 0.081) or preoperative ECD (P = 0.585) between the two groups. At 6 months after cataract surgery, ECD in ECCE group was significantly higher than that in phacoemulsification group (P = 0.043). In addition, the endothelial cell loss rate in ECCE group was significantly lower than that in phacoemulsification group at 2 months (P = 0.018), 4 months (P < 0.001), and 6 months (P < 0.001) after cataract surgery. Endothelial cell loss rate after cataract surgery increased over the 6-month study duration in both ECCE group (P < 0.001) and phacoemulsification group (P < 0.001), but phacoemulsification resulted in a greater reduction in ECD than that of ECCE in transplanted corneal grafts (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between the two groups (P = 0.065). ECCE is more suitable than phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in complicated cataract after PKP.
Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O
To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p < 0.05). Except for this there were no significant differences in the rate of IPC between the ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the visual acuity gain between the ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.
Inagaki, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Ohde, Sachiko; Deshpande, Gautam A; Kakinoki, Kazukuni; Ohkoshi, Kishiko
To compare bacterial cultures from three sterilization methods immediately before and after cataract surgery. A prospective randomized open-label group-comparison study. We investigated 75 eyes in 73 consecutive patients undergoing cataract surgery. After swabbing the eyelid and surrounding area, patients were randomly assigned to one of 3 eye-washing methods: patients administered one drop of 5 % povidone-iodine (Group A); patients whose conjunctival sac was washed with 0.02 % chlorhexidine while everting the eyelid (Group B); or 0.02 % chlorhexidine as above but without eyelid eversion (Group C). In each group, specimens were collected from the conjunctival sac immediately before and after eye washing and again at completion of surgery, along with aqueous humor. The post-surgical condition of the corneal epithelium and the severity of anterior chamber inflammation were assessed by use of a slit-lamp microscope. In Groups A and C, the percentage of eyes with conjunctival bacteria decreased significantly from immediately before to immediately after washing (Group A, p = 0.008; Group C, p = 0.016), but there was no significant decrease in Group B (p = 0.125). Slit-lamp microscopy showed that inflammation of the anterior chamber 1 day after surgery was significantly milder in Group C than in Group B (p = 0.032). Eye-washing methods without eyelid eversion are more effective in reducing conjunctival bacteria before surgery and anterior chamber inflammation after surgery than those with eyelid eversion.
Background To determine the impact of cataract surgery on vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and examine the association between objective visual measures and change in VRQOL after surgery among bilateral cataract patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Methods A cohort of older patients with bilateral cataract was assessed one week before and one to three months after first eye or both eye cataract surgery. Visual measures including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were obtained. Vision-related quality of life was assessed using the NEI VFQ-25. Descriptive analyses and a generalized linear estimating equation (GEE) analysis were undertaken to measure change in VRQOL after surgery. Results Four hundred and thirteen patients were assessed before cataract surgery and 247 completed the follow-up assessment one to three months after first or both eye cataract surgery. Overall, VRQOL significantly improved after cataract surgery (p < 0.001) particularly after both eye surgeries. Binocular contrast sensitivity (p < 0.001) and stereopsis (p < 0.001) were also associated with change in VRQOL after cataract surgery. Visual acuity was not associated with VRQOL. Conclusions Cataract surgery significantly improved VRQOL among bilateral cataract patients in Vietnam. Contrast sensitivity as well as stereopsis, rather than visual acuity significantly affected VRQOL after cataract surgery. PMID:24499481
Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...
Salazar Méndez, R; Cuesta García, M; Llaneza Velasco, M E; Rodríguez Villa, S; Cubillas Martín, M; Alonso Álvarez, C M
To evaluate the usefulness of surgical complexity classification index (SCCI) to predict the degree of surgical difficulty in cataract surgery. This retrospective study includes data collected between January 2013 and December 2014 from patients who underwent cataract extraction by phacoemulsification at our hospital. A sample size of 159 patients was obtained by simple random sampling (P=.5, 10% accuracy, 95% confidence). The main variables were: recording and value of SCCI in electronic medical record (EMR), presence of exfoliation syndrome (XFS), criteria for inclusion in surgical waiting list (SWL), and functional results. SCCI was classified into 7 categories (range: 1-4) according to predictors of technical difficulty, which was indirectly estimated in terms of surgical time (ST). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v15.0 statistical software. Prevalence of XFS was 18.2% (95%CI: 11.9-24.5). In terms of quality indicators in the cataract surgery process, 96.8% of patients met at least one of the criteria to be included in SWL, and 98.1% gained ≥2 Snellen lines. The SCCI was recorded in EMR of 98.1% patients, and it was grouped for study into 2 categories: High and low surgical complexity. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of ST were found depending on the assigned SCCI (P<.005) and the presence of XFS (P<.005). The SCCI enables to estimate the degree of surgical complexity in terms of ST in cataract surgery, which is especially useful in those areas with high prevalence of XFS, because of the higher theoretical risk of surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Karki, P; Shrestha, K; Shrestha, J B
the small-incision cataract surgery is gaining popularity among the ophthalmic surgeons. to compare the visual outcome of conventional extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) in a hospital based community cataract program. aprospective interventional study without randomization was carried out including the patients undergoing cataract surgery by either conventional ECCE or manual SICS. They were followed up for 6 weeks postoperatively. The visual outcomes were compared between the two groups. the statistical program Epi-Info version 2000 was used to analyze the data. Mean values with standard deviations, 95% CI and p value were calculated. The p value of<0.05 was considered significant. of 85 patients, 44 (M: F=10:34) underwent ECCE and 41 (M: F=15:26) SICS (RR= 0.71, 95% CI=0.42-1.2, p value=0.16). Unaided visual acuity on the 1st postoperative day in the ECCE group was e"6/ 18 in 22.7%,<6/18-6/60 in 63.6 %,< 6/60 in 13.7%, whereas in the SICS group, the same was e"6/18 in 70.7%,<6/18-6/60 in 22 %,< 6/60 in 7.3% (95% CI= 0.23 -0.48, p=0.001). Best corrected visual acuity on the 6th week follow-up in the ECCE group was e"6/18 in 79.5%,<6/18-6/60 in 18.2 %,< 6/60 in 2.3% and in the SICS group the same was 6/18 in 90.5% and <6/18-6/60 in 4.9% (95% CI=0.44 -0.73; p=0.00 12). both ECCE and SICS are good procedures for hospital based community cataract surgery but within the 6 weeks postoperative period SICS gives better visual outcome. Remarkably higher number of female patients can be provided service in a hospital based community cataract programme as compared to males.
Chen, Catherine L.; Lin, Grace A.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Clay, Theodore H.; Boscardin, W. John; Gelb, Adrian W.; Maze, Mervyn; Gropper, Michael A.; Dudley, R. Adams
BACKGROUND Routine preoperative testing is not recommended for patients undergoing cataract surgery, because testing neither decreases adverse events nor improves outcomes. We sought to assess adherence to this guideline, estimate expenditures from potentially unnecessary testing, and identify patient and health care system characteristics associated with potentially unnecessary testing. METHODS Using an observational cohort of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery in 2011, we determined the prevalence and cost of preoperative testing in the month before surgery. We compared the prevalence of preoperative testing and office visits with the mean percentage of beneficiaries who underwent tests and had office visits during the preceding 11 months. Using multivariate hierarchical analyses, we examined the relationship between preoperative testing and characteristics of patients, health system characteristics, surgical setting, care team, and occurrence of a preoperative office visit. RESULTS Of 440,857 patients, 53% had at least one preoperative test in the month before surgery. Expenditures on testing during that month were $4.8 million higher and expenditures on office visits $12.4 million higher (42% and 78% higher, respectively) than the mean monthly expenditures during the preceding 11 months. Testing varied widely among ophthalmologists; 36% of ophthalmologists ordered preoperative tests for more than 75% of their patients. A patient’s probability of undergoing testing was associated mainly with the ophthalmologist who managed the preoperative evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative testing before cataract surgery occurred frequently and was more strongly associated with provider practice patterns than with patient characteristics. (Funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Grove Foundation.) PMID:25875258
Masuda, Yoichiro; Iwaki, Hisaharu; Kato, Noriko; Takahashi, Genichiro; Oki, Kotaro; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi
The irrigation dynamic pressure-assisted hydrodissection technique (irrigation-hydro [iH]) does not require performing manual hydrodissection using a syringe and cannula to achieve cortical-capsular cleavage during cataract surgery. Since the iH technique uses the phaco tip to intentionally vacuum the intraocular fluid in order to induce the irrigation dynamic pressure for cortical-capsular cleavage, there is a reduction in the intraocular pressure (IOP) from the bottle-height-dependent hydrostatic pressure. Thus, since the peak irrigation pressure derived from the phaco tip sleeve will be limited by the height of the irrigation fluid bottle, this is advantageous in helping to avoid excessively high IOP during cortical-capsular hydrodissection. Using this technique, we were able to effectively perform phacoemulsification without complications in 607 of 609 cataract eyes. Our findings show that utilization of the iH technique would be of benefit to patients, as it prevents high-pressure hydrodissection-related complications, such as capsular block syndrome and tears in the anterior hyaloid membrane during cataract surgery. PMID:28243054
Giles, Kagmeni; Robert, Ebana Steve; Come, Ebana Mvogo; Wiedemann, Peter
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and visual outcomes of simultaneous bilateral cataract surgery (SBCS) with intraocular lens implantation performed in outreach surgical eye camps. METHODS The medical records of 47 consecutive patients who underwent simultaneous bilateral small-incision cataract surgery between January 2010 and December 2015 in outreach surgical camps in rural Cameroon were reviewed. The measures included postoperative visual outcomes and intraoperative and postoperative complications. RESULTS Data from 94 eyes of 47 participants (30 men, 17 women; mean age: 60.93 ± 13.58 years, range: 45–80 years) were included in this study. The presented best visual acuity (VA) was less than 3/60 in 100% of the eyes. At the 4-week follow-up, 84.04% of the eyes showed increased VA of 1 line or more (P = .001). Of these, 71 (75.53%) achieved good VA (greater than 6/18). Intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in 19 (20.21%) eyes. The most serious intraoperative complication was a posterior capsule rupture and vitreous loss (2 patients, 2 eyes). The postoperative complications included a transient elevation in the intraocular pressure (6 eyes), chronic corneal oedema (5 eyes), iris capture (3 eyes), lens decentration (2 eyes), and hyphema (1 eye). No cases of postoperative endophthalmitis were recorded. CONCLUSIONS Under the strict observation of endophthalmitis prophylaxis, SBCS is an option to reduce the cataract blindness backlog in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:28469481
Cameron, Danielle B; Rangel, Shawn J
The goal of this review is to provide updates on the evolution of conceptual definitions as they relate to quality in healthcare, existing measurement platforms for performance benchmarking in pediatric surgery, and available tools for quality improvement that are relevant to care of the pediatric surgical patient. The American College of Surgeon's National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric has continued to evolve, now providing risk-adjusted safety outcomes data to over 70 hospitals and broadening its scope of quality measurement to include resource utilization and value-based metrics. Increasing use of checklists and other team-based communication tools show potential for making surgical care safer for children, and thoughtful application of quality improvement methods such as Lean methodology, six-sigma and others are helping to improve efficiency and increase healthcare value. Finally, efforts to define minimal resource standards for pediatric surgical care holds promise to improve outcomes for neonates and other children with complex surgical needs. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our ability to measure, benchmark and improve quality in pediatric surgery. Future efforts will need to facilitate broader participation in benchmarking programs and knowledge-sharing collaboratives, and to develop multidisciplinary, 'disease-specific' longitudinal care models where quality measurement extends before and beyond the 'traditional' 30-day perioperative period.
An, Jella Angela; Kasner, Oscar; Samek, Deborah Anne; Lévesque, Valérie
To evaluate efficacy and safety of eyedrop administration after cataract surgery and to identify predictors of better technique in patients without previous eyedrop experience. Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Prospective cross-sectional study. Eyedrop-naïve postoperative cataract patients were consecutively recruited the day after cataract surgery. Data were collected using a standardized self-reporting questionnaire and a chart review and by videotaping patients administering the drops in the operated eye. Two independent observers objectively evaluated the instillation technique. Predictors were assessed using odds ratios (ORs) from a logistic regression model. The study enrolled 54 patients. Subjectively, 17 patients (31%) reported difficulty instilling the eyedrops. Sixty-nine percent reported always washing their hands before using the drops, 42% believed that they never missed their eye when instilling drops, and 58.3% believed they never touched their eye with the bottle tip. Objectively, 50 patients (92.6%) showed an improper administration technique, including missing the eye (31.5%), instilling an incorrect amount of drops (64.0%), contaminating the bottle tip (57.4%), or failing to wash hands before drop instillation (78.0%). A better performance score was significantly associated with having received instructions on how to use drops (OR, 11.99; P=.011). Postoperative cataract patients inexperienced with eyedrop use showed a poor instillation technique by failing to wash hands, contaminating bottle tips, missing the eye, and using an incorrect amount of drops. There was a large discrepancy between the patients' perceptions and the observed technique of drop administration. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Govetto, Andrea; Lorente, Ramón; Vázquez de Parga, Paula; Rojas, Laura; Moreno, Claudio; Lagoa, Fiz; Lorente, Betty
To assess the frequency of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in patients scheduled for cataract surgery and to evaluate its association with pupil dilation, lens nucleus hardness, intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma, age, and sex. Ourense University Hospital, Ourense, Spain. Cross-sectional study. This study evaluated eyes scheduled for cataract surgery between January 2013 and July 2013. Pseudoexfoliation was diagnosed in phakic eyes that showed central and/or peripheral white deposits on the lens surface, pupillary margin, or both. Dilated pupils were evaluated with a portable pupil chart. Nucleus hardness was assessed according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on International Society Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Of the 1763 eyes (1093 patients) evaluated, 381 (21.6%) were diagnosed with PXF. The frequency of PXF increased with age from 6.0% in people between 50 year and 60 years to 31.66% in those older than 80 years. In PXF eyes, nuclear cataracts were significantly harder than in non-PXF eyes (P < .001). The mean IOP was significantly higher in PXF eyes than in non-PXF eyes (P = .002). The frequency of glaucoma was higher in PXF eyes (17.4%) than in non-PXF eyes (9.4%), with a statistically significant difference (P < .001). In PXF eyes, the pupil was significantly smaller than in non-PXF eyes (P < .001). The frequency of PXF was high in the study population and increased with age. Eyes with PXF were associated with significantly harder nuclear cataracts, smaller pupils, and glaucoma. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens
Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure. PMID:14748929
Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens
Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.
Nandigam, Kiran; Soh, Jonathan; Gensheimer, William G; Ghazi, Ahmed; Khalifa, Yousuf M
To compare 8 ophthalmology resident surgical training tools to determine which is most cost effective. University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA. Retrospective evaluation of technology. A cost-analysis model was created to compile all relevant costs in running each tool in a medium-sized ophthalmology program. Quantitative cost estimates were obtained based on cost of tools, cost of time in evaluations, and supply and maintenance costs. For wet laboratory simulation, Eyesi was the least expensive cataract surgery simulation method; however, it is only capable of evaluating simulated cataract surgery rehearsal and requires supplementation with other evaluative methods for operating room performance and for noncataract wet lab training and evaluation. The most expensive training tool was the Eye Surgical Skills Assessment Test (ESSAT). The 2 most affordable methods for resident evaluation in operating room performance were the Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS). Cost-based analysis of ophthalmology resident surgical training tools are needed so residency programs can implement tools that are valid, reliable, objective, and cost effective. There is no perfect training system at this time. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cruise, C J; Chung, F; Yogendran, S; Little, D
Music has long been known to reduce anxiety, minimize the need for sedatives, and make patients feel more at ease. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of music in elderly outpatients undergoing elective cataract surgery with retrobulbar block and monitored anaesthetic care using fentanyl or alfentanil and midazolam. One hundred and twenty one patients were prospectively and randomly assigned to hear: relaxing suggestions, white noise, operating room noise or relaxing music via audio-cassette headphones. Vital signs were documented before and after retrobulbar block and every 15 min thereafter. Anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after surgery. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess anxiety and patient satisfaction postoperatively with a standardized questionnaire. Between group comparisons were made using Chi-Square, or ANOVA, where appropriate. There were no differences between groups in STAI or anxiety VAS scores at any time. Differences were noted in systolic blood pressure, but not in other vital signs. Patients' ratings of the whole operative experience, satisfaction with the tape played, general level of relaxation and preference for the chosen tape for subsequent surgery were different (music > relaxing suggestions > white noise and OR noise, P < 0.05). Elderly patients undergoing cataract surgery under retrobulbar block were more satisfied with their experience if they heard relaxing music, rather than relaxing suggestions or white noise or OR noise. The type of auditory stimuli to which the patients were exposed did not influence the level of anxiety.
Blomquist, Preston H; Sargent, James W; Winslow, Heather H
To validate the Najjar-Awwad cataract surgery risk score for residents, which has been proposed to predict surgical complexity and risk. Two urban public county hospitals. Case series. Phacoemulsification cataract surgeries performed by residents between January 2005 and April 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The cataract risk score was calculated retrospectively. Intraoperative complications included posterior and anterior capsular tears, vitreous prolapse, dropped nucleus, and conversion to manual extracapsular cataract extraction. Of the cases performed by 33 residents, 1833 met the inclusion criteria. There were 120 complications (6.5%); the rate of complications involving vitreous prolapse or loss (including dropped nucleus) was 3.2%. Significant risk factors in the risk score associated with intraoperative complications were dense nuclear sclerosis (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.26; P = .004) and poor red reflex (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.45-3.06; P = .00007). Cataract risk scores ranged from 3 to 16. The score was less than 5 in 85 cases (4.6%) and less than 7 in 885 cases (48.3%). The OR for complications increased significantly when the risk score was higher than 6 (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.42-3.14; P = .0002). Although the Najjar-Awwad cataract surgery risk score can be used to predict intraoperative complications at the time of cataract surgery, the complication rate did not significantly increase until the score reached 7. There were few cases with scores lower than 5 in these county hospital populations. Beginning surgeons should be given cases with a risk score of less than 7. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Jessica R; Koo, Euna; Agrón, Elvira; Hallak, Joelle; Clemons, Traci; Azar, Dimitri; Sperduto, Robert D; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y
To investigate potential risk factors associated with incident nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataracts and cataract surgery in participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Clinic-based prospective cohort study. Persons (n = 4425) 55 to 80 years of age enrolled in a controlled clinical trial of antioxidant vitamins and minerals, AREDS, for age-related macular degeneration and cataract. Lens photographs were graded centrally for nuclear, cortical, and PSC opacities using the AREDS system for classifying cataracts. Type-specific incident cataracts were defined as an increase in cataract grade from none or mild at baseline to a grade of moderate at follow-up, also with a grade of at least moderate at the final visit, or cataract surgery. Cox regression analyses were used to assess baseline risk factors associated with type-specific opacities and cataract surgery. Moderate cataract was defined as a grade of 4.0 or more for nuclear opacity, 10% or more involvement within the full visible lens for cortical opacity, and 5% or more involvement of the central 5-mm circle of the lens for PSC opacity. These were graded on baseline and annual lens photographs. A clinic-based cohort of 4425 persons 55 to 80 years of age at baseline was followed up for an average of 9.8±2.4 years. The following associations were found: increasing age with increased risk of all types of cataract and cataract surgery; males with increased risk of PSC and decreased risk of cortical cataracts; nonwhite persons with increased risk of cortical cataract; hyperopia with decreased risk of PSC, nuclear cataract, and cataract surgery; Centrum (Wyeth Consumer Healthcare, Madison, NJ) use with decreased risk of nuclear cataract; diabetes with increased risk of cortical, PSC cataract, and cataract surgery; higher educational level with decreased risk of cortical cataract; and smoking with increased risk of cortical cataract and cataract surgery. Estrogen replacement therapy
Yiu, Glenn; Marra, Kyle V; Wagley, Sushant; Krishnan, Sheela; Sandhu, Harpal; Kovacs, Kyle; Kuperwaser, Mark; Arroyo, Jorge G
To compare functional and anatomical outcomes after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation versus ERM peeling alone. A retrospective, non-randomised comparative case series study was conducted of 81 eyes from 79 patients who underwent ERM peeling at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2001 and 2010. Eyes that underwent combined surgery for ERM and cataracts (group 1) were compared with those that had ERM peeling alone (group 2) with respect to best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months and 1 year after surgery, postoperative central macular thickness (CMT) as measured on optical coherence tomography, and rates of complications, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), ERM recurrence and need for reoperation. Mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly in both groups at 6 months (p<0.001) and 1 year (p<0.001) after surgery. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in visual acuity improvement at 6 months (p=0.108) or 1 year (p=0.094). Mean CMT of both groups also significantly decreased after surgery (p=0.002), with no statistical difference in CMT reduction between the two groups, but a trend toward less CMT reduction in group 1 (p=0.061). The rates of complications, including IOP elevation, ERM recurrence and frequency of reoperation, were similar in the two groups, with non-statistical trends toward greater ERM recurrence (p=0.084) and need for reoperation (p=0.096) in those that had combined surgery. Combined surgery for ERMs and cataracts may potentially be as effective as membrane peeling alone with respect to visual and anatomical outcomes. Further studies are necessary to determine if there may be greater ERM recurrence or need for reoperation after combined surgery.
Bae, Donald S
Surgical simulation has become an increasingly important means of improving skills acquisition, optimizing clinical outcomes, and promoting patient safety. While there have been great strides in other industries and other fields of medicine, simulation training is in its relative infancy within pediatric orthopaedics. Nonetheless, simulation has the potential to be an important component of Quality-Safety-Value Initiative of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA). The purpose of this article will be to review some definitions and concepts related to simulation, to discuss how simulation is beneficial both for trainee education as well as value-based health care, and to provide an update on current initiatives within pediatric orthopaedic surgery.
Asou, T; Rachmat, J
Pediatric cardiac surgery in Indonesia first developed thanks to the cooperation of various cardiac centers abroad. The establishment of the 'Harapan Kita' National Cardiac Center in 1985 was one of the most important initial steps. Thereafter, the discipline advanced remarkably in terms of the number of the operations performed and the variety of the diseases treated and, as a result, the surgical outcome also improved. Numerous problems remain to be solved. Only 1% of the children with congenital heart disease are today properly treated in Indonesia. Some of the underlying problems responsible for this situation include a shortage of pediatric cardiac professionals, the lack of the information and education on the part of the patients, and a shortage of funding, both privately and publicly. It would thus be welcome for pediatric cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in Indonesia to learn about congenital heart disease from doctors and nurses in advanced countries in order to improve the outlook at home.
Gower, Emily W; Lindsley, Kristina; Nanji, Afshan A; Leyngold, Ilya; McDonnell, Peter J
Background Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Data collection and analysis Two
Lin, Haotian; Chen, Weirong; Luo, Lixia; Congdon, Nathan; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhaochuan; Chen, Wan; Wu, Changrui; Zheng, Danying; Deng, Daming; Ye, Shaobi; Lin, Zhuoling; Zou, Xia; Liu, Yizhi
Regular follow-up is essential to successful management of childhood cataract. We sought to assess whether a mobile phone short message service (SMS) for parents of children with cataract could improve follow-up adherence and the proportion of procedures performed in timely fashion. Randomized, controlled trial. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01417819. We included 258 parent-child pairs involved in the Childhood Cataract Program of the Chinese Ministry of Health. Participants were randomized (1:1) to a mobile phone SMS intervention or standard follow-up appointments. All participants were scheduled to attend ≥ 4 follow-up appointments according to the protocol. Parents in the intervention group received SMS automated reminders before scheduled appointments. The control group parents did not receive SMSs or any alternative reminder of scheduled appointments. Regular ocular examinations and analyses were performed by investigators masked to group allocation; however, study participants and the manager in charge of randomization and sending SMSs were not masked. Number of follow-up appointments attended, additional surgeries, laser treatments, changes in eyeglasses prescription, and occurrence of secondary ocular hypertension. Among parent-child participants, 135 were randomly assigned to the SMS intervention and 123 to standard appointments. Attendance rates for the SMS group (first visit, 97.8%; second, 91.9%; third, 92.6%; fourth, 83%) were significantly higher than those for the control group (first visit, 87.8%; second, 69.9%; third, 56.9%; fourth, 33.3%). The increase in attendance rate for total number of follow-up visits with SMS reminders was 47.2% (relative risk [RR] for attendance, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.78; P = 0.003). The number needed to remind (NNR) to gain 1 additional visit by 1 child was 3 (95% CI, 1.8-4.2). A total of 247 clinical interventions were carried out in the SMS group and 134 in the control group
Grisotti, Gabriella; Cowles, Robert A
This review highlights the complications and their risk factors encountered in pediatric hepatobiliary surgery, specifically in the context of pediatric hepatic resection, excision of choledochal cyst, and the Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy procedure for biliary atresia as well as other procedures potentially affecting the biliary tree. With the understanding that these are relatively rare procedures, case reports and small case series are included in addition to larger series when available. The review focuses on publications in English over the past 15 years. Complications included both surgery-specific pathology, such as biliary stricture after excision of choledochal cyst, and disease-specific entities, such as malnutrition in biliary atresia. This review may be useful when considering a particular procedure or in the discussion thereof with a patient and family. Additionally, it illuminates the need for additional work with larger patient databases to refine and expand our knowledge of these complications and precipitating risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sulman, Cecille G.
Adenotonsillectomy is the most common surgery performed for sleep disordered breathing with good outcomes. Children with obesity, craniofacial disorders, and neurologic impairment are at risk for persistent sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy. Techniques exist to address obstructive lesions of the palate, tongue base, or craniofacial skeleton in children with persistent sleep apnea. Children with obstructive sleep apnea have a higher rate of peri-operative complications. PMID:24926473
Matsuura, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Dai; Sasaki, Shin-Ichi; Yakura, Keiko; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Sakamoto, Masako
To determine the antiseptic efficacy of timely intraoperative iodine irrigation during cataract surgery. A total of 198 eyes of 99 cataract surgery patients were studied. The eyes were randomly assigned to treatment with or without timely intraoperative iodine irrigation of the surgical field with an iodine compound equivalent to 0.33 % povidone-iodine. In eyes in the timely intraoperative iodine irrigation group, the ocular surface was irrigated twice intraoperatively-before the initial incision and before insertion of the intraocular lens (IOL). The efficacy of the antiseptic treatment was evaluated by culture tests using scrapings of the surface of the sclerocornea and conjunctiva to the left of the incision and by broad-range real-time PCR for bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA using scrapings from the right side of the incision. Following intraoperative application of the iodine, bacteria were not detected in cultures of the samples. For the control eyes without timely iodine irrigation, cultures of samples from five and two eyes were positive before the initial incision and before IOL insertion, respectively. The bacterial DNA copy number before the initial incision was 1.7 ± 0.5 × 10(3), which was significantly lower than that of the control eyes (1.7 ± 0.6 × 10(4)). For both groups of eyes, the bacterial DNA copy number was significantly lower before the IOL insertion depending on the time course. When the antiseptic effect of the iodine irrigation and time course on bacterial DNA copy number was analyzed using generalized mixed linear regression, both were found to be significantly effective. No significant intraoperative epithelial defect was observed. The postoperative corneal endothelial cell count did not differ significantly between the two groups of eyes. Timely iodine irrigation can serve as a simple and useful adjunctive disinfection step in cataract surgery.
Pittner, Andrew C; Sullivan, Brian R
Purpose Comparison of resident surgeon performance efficiencies in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) versus conventional phacoemulsification. Patients and methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted on consecutive patients undergoing phacoemulsification cataract surgery performed by senior ophthalmology residents under the supervision of 1 attending physician during a 9-month period in a large Veterans Affairs medical center. Medical records were reviewed for demographic information, preoperative nucleus grade, femtosecond laser pretreatment, operative procedure times, total operating room times, and surgical complications. Review of digital video records provided quantitative interval measurements of core steps of the procedures, including completion of incisions, anterior capsulotomy, nucleus removal, cortical removal, and intraocular lens implantation. Results Total room time, operation time, and corneal incision completion time were found to be significantly longer in the femtosecond laser group versus the traditional phacoemulsification group (each P<0.05). Mean duration for manual completion of anterior capsulotomy was shorter in the laser group (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the individual steps of nucleus removal, cortical removal, or intraocular lens placement. Surgical complication rates were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion In early cases, resident completion of femtosecond cataract surgery is generally less efficient when trainees have more experience with traditional phacoemulsification. FLACS was found to have a significant advantage in completion of capsulotomy, but subsequent surgical steps were not shorter or longer. Resident learning curve for the FLACS technology may partially explain the disparities of performance. Educators should be cognizant of a potential for lower procedural efficiency when introducing FLACS into resident training. PMID:28203055
Prasher, Pawan; Sandhu, Jasdeep Singh
The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery in Indian population. The setting of this study was at the Sant Sarwan Dass Charitable Eye Hospital, Jalandhar, India. This is a clinic-based retrospective study. Charts of patients who underwent cataract surgery over a two-year period were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative keratometric measurements were collected and analyzed. The mean age of 2316 patients (2502 eyes) was 59.54 ± 10.96 years. The corneal astigmatism was less than 1.0 Dioptre (D) in 796 eyes (59.37 %), 1.0-1.99 D in 716 eyes (28.62 %), 2.0-2.99 D in 187 eyes (7.47 %) and more than 3.0 D in 114 eyes (4.56 %). The mean corneal astigmatism was 1.04 ± 1.04 D and showed a gradual increase with age after the fourth decade. The astigmatism was with-the-rule in 709 (28.34 %), against-the-rule in 1298 (51.88 %), and oblique in 598 (23.9 %) eyes. There was a shift in astigmatism from with-the-rule to against-the-rule with increase in age. Over 40 % of the Indian patients undergoing cataract surgery have more than 1.0 D of corneal astigmatism and may benefit from the use of toric intraocular lenses. These data can be useful in planning to make this technology available for the patients.
Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Movahedan, Asadolah; Motahari, Hooman; Djalilian, Ali R.
In this article we review essentials of diagnosis and management of ocular surface disease in patients who undergo cataract surgery. It is clearly shown that dry eye disease worsens following the cataract surgery in patients with prior history of ocular surface disease, Also new cases of dry eye might appear. Current strategies for the timely diagnosis and proper management of dry eye syndrome in the face of cataract surgery patients are mainly emphasized. To achieve the best outcome in cataract surgery, a healthy ocular surface is crucial. While ocular surface preparation is indispensable in patients with established ocular surface disease, it is also helpful in those with minimal signs or symptoms of surface disease. The current approach begins with early diagnosis and drastic management of ocular surface disease before cataract surgery using a stepwise regimen customized to each patient and disease severity. These measures are continued throughout and after the surgery. PMID:25278791
Wong, Margaret; Baumrind, Benjamin R.; Frank, James H.; Halpern, Robert L.
A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period. PMID:26951642
Wong, Margaret; Baumrind, Benjamin R; Frank, James H; Halpern, Robert L
A 53-year-old Caucasian man underwent femtosecond cataract surgery and then presented with pain and hand motions vision 1 day following surgery. Anterior segment examination showed a 2-mm-layered hypopyon, a well-centered intraocular lens in the sulcus, and an obscured view to the fundus. B-scan ultrasonography showed significant vitritis and that the retina was attached. A tap and an injection of vancomycin 1 mg per 0.1 ml and of ceftazidime 2.25 mg per 0.1 ml were performed. The tap eventually yielded culture results positive for Staphylococcus haemolyticus, which was sensitive to vancomycin. We report a case of endophthalmitis that occurred on postoperative day 1 following complicated cataract surgery. This is an uncommon bacterium that is not widely reported in the literature as a cause of endophthalmitis in the postoperative period. We urge clinicians to consider S. haemolyticus as an offending agent, especially when the infection presents very early and aggressively in the postoperative period.
Bouvet, L; Calderon, A-L; Augris-Mathieu, C; Diot-Junique, N; Benoit, M-P; Boselli, E; Fleury, J; Burillon, C; Allaouchiche, B
The current demographic situation in France regarding anesthesiologists calls for a reconsideration of anesthesia management for patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the requirement for anesthesiologist intervention during cataract surgery performed under topical anesthesia. Patients operated between November 2, 2011 and July 31, 2012 were included after indication of topical anesthesia for phacoemulsification proposed by the surgeon and confirmed by the anesthesiologist. Each patient was premedicated. All patients were monitored and supervised during the surgery by a nurse anesthesiologist. An anesthesiologist could be called at any time at the request of the surgeon or nurse anesthesiologist. For each patient, medical histories were recorded as well as the event "anesthesiologist called", along with the reason and the treatment performed. Five hundred and seventy-five phacoemulsifications were performed in 486 patients. The event "anesthesiologist called" was recorded 20 times: 18 times for hypertension, once for anxiety and once for non-emergent conversion to general anesthesia after a surgical complication. Each episode of hypertension was successfully treated by following the nicardipine protocol. Preoperatively uncontrolled hypertension was the only significant predictive risk factor for anesthesiologist requirement. These results question the usefulness of preoperative anesthesia consultation for all patients who underwent phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia, since this consultation does not lead to an anesthesiologist service. Intraoperative medical complications may be treated according to medical protocols developed jointly by surgeons and anesthesiologists. This practice may free up anesthesiologists' time, without compromising patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ni, W; Li, X; Hou, Z; Zhang, H; Qiu, W; Wang, W
Purpose Real-Life Vision Test (RLVT) is a newly developed performance-based measures of functional vision. This present study is designed to determine whether it could be a meaningful assessment for cataract surgery outcomes evaluation. Patients and methods Age-related cataract patients (56) who scheduled for bilateral cataract surgery and 44 age-matched controls were evaluated by four types of measurements: (1) demographic, medical, cognitive and depressive evaluation, and the reaction time testing; (2) clinical measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereopsis, and color perception); (3) the 25-item National Eye Institute's Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); (4) the RLVT. Spearman's coefficients and multiple regression analysis were conducted to investigate the relationship among RLVT, clinical measures, and self-report assessment of visual function. Results The results of RLVT, clinical measures, and NEI-VFQ total scores were improved significantly after cataract surgery. There were no differences between control subjects and post-surgery patients with respect to NEI-VFQ-25 total scores, self-rating depression scale scores and three tasks of RLVT. Change of RLVT was significantly associated with the change of clinical measures in the cataract group. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that change of distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity, and binocular contrast sensitivity were significant predictors of improvements of RLVT. Conclusions Cataract surgery could improve real-world visual ability effectively for cataract patients. Our study highlights the potential usefulness of RLVT as an adjunct to the current outcomes evaluation system for cataract surgery. The use of RLVT combined with clinical and self-survey methods may be the comprehensive strategy to manifest the impact of cataract surgery on patients' overall vision-related quality of life. PMID:26272444
Avetisov, S E
Variants of an approach towards choosing the means for aphakia correction after an early surgery for congenital cataract, made during the first life year of infant, are presented in the case study. The main requirements, which must be applicable to a correction method under the mentioned conditions, are substantiated. The key advantages of contact lenses are shown, from such stand point, versus other correction methods, including spectacles, intraocular lenses and refractive epikeratoplasty. Unstable anatomic-and-optic ocular parameters in the first-year life infants are the principle obstacle for the primary IOL implantation. The issue on a secondary IOL implantation must be individually decided at the age of 10 to 12.
Lansingh, Van C; Resnikoff, Serge; Tingley-Kelley, Kimberly; Nano, María E; Martens, Marion; Silva, Juan C; Duerksen, Rainald; Carter, Marissa J
To collect cataract surgery rates data in 19 Latin American countries over a 4-year period as data published to date have been limited. Cataract surgery rates were obtained from National Society of Ophthalmology, National VISION 2020/Prevention of Blindness Committee and Ministry of Health representatives for each country for 2005 to 2008. Economic (gross national income per capita) and other data were collected from publicly available databases. Linear and power correlations between gross national incomes and cataract surgery rates were calculated. Over the study period, most countries increased their cataract surgery rates, with the largest increases observed for Venezuela (186%), Nicaragua (183%), Costa Rica (100%), Uruguay (97%), and Peru (88%). Mean cataract surgery rates for 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 for the ensemble of countries were 1545, 1684, 1660, and 1822 per million population, respectively, with a growth over the study period of 17.9%, concurrent with an increase of 57 million (11.5%) in the population. A good correlation between cataract surgery rate and gross national income per capita was found (P < .001). Although progress is being made in the region, the cataract surgery rates represent only one parameter. When they are examined in the context of cataract surgical coverage it is clear that substantial proportions of bilaterally blind persons are still not receiving surgery.
Shentu, Xingchao; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Xiajing; Yu, Xiaoning
We conducted this meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of coaxial microincision cataract surgery (C-MICS) and standard coaxial small incision cataract surgery (C-SICS). The outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting C-MICS and C-SICS were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library in May 2015. The final meta-analysis was conducted on the following intraoperative and postoperative outcomes: ultrasound time (UST), effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), balanced salt solution use (BSS use), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), mean surgery time, endothelial cell loss percentage (ECL%), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), increased central corneal thickness (CCT), laser flare photometry values and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA). A total of 15 RCTs, involving 1136 eyes, were included in the final meta-analysis. No significant between-group differences were detected in EPT, BSS use, CDE, BCVA, laser flare photometry values or increased CCT. However, the C-MICS group showed less SIA (at postoperative day 7: p<0.01; at postoperative day 30 or more: p<0.01) and greater ECL% (at postoperative day 60 or more: p<0.01), whereas the C-SICS group required a shorter UST (p<0.01). The present meta-analysis suggested that the C-MICS technique was more advantageous than C-SICS in terms of SIA, but C-MICS required a longer UST and induced a higher ECL%. Further studies should be done to confirm our results.
Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Hashemi, Hassan; Mazouri, Arash; Rahman-A, Nazanin; Ashrafi, Elham; Mehrjardi, Hadi Z.; Roohipour, Ramak; Fotouhi, Akbar
Purpose: To report the outcomes of cataract surgery at a large referral eye hospital and to identify factors associated with less than excellent visual outcomes. Methods: Hospital records of patients, who had undergone age-related cataract extraction (1,285 procedures) within a two-year period were sampled randomly for 353 patients (405 eyes) and baseline characteristics were recorded. Up to three causes of visual loss (contributory reasons) were considered and the principal cause of “less than excellent outcome,” i.e., best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) <20/25 was defined as the primary reason. Results: Mean age of the participants was 68.6 years, and 50.7% of enrolled subjects were female. Phacoemulsification had been performed in 92.1% of cases. Out of 405 eyes, 54%, 78%, and 97% achieved BSCVA of ≥20/25, ≥20/40, and ≥20/200, respectively. Poor visual outcomes were significantly associated with older age (OR: 4.55 for age >70 years), female gender (OR: 4.64), ocular comorbidities (OR: 7.68), surgically challenging eyes (OR: 7.33), long and short eyes (versus eyes with normal axial length, OR: 3.24), and being operated on by a novice surgeon (OR: 2.41). The leading contributory reasons for unfavorable outcome, in descending order were maculopathy (17%), posterior capsule opacification (PCO, 11.8%), corneal opacity (5.7%), and degenerative myopia (5.4%). Conclusion: Maculopathy, PCO, corneal opacity, degenerative myopia and ARMD may contribute to unfavorable outcomes in cataract surgery. PMID:26730309
Jiang, Haofeng; Lin, Haotian; Qu, Bo; Chen, Weirong
To explore and establish a rational management workflow for a free cataract surgery program for the poor population in urban China, aiming to improve surgical efficiency. Establishment of a management workflow mainly includes system design and an auxiliary facility. System design procedures consist of outpatient screening, outpatient physical examination, surgical procedures, and postoperative clinic visits. After establishing the management workflow of cataract surgery, a free cataract surgery program was conducted for 15 months. Based upon the established management mode, 9003 patients received preoperative screening and 2358 underwent cataract surgery. During the 15-month investigation, each procedure was successfully conducted, the efficiency of screening and operation attained the highest standards in China, and no surgical malpractice occurred intraoperatively. In this study, a management workflow for cataract surgery was designed for a poverty relief project in urban China. During the 15-month project, the degree of patient satisfaction was enhanced without disrupting the normal practice and safety of the sponsor hospital.
Zimmermann-Paiz, Martin A; Quiroga-Reyes, Carlos R
Pediatric cataracts constitute an important cause of low visual acuity. The objective of the present work is to know the characteristics of this pathology in an ophthalmic attention unit of a developing country. A retrospective, descriptive, transversal study was carried out in 328 cases of pediatric cataracts (children between 0 and 14 years). 190 (57.9%) patients were male and 138 (42.1%) female, 145 (44.2%) cases were congenital cataracts and 183 (55.8%) acquired cataracts; 160 (48.8%) presented unilateral affection and 168 (51.2%) bilateral. The treatment was surgical in 98.2% of the cases. The mean age at diagnosis of congenital cataract was 34.9 months. The mean age of presentation of the acquired ones was 76.6 months. The treatment was abandoned in 70.58% cases of congenital cataracts and 64.10% of acquired cataracts. In the congenital ones, 44% presented visual acuity in the range of 20/200 and 20/70 and in the acquired ones, 32.5% were better than 20/30. The data found was not encouraging due to the late detection and the abandon of the treatment, which are bad prognosis factors.
Barría von-B, Fernando; Chabouty, Henriette; Moreno, René; Ortiz, Freddy; Barría M, Fernando
Endophtalmitis post cataract surgery is one of most feared and devastating complications resulting in serious consequences and an uncertain visual prognosis. Antimicrobial prophylaxis against endophtalmitis must be based on the best knowledge of conjuntival microbiota. To establish microbiological basis for the best antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. A descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study. A preoperative conjunctival sample was taken from the lower fornix of 118 pacients, sowing it immediately in culture media. Identification of growing colonies and susceptibility testing were performed by manual or automated methods. 106 (89.8%) of 118 preoperative cultures were positive. 159 bacteria were isolated in single or mixed flora, with 95% of Gram positive organisms. Staphylococci represented 76.1% of isolated bacteria, with 82.6% of coagulase-negative staphylococci (SCN) and 17.4% of Staphylococcus aureus. Forty two percent of SCN and 38% of S. aureus were methicillin resistan; both groups showed high susceptibility to tobramycin and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones. we recommend the use of topical tobramycin as pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis associated with povidone-iodine antisepsis. A fourth-generation quinolone is recommended when there is risk of infection.
Becker, R; Schmidt, W; Viehl, H; Rupp, D
We compared intraocular pressure (IOP), vitreous pressure and several anaesthesiological parameters for patients who underwent cataract surgery with propofol anaesthesia, laryngeal mask and different supplementations with reference to the effect of S-ketamin in particular. In 4 groups with 15 patients cataract surgery (phacoemulsification) was carried out using anaesthesia with propofol, laryngeal masks and spontaneous breathing if possible, supplementation with propofol (0.6 mg/kg, group 1), S-ketamin (0.3 mg/kg, group 2), ketamin (0.6 mg/kg, group 3) or fentanyl (0.5 microgram/kg, group 4); IOP measurement with tonopen XL and scoring vitreous pressure at different times during anaesthesia (score 0-3). For IOP and vitreous pressure, none of the different supplementations showed a significant difference. Insertion of the laryngeal mask did not cause a rise in intraocular pressure. The number of patients with spontaneous breathing during the operation in group 4 was significantly lower than in groups 1-3. No significant differences were observed between the different anaesthesiological parameters. S-Ketamin had no significant effect on IOP and vitreous pressure during phacoemulsification. It offers a safe "handling" of patients because of a high spontaneous breathing rate and lower concentration compared to Ketamin.
Zhu, J; Li, Z H
The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and treatment results of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Five patients with endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this study. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, and surgical outcomes of 5 patients were compared. Three patients were surgically treated with anterior chamber irrigation and vitrectomy with intravitreal injection. The remaining two patients were medically treated with an intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime. Treatment results of the five patients were analyzed. Four patients had positive cultures for bacteria (two cases Staphylococcus epidermidis, one case Enterococcus faecalis, and one case head-like Staphylococcus). The culture of the fifth patient did not have bacterial growth. One year following treatment, four patients had restored visual acuity and a clear vitreous cavity. Retinal detachment and other complications were not observed. The remaining patient had a visual acuity of index at 30 cm one year following treatment. For patients with endophthalmitis after cataract surgery, a biochemical laboratory examination should be promptly performed and should include a bacterial culture and drug sensitivity test. When necessary, vitrectomy combined with an intravitreal injection of vancomycin should be performed to treat the infection early and to help retain useful vision.
Miyata, Kimie; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Mine, Masashi; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Ueda, Tetsuo; Kawasaki, Ryo; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the presence of prior cataract surgery and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in an elderly Japanese cohort. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a prospective, population-based, cross-sectional epidemiological study. The subjects were ≥68 years who lived in the Nara Prefecture and responded to recruitment notices. All of the subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmological examinations, and the sociodemographic information and medical history, including prior cataract surgery, were obtained by answers to a questionnaire. The associations between the BCVA, age, sex, and history of cataract surgery were determined. A total of 2,873 subjects whose mean age was 76.3 ± 4.9 (mean ± standard deviation) years were studied. The mean BCVA was −0.020 ± 0.14 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution units, and it was significantly better in the group with education ≥13 years (p < 0.01). Overall, 24.2% of the subjects had undergone cataract surgery, and 41.7% of the subjects ≥80 years had undergone cataract surgery. The incidence of prior cataract surgery increased with increasing age (p < 0.001 for trend). The mean BCVA of eyes with cataract surgery was significantly better than that of eyes without cataract surgery in subjects ≥80 years (p < 0.01). Visual acuity was generally good in this cohort of elderly Japanese subjects. In this cohort, 24.2% of the subjects had undergone cataract surgery, and the subjects ≥80 years had better BCVA than those without cataract surgery. PMID:28451472
McAlinden, Colm; Jonsson, Marina; Kugelberg, Maria; Lundström, Mats; Khadka, Jyoti; Pesudovs, Konrad
To develop a model for establishing indications for cataract surgery that incorporates clinical and questionnaire data on a single linear scale using Rasch analysis. In this prospective study, 293 preoperative cataract surgery patients (mean age, 72.8±10 years; age range, 33-98 years; 174 female, 119 male; 49% with ocular comorbidity) completed two questionnaires, and visual acuity was measured in each eye. A cataract impact model was developed using Rasch analysis incorporating questionnaire scores and visual acuity. Participants were ranked from 1 to 293 based on the order in which they presented (first in first out [FIFO]) and then were ranked based on the cataract impact model. The main outcome measure was the number of participants moving 49 (16.7% change) rank positions, which represented a likelihood to change priority category. The cataract impact model was unidimensional (fit statistics within 0.66-1.68) and had adequate precision (person separation of 2.58), and the components were well targeted to the population (0.05 logits between the mean item difficulty and person ability). Two hundred twenty-seven (77.5%) patients moved by at least 49 rank positions. It is possible to combine clinical and questionnaire data and rank patients on a single linear scale. This approach modifies the ranking that occurs with the FIFO model and can be used for prioritizing patients for surgical intervention. More sophisticated models incorporating more clinical information may provide a better measure of the cataract impact latent trait.
Malvankar-Mehta, Monali S; Filek, Richard; Iqbal, Munir; Shakir, Abubakar; Mao, Alex; Si, Francie; Malvankar, Madhukar G; Mehta, Siddhartha S; Hodge, William G
The objective of this project was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of immediately sequential bilateral cataract surgery (ISBCS) versus delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery (DSBCS) to determine whether ISBCS represents an appropriate, cost-effective way to rapidly rehabilitate a patient's visual impairment. A systematic review followed by a primary economic analysis with computer-based econometric modeling. Not applicable. We constructed a decision analytic model from the perspective of the public third-party payer (i.e., the Ministry of Health) to conduct a CEA of both surgeries, ISBCS and DSBCS. Cost data consisted of the costs of the surgery, intravitreal injections, medications, and drops, all of which were obtained from a comprehensive literature search and from records at St. Joseph's Hospital, London, Ont. The effectiveness was measured by the utility values associated with visual acuity in the better seeing eye. ISBCS resulted in an incremental effectiveness of 0.08 utility at an incremental cost of $1607. Discounting the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained by an annual interest rate of 3% resulted in 0.932 QALYs gained. The cost-effectiveness of ISBCS was calculated to be $1431 per QALY gained. A 1-way sensitivity analysis was performed by varying costs, utility values, probabilities, and discounting rates. This analysis varied the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio but did not change the conclusion. Health economics assessment showed that, compared with DSBCS, ISBCS is a cost-effective procedure. This finding will be highly useful to policy-makers, decision-makers, clinicians, hospital administrators, and payers in making cost-efficient decisions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kato, Yoshitake; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Asaoka, Ryo; Matsuya, Kanae; Fujio, Yuki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki
Purpose Modern cataract surgery is generally considered to bring about modest and sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. However, the pathophysiological mechanism for this remains unclear. Moreover, a change in ocular biomechanical properties after surgery can affect the measurement of IOP. The aim of the study is to investigate ocular biomechanics, before and following cataract surgery, using Corvis ST tonometry (CST). Patients and methods Fifty-nine eyes of 59 patients with cataract were analyzed. IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometry (IOP-G), axial length, corneal curvature and CST parameters were measured before cataract surgery and, up to 3 months, following surgery. Since CST parameters are closely related to IOP-G, linear modeling was carried out to investigate whether there was a change in CST measurements following cataract surgery, adjusted for a change in IOP-G. Results IOP-G significantly decreased after surgery (mean±standard deviation: 11.8±3.1 mmHg) compared to pre-surgery (15.2±4.3 mmHg, P<0.001). Peak distance (the distance between the two surrounding peaks of the cornea at the highest concavity), maximum deformation amplitude (the movement of the corneal apex from the start of deformation to the highest concavity) and A1/A2 velocity (the corneal velocity during inward or outward movement) significantly increased after cataract surgery (P<0.05) while radius (the central curvature radius at the highest concavity) was significantly smaller following cataract surgery (P<0.05). Linear modeling supported many of these findings, suggesting that peak distance, maximum deformation amplitude and A2 velocity were increased, whereas A2 deformation amplitude and highest concavity time were decreased (after adjustment for IOP change), following cataract surgery. Conclusion Corneal biomechanical properties, as measured with CST, were observed to change significantly following cataract surgery. Trial registration Japan Clinical Trials Registry UMIN
Hwang, Ho Sik; Ahn, Ye Jin; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Man Soo; Kim, Eun Chul
To compare the macular thickness and volume change, and inflammatory cytokine levels after cataract surgery performed using two different sizes of incision (microincision versus small incision). In this randomized, comparative clinical trial, 84 eyes with nuclear density from Grade 3-4 were randomly divided into two groups (microincision, 2.2 mm; and small incision, 2.75 mm). Forty-two patients underwent phacoemulsification with microincision coaxial cataract surgery and 42 patients underwent phacoemulsification with small incision coaxial cataract surgery. Clinical measurements included preoperative, 1-week, 1-month and 2-month postoperative best corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness (CCT) and endothelial cell count. ELISA and RT-PCR were performed for IL-1β, IL-6, VEGF and PGE2 preoperatively and at 1 week postoperatively. The percentage increase in CCT in the microincision group was significantly higher than that in the small incision group at 1 week after cataract surgery (p = 0.01). The increase in macular thickness in the microincision group was significantly higher than that in small incision group at 1 month after cataract operation (p = 0.04). Also, IL-1β, IL-6, VEGF and PGE2 concentrations and their expression ratio in the microincision group were significantly higher than those in the small incision group at 1 week after cataract surgery compared to the preoperative period (p < 0.05). Phacoemulsification with microincision coaxial cataract surgery may increase the macular thickness compared to phacoemulsification with small incision coaxial cataract surgery. Blood-aqueous barrier breakdown may occur more frequently after microincision cataract surgery than after small incision cataract surgery. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Roberts, Timothy V; Lawless, Michael; Sutton, Gerard; Hodge, Chris
The introduction of femtosecond lasers to cataract surgery has been the major disruptive technology introduced into ophthalmic surgery in the last decade. Femtosecond laser cataract surgery (FLACS) integrates high-resolution anterior segment imaging with a femtosecond laser allowing key steps of cataract surgery to be performed with computer-guided laser accuracy, precision, and reproducibility. Since the introduction of FLACS, there have been significant advances in laser software and hardware as well as surgeon experience, with over 250 articles published in the peer-reviewed literature. This review examines the published evidence relating to the LenSx platform and discusses surgical techniques, indications, safety, and clinical results. PMID:27799728
Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Seong-Joon; Yu, Young Suk
To evaluate the long-term visual outcome after early surgery of bilateral dense congenital cataracts, aphakic correction with glasses and secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation around 2 years of age. The medical records of paediatric patients who underwent cataract extraction, aphakic correction and secondary IOL implantation from 1993 to 2004 at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Age at secondary IOL implantation, axial length (AL), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, ocular alignment, stereopsis, and postoperative ocular complications were recorded. Thirty-seven paediatric bilateral pseudophakic patients were identified with a mean follow-up period of 81.4 months. Best corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better were attained in 44.0% of eyes, and the median BCVA was 20/50. Preoperative factors associated with poor visual prognosis included cataract surgery after 8 weeks of age, interocular AL difference of 0.5 mm or more, and glaucoma. Amblyopic eyes showed more myopic change compared to fellow eyes. Good or moderate binocular function was achieved in 18.9% of all patients. Incidences of strabismus, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacity formation were 46.0%, 32.4% and 4.0%, respectively. Good postoperative BCVA and binocular function were achieved in most healthy children with bilateral dense congenital cataract and no posterior segment pathology. Early cataract surgery, aphakic correction with glasses and secondary IOL implantation around 2 years of age appears to be appropriate methods. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.
Pager, C K
Aim: To investigate the effects of an informational video on patient expectations and satisfaction with day-stay cataract surgery. Methods: 141 patients undergoing day-stay cataract surgery were randomised into one of two video groups, explaining either what to expect from the cataract surgery or the anatomy of cataract. Patients were surveyed as to their expectations for visual outcome, anxiety, risk, and discomfort resulting from the surgery. After the operation, patients were again asked to rate their experience of anxiety, discomfort, risk, comprehension, overall satisfaction, and comparison with expectations. Results: 84% of patients already thought they received enough or too much information. The expectations video group expected more risk and discomfort than the anatomy video group. Yet, after the surgery, the expectations video group was significantly more satisfied, understood better what was happening to them, and felt less anxious. There was no difference in the discomfort or risk actually experienced, or the expected visual outcomes. Patients with previous cataract surgery experience expected less anxiety and discomfort, and found the surgery closer to their expectations. None the less, previous cataract surgery experience did not negate the effects of the video. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a simple, inexpensive videotape showing patients what to expect from cataract surgery results in significant increases in patient understanding of and satisfaction with the cataract surgery, as well as a decrease in anxiety. These effects were independent of patients’ expected outcomes or previous experience with cataract surgery, and despite the fact that patients generally thought they had already received enough information. PMID:15615737
Gurung, A; Karki, D B; Shrestha, S; Rijal, A P
an effective method for cataract surgery should be identified to combat cataract blindness. to study the surgical outcome of conventional extracapsular cataract extraction versus manual small-incision cataract surgery. a randomized clinical trial was carried out including one hundred eyes (88 patients) which were divided into two groups using systematic randomization: groups of conventional extracapsular cataract extractionwith posterior chamber intraocular lens (ECCE with PCIOL) implantation and manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). The postoperative parameters/variables studied were the unaided and best-corrected visual acuity and astigmatism. epi info 2000 version statistical software was used for data analysis and calculation of relative risk, 95% CI and p value. The p value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant. in the immediate postoperative period, unaided visual acuity of =or> 6/18 was achieved in 24 subjects in MSICS group versus 7 in ECCE with PCIOL group (RR=2.05, 95% CI= 1.44 - 2.94, p = 0.0002), whereas the same at 6 - 8 weeks postoperatively was found in 28 and 22 subjects in those groups respectively (RR=1l.27, 95% CI=0.86-1.89, p=0.23). The astigmatism of =or> 2 at6 - 8 weeks was found in 35 and 17 subjects from the conventional and MSICS groups respectively ( R=2.28, 95% CI= 1.39-3.73, p=0.0002). both MSICS and conventional ECCE with PCIOL are safe and effective techniques for treatment of cataract patients. A more rapid recovery of good vision can be achieved with MSICS than with conventional ECCE with PCIOL in the immediate postoperative period.
Rabiu, Muhammad Mansur; Jenf, Mansour; Fituri, Suad; Choudhury, Abdulhanan; Agbabiaka, Idris; Mousa, Ahmed
To assess the major causes of avoidable blindness, and outcomes and barriers to cataract services in Libya. A stratified multistage cluster random sample study was conducted in the four regions of Libya. Visual acuity and lens assessment were performed on all subjects. Those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 in either or both eyes were further investigated to determine cause(s) of impairment. Barriers to cataract surgery were investigated. Visual outcomes of subjects with surgery performed were assessed. A total of 8538 persons aged ≥50 years were examined across the four regions. The prevalence of blindness was 3.25% (3.15% with best correction), which varied across the regions (2.94-3.80%); after adjustment for age and sex, the prevalence was 2.66%. Major causes of blindness were cataract (29%), glaucoma (24%) and other corneal scars (14%). Causes were similar across all regions except in the south. Avoidable causes were responsible for 60.6% of blindness. Major causes of visual impairment were cataract (31.2%), diabetic retinopathy (16.6%) and posterior segment diseases (15.1%). Cataract surgical coverage among those with visual acuity <3/60 was 95.4%, with no sex differences. About 38% of cataract-operated eyes had poor outcome even after best correction (35%). There was poor outcome in 33% of pseudophakic eyes with best correction. The major barriers to service uptake were "waiting for maturity" (26%), "unaware of treatment" (24%) and "God's will/destiny" (17%). Libya needs to improve the quality of cataract surgery across all the regions. The southern region needs improvement in both quality and coverage of services.
Selvander, Madeleine; Åsman, Peter
To investigate initial learning curves on a virtual reality (VR) eye surgery simulator and whether achieved skills are transferable between tasks. Thirty-five medical students were randomized to complete ten iterations on either the VR Caspulorhexis module (group A) or the Cataract navigation training module (group B) and then two iterations on the other module. Learning curves were compared between groups. The second Capsulorhexis video was saved and evaluated with the performance rating tool Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill (OSACSS). The students' stereoacuity was examined. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in performance over the 10 iterations: group A for all parameters analysed including score (p < 0.0001), time (p < 0.0001) and corneal damage (p = 0.0003), group B for time (p < 0.0001), corneal damage (p < 0.0001) but not for score (p = 0.752). Training on one module did not improve performance on the other. Capsulorhexis score correlated significantly with evaluation of the videos using the OSACSS performance rating tool. For stereoacuity < and ≥120 seconds of arc, sum of both modules' second iteration score was 73.5 and 41.0, respectively (p = 0.062). An initial rapid improvement in performance on a simulator with repeated practice was shown. For capsulorhexis, 10 iterations with only simulator feedback are not enough to reach a plateau for overall score. Skills transfer between modules was not found suggesting benefits from training on both modules. Stereoacuity may be of importance in the recruitment and training of new cataract surgeons. Additional studies are needed to investigate this further. Concurrent validity was found for Capsulorhexis module. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2010 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Quintana, J M; Garcia, S; Aguirre, U; Gonzalez, N; Arteta, E; Escobar, A; Bare, M; Blasco, J A; Martínez-Tapias, J
The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics of patients undergoing cataract extraction and their outcomes. The method comprised a prospective cohort study of patients recruited from 17 hospitals of different areas of Spain. Data gathered before surgery included sociodemographic variables, visual acuity, and visual function (using the Visual Function Index-14). After surgery, we assessed visual acuity and visual function at 6 weeks and at 3 months, respectively. Multivariate multilevel analysis was performed to assess the relationship of sociodemographic variables with changes in visual acuity and function, analysing whether improvements surpassed the minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs). Multivariate analysis showed that for visual acuity, (i) older men had a lower odds ratio (OR) of surpassing the MCID (OR: 65-75 years, 0.64; >75 years, 0.51); (ii) those with primary (1.65) or secondary (1.41) education had higher ORs than those with no formal education; and (iii) those living in a residential home had a lower OR than men living alone (0.36). In women, we found that the higher the educational level, the greater the improvement in visual acuity (primary, 1.41; secondary, 1.76), whereas socially dependent women (0.70) were less likely to exceed the MCID. With regards to predictors related to achievement of an MCID in visual function, only dependency was associated with more improvement in men (OR: 1.39), whereas in women the educational level was the only predictor (primary: 0.72; secondary: 0.61). This study found that patients with certain sociodemographic characteristics were less likely to experience an MCID in visual acuity or visual function after cataract surgery.
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi; Højgaard-Olsen, Klavs; Subhi, Yousif; Saleh, George M; Park, Yoon Soo; la Cour, Morten; Konge, Lars
To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Multicenter masked clinical trial. Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Novices (non-independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR-32% and 38%, respectively-after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ortiz, Sergio; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Durán, Sonia; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Birkenfeld, Judith; de Castro, Alberto; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana
In vivo three-dimensional (3-D) anterior segment biometry before and after cataract surgery was analyzed by using custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). The system was provided with custom algorithms for denoising, segmentation, full distortion correction (fan and optical) and merging of the anterior segment volumes (cornea, iris, and crystalline lens or IOL), to provide fully quantitative data of the anterior segment of the eye. The method was tested on an in vitro artificial eye with known surfaces geometry at different orientations and demonstrated on an aging cataract patient in vivo. Biometric parameters CCT, ACD/ILP, CLT/ILT Tilt and decentration are retrieved with a very high degree of accuracy. IOL was placed 400 μm behind the natural crystalline lens, The IOL was aligned with a similar orientation of the natural lens (2.47 deg superiorly), but slightly lower amounts (0.77 deg superiorly). The IOL was decentered superiorly (0.39 mm) and nasally (0.26 mm).
Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko; Murakami, Akira; Okada, Annabelle A; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi; Yamagishi, Naoya; Tamura, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Takura, Tomoyuki
To evaluate with the best available clinical data in Japan the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery through the estimation of the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A Markov model with a probabilistic cohort analysis was constructed to calculate the incremental costs per QALY gained by cataract surgery in Japan. A 1-year cycle length and a 20-year horizon were applied. Best available evidence in Japan supplied the model with data on the course of cataract surgery. Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. In base case analysis, cataract surgery was associated with incremental costs of Japanese yen (¥) 551,513 (US$ 6,920) and incremental effectiveness of 3.38 QALYs per one cataract patient. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was ¥ 163,331 (US$ 2,049) per QALY. In Monte Carlo simulation, the average patient with cataract surgery accrued 4.65 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.75-5.69] more QALYs than patients without surgery, giving an ICER of ¥ 118,460 (95 % CI: 73,516-207,926) (US$ 1,486) per QALY. Cataract surgery in Japan is highly cost-effective even when allowing for the uncertainty of the known variability that exists in estimates of the costs, utilities, and postoperative complication rate.
Jacobs, Deborah S; Cox, Terry A; Wagoner, Michael D; Ariyasu, Reginald G; Karp, Carol L
This document evaluates currently available data in the published literature to answer the question of whether the use of dye such as indocyanine green or trypan blue to stain the lens capsule to improve visualization is safe and effective as an adjunct to cataract surgery. Literature searches conducted in March 2003 and May 2004 retrieved 139 citations. The panel members reviewed the abstracts and selected 47 of possible clinical relevance for review. An additional 14 articles were identified for evaluation. Of the 61 articles reviewed, the panel members selected 36 for the panel methodologist to review and rate according to the strength of the evidence. A level I rating was assigned to properly conducted, well-designed, randomized clinical trials; a level II rating was assigned to well-designed cohort and case-control studies; and a level III rating was assigned to case series and case reports. There is level III evidence that indocyanine green, trypan blue, and fluorescein are each effective in staining the lens capsule and that indocyanine green and trypan blue provide better ease of use and visualization of the capsule than fluoroscein. There is level II evidence that staining the capsule is helpful in completing capsulorrhexis and that it is helpful for pediatric patients under age 5 years and in cases of white cataract. The overall surgical advantage of a completed continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis using dye has not been demonstrated, but this may be related to the outcome measures chosen rather than a failure to confer advantage. There are substantial data indicating that trypan blue 0.1% is not toxic to the cornea. There are limited data suggesting that indocyanine green 0.125% to 0.5% is not toxic to anterior segment structures. There are data confirming that dye is safe and effective as an adjunct for capsule visualization in cataract surgery. It is reasonable to use dye when inadequate capsule visualization may compromise the outcome in cataract
Rydenhag, Bertil; Cukiert, Arthur
This supplement includes the proceedings from the Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery Techniques Meeting held in Gothenburg (July 4-5, 2014), which focused on presentations and discussions regarding specific surgical technical issues in pediatric epilepsy surgery. Pediatric epilepsy neurosurgeons from all over the world were present and active in very fruitful and live presentations and discussions. These articles represent a synopsis of the areas and subjects dealt with there. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.
Linnaus, Maria E; Ostlie, Daniel J
Complications related to general pediatric surgery procedures are a major concern for pediatric surgeons and their patients. Although infrequent, when they occur the consequences can lead to significant morbidity and psychosocial stress. The purpose of this article is to discuss the common complications encountered during several common pediatric general surgery procedures including inguinal hernia repair (open and laparoscopic), umbilical hernia repair, laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, and laparoscopic appendectomy.
Aiello, F; Nasser, Q J; Nucci, C; Angunawela, R I; Gatzioufas, Z; Maurino, V
Keratoconus (KC) is a common ectatic disorder resulting in progressive corneal thinning and irregular astigmatism. It has been observed that patients affected by KC are more likely to develop lens opacities earlier compared to non-keratoconic patients. Intraocular lens (IOL) selection and refractive outcome prediction are among a number of factors that can make cataract surgery in keratoconic patients challenging. Accurate biometry is often difficult to obtain due to unreliable K measurements and lack of dedicated biometric formulae. The use of toric IOLs has also been investigated. Determining the stage of KC, pre-operative patient counselling and the preferred method of refractive correction are all crucial to obtain successful postoperative outcomes and good patient satisfaction. The use of toric IOLs can achieve good results only in selected low-grade keratoconic eyes.
Shentu, Xingchao; Zhang, Xin; Tang, Xiajing; Yu, Xiaoning
Background We conducted this meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of coaxial microincision cataract surgery (C-MICS) and standard coaxial small incision cataract surgery (C-SICS). Methods The outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting C-MICS and C-SICS were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library in May 2015. The final meta-analysis was conducted on the following intraoperative and postoperative outcomes: ultrasound time (UST), effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), balanced salt solution use (BSS use), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), mean surgery time, endothelial cell loss percentage (ECL%), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), increased central corneal thickness (CCT), laser flare photometry values and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA). Results A total of 15 RCTs, involving 1136 eyes, were included in the final meta-analysis. No significant between-group differences were detected in EPT, BSS use, CDE, BCVA, laser flare photometry values or increased CCT. However, the C-MICS group showed less SIA (at postoperative day 7: p<0.01; at postoperative day 30 or more: p<0.01) and greater ECL% (at postoperative day 60 or more: p<0.01), whereas the C-SICS group required a shorter UST (p<0.01). Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that the C-MICS technique was more advantageous than C-SICS in terms of SIA, but C-MICS required a longer UST and induced a higher ECL%. Further studies should be done to confirm our results. PMID:26745279
Noda, Yasuo; Ogawa, Asako; Toyama, Taku; Ueta, Takashi
To evaluate the impact of cataract surgery on subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness in the elderly. Prospective observational case series. This cohort study included 29 eyes of 29 patients with senile cataract, but no previous ocular surgery or other ocular abnormality. All 29 eyes received standard surgery by phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and central retinal thickness were measured at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of larger changes in subfoveal choroidal thickness, including sex, age, baseline choroidal thickness, axial length, refractive status before surgery, and duration of surgery. The 29 patients with senile cataract received cataract surgery without complication. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 193.8, 208.9, 210.2, and 209.3 μm at baseline and at postoperative 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, with a statistically significant increase after surgery (repeated-measures ANOVA; P < .0001). In 20 eyes (69.0%), subfoveal choroidal thickness remained high even 6 months after surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed that male sex (P = .014) and thicker baseline choroid (P = .0048) predicted larger increases in subfoveal choroidal thickness. In contrast, the tendency of transient increase in central retinal thickness was not statistically significant. Most elderly patients with senile cataracts are expected to maintain increased subfoveal choroidal thickness for at least 6 months after cataract surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cillino, Salvatore; Casuccio, Alessandra; Di Pace, Francesco; Pillitteri, Francesco; Cillino, Giovanni; Lodato, Gaetano
Background Cataract day surgery has rapidly gained worldwide acceptance, because the new surgical techniques and costs are generally lower than those involved in ordinary hospitalization. Cataract surgery serves as a proxy indicator of the trend towards day surgery hospitalization in Italy and, therefore, of regional variability in health-care delivery and cost. The aim of this study was to update the diffusion of cataract day surgery through various surgical ophthalmological centers in central and southern Italy during 2005. Methods A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to draw a sample of Cataract Surgery Unit from Ophthalmic Units of central and southern Italy. A questionnaire was sent to 25 cataract surgery centers in nine health districts that represented the range of establishments (public, private, accredited or otherwise) in which cataract surgery is performed. Data were collected on numbers of procedures performed in 2005, hospital admission type, time from the onset of cataract day surgery, surgical procedure, and presence of other surgical centers. Results The response rate was 42% (10 surveys), resulting in at least one completed questionnaire for each of these 9 districts. There is a positive trend towards day surgery hospitalization in all surgical centers. The percentage of patients treated as outpatients during 2005 varied from 50–60% (Avellino, Naples, Campobasso), to 80–90% (Rome, Bari), up to 90–100% (Catania, Palermo, Siracusa and Trapani), with an increasing trend in all the centers studied. Few differences were found in surgical procedures, and these were statistically insignificant. Conclusion Our results confirm a positive trend towards day surgery in place of hospital inpatient admission for cataract surgery. This trend is expected to close the existing regional gap in Italy. Increased efficiency is an overriding need for the National Health Service in order to improve the rationalization of resources. PMID:17270040
Leon, Pia; Pastore, Marco Rocco; Zanei, Andrea; Umari, Ingrid; Messai, Meriem; Negro, Corrado; Tognetto, Daniele
AIM To evaluate and compare aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and aspheric monofocal IOL implantation with limbal relaxing incisions (LRI) to manage low corneal astigmatism (1.0-2.0 D) in cataract surgery. METHODS A prospective randomized comparative clinical study was performed. There were randomly recruited 102 eyes (102 patients) with cataracts associated with corneal astigmatism and divided into two groups. The first group received toric IOL implantation and the second one monofocal IOL implantation with peripheral corneal relaxing incisions. Outcomes considered were: visual acuity, postoperative residual astigmatism, endothelial cell count, the need for spectacles, and patient satisfaction. To determine the postoperative toric axis, all patients who underwent the toric IOL implantation were further evaluated using an OPD Scan III (Nidek Co, Japan). Follow-up lasted 6mo. RESULTS The mean uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCVA) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) demonstrated statistically significant improvement after surgery in both groups. At the end of the follow-up the UCVA was statistically better in the patients with toric IOL implants compared to those patients who underwent implantation of monofocal IOL plus LRI. The mean residual refractive astigmatism was of 0.4 D for the toric IOL group and 1.1 D for the LRI group (P<0.01). No difference was observed in the postoperative endothelial cell count between the two groups. CONCLUSION The two surgical procedures demonstrated a significant decrease in refractive astigmatism. Toric IOL implantation was more effective and predictable compared to the limbal relaxing incision. PMID:26309869
... Colors that seem faded Glare - headlights, lamps or sunlight may seem too bright. You may also see ... a hat with a brim to block ultraviolet sunlight may help to delay cataracts. NIH: National Eye ...
Mahmud, Imran; Kelley, Thomas; Stowell, Caleb; Haripriya, Aravind; Boman, Anders; Kossler, Ingrid; Morlet, Nigel; Pershing, Suzann; Pesudovs, Konrad; Goh, Pik Pin; Sparrow, John M; Lundström, Mats
Aligning outcome measures for cataract surgery, one of the most frequently performed procedures globally, may facilitate international comparisons that can drive improvements in the outcomes most meaningful to patients. To propose a minimum standard set of outcome measures for cataract surgery that enables global comparisons. A working group of international experts in cataract outcomes and registries was convened, along with a patient advocate, to agree on a consensus of outcome measures for cataract surgery. In a modified Delphi process, the group met regularly between November 10, 2012, and November 21, 2013, to discuss which outcomes to include in a standard set. Included factors were based on extant literature, existing registries, and the experience of group members. Similarly, a series of consensus discussions were held to determine a set of risk factors to be gathered for each patient. The final shortlist was compiled into a standard set. Analysis was performed from November 22, 2013, to April 5, 2014. Development of a recommended standard set encompassing preoperative metrics including patient risk factors, intraoperative factors including surgical complications, and postoperative cataract surgery outcomes. The recommended standard set encompasses all patients treated for cataracts by 1 of 4 surgical approaches (phacoemulsification, sutured manual extracapsular cataract extraction, sutureless manual extracapsular cataract extraction, or intracapsular cataract extraction). The recommended metrics to be recorded preoperatively include demographics, ocular history and comorbidities, preoperative visual acuity, and patient-reported visual function. The recommended outcomes were split into intraoperative and postoperative metrics. Intraoperative outcomes include capsule-related problems, dislocation of lens nucleus fragments into the vitreous, and other complications. Postoperative outcomes include visual acuity, refractive error, patient-reported visual
Jingami, Yoko; Otani, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
A patient with retinitis pigmentosa showed visual disturbances following successful cataract surgery. He had a dense asteroid hyalosis in the eye before cataract surgery. After the surgery he noticed that his vision became worse. The visual disturbance was explained as being caused by the progression of retinal degeneration. Although the electroretinogram was non-recordable, the degeneration of macular area appeared relatively small. We considered that dense asteroid hyalosis was responsible for his visual disturbances, and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed to remove the asteroid hyalosis. After the PPV, rapid improvement of his visual acuity was observed. Cataract surgery may affect the status of asteroid hyalosis and cause rapid visual loss. PPV should be considered for retinitis pigmentosa patients with dense asteroid hyalosis, especially when a large decrease in visual acuity is noted shortly after cataract surgery. PMID:21941506
Jingami, Yoko; Otani, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa
A patient with retinitis pigmentosa showed visual disturbances following successful cataract surgery. He had a dense asteroid hyalosis in the eye before cataract surgery. After the surgery he noticed that his vision became worse. The visual disturbance was explained as being caused by the progression of retinal degeneration. Although the electroretinogram was non-recordable, the degeneration of macular area appeared relatively small. We considered that dense asteroid hyalosis was responsible for his visual disturbances, and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed to remove the asteroid hyalosis. After the PPV, rapid improvement of his visual acuity was observed. Cataract surgery may affect the status of asteroid hyalosis and cause rapid visual loss. PPV should be considered for retinitis pigmentosa patients with dense asteroid hyalosis, especially when a large decrease in visual acuity is noted shortly after cataract surgery.
Wang, Weiye; Schaumberg, Debra A; Park, Sung Kyun
Cataract is a major cause of visual dysfunction and the leading cause of blindness. Elevated levels of cadmium and lead have been found in the lenses of cataract patients, suggesting these metals may play a role in cataract risk. This study aimed to examine the associations of blood lead, blood cadmium and urinary cadmium with cataract risk. We identified 9763 individuals aged 50 years and older with blood lead and cadmium levels, and a randomly selected subgroup of 3175 individuals with available urinary cadmium levels, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008 (mean age=63years). Participants were considered to have cataract if they self-reported prior cataract surgery in NHANES's vision examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using survey logistic regression models. We identified 1737 cataract surgery cases (the weighted prevalence=14.1%). With adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, cigarette smoking (serum cotinine and pack-years) and urine hydration, every 2-fold increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 23% higher risk of cataract surgery (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.46, p=0.021). We found no associations of cataract surgery with blood cadmium (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.07) and blood lead (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.06). Mediation analysis showed that for the smoking-cadmium-cataract pathway, the ratio of smoking's indirect effect to the total effect through cadmium was more than 50%. These results suggest that cumulative cadmium exposure may be an important under-recognized risk factor for cataract. However, these findings should be interpreted with a caution because of inconsistent results between urinary cadmium and blood cadmium.
García-Layana, Alfredo; Ciufo, Gianfranco; Toledo, Estefania; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Portillo, Maria P; Sorli, José V; Bulló, Mónica; Vinyoles, Ernest; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando
Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55-80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86-1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group versus the MedDiet + Nuts group. To
García-Layana, Alfredo; Ciufo, Gianfranco; Toledo, Estefania; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Estruch, Ramon; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miguel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Portillo, Maria P.; Sorli, José V.; Bulló, Mónica; Vinyoles, Ernest; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Arós, Fernando
Background: Cataract is a leading cause of vision impairment worldwide, and surgery is the only available treatment. The process that initiates lens opacification is dependent on the oxidative stress experienced by the lens components. A healthy overall dietary pattern, with the potential to reduce oxidative stress, has been suggested as a means to decrease the risk of developing cataract. We aimed to investigate the hypothesis that an intervention with a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) rather than a low-fat diet could decrease the incidence of cataract surgery in elderly subjects. Methods: We included 5802 men and women (age range: 55–80 years) from the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study (multicenter, parallel-group, randomized controlled clinical trial) who had not undergone cataract surgery. They were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: (1) a MedDiet enriched with extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (n = 1998); (2) a MedDiet enriched with nuts (n = 1914), and a control group recommended to follow a low-fat diet (n = 1890). The incidence of cataract surgery was recorded yearly during follow-up clinical evaluations. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention and the incidence of cataract surgery. Results: During a follow-up period of 7.0 years (mean follow-up period: 5.7 years; median: 5.9 years), 559 subjects underwent cataract surgery. Two hundred and six participants from the MedDiet + EVOO group, 174 from the MedDiet + Nuts group, and 179 from the control group underwent cataract surgery. We did not observe a reduction in the incidence of cataract surgery in the MedDiet groups compared to the control group. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84–1.26, p = 0.79) for the control group versus the MedDiet + EVOO group and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.86–1.31, p = 0.58) for the control group
Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Kaur, Avinash
AIM To compare the safety and efficacy of phacoemulsification and small incision cataract surgery (SICS) in patients with uveitic cataract. METHODS In a prospective, randomized multi-centric study, consecutive patients with uveitic cataract were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or manual SICS by either of two surgeons well versed with both the techniques. A minimum inflammation free period of 3mo (defined as less than 5 cells per high power field in anterior chamber) was a pre-requisite for eligibility for surgery. Superior scleral tunnel incisions were used for both techniques. Improvement in visual acuity post-operatively was the primary outcome measure and the rate of post-operative complications and surgical time were secondary outcome measures, respectively. Means of groups were compared using t-tests. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used when there were more than two groups. Chi-square tests were used for proportions. Kaplan Meyer survival analysis was done and means for survival time was estimated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS One hundred and twenty-six of 139 patients (90.6%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Seven patients were lost in follow up and another six excluded due to either follow-up less than six months (n=1) or inability implant an intraocular lens (IOL) because of insufficient capsular support following posterior capsule rupture (n=5). There was significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (paired t-test; P<0.001). On first postoperative day, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 20/63 or better in 31 (47%) patients in Phaco group and 26 (43.3%) patients in SICS group (P=0.384). The mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was 0.86±0.34 dioptres (D) in the phacoemulsification group and 1.16±0.28 D in SICS group. The difference between the groups was significant (t-test, P=0.002). At 6mo, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was
Khandelwal, R R; Raje, D; Rathi, A; Agashe, A; Majumdar, M; Khandelwal, R
Purpose To determine the efficacy of safe surgery system trabeculectomy combined with manual small incision cataract surgery/phacoemulsification in primary glaucoma coexistent with cataract. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 105 cases who underwent single-site combined surgery between January 2008 and December 2009. Safe surgery system trabeculectomy with diffuse and posterior application of mitomycin C was performed in all cases. Cataract extraction was done either by Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS) or phacoemulsification. Main outcome measures were success rate of trabeculectomy, as determined by four different IOP goals and incidence of postoperative complications. Analysis was performed using R-2.15, and the significance was tested at 5% level. Results The minimum follow-up period was 12 months. The overall success rates (with or without medication) when safe surgery system trabeculectomy was combined with MSICS were 91, 70, and 51% for IOP ≤18, ≤15, and ≤12 mm Hg, respectively, and target IOP was achieved in 72% cases. The mean IOP reduction was 43.8% with MSICS and 42.08% with phacoemulsification. The surgical outcome was not significantly different for both techniques. Postoperative complications were infrequent and comparable. Conclusion The Safe Surgery System Trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery offers excellent IOP control with minimal postoperative complications. It offers an effective and improved solution for primary glaucoma coexistent with cataract found in developing countries. PMID:25502867
Bensghir, Mustapha; Badou, Najlae; Houba, Abdelhafid; Balkhi, Hicham; Haimeur, Charki; Azendour, Hicham
Locoregional anesthesia techniques are increasingly used for cataract surgery. From these techniques, peribulbar anesthesia has been very successful over the retrobulbar anesthesia seen its effectiveness and safety. However, peribulbar anesthesia is not without risk. A 70-year-old African man was scheduled for cataract surgery and lens implant for his right eye. His medical history included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and gall bladder surgery. There were no personal or family antecedents of allergy, epilepsy or taking food or toxic drug. No abnormalities were detected in his preoperative evaluation. In the operating room, standard monitoring was installed and a peripheral venous catheter 18g was inserted. Peribulbar anesthesia was realized with two injections in primary gaze position. The anesthetic mixture contained lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5%. The needle used was 25GA, 19mm, ¾ inch. The first injection was performed in his lower temporal peribulbar space with 5mL of mixture; the second injection was performed with 3mL of mixture in his upper nasal peribulbar space. These injections were performed after a negative aspiration test and followed by manual compression of his globe for 5 minutes. Five minutes after peribulbar anesthesia, his blood pressure increased to 209/115mmHg requiring three bolus of nicardipine (3.0mg) to reduce his blood pressure to 134/56mmHg. One minute after, he had generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tracheal intubation was performed. His capillary blood glucose was 170mg/dL, axillary temperature was 36.5°C, and his serum electrolytes were normal. He recovered spontaneous ventilation 1.5 hours later. A neurological examination noted no deficit. Extubation was performed 15 minutes later without incident. A brain computed tomography and electroencephalogram were unremarkable. He was discharged on the second day and operated on 1 month later under general anesthesia. Various serious complications can occur during locoregional
Borisovsky, Gilad; Silberberg, Gilad; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Spierer, Abraham
Operations for congenital cataract in children in the past had resulted in aphakia. Improvement in surgical tools and techniques as well as in intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has led to correction of the aphakia by IOL implantation. We report the outcome of cataract surgery with and without IOL on these children in our institution between 1991-2008. In this retrospective cohort study, the medical records of all children who underwent surgery for congenital cataract were reviewed. The final study group included 144 children (218 eyes). Postoperative visual acuity (VA) was tested either by Teller Acuity Cards (in preverbal children) or by the Snellen chart. Data on VA status and postoperative complications were retrieved. Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA than patients with unilateral cataract (logMAR 0.559 ± 0.455 vs. 0.919 ± 0.685, respectively, P < 0.001). Children who underwent IOL implantation had better postoperative VA than those who did not, but the type of surgery had no significant effect after correction for the child's age at surgery (P = 0.346). Secondary cataract occurred more frequently in the extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) + IOL implantation group than in the ECCE only group (20.6 % vs. 8.3 %, respectively, P = 0.018). Patients with bilateral cataract had better postoperative VA compared with those with unilateral cataract. The type of surgery had no effect on final VA, but there was a higher rate of secondary cataract in the ECCE + IOL patients compared to the ECCE only patients.
Steinbach, P D; Bauer, J; Sunder Raj, P
A prospective, randomised, investigator-masked, parallel-group study was performed to compare fluorometholone-gentamicin eye drops and ointment with betamethasone-gentamicin eyedrops and ointment in the control of ocular inflammation after cataract surgery. Seventy patients (35 in each treatment group) of both sexes undergoing cataract-lens implant surgery for visually disabling cataract were enrolled in the study. The demographic and baseline parameters on day I, the day after surgery, were similar in the two study groups. After treatment, on day 3 and day 6 post-operatively, the reduction in cells in the anterior chamber and conjunctival hyperaemia were similar in the two study groups. Both treatments were equally well-tolerated. Ophthalmic fluorometholone-gentamicin was as effective as ophthalmic betamethasone-gentamicin in the control of ocular inflammation after cataract surgery.
Goodwin, Diamond M; Casey, Richard; Tsui, Irena
The aim of this report is to describe the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the rare complication of capsular block syndrome following combined cataract and vitrectomy surgery in a patient with intraocular gas.
Goel, Ruchi; Kamal, Saurabh; Kumar, Sushil; Kishore, Jugal; Malik, K. P. S.; Angmo Bodh, Sonam; Bansal, Smriti; Singh, Madhu
Purpose. To compare the feasibility of cataract surgery with implantation of endocapsular supporting devices and intraocular lens (IOL) in subluxated cataract in phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Design. Prospective randomized intervention case series consisting of 60 eyes with visually significant subluxated cataract. Method. The patients were randomly distributed between the two groups equally. The main outcome measure was implantation of in-the-bag IOL, requirement of additional procedure and complications, if any. Results. Capsular bag retention in subluxated lenses is possible in 90% cases in phacoemulsification versus 76.67% cases in MSICS (P = 0.16). Both groups, achieved similar best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.73), although additional procedures, intraoperative, and postoperative complications were more common in MSICS. Conclusions. Achieving intact capsulorhexis and nuclear rotation in MSICS may be difficult in cases with large nucleus size and severe subluxation, but subluxated cataracts can be effectively managed by both phacoemuslification and MSICS. PMID:22523646
Herbort, C P; Jauch, A; Othenin-Girard, P; Tritten, J J; Fsadni, M
To compare the anti-inflammatory effect of topical diclofenac sodium 0.1% in a fixed combination with gentamicin 0.3% to the anti-inflammatory effect of dexamethasone phosphate 0.1% in a prospective randomized double-masked double-dummy study in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Trial performed from June 1991 to April 1992 at the Hôpital Jules Gonin, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Inclusion of patients scheduled for extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with implantation of an all PMMA intraocular lens (IOL). Double-masked comparison of post-operative inflammation in two randomized treatment groups: (1) fixed diclofenac sodium 0.1%/gentamicin 0.3% and vehicle drops 4X/day until day 12-14 and diclofenac sodium 0.1% 3X/day until day 28. (2) dexamethasone phosphate 0.1% drops 4X/day until postoperative day 12-14 and 3X/day until day 28 and gentamicin 0.3% drops 4X/day until day 12-14. Anterior chamber flare and cells, measured by laser flare-cell photometry, were analyzed as the primary outcomes. Eighty-seven patients were recruited, 45 being assigned to the diclofenac group and 42 to the dexamethasone control group. Diclofenac was significantly better than dexamethasone at controlling flare at day 3 (p< or =0.01) and day 12-14 (p< or =0.002). Mean anterior chamber cells were also significantly lower at day 12-14 (p< or =0.021) and day 28 (p< or =0.012). The commonest adverse event was transient punctate keratitis, which occurred in 15 diclofenac and 3 dexamethasone patients. While both treatments were effective at controlling post-operative inflammation, the diclofenac-gentamicin combination followed by diclofenac alone was significantly better at suppressing flare and cells but showed a slightly higher incidence of punctate keratitis and eye discomfort.
Wang, Wei; Yan, William; Müller, Andreas; He, Mingguang
Cataract blindness accounts for a substantial proportion of blindness worldwide. Understanding the correlations between national levels of socioeconomic development with the quantity and quality of cataract surgery may provide insight for the prioritization and resource allocation for blindness prevention programs. The relationships between human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and visual outcome of cataract surgery were examined in a multinational study utilizing secondary data from the repository for Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease, United Nations, and the World Bank. A total of 266 RAAB studies across 73 countries/territories were retrieved. Linear regression model results revealed strong associations of HDI with prevalence of cataract blindness (β = -7.056, P < 0.001), CSC (β = 60.808, P = 0.004), proportion of intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (β = 87.040, P = 0.001), and proportion of cases with good vision outcomes among operated eyes (β = 73.351, P < 0.001) in studies performed between 1995 and 2009. Similar associations were observed for studies performed between 2010 and 2015. In addition, countries with lower GDP per capita showed a higher rate of cataract blindness (β = -0.527, P = 0.001), lower CSC (β = 9.800, P < 0.001), lower percentage of IOL implantation (β = 6.871, P = 0.001), and fewer patients with good vision outcomes after surgery (β = 7.959, P < 0.001). After controlling survey year, country, and other factors, GDP per capita and HDI were also found to be significantly associated with CSC and visual outcomes after cataract surgery (all P < 0.05). We documented the strong associations of socioeconomic indices with quantity and quality of cataract surgery. These socioeconomic indicators should be considered as important factors for developing strategies aimed to improve worldwide cataract surgery
Deuchler, Svenja; Singh, Pankaj; Müller, Michael; Kohnen, Thomas; Ackermann, Hanns; Iwanczuk, Joerg; Benjilali, Rachid; Koch, Frank
Introduction. To evaluate the impact of the eye lens status and oil side effects on the outcome of vitreoretinal surgery in retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and a temporary silicone oil tamponade (SOT). Methods. 101 eyes were analyzed retrospectively and 103 eyes prospectively in regard to their retinal reattachment success rate and key factors for the outcome. Subgroup analysis of 27 eyes with Scheimpflug lens photography (SLP) before and after retinal reattachment service with SOT was performed. For SLP (65% phakic eyes) a Pentacam densitometry reference body with 3 mm diameter was chosen and 3 segments (anterior/mid/posterior) were evaluated separately after a quality check. Results. The retinal reattachment rate was highest in the prospective pseudophakic group (p = 0.039). Lens transparency loss occurred earlier in middle aged patients than in younger patients. Besides the nucleus, layers posterior and anterior to it showed specific transparency changes. The emulsification rate was higher when eyes had been operated on in the anterior chamber before retinal reattachment service. Conclusions. Retinal reattachment surgery seems to benefit from preoperative cataract removal. We found significant lens changes in the nucleus as well as in the layers anterior and posterior to it. This corresponds to the histology of the lens epithelium published before. PMID:27034821
Soderberg, Per; Laurell, Carl-Gustaf; Simawi, Wamidh; Nordqvist, Per; Skarman, Eva; Nordh, Leif
We have developed a simulator for virtual phacoemulsification surgery. In the current study, the performance of one experienced cataract surgeon was compared to the performance of four subjects naive to cataract surgery. They all operated on the same virtual patient and a number of different response variables were measured. It was found that the experienced subject performed better than the naive subjects on almost all response variables. This indicates that the simulator developed by us is authentic for phaco emulsification surgery. The lack of negative effects in case of complications during virtual phacoemulsification surgery makes the phaco simulator that we developed a very attractive tool for learning phacoemulsification surgery.
Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed
To determine cataract surgery coverage rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. National cross-sectional population-based survey. Thirty randomly selected Australian geographic sites, stratified by remoteness. 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years or more and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or more, recruited and examined in the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) between March 2015 and April 2016. Participants underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire that collected socio-demographic information and past ocular care history, including cataract surgery. For those with visual acuity worse than 6/12, anterior segment photography and slit lamp examinations were conducted. Cataract surgery coverage rates according to WHO and NEHS definitions; associated risk factors. Cataract surgery coverage rates calculated with the NEHS definition 1 of vision impairment (visual acuity worse than 6/12) were lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous participants (58.5% v 88.0%; odds ratio [OR], 0.32; P < 0.001). According to the World Health Organization definition (eligibility criterion: best-corrected visual acuity worse than 6/18), coverage rates were 92.5% and 98.9% for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians respectively. Greater age was significantly associated with higher cataract surgery coverage in Indigenous (OR, 1.41 per 10 years; P = 0.048) and non-Indigenous Australians (OR, 1.58 per 10 years; P = 0.004). The cataract surgery coverage rate was higher for non-Indigenous than Indigenous Australians, indicating the need to improve cataract surgery services for Indigenous Australians. The WHO definition of the coverage rate may overestimate the cataract surgery coverage rate in developed nations and should be applied with caution.
Javitt, J C; Steinberg, E P; Sharkey, P; Schein, O D; Tielsch, J M; Diener, M; Legro, M; Sommer, A
To measure the relative effect of cataract surgery in the second eye compared with the first eye on functional impairment, satisfaction, and vision problems. Seventy-five randomly selected ophthalmologists in three cities in the United States were enrolled in a National Study of Cataract Outcomes. They, in turn, referred eligible, sequential patients scheduled for first-eye cataract surgery. Interviews were conducted at enrollment, 4 months after first-eye surgery, and 12 months after first-eye surgery. An attempt was made to conduct a special, preoperative interview of those patients scheduled to undergo second-eye surgery before the 4-month interview. Each interview included administration of the VF-14 (a 14-item questionnaire that assessed visual function), as well as questions about symptoms possibly related to cataract, "trouble with vision," and satisfaction with vision. Seven hundred seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study, and interview data to 12 months were obtained from 669 (86%) patients. Of these patients, 243 (36%) underwent cataract extraction in the second eye during the 12-month period of observation. Overall, subjects who underwent cataract surgery in both eyes during the 12-month period had 61% greater improvement in VF-14 score (P < 0.001), 27% more decline in trouble with vision (P < 0.001), and 24% greater improvement in satisfaction with vision (P < 0.001) compared with those who underwent surgery in only one eye. Cataract surgery in the second eye of patients with bilateral cataract is associated with clinical and statistically significant improvement in functional impairment, trouble with vision, and satisfaction with vision.
Fraser, Michelle L; Meuleners, Lynn B; Lee, Andy H; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel
Cataract affects not only vision, but also performance of everyday tasks, participation in social activities, quality of life and possibly depression. Depression is a major health issue for older adults. It is estimated that 6%-20% of community-dwelling older Australians experience depression. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vision-related quality of life and depressive symptoms after first eye cataract surgery and to determine which visual measures affect the change in these outcomes. In 2009 and 2010, 99 participants with bilateral cataract were recruited. Visual measures including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis were assessed 1 week before and 12 weeks after first eye cataract surgery. Vision-related quality of life was measured using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 20-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Separate regression analyses were undertaken to determine the association between visual measures and changes in vision-related quality of life and depressive symptoms after first eye cataract surgery. Overall, vision-related quality of life improved after first eye cataract surgery. There was a small, non-clinically significant improvement in depressive symptoms after surgery. Improvement in vision-related quality of life after first eye cataract surgery was associated with improved contrast sensitivity in the operated eye (P < 0.001), whereas improvement in depressive symptoms after surgery was associated with improved stereopsis (P = 0.032). Contrast sensitivity and stereopsis, but not visual acuity, were significant factors affecting improvement in vision-related quality of life or depressive symptoms after first eye cataract surgery. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M
AIM To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. METHODS In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). RESULTS According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). CONCLUSION A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost. PMID:27500115
Trigueros, José Antonio; Piñero, David P; Ismail, Mahmoud M
To define the financial and management conditions required to introduce a femtosecond laser system for cataract surgery in a clinic using a fuzzy logic approach. In the simulation performed in the current study, the costs associated to the acquisition and use of a commercially available femtosecond laser platform for cataract surgery (VICTUS, TECHNOLAS Perfect Vision GmbH, Bausch & Lomb, Munich, Germany) during a period of 5y were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering such costs and the countable amortization of the system during this 5y period. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic analysis was used to obtain an estimation of the money income associated to each femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (G). According to the sensitivity analysis, the femtosecond laser system under evaluation can be profitable if 1400 cataract surgeries are performed per year and if each surgery can be invoiced more than $500. In contrast, the fuzzy logic analysis confirmed that the patient had to pay more per surgery, between $661.8 and $667.4 per surgery, without considering the cost of the intraocular lens (IOL). A profitability of femtosecond laser systems for cataract surgery can be obtained after a detailed financial analysis, especially in those centers with large volumes of patients. The cost of the surgery for patients should be adapted to the real flow of patients with the ability of paying a reasonable range of cost.
Giles, Kagmeni; Domngang, Christelle; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Come, Ebana Mvogo; Wiedemann, Peter
AIM To describe a surgical technique suitable for cataract surgery in regions with a high prevalence of HIV infection. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of 20 consecutive AIDS patients with cataract who underwent modified small-incision cataract surgery (mSICS) with posterior chamber lens implantation. Classic extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was compared to mSICS. The number of potentially risky steps for contamination during surgery and duration of surgery were analyzed. A risky step was defined as any time when the surgeon had to use a sharp instrument. Student’s paired t-test was carried out to compare continuous variables, and P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty patients were included in the study, 13 males (65%) and seven females (35%). The mean age was 46.3 ± 13.6 years (range 22–70 years). The number of potentially risky steps for contamination was significantly higher in the classical ECCE than in mSICS (P < 0.001). The mean duration of cataract surgery with mSICS was significantly shorter as well (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Conversion to mSICS is essential in order to reduce accidental injuries during cataract surgery in sub-Saharan countries. Sharp instruments should be passed through a neutral zone to ensure that the surgeon and nurse do not touch the same instrument at the same time. PMID:26604848
Das, Sudeep; Kummelil, Mathew Kurian; Kharbanda, Varun; Arora, Vishal; Nagappa, Somshekar; Shetty, Rohit; Shetty, Bhujang K
To demonstrate the uses and applications of a microscope integrated intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography in Micro Incision Cataract Surgery (MICS) and Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery (FLACS). Intraoperative real time imaging using the RESCAN™ 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany) was done for patients undergoing MICS as well as FLACS. The OCT videos were reviewed at each step of the procedure and the findings were noted and analyzed. Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography was found to be beneficial during all the critical steps of cataract surgery. We were able to qualitatively assess wound morphology in clear corneal incisions, in terms of subclinical Descemet's detachments, tears in the inner or outer wound lips, wound gaping at the end of surgery and in identifying the adequacy of stromal hydration, for both FLACS as well as MICS. It also enabled us to segregate true posterior polar cataracts from suspected cases intraoperatively. Deciding the adequate depth of trenching was made simpler with direct visualization. The final position of the intraocular lens in the capsular bag and the lack of bioadhesivity of hydrophobic acrylic lenses were also observed. Even though Microscope Integrated Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography is in its early stages for its application in cataract surgery, this initial assessment does show a very promising role for this technology in the future for cataract surgery both in intraoperative decision making as well as for training purposes.
Chen, Haisi; Chen, Chengwei; Gao, Rongrong; Bao, Fangjun; Zhang, Sifang; Wang, Qinmei; Pesudovs, Konrad
Purpose To assess cataract surgery outcome using the Rasch scaled Chinese version of the Catquest short-form. Methods The Chinese translated and culturally adapted version of the Catquest-9SF was interviewer-administered to patients, pre and post cataract surgery. Rasch analysis was performed on the baseline data to revise the Catquest. For the surgical outcome assessment, we stacked pre- and post-surgical Catquest data to demonstrate improvement in visual function scores and responsiveness of the instrument to cataract surgery. Results A total of 247 cataract patients (median age, 70 yrs; male 51.0%) completed the Catquest 9SF at baseline.The Catquest-9SF possessed adequate measurement precision of 2.15. No disordering of response categories were observed and all the items perfectly fit to the Rasch model except item 7 (outfit >1.5). A slight reduction in precision was observed after removing misfitting item 7 (Catquest-8SF-CN), but the precision value was well above the acceptable value of 2.00. Notably, the instrument was well targeted (mean person location 0.30), demonstrated no evidence of multidimensionality and DIF. At 12 months post-surgery, 74 (30%) patients came for follow-up and completed the Catquest. There was a significant improvement in the Catquest scores post cataract surgery with a considerably large effect size. Conclusion The Catquest-8SF-CN demonstrated promising Rasch based psychometric properties and was highly responsive to cataract surgery. PMID:27736889
Yu, Ji-guo; Ye, Ting; Huang, Qing; Feng, Yi-fan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Xun-an; Xiang, Yi
Purpose. To evaluate and compare the subjective sensations reported by patients during first and second cataract extractions. Methods. Consecutive patients undergoing bilateral sequential cataract extraction using phacoemulsification were recruited. Following cataract surgery, patients completed questionnaires designed to evaluate subjective sensations, including anxiety, eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity. Changes in painful sensations experienced by patients between the two surgeries were also recorded. Comparisons were also performed for each subjective sensation between different age groups (<50, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and >79 years). Results. A total of 127 patients were included in the final evaluation. Statistical comparison of the results showed that there were significant differences in perception of anxiety, eye bulges, and pain scores between the first and second cataract surgeries (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistically significant difference for light sensitivity scores between the two surgeries (P = 0.555). The differences in anxiety, perception of eye bulges, pain, and light sensitivity scores between both the surgeries showed no correlation with age (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions. Our research confirms the common observation that patients with bilateral cataracts often report more ocular discomfort during the second surgery. There are, therefore, additional factors that should be considered upon treating patients with bilateral cataracts, and the provision of preoperative counseling could play an important role in providing adequate patient care. PMID:27239336
Cooper, Keith; Shepherd, Jonathan; Frampton, Geoff; Harris, Petra; Lotery, Andrew
Background: elective cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in developed countries. However, it is unclear whether cataract surgery on the second eye provides enough incremental benefit to be considered cost-effective. This study conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of second-eye cataract surgery in the UK. Design: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Methods: a decision-analytical model was developed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of second-eye cataract surgery, based on a comprehensive epidemiological and economic review to develop the parameters for the model. The model followed the clinical pathway of cohorts of patients receiving second-eye cataract surgery and included costs and health benefits associated with post-surgical complications. Results: in the model, second-eye surgery generated 0.68 additional quality-adjusted life years (QALY) with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £1,964 per QALY gained. In sensitivity analyses, model results were most sensitive to changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) gain associated with second-eye surgery, but otherwise robust to changes in parameter values. The probability that second-eye surgery is cost-effective at willingness to pay thresholds of £10,000 and £20,000 was 100%. Conclusion: second-eye cataract surgery is generally cost-effective based on the best available data and under most assumptions. However, there are only a small number of clinical trials for second-eye cataract surgery, and these have not been conducted in recent years. PMID:26410365
Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Kara, Necip; Bozkurt, Ercument; Cakir, Mehmet; Goker, Hasan; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk
Combined cataract surgery and transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy are a good option in patients with cataract and vitreoretinal diseases. To evaluate the effectiveness, outcomes, and complications of combined 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy and cataract surgery. A retrospective case series was conducted at the Beyoglu Eye Education and Research Hospital. In this study, 28 eyes of 28 patients underwent combined 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy and phacoemulsification and IOL implantation for cataract and various posterior segment diseases. The outcome measures included, visual acuity, intraocular pressure changes, and anatomical success were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 4.8 months (range, 3-15 months). Mean overall preoperative visual acuity was 20/333, and final acuity was 20/95 (P < 0.001). Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) on the preoperative and first postoperative day was 15.6 ± 7.5 and 13.8 ± 3.3 mmHg, respectively (P > 0.05). Three eyes (10.7%) had postoperative hypotony (<6 mmHg)that all recovered spontaneously within the first postoperative week. Three eyes (10.7%) required laser treatment for iatrogenic retinal tears. Anatomical success was obtained in all cases. No serious complications such as endophthalmitis were observed during the follow-up period. Combined transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy and phacoemulsification was effective and safe in patients with significant lens opacities and vitreoretinal pathology. Although the anatomic and visual outcomes were satisfactory, the outcomes depended mainly on underlying vitreoretinal pathology.
Megaw, R; Rane-Malcolm, T; Brannan, S; Smith, R; Sanders, R
To determine current knowledge and opinion on revalidation, and methods of cataract surgery audit in Scotland and to outline the current and future possibilities for electronic cataract surgery audit. In 2010 we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, Scottish-wide survey on revalidation knowledge and opinion, and cataract audit practice among all senior NHS ophthalmologists. Results were anonymised and recorded manually for analysis. In all, 61% of the ophthalmologists surveyed took part. Only 33% felt ready to take part in revalidation, whereas 76% felt they did not have adequate information about the process. Also, 71% did not feel revalidation would improve patient care, but 85% agreed that cataract surgery audit is essential for ophthalmic practice. In addition, 91% audit their cataract outcomes; 52% do so continuously. Further, 63% audit their subspecialist surgical results. Only 25% audit their cataract surgery practice electronically, and only 12% collect clinical data using a hospital PAS system. Funding and system incompatibility were the main reasons cited for the lack of electronic audit setup. Currently, eight separate hospital IT patient administration systems are used across 14 health boards in Scotland. Revalidation is set to commence in 2012. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists will use cataract outcome audit as a tool to ensure surgical competency for the process. Retrospective manual auditing of cataract outcome is time consuming, and can be avoided with an electronic system. Scottish ophthalmologists view revalidation with scepticism and appear to have inadequate knowledge of the process. However, they strongly agree with the concept of cataract surgery audit. The existing and future electronic applications that may support surgical audit are commercial electronic records, web-based applications, centrally funded software applications, and robust NHS connections between community and hospital.
Casparis, Heather; Lindsley, Kristina; Kuo, Irene C; Sikder, Shameema; Bressler, Neil M
Background Cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are common causes of decreased vision that often occur simultaneously in people over age 50. Although cataract surgery is an effective treatment for cataract-induced visual loss, some clinicians suspect that such an intervention may increase the risk of worsening of underlying AMD and thus have deleterious effects on vision. Objectives The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of cataract surgery in eyes with AMD., Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE (January 1950 to April 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to April 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 16 April 2012. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized trials of eyes affected by both cataract and AMD in which cataract surgery would be compared to no surgery. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias for included studies. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. Main results One RCT with 60 participants with visually significant cataract and AMD was included in this review. Participants were randomized to immediate cataract surgery (within two weeks of enrollment) (n = 29) or delayed cataract surgery (six months after enrollment) (n = 31). At six months, four participants were lost to follow-up; two
Muttuvelu, Danson V; Andersen, Carl Uggerhøj
To address the use of and knowledge about skills assessment and competency-based training in cataract surgery in European Board of Ophthalmology (EBO) member countries. A survey was emailed directly to all directors of the European societies in ophthalmology. The survey included queries about criteria to undergo training in cataract surgery, regulation of education in cataract surgery, and skills assessment and training methods. In addition, all Danish Eye Departments were further asked to what extent they find assessment tools useful, if competency-based training in cataract surgery would be an improvement, and if an assessment tool would be considered for use in future training of cataract surgeons. Training in cataract surgery in EBO countries is very diverse; although some EBO countries consider it mandatory in residency, most do not. In EBO countries where training is mandatory and regulated by the local health authority, the use of skills assessment tools and competency-based education are more prevalent (e.g., U.K., Ireland, Switzerland, and the Netherlands). In Denmark, training in cataract surgery is not mandatory, and none of the eye departments used assessment scores to evaluate their trainees; 63% did not believe that using assessment tools would improve the outcome of surgical training, and less than one-third would consider frequent use of assessment tools in the future. General unawareness and scepticism toward objective structured assessment of technical skills and a considerable heterogeneity in concept and organization of training in cataract surgery across EBO countries is an issue to address. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stojanovic, Nela R; Feingold, Vladimir; Pallikaris, Ioannis G
To compare clinical outcomes of three different techniques of combined cataract and Presbia Flexivue Microlens refractive corneal inlay (Presbia Coöperatief U.A., Amsterdam, Netherlands) implantation surgery for presbyopia compensation over a 12-month follow-up. In this comparative pilot study, 15 patients with bilateral cataract were allocated to one of three groups with a different combination of surgical steps (cataract surgery, intrastromal pocket creation, and inlay implantation). In the three-step group, the intracorneal pocket was created in the non-dominant eye, bilateral cataract surgery was performed 3 months later, and the intracorneal inlay was inserted 3 months after that. In the two-step at 3 days group, bilateral cataract surgery was performed 3 days after pocket creation and inlay implantation in the non-dominant eye. In the two-step at 3 months group, the pocket creation and the inlay implantation were performed in the non-dominant eye 3 months after bilateral cataract surgery. Visual, refractive, and contrast sensitivity outcomes were evaluated and compared between the three groups. Twelve months after the inlay implantation, mean monocular uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/32 in the three-step group, 20/32 in the two-step at 3 days group, and 20/25 in the two-step at 3 months group. Achieved mean monocular uncorrected near visual acuity was similar in the three groups (20/25). The visual and refractive outcomes did not show significant differences between groups. Contrast sensitivity was similar between groups under mesopic and photopic conditions. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed. Clinical outcomes of three different techniques of combined cataract surgery and refractive corneal inlay implantation had no apparent differences between them. The corneal inlay provided excellent near vision acuity, with high patient satisfaction and a high spectacle independence rate after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg
Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Guarnieri, Adriano; Guirao Navarro, María Concepción; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results. Sufficient mydriasis during cataract removal is critical to a successful surgical outcome. Poor pupil dilation can lead to serious sight-threatening complications that significantly increase the cost of surgery and decrease patients comfort. Mydriasis is obtained using anticholinergic and sympathomimetic drugs. Phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, can efficiently dilate the pupil when administered by intracameral injection. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ketorolac, which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, are used to decrease intraoperative miosis, control pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery, and to prevent the development of cystoid macular edema following surgery. Recently, a new combination of phenylephrine and ketorolac (Omidria®) has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for use during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis, prevent miosis, and reduce postoperative pain and inflammation. Clinical trials have shown that this new combination is effective, combining the positive effects of both drugs with a good safety profile and patient tolerability. Moreover, recent reports suggest that this combination is also effective in patients with high risk of poor pupil dilation. In conclusion, cataract is a global problem that significantly affects patients’ quality of life. However, they can be managed with a safe and minimally invasive surgery
Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Guarnieri, Adriano; Guirao Navarro, María Concepción; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel
Cataract, a degradation of the optical quality of the crystalline lens, progressive and age-related, is the leading cause of treatable blindness worldwide. Cataract surgery is the most common surgical procedure performed by ophthalmologists and is the only effective treatment for cataracts. Advances in the surgical techniques and better postoperative visual outcomes have progressively changed the primary concern of cataract surgery to become a procedure refined to yield the best possible refractive results. Sufficient mydriasis during cataract removal is critical to a successful surgical outcome. Poor pupil dilation can lead to serious sight-threatening complications that significantly increase the cost of surgery and decrease patients comfort. Mydriasis is obtained using anticholinergic and sympathomimetic drugs. Phenylephrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, can efficiently dilate the pupil when administered by intracameral injection. Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ketorolac, which inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, are used to decrease intraoperative miosis, control pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery, and to prevent the development of cystoid macular edema following surgery. Recently, a new combination of phenylephrine and ketorolac (Omidria(®)) has been approved by United States Food and Drug Administration for use during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis, prevent miosis, and reduce postoperative pain and inflammation. Clinical trials have shown that this new combination is effective, combining the positive effects of both drugs with a good safety profile and patient tolerability. Moreover, recent reports suggest that this combination is also effective in patients with high risk of poor pupil dilation. In conclusion, cataract is a global problem that significantly affects patients' quality of life. However, they can be managed with a safe and minimally invasive surgery
Bothun, Erick D; Lynn, Michael J; Christiansen, Stephen P; Neely, Dan E; Vanderveen, Deborah K; Kruger, Stacey J; Lambert, Scott R
To evaluate sensorimotor outcomes among children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Secondary outcome analysis was performed in this randomized, multicenter, clinical trial comparing treatment of unilateral aphakia with a primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens (CL) correction. The alignment characteristics and sensory status of children through age 5 years were evaluated. In the IATS study, 91 of 112 children (81%) developed strabismus through age 5 years. Of 34 infants who were orthotropic at near 12 months after cataract surgery, at age 5 years 14 (41%) were orthotropic at distance, and 15 (44%) were orthotropic at near at age 5 years without strabismus surgery. Eight of 56 children (14%) in the CL group and 13 of 56 (23%) in the IOL group were orthotropic at distance (P = 0.33) at 5 years of age and had no history of strabismus surgery. Thirteen of 48 (27%) who underwent cataract surgery prior to 49 days of age compared to 8 of 64 (13%) who had surgery after 49 days were orthotropic (P = 0.085). Median visual acuity in the operative eye was 0.4 logMAR (20/50) for children with orthotropia or microtropia (<10(Δ)) versus 1.10 logMAR (20/252) for strabismus ≥10(Δ) (P = 0.0001). Stereopsis was detected in 12 of 21 children (57%) with orthotropia versus 16 of 89 (18%) children with strabismus (P = 0.0006). IOL placement does not reduce the development of strabismus after monocular congenital cataract surgery. Improved ocular alignment by age 5 years correlated strongly with improved visual acuity and stereopsis. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cenk Kohen, Maryo; Beril Kucumen, Raciha
Abstract We report a cataract operation with complications in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patient had a grade 4 mature brown cataract. Phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was planned; however, due to unexpected complications occurring during surgery, the operating technique was revised to an intracapsular cataract extraction. A very high vitreous pressure was found and therefore scleral fixating IOL was not implanted after anterior vitrectomy because of the possibility of choroidal effusion. The postoperative visual acuity improved sufficiently for the patient to communicate. Visual communication is of vital importance for an ALS patient and his caregivers. Therefore, surgery may be advisable in patients at a terminal stage with an advanced cataract, even if their general health condition may not seem appropriate for such an operation. Nevertheless, the intra- and postoperative course of the surgery may show unexpected complications and the surgeon should be prepared for such conditions. PMID:21886620
Singh, Sarvesh Pal
Acute kidney injury is a common complication after pediatric cardiac surgery. The definition, staging, risk factors, biomarkers and management of acute kidney injury in children is detailed in the following review article. PMID:27052074
Yin, Xu-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Hong-Wei
The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a Video-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VeBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VeBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VeBIRD's effectiveness. PMID:26693249
Le, Hong-Gam; Ehrlich, Joshua R; Venkatesh, Rengaraj; Srinivasan, Aravind; Kolli, Ajay; Haripriya, Aravind; Ravindran, R D; Thulasiraj, R D; Robin, Alan L; Hutton, David W; Stein, Joshua D
Cataracts are a leading cause of reversible blindness in India, where millions of people can be effectively treated for this condition with surgery. The Aravind Eye Care System in southern India developed an efficient system for delivering high-quality and low-cost cataract surgery. We provide a detailed accounting of costs of cataract surgery at the system and a cost-utility analysis. Total costs per operation were US$120, or $195 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Using these data and population-based estimates of cataract prevalence, we calculate that eliminating cataract-related blindness and low vision in India would cost $2.6 billion and would yield a net societal benefit of $13.5 billion. Factors contributing to the highly cost-effective care at the Aravind Eye Care System include the domestic manufacturing of supplies, the use of a specialized workforce and standardized protocols, and the presence of few regulatory hurdles. Lessons learned from the system can help improve the delivery of cataract surgery and other ambulatory care surgeries in India and abroad.
The history of pediatric plastic surgery is linked to that of paediatrics. Until the early 19th century, there was no children's hospital. Only some operations were performed before the discovery of anesthesia, aseptic and antisepsis: cleft lip repair, amputation for polydactyly. Many operations were described in the 19th century for cleft lip and palate repair, hypospadias, syndactylies. The first operation for protruding ears was performed in 1881. Pediatric plastic surgery is diversified in the 2nd half of the 20th century: cleft lip and palate, burns, craniofacial surgery, hand surgery become separate parts of the speciality.
Cheung, D; Sandramouli, S
The aims of ideal preoperative informed consent include educating the patient adequately to enable an autonomous decision to be made without causing undue anxiety. We study how the paternalistic and nonpaternalistic approaches meet this ideal. The influence of the new patient consent forms is also assessed. Two cycles of a prospective clinical audit are presented. An assessment of relevant patient knowledge was performed by patient interview. Visual analogue scales were used to quantify patient anxiety. The first cycle, examining a paternalistic approach, demonstrated: 37% of patients understood what a cataract was and 48% understood what surgery involved. 48% misunderstood that cataract surgery was completely risk free. In total, 80% of patients undergoing second eye surgery believed that it was completely risk-free. Average anxiety visual analogue scores (VAS) for cataract surgery were low (2.89). The second cycle, examining the nonpaternalistic approach combined with the implementation of new consent forms showed that, despite more explicit repeated preoperative consent: 39% of patients understood correctly what a cataract was, 28% understood what surgery involved and 43% misunderstood that surgery was completely risk-free. All patients undergoing second eye surgery thought that it was risk-free. The average anxiety VAS for cataract surgery were moderate (5.00). Both paternalistic and non-paternalistic approaches to informed consent are inadequate in meeting the demands of the ideal informed consent. The new patient consent forms appear to have little effect in influencing patient knowledge about their surgery. Patients undergoing second eye surgery often have an overoptimistic view of cataract surgery.
Randall, Deborah A; Reinten, Tracie; Maher, Louise; Lujic, Sanja; Stewart, Jessica; Keay, Lisa; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R
To investigate variation in rates of cataract surgery in New South Wales, Australia by area of residence for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. Observational data linkage study of hospital admissions. Two hundred eighty-nine thousand six hundred forty-six New South Wales residents aged 30 years and over admitted to New South Wales hospitals for 444,551 cataract surgery procedures between 2001 and 2008. Analysis of linked routinely collected hospital data using direct standardization and multilevel negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering of individuals within Statistical Local Areas. Age-standardized cataract surgery rates and adjusted rate ratios. Aboriginal people had lower rates of cataract procedures than non-Aboriginal people of the same age and sex, living in the same Statistical Local Area (adjusted rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.75). There was significant variation in cataract surgery rates across Statistical Local Areas for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greater in major cities and less disadvantaged areas. Rates of surgery were lower for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people in most Statistical Local Areas, but in a few, the rates were similar or higher for Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people in New South Wales received less cataract surgery than non-Aboriginal people, despite evidence of higher cataract rates. This disparity was greatest in urban and wealthier areas. Higher rates of surgery for Aboriginal people observed in some specific locations are likely to reflect the availability of public ophthalmology services, targeted services for Aboriginal people and higher demand for surgery in these populations. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Leffler, Christopher T; Wilkes, Martin; Reeves, Juliana; Mahmood, Muneera A
Introduction. Previous cataract surgery studies assumed that first-eye predicted and observed postoperative refractions are equally important for predicting second-eye postoperative refraction. Methods. In a retrospective analysis of 173 patients having bilateral sequential phacoemulsification, multivariable linear regression was used to predict the second-eye postoperative refraction based on refractions predicted by the SRK-T formula for both eyes, the first-eye postoperative refraction, and the difference in IOL selected between eyes. Results. The first-eye observed postoperative refraction was an independent predictor of the second eye postoperative refraction (P < 0.001) and was weighted more heavily than the first-eye predicted refraction. Compared with the SRK-T formula, this model reduced the root-mean-squared (RMS) error of the predicted refraction by 11.3%. Conclusions. The first-eye postoperative refraction is an independent predictor of the second-eye postoperative refraction. The first-eye predicted refraction is less important. These findings may be due to interocular symmetry.
Leffler, Christopher T.; Wilkes, Martin; Reeves, Juliana; Mahmood, Muneera A.
Introduction. Previous cataract surgery studies assumed that first-eye predicted and observed postoperative refractions are equally important for predicting second-eye postoperative refraction. Methods. In a retrospective analysis of 173 patients having bilateral sequential phacoemulsification, multivariable linear regression was used to predict the second-eye postoperative refraction based on refractions predicted by the SRK-T formula for both eyes, the first-eye postoperative refraction, and the difference in IOL selected between eyes. Results. The first-eye observed postoperative refraction was an independent predictor of the second eye postoperative refraction (P < 0.001) and was weighted more heavily than the first-eye predicted refraction. Compared with the SRK-T formula, this model reduced the root-mean-squared (RMS) error of the predicted refraction by 11.3%. Conclusions. The first-eye postoperative refraction is an independent predictor of the second-eye postoperative refraction. The first-eye predicted refraction is less important. These findings may be due to interocular symmetry. PMID:24533181
Garg, Jyoti; Mathur, Umang; Acharya, Manisha Chabhra; Chauhan, Lokesh
Purpose: To report the indications, anatomical outcomes, functional outcomes and limitations of descemetopexy with intracameral injection of isoexpansile perfluoropropane (14% C3F8) in eyes with Descemet's membrane (DM) detachment after cataract surgery. Methods: This retrospective non-comparative interventional case series included 67 eyes of 67 patients who underwent descemetopexy at a tertiary eye hospital. The procedure consisted of descemet's membrane reattachment by injecting isoexpansile perfluoropropane (14% C3F8)intracamerally. Outcome measures were reattachment of DM, improvement in visual acuity, resolution of corneal edema, causes for failure of DM reattachment and complications. Results: Sixty-seven eyes of 74 patients were analyzed. Phacoemulsification (56.71%) had the highest DM detachment as compared to manual SICS in 19 (28.36%) and ECCE in 10 (14.93%) eyes. Descemetopexy with 14% C3F8 resulted in anatomical reattachment of DM in 71.64% and functional improvement in visual acuity in 74.63% of treated eyes. The location and the extent of DM detachment did not influence DM reattachment. Complete reattachment of DM occurred in all 26 eyes (100%) with planar type detachments, whereas with non-planar type detachments only 22 eyes (53.7%) achieved complete reattachment. Conclusion: Descemetopexy with isoexpansile perfluoropropane offers good surgical outcomes regarding visual acuity and resolution of corneal edema. PMID:27413497
Kara-Júnior, Newton; Dellapi Jr, Roberto; Espíndola, Rodrigo França de
To identify the difficulties in access to diagnosis and treatment of cataract in patients attended during a cataract campaign. A questionnaire was administered to patients selected for cataract surgery. We evaluated, among others, the following variables: prior access to ophthalmologists (public or private), reason(s) for not having surgery early in the initial service, the average cost charged by cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) (private services and agreements). A total of 627 patients was evaluated. Most of them - 595 (95%) had previously attended an ophthalmologist, and in 63% of cases (375 patients) the consultation had been held for less than a year. The last evaluation was performed by the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) in 52% of the cases (307 patients). Regarding the reason for not having surgery in the initial service, the high cost of the surgery (R$ 2.000 - R$ 4.000) and the cost of IOLs (R$ 1.000 - R$ 1.500) was the main obstacle for most attended services and private covenants. The results of this study suggest that the routine of ophthalmologic care in SUS at São Paulo is not prepared to answer the demand for cataract surgeries and private healthcare system still excludes a portion of the population. It is important to continue the implementation of community campaigns to serve the population that would be unable to access the surgery through conventional ways.
Yoon, Sang Chul; Jung, Jee Woong; Sohn, Hee Jin
Purpose This purpose of this report was to study trends in cataract and refractive surgeries conducted during the past twelve years and to compare results to previous reports from the ASCRS and New Zealand (NZ) in order to forecast future medical services. Methods We surveyed members of the Korean Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (KSCRS) every year from 1995 to 2006, and studied changes in cataract and refractive surgeries (RS). Results The duration of hospitalization has been gradually decreasing to the point that a one day hospitalization following surgery has become common. The rate of topical anesthesia use has significantly increased since 1998. Sutureless incision methods are now commonly practiced. The use of acryl IOL as an optic material has been gradually increasing for cataract surgeries. KSCRS members showed an interest in the special intraocular lenses as multifocal IOL. While Excimer laser PRK was the most popular refractive surgery during the first stage, KSCRS members increasingly prefer LASIK to the Excimer laser PRK. Regression of the corrected visual acuity, dry eye, night halo, and flashes were the most common complications following refractive surgeries. Medical disputes related to PRK and LASIK have been gradually increasing throughout the study period. Conclusions We confirm that the KSCRS practice styles for cataract and RS are similar to those of the ASCRS and NZ. We infer a world-wide trend from the comparison of these three societies. PMID:19794938
Yoon, Sang Chul; Jung, Jee Woong; Sohn, Hee Jin; Shyn, Kyung Hwan
This purpose of this report was to study trends in cataract and refractive surgeries conducted during the past twelve years and to compare results to previous reports from the ASCRS and New Zealand (NZ) in order to forecast future medical services. We surveyed members of the Korean Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (KSCRS) every year from 1995 to 2006, and studied changes in cataract and refractive surgeries (RS). The duration of hospitalization has been gradually decreasing to the point that a one day hospitalization following surgery has become common. The rate of topical anesthesia use has significantly increased since 1998. Sutureless incision methods are now commonly practiced. The use of acryl IOL as an optic material has been gradually increasing for cataract surgeries. KSCRS members showed an interest in the special intraocular lenses as multifocal IOL. While Excimer laser PRK was the most popular refractive surgery during the first stage, KSCRS members increasingly prefer LASIK to the Excimer laser PRK. Regression of the corrected visual acuity, dry eye, night halo, and flashes were the most common complications following refractive surgeries. Medical disputes related to PRK and LASIK have been gradually increasing throughout the study period. We confirm that the KSCRS practice styles for cataract and RS are similar to those of the ASCRS and NZ. We infer a world-wide trend from the comparison of these three societies.
Chaudhary, Kulbhushan Prakash; Mahajan, Deepti; Panwar, Praveen
Purpose: Scleritis is a rare presentation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus, complicated most commonly by iridocyclitis and raised intraocular pressure. These complications can recur in subsequent years, therefore they should be managed well. Case Report: We describe a female patient who developed scleritis, complicated cataract and secondary glaucoma 2 years after being diagnosed by HZO. Secondary glaucoma was managed medically, and the patient underwent extracapsular cataract extraction for the complicated cataract. Final visual acuity was 6/6 and IOP was 22.4 mm Hg. This is a rare report describing favorable long-term (>20 years) prognosis for surgical management of cataract associated with HZO together with scleritis, secondary glaucoma and post-herpetic neuralgia. Conclusion: A favorable outcome may be attained with surgery for complicated cataract associated with HZO if the condition is managed optimally and intraocular inflammation is well controlled. PMID:27413505
Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S
To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar
Inoue, M; Uchida, A; Shinoda, K; Taira, Y; Noda, T; Ohnuma, K; Bissen-Miyajima, H; Hirakata, A
Purpose To evaluate the images created in a model eye during simulated cataract surgery. Patients and methods This study was conducted as a laboratory investigation and interventional case series. An artificial opaque lens, a clear intraocular lens (IOL), or an irrigation/aspiration (I/A) tip was inserted into the ‘anterior chamber' of a model eye with the frosted posterior surface corresponding to the retina. Video images were recorded of the posterior surface of the model eye from the rear during simulated cataract surgery. The video clips were shown to 20 patients before cataract surgery, and the similarity of their visual perceptions to these images was evaluated postoperatively. Results The images of the moving lens fragments and I/A tip and the insertion of the IOL were seen from the rear. The image through the opaque lens and the IOL without moving objects was the light of the surgical microscope from the rear. However, when the microscope light was turned off after IOL insertion, the images of the microscope and operating room were observed by the room illumination from the rear. Seventy percent of the patients answered that the visual perceptions of moving lens fragments were similar to the video clips and 55% reported similarity with the IOL insertion. Eighty percent of the patients recommended that patients watch the video clip before their scheduled cataract surgery. Conclusions The patients' visual perceptions during cataract surgery can be reproduced in the model eye. Watching the video images preoperatively may help relax the patients during surgery. PMID:24788007
Sheffer, Benjamin W; Kelly, Derek M; Rhodes, Leslie N; Sawyer, Jeffrey R
Pain management after spinal deformity correction surgery for scoliosis in the pediatric population can be difficult. Deformity correction with posterior spinal fusion causes significant tissue trauma. Historically, pain control has been achieved with intravenous opiates. Opiates provide excellent analgesic effect; however, they have serious consequences when used alone. In adult total joint arthroplasty, multimodal pain control has become an increasingly common method to achieve pain control without these sequelae. Recently, the same techniques have been studied in pediatric spinal deformity correction surgery. This article outlines the state of pain management in pediatric spine patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Campbell, Robert J.; El-Defrawy, Sherif R.; Bell, Chaim M.; Gill, Sudeep S.; Hooper, Philip L.; Whitehead, Marlo; Campbell, Erica de L.P.; Nesdole, Robert; Warder, Daniel; ten Hove, Martin
BACKGROUND: Across Canada, graduates from several medical and surgical specialties have recently had difficulty securing practice opportunities, especially in specialties dependent on limited resources such as ophthalmology. We aimed to investigate whether resource constraints in the health care system have a greater impact on the volume of cataract surgery performed by recent graduates than on established physicians. METHODS: We used population-based administrative data from Ontario for the period Jan. 1, 1994, to June 30, 2013, to compare health services provided by recent graduates and established ophthalmologists. The primary outcome was volume of cataract surgery, a resource-intensive service for which volume is controlled by the province. RESULTS: When cataract surgery volume in Ontario entered a period of government-mandated zero growth in 2007, the mean number of cataract operations performed by recent graduates dropped significantly (−46.37 operations/quarter, 95% confidence interval [CI] −62.73 to −30.00 operations/quarter), whereas the mean rate for established ophthalmologists remained stable (+5.89 operations/quarter, 95% CI 95% CI −1.47 to +13.24 operations/quarter). Decreases in service provision among recent graduates did not occur for services without volume control. The proportion of recent graduates providing exclusively cataract surgery increased over the study period, and recent graduates in this group were 5.24 times (95% CI 2.15 to 12.76 times) more likely to fall within the lowest quartile for cataract surgical volume during the period of zero growth in provincial cataract volume (2007–2013) than in the preceding period (1996–2006). INTERPRETATION: Recent ophthalmology graduates performed many fewer cataract surgery procedures after volume controls were implemented in Ontario. Integrated initiatives involving multiple stakeholders are needed to address the issues facing recently graduated physicians in Canada. PMID:27920012
Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Sangah; Kim, Sung Soo; Epidemiologic Survey Committee Of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
To assess the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and previous cataract surgery. We studied 17,987 randomly selected participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who were aged ≥40 years and underwent additional ophthalmologic examinations in 2008‒12. The associations between previous cataract surgery and early/late AMD were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis of data from right or left eyes. Clustered multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using both eyes to assess inter-eye correlation in same subject. Previous cataract surgery and cataract subtypes were based on slit-lamp examination without pupil dilation. Early and late AMD diagnoses were based on non-mydriatic digital retinal image. By univariate logistic regression, both early and late AMD prevalence were higher in subjects with pseudophakia/aphakia compared to subjects with cataract as a reference group, or subjects with phakic eye (including clear lens) as a reference group. In univariate logistic regression, both early and late AMD prevalence were higher in eyes with cataract or pseudo/aphakia compared to eyes with clear lens. However, after adjusting for age with multivariate logistic regression, all statistically significant differences in AMD prevalence among subgroups disappeared. We found no association between the previous cataract surgery and increased early/late AMD risk in our representative, large, national patient database. This suggests that increasing age, and not cataract surgery history, is predictive of AMD risk. These findings are limited by cross-sectional study and need to be replicated by other longitudinal observational studies.
Falck, Aura A K; Saarela, Ville
Purpose. To determine whether phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation interferes with measuring optic nerve head (ONH) topography using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Methods. The study population consisted of 31 women and 12 men aged 63-81 years with no previous history of eye diseases, surgery, laser procedures, or medication. The patients underwent first eye cataract surgery for senile cataract. The HRT II with software version 1.6 was used to obtain 3-dimensional images of the ONH as a part of a comprehensive ocular examination. The quality of the HRT image was assessed using topography standard deviation (TSD). Topography measurements are considered to be unreliable if TSD is more than 50 µm. Re-examination took place 1 month after surgery. Results. Before surgery, the topography measurements were unreliable in 35% (15/43) of the eyes; in 3 of these cases, ONH topography could not be calculated at all. One month after cataract surgery, the ONH topography could be calculated in all eyes and only one displayed unreliable topography measurements. The mean TSD was 40 µm before and 22 µm after surgery when calculated for all eyes with measurable topographies. The change in TSD was statistically significant (p<0.0005). The image alignment between the HRT examinations before and after surgery was excellent in 67% (26/39). Magnification changes occurred in 21% (8/39). Conclusions. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery with IOL implantation improves the image quality of the HRT. However, because of magnification changes and image misalignment, HRT follow-up of the ONH after cataract surgery is often unreliable.
Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Xu, Xian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong
Rhegmatenous retinal detachment (RRD) is one of the most serious complications after phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. It has been reported that vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), as well as visual acuity rapidly decreased when RRD developed. However, little is known of the VRQoL in those RRD patients after anatomical retinal re-attachment, especially whether or not the VRQoL is higher than that before cataract surgery. In this prospective case series study, we use the Chinese-version low vision quality of life questionnaire (CLVQOL) to assess the changes of VRQoL in age-related cataract patients who suffered from RRD after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (phaco-IOL) implantation. All participants were asked to complete questionnaires in face- to-face interviews one day before and two weeks after cataract surgery, as well as one day before and three months after RRD surgery. A total of 10,127 consecutive age-related cataract patients were followed up to one year after phaco-IOL implantation; among these patients, 17 were diagnosed as RRD. The total CLVQOL scores and subscale scores except “Mobility” decreased significantly when RRD developed. After retinal surgery, only the score of “General vision and lighting” in the CLVQOL questionnaires improved when compared to the scores two weeks after cataract surgery, although the best corrected visual acuity of all patients significantly raised up. However, the mean CLVQOL scores and subscale scores were still considerably higher than the level prior to cataract surgery. Our study suggests that cataract patients at high risk of postoperative RRD should not deny the opportunity to undergo phaco-IOL implantation, even though potential VRQoL impairment induced by RRD exists. PMID:25764367
Zhu, Mingming; Huang, Jiannan; Zhu, Bijun; Sun, Qian; Xu, Xian; Miao, Yuyu; Zou, Haidong
Rhegmatenous retinal detachment (RRD) is one of the most serious complications after phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation surgery. It has been reported that vision-related quality of life (VRQoL), as well as visual acuity rapidly decreased when RRD developed. However, little is known of the VRQoL in those RRD patients after anatomical retinal re-attachment, especially whether or not the VRQoL is higher than that before cataract surgery. In this prospective case series study, we use the Chinese-version low vision quality of life questionnaire (CLVQOL) to assess the changes of VRQoL in age-related cataract patients who suffered from RRD after phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (phaco-IOL) implantation. All participants were asked to complete questionnaires in face- to-face interviews one day before and two weeks after cataract surgery, as well as one day before and three months after RRD surgery. A total of 10,127 consecutive age-related cataract patients were followed up to one year after phaco-IOL implantation; among these patients, 17 were diagnosed as RRD. The total CLVQOL scores and subscale scores except "Mobility" decreased significantly when RRD developed. After retinal surgery, only the score of "General vision and lighting" in the CLVQOL questionnaires improved when compared to the scores two weeks after cataract surgery, although the best corrected visual acuity of all patients significantly raised up. However, the mean CLVQOL scores and subscale scores were still considerably higher than the level prior to cataract surgery. Our study suggests that cataract patients at high risk of postoperative RRD should not deny the opportunity to undergo phaco-IOL implantation, even though potential VRQoL impairment induced by RRD exists.
Gogate, P M; Deshpande, M; Wormald, R P; Deshpande, R; Kulkarni, S R
Aim: To study “manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS)” for the rehabilitation of cataract visually impaired and blind patients in community based, high volume, eye hospital setting; to compare the safety and effectiveness of MSICS with conventional extracapsular cataract surgery (ECCE). Methods: In a single masked randomised controlled clinical trial, 741 patients, aged 40–90 years, with operable cataract were randomly assigned to receive either MSICS or ECCE and operated upon by one of eight participating surgeons. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were graded and scored according to the Oxford Cataract Treatment and Evaluation Team recommendations. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery and their visual acuity recorded. Results: This paper reports outcomes at 1 and 6 weeks. 706 of the 741(95.3%) patients completed the 6 week follow up. 135 of 362 (37.3%) of ECCE group and 165 of 344 (47.9%) of MSICS group had uncorrected visual acuity of 6/18 or better after 6 weeks of follow up. 314 of 362 (86.7%) of ECCE group and 309 of 344 (89.8%) of MSICS group had corrected postoperative vision of 6/18 or better. Four of 362 (1.1%) of ECCE group and six of 344 (1.7%) of MSICS group had corrected postoperative visual acuity less than 6/60. There were no significant differences between the two groups for intraoperative and severe postoperative complications. Conclusion: MSICS and ECCE are both safe and effective techniques for treatment of cataract patients in community eye care settings. MSICS needs similar equipment to ECCE, but gives better uncorrected vision. PMID:12770957
Gogate, P M; Deshpande, M; Wormald, R P; Deshpande, R; Kulkarni, S R
To study "manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS)" for the rehabilitation of cataract visually impaired and blind patients in community based, high volume, eye hospital setting; to compare the safety and effectiveness of MSICS with conventional extracapsular cataract surgery (ECCE). In a single masked randomised controlled clinical trial, 741 patients, aged 40-90 years, with operable cataract were randomly assigned to receive either MSICS or ECCE and operated upon by one of eight participating surgeons. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were graded and scored according to the Oxford Cataract Treatment and Evaluation Team recommendations. The patients were followed up at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery and their visual acuity recorded. This paper reports outcomes at 1 and 6 weeks. 706 of the 741(95.3%) patients completed the 6 week follow up. 135 of 362 (37.3%) of ECCE group and 165 of 344 (47.9%) of MSICS group had uncorrected visual acuity of 6/18 or better after 6 weeks of follow up. 314 of 362 (86.7%) of ECCE group and 309 of 344 (89.8%) of MSICS group had corrected postoperative vision of 6/18 or better. Four of 362 (1.1%) of ECCE group and six of 344 (1.7%) of MSICS group had corrected postoperative visual acuity less than 6/60. There were no significant differences between the two groups for intraoperative and severe postoperative complications. MSICS and ECCE are both safe and effective techniques for treatment of cataract patients in community eye care settings. MSICS needs similar equipment to ECCE, but gives better uncorrected vision.
Ganekal, Sunil; Nagarajappa, Ashwini
Purpose: To compare the morphological (cell density, coefficient of variation and standard deviation) and functional (central corneal thickness) endothelial changes after phacoemulsification versus manual small-incision cataract surgery (MSICS). Design: Prospective randomized control study. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized control study, patients were randomly allocated to undergo phacoemulsification (Group 1, n = 100) or MSICS (Group 2, n = 100) using a random number Table. The patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation and specular microscopy preoperatively and at 1and 6 weeks postoperatively. Functional and morphological endothelial evaluation was Noncon ROBO PACHY SP-9000 specular microscope. Phacoemulsification was performed, the chop technique and MSICS, by the viscoexpression technique. Results: The mean difference in central corneal thickness at baseline and 1 week between Group 1 and Group 2 was statistically significant (P = 0.027). However, this difference at baseline when compared to 6 week and 1 week, 6 weeks was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The difference in mean endothelial cell density between groups at 1 week and 6 weeks was statistically significant (P = 0.016). The mean coefficient of variation and mean standard deviation between groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05, both comparisons). Conclusion: The central corneal thickness, coefficient of variation, and standard deviation were maintained in both groups indicating that the function and morphology of endothelial cells was not affected despite an initial reduction in endothelial cell number in MSICS. Thus, MSICS remains a safe option in the developing world. PMID:24669147
Srinivasan, Sathish; Lyall, Douglas; Kiire, Christine
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) in its classic presentation is a unilateral, chronic, low grade, often asymptomatic anterior uveitis. It is characterized by a classic triad of iris heterochromia, cataract and keratic precipitates. Neovascularization of the iris and the anterior chamber (AC) angle (radial and circumferential) occurs in 6–22% of cases. This angle and iris new vessels can sometimes lead to a characteristic filiform haemorrhage and formation of hyphaema after AC paracentesis and is a hallmark of FHU known as Amsler–Verrey sign. This haemorrhage has been previously associated with trivial trauma, mydriasis, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, or it may occur spontaneously. In the setting of cataract surgery it has been previously reported with the use of a Honan balloon. We report a case of cataract and FHU where the Amsler–Verrey sign developed intraoperatively during a phacoemulsification procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of this sign occurring intraoperatively during cataract surgery. PMID:22767537
Srinivasan, Sathish; Lyall, Douglas; Kiire, Christine
Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) in its classic presentation is a unilateral, chronic, low grade, often asymptomatic anterior uveitis. It is characterized by a classic triad of iris heterochromia, cataract and keratic precipitates. Neovascularization of the iris and the anterior chamber (AC) angle (radial and circumferential) occurs in 6-22% of cases. This angle and iris new vessels can sometimes lead to a characteristic filiform haemorrhage and formation of hyphaema after AC paracentesis and is a hallmark of FHU known as Amsler-Verrey sign. This haemorrhage has been previously associated with trivial trauma, mydriasis, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, or it may occur spontaneously. In the setting of cataract surgery it has been previously reported with the use of a Honan balloon. We report a case of cataract and FHU where the Amsler-Verrey sign developed intraoperatively during a phacoemulsification procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of this sign occurring intraoperatively during cataract surgery.
Bjerrum, Søren Solborg
The main purpose of this thesis was to examine whether the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) could be used to monitor and assess the quality of cataract surgery in Denmark by studying the risks of two serious postoperative complications following cataract surgery - retinal detachment (RD) and postoperative endophthalmitis (PE). The thesis consists of four retrospective studies. In the first study (paper I), we used data from the NPR in the calendar period 2000-2010 to investigate the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) using the fellow non-operated eyes of the patients as reference. The study showed that over a 10-year study period, the risk of PRD was increased by a factor of 4.2 irrespective of sex and age. The risk of PRD was highest in the first part of the postoperative period and then gradually decreased but remained statistically significantly higher than the risk of RD in non-operated fellow eyes up to 10 years after cataract surgery. The epidemiology of RD in the non-operated fellow eyes was different from the epidemiology of RD in the background population as young men had the highest risk of RD in the non-operated fellow eyes. This means that the absolute risk of PRD was highest for young men because they had a higher risk of RD before they underwent cataract surgery. In the second study (paper II), we used data from the NPR and reviewed patient charts to assess the risk of PE after cataract surgery performed in public eye departments and private hospitals/clinics in the study period 2002-2010. The overall risk of PE among the seven public eye departments was 0.36 per 1000 registered cataract operations, and the PE risk among the departments was homogeneous. The overall risk of PE among the 28 private hospitals/clinics was 0.73 per 1000 registered cataract operations, and the risk among the private hospitals/clinics was heterogeneous. Most private hospitals/clinics had a risk of PE that was lower than or similar to the risk of PE after
Fyodorov, S N; Egorova, E V; Zubareva, L N
Traumatic cataracts occurring after ocular trauma were removed by phacoemulsification, cryoextraction or extracapsular cataract extraction, depending on the degree of lens absorption. All eyes received sputnik-style iridocapsular lenses. Most cases were complicated by the presence of synechiae and/or the need for iridoplasty. The surgical technique varied with the specific nature of the ocular pathology. Eyes with penetrating injuries has a higher complication rate. Anterior chamber shallowing or collapse was the most frequent intraoperative complication, and was directly related to the incidence of postoperative complications. Most postoperative complications were typical of those associated with cataract surgery in complicated situations.
Yasukawa, T; Suga, K; Yokoo, N; Asada, S
We report a patient with broad anterior synechias and corneal endothelial damage. The patient had chronic iritis and cataracts secondary to chronic iritis in both eyes. Because the right eye had broad anterior synechias and severe corneal endothelial damage, extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation were performed through the basal iris. Good postoperative visual acuity was obtained. The cornea showed little trauma from the surgery and remained clear 36 months postoperatively.
Bae, Steven S; Baxter, Stephanie
To assess the quality of the content of YouTube videos for cataract surgery patient education. Hotel Dieu Hospital, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Observational study. "Cataract surgery," "cataract surgery for patients," and "cataract surgery patient education" were used as search terms. The first two pages of search results were reviewed. Descriptive statistics such as video length and view count were obtained. Two cataract surgeons devised 14 criteria important for educating patients about the procedure. Videos were analyzed based on the presence or absence of these criteria. Videos were also assessed for whether they had a primary commercial intent. Seventy-two videos were analyzed after excluding 48 videos that were duplicate, irrelevant, or not in English. The majority of videos came from a medical professional (71%) and many depicted a real cataract surgery procedure (43%). Twenty-one percent of the videos had a primary commercial intent to promote a practice or product. Out of a total possible 14 points, the mean number of usefulness criteria satisfied was only 2.28 ± 1.80. There was no significant difference in view count between the most useful videos and other videos (p = 0.94). Videos from medical organizations such as the National Health Service were more useful (p < 0.0001). Cataract surgery videos are popular on YouTube, but most are not adequately educational. Patients may be receiving biased information from videos created with primary commercial intent. Physicians should be aware of the type of information patients may be accessing on YouTube.
Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Aihuan; Wang, Yinghuan; Fang, Xiaoqun; Ye, Ronghua; Lin, Jingyi
To explore the effects of the prevention and control of perioperative incision infection on the quality of day cataract surgery. The nursing care and efficacy of 5087 patients undergoing day cataract surgery between October 2012 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The disinfection and isolation guidance was established for perioperative prevention and control of infection, topical administration of ocular agents, reexamination and healthcare instruction, and alternative measures were taken. All 5087 patients successfully underwent day surgery of phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. All cases recovered without incision infection. Preoperative preparation, and intraoperative and postoperative prevention and control of infection serve as vital measures for effectively avoiding the incidence of incision infection in patients undergoing day cataract surgery.
Background Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. Methods Confidential interviews were conducted with all eye surgeons (Ophthalmologists & Non-Physician Cataract Surgeons [NPCS]) in Southern Region using semi-structured questionnaires. Eye care project managers were interviewed using open-ended qualitative questionnaires. All eye units were visited. Information on resources, costs, and the rates and determinants of surgical output were collected. Results Cataract surgery provision is uneven across Southern Region: 66% of the units are within 200 km of the regional capital. Surgeon to population ratios varied widely from 1:70,000 in the capital to no service provision in areas containing 7 million people. The Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in 2010 was 406 operations/million/year with zonal CSRs ranging between 204 and 1349. Average number of surgeries performed was 374 operations/surgeon/year. Ophthalmologists and NPCS performed a mean of 682 and 280 cataract operations/surgeon/year, respectively (p = 0.03). Resources are underutilized, at 56% of capacity. Community awareness programs were associated with increased activity (p = 0.009). Several factors were associated with increased surgeon productivity (p < 0.05): working for >2 years, working in a NGO/private clinic, working in an urban unit, having a unit manger, conducting outreach programs and a satisfactory work environment. The average cost of cataract surgery in 2010 was US$141.6 (Range: US$37.6–312.6). Units received >70% of their consumables from NGOs. Mangers identified poor staff motivation, community
Thanigasalam, Thevi; Reddy, Sagili Chandrashekara; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad
Purpose: Cataract surgery is the most common intraocular surgery performed all over the world and has advanced technically in recent years. As in all surgeries, complications are unavoidable. Herein we report factors associated with complications and visual outcomes of cataract surgery. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included data of 1,632 cataract surgeries performed from 2007 to 2010 which was obtained from the cataract registry of the Malaysian National Eye Database. Demographic features, ocular and systemic comorbidites, grade of surgeon expertise and duration of surgery, type of anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the type of intraocular lens were recorded. Best corrected visual acuities were compared before and after the operation. Results: Mean patient age was 66.9 years with equal gender distribution. The majority of subjects had age related cataracts. Phacoemulsification was done faster than other surgeries, especially by specialist surgeons. History of prior ocular surgery and operations performed under general anesthesia were associated with greater complications. Phacoemulsification was associated with less complications and better visual outcomes. The age and etiology of cataract did not affect complications. Malays, absence of ocular comorbidities, left eyes and eyes operated under local anesthesia were more likely to experience more visual improvement. Gender, age, cause of cataract, systemic comorbidities and surgeon expertise as well as intra-and postoperative complications did not affect the visual outcomes. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification had good visual outcomes in cataract surgery. Duration of surgery, expertise of the surgeon and complications did not affect the visual outcomes. PMID:27051481
Residual astigmatism after cataract surgery can be corrected by three different techniques: classic limbal relaxing incisions, easy to perform but with limited precision; laser refractive surgery (PRK or Lasik), additionally allowing for correction of spherical equivalent; and more recently the use of a piggyback toric intraocular lens in the ciliary sulcus.
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Smith, Phillip; Subhi, Yousif; Cour, Morten la; Tang, Lilian; Saleh, George M; Konge, Lars
To investigate the correlation in performance of cataract surgery between a virtual-reality simulator and real-life surgery using two objective assessment tools with evidence of validity. Cataract surgeons with varying levels of experience were included in the study. All participants performed and videorecorded three standard cataract surgeries before completing a proficiency-based test on the EyeSi virtual-reality simulator. Standard cataract surgeries were defined as: (1) surgery performed under local anaesthesia, (2) patient age >60 years, and (3) visual acuity >1/60 preoperatively. A motion-tracking score was calculated by multiplying average path length and average number of movements from the three real-life surgical videos of full procedures. The EyeSi test consisted of five abstract and two procedural modules: intracapsular navigation, antitremor training, intracapsular antitremor training, forceps training, bimanual training, capsulorhexis and phaco divide and conquer. Eleven surgeons were enrolled. After a designated warm-up period, the proficiency-based test on the EyeSi simulator was strongly correlated to real-life performance measured by motion-tracking software of cataract surgical videos with a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.70 (p = 0.017). Performance on the EyeSi simulator is significantly and highly correlated to real-life surgical performance. However, it is recommended that performance assessments are made using multiple data sources. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hardin, W D; Stylianos, S; Lally, K P
The current medical environment demands the provision of quality healthcare at an affordable cost. Both payors and regulators are committed to lowering cost through initiation of best practice strategies that include practice guidelines, clinical pathways, and standards of care. The only practical way to join this debate is through the use of objective, unbiased clinical data. This study was undertaken to review the current state of the pediatric surgery literature and its value in determining best clinical practice. The National Library of Medicine Medline database was accessed using the Ovid Internet client software. All references, abstracts, and keyword indexes from the core pediatric surgery literature, the Journal of Pediatric Surgery, the European Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Pediatric Surgery International, Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie, and Seminars in Pediatric Surgery were downloaded and reviewed. Search criteria were defined to identify prospective, randomized, controlled studies. References were then categorized as case reports; retrospective case series; prospective case series; randomized, controlled studies; laboratory studies; review articles; or miscellaneous studies. As of March 1, 1998, there are 9,373 references, excluding citations of letters or comments, contained in the core pediatric surgery literature, as provided through Medline. Of these, 485 were identified as studies for review, possible prospective case series or prospective, randomized, controlled studies. After review, 34 studies (0.3%) were classified as prospective, randomized, controlled studies, whereas 139 (1.48%) were classified as prospective studies. There were 3,241 (34.6%) case reports, 5,619 (59.9%) retrospective case series, 1,109 (11.8%) laboratory studies, 195 (2.1%) review articles, and 36 (0.3%) miscellaneous studies that did not fit into other categories. When analyzed by decade of publication, prospective studies and prospective, randomized, controlled studies
Shetty, Sathyendranath B
Introduction Pseudoexfoliation (PXE) is a genetically inherited condition affecting usually seen in those aged over 50 years. Surgical management of cataract in patients with PXE pose a challenge due to associated changes in ocular structures. Aim To study the challenges in the management of cataract in patients with PXE. Materials and Methods This was an interventional study conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of MS Ramaiah Medical College and Memorial Hospital, Bangalore from June 2012 to September 2014. All patients admitted for cataract surgery during this period who were diagnosed as cataract associated with PXE above 50 years of age belonging to either sex were included in the study. All patients underwent cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Depending on type of cataract both small incision and phacoemulsification operations were conducted. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were studied. The patients were reviewed up to 6 weeks postoperatively. Results A total of 50 eyes of 50 patients diagnosed as cataract with PXE underwent cataract surgery. Of which 40 eyes (80%) underwent small incision cataract surgery whereas, 10 (20%) underwent phacoemusification. Corneal thinning (<535 microns) was noted in majority of the cases (41 cases). Preoperatively there were 3 cases of zonular weakness. Pseudo exfoliation with glaucoma was seen in 5 cases. Intraoperative complications encountered during surgery were; zonular dialysis in 3 cases, posterior capsular tear in 2 cases, out of these 5 cases vitreous loss was seen in 3 cases. Postoperative complications were corneal odema in 17 cases, of which endothelium de-compensated in one case, while early posterior capsular opacification was seen in 6 cases. Final best corrected visual acuity was between 6/6-6/12 in 39(78%) eyes, 6/18 -6/36 in 6(12%) cases; 6/60 to less in 5(10%) cases. Conclusion Cataract surgery in eyes with PXE has higher incidence of intraoperative and postoperative
Huang, Wenyong; Ye, Ronghua; Huang, Shengsong; Wang, Decai; Wang, Lanhua; Liu, Bin; Friedman, David S; He, Mingguang; Liu, Yizhi; Congdon, Nathan G
The perceived difficulty of steps of manual small incision cataract surgery among trainees in rural China was assessed. Cohort study. Fifty-two trainees at the end of a manual small incision cataract surgery training programme. Participants rated the difficulty of 14 surgical steps using a 5-point scale, 1 (very easy) to 5 (very difficult). Demographic and professional information was recorded for trainees. Mean ratings for surgical steps. Questionnaires were completed by 49 trainees (94.2%, median age 38 years, 8 [16.3%] women). Twenty six (53.1%) had performed ≤50 independent cataract surgeries prior to training. Trainees rated cortical aspiration (mean score ± standard deviation = 3.10 ± 1.14) the most difficult step, followed by wound construction (2.76 ± 1.08), nuclear prolapse into the anterior chamber (2.74 ± 1.23) and lens delivery (2.51 ± 1.08). Draping the surgical field (1.06 ± 0.242), anaesthetic block administration (1.14 ± 0.354) and thermal coagulation (1.18 ± 0.441) were rated easiest. In regression models, the score for cortical aspiration was significantly inversely associated with performing >50 independent manual small incision cataract surgery surgeries during training (P = 0.01), but not with age, gender, years of experience in an eye department or total number of cataract surgeries performed prior to training. Cortical aspiration, wound construction and nuclear prolapse pose the greatest challenge for trainees learning manual small incision cataract surgery, and should receive emphasis during training. Number of cases performed is the strongest predictor of perceived difficulty of key steps. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Lundstrom, Mats; Behndig, Anders; Kugelberg, Maria; Montan, Per; Stenevi, Ulf; Pesudovs, Konrad
The purpose of this study was to use the Catquest-9SF to measure cataract surgery outcomes, and to use Rasch analysis to test the psychometric properties of this questionnaire, including its validity and responsiveness. Patients were recruited as consecutive cataract surgery patients during 1 month at six surgical units in Sweden (via the National Cataract Register). The patients completed the questionnaire before surgery and 3 months after. The Catquest-9SF data were assessed for fit to the Rasch model using version 3.63.2 of the WINSTEPS software (Winsteps.com, Beaverton, OR, USA). Both preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were included in the analysis. The responsiveness to cataract surgery was calculated as the effect size. Completed questionnaires before and after surgery were received from 846 patients. The Rasch analysis showed that the category thresholds were ordered. All items fit a single overall construct (infit range 0.79-1.40; outfit range 0.74-1.40). The ability to discriminate different strata of person ability was good, with a real patient separation of 2.58 and patient separation reliability of 0.87. The questionnaire showed unidimensionality and was largely free from differential item functioning. The item difficulty was reasonably well targeted to both preoperative and postoperative patient ability. The Catquest-9SF Rasch score correlated significantly with visual acuity, and cataract surgery resulted in a significant improvement with an effect size of 1.8. The Catquest-9SF shows excellent psychometric properties, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. It is highly responsive to cataract surgery, and its brevity (nine items) makes it well suited for use in daily clinical practice. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.
Olson, Randall J
To review the history of cataract surgery over the past 100 years, and to offer predictions about new developments that may occur during the next 50 years. Interpretive essay. Review of historical literature and author experiences pertaining to cataract surgery, with commentary and perspective. By this time, cataract surgery has advanced to the point that Kelman's introduction of phacoemulsification and use of intraocular lenses (IOLs), both very controversial when initially introduced, have become state of the art. Outpatient surgery, minimally limited mobility, sutureless incisions, and topical anesthesia also have become key components of standard treatment. The author envisions availability of medications for nuclear sclerosis and presbyopia, expansion of lens surgery for refractive purposes with postsurgical adjustment and unprecedented precision, increased mechanization of lens removal with emphasis on uncomplicated surgery rather than refractive precision, and accommodating IOLs all becoming standard. Acknowledging and appreciating the past contributions of pioneers in cataract surgery is vital to understanding the development of today's clinical care. Clues as to the future do help give us a possible scenario worthy of such conjecture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ganesh, Sri; Brar, Sheetal; Sreenath, Rohit
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and benefits of immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery. Retrospective data analysis of patients who underwent immediate sequential bilateral phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation under topical anesthesia from January 2011 to September 2016 was performed. Patients with visually significant bilateral cataract within the axial length range of 21.0-26.5 mm were included in the study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were evaluated. Two thousand four hundred and seventy eyes from 1235 patients with a mean age of 68.34 years (range: 4-90 years) were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.40 ± 0.17 to 0.08 ± 0.10 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution). Nearly 92.05% eyes achieved a target postoperative refraction of ± 0.5 D spherical equivalent. Main complications observed were prolonged postoperative inflammation in 25% (n = 31), posterior capsular tears in 0.45% (n = 11), and unilateral cystoid macular edema in 0.08% (n = 2) eyes. No sight-threatening complications such as endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, corneal decompensation and intraocular hemorrhage occurred in any of the eyes. Out of the 288 (23.2%) patients who underwent bilateral multifocal IOL implantation, 23 patients (46 eyes) had femtolaser-assisted cataract surgery procedure. Two pediatric and one Downs syndrome patient underwent bilateral cataract surgery under general anesthesia and intravenous sedation, respectively. IBSCS may be considered as a preferred practice in eligible cases considering significant patient benefits such as early visual rehabilitation, time and cost-effectiveness, and better compliance with postoperative medications. In debilitated patients and special situations, such as pediatric cataract and Downs syndrome requiring general anesthesia it may be the ideal procedure.
Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A; Alkuraya, Fowzan S
To assess for phenotype-genotype correlations in families with recessive pediatric cataract and identified gene mutations. Retrospective review (2004 through 2013) of 26 Saudi Arabian apparently nonsyndromic pediatric cataract families referred to one of the authors (A.O.K.) and for which recessive gene mutations were identified. Fifteen different homozygous recessive gene mutations were identified in the 26 consanguineous families; two genes and five families are novel to this study. Ten families had a founder CRYBB1 deletion (all with bilateral central pulverulent cataract), two had the same missense mutation in CRYAB (both with bilateral juvenile cataract with marked variable expressivity), and two had different mutations in FYCO1 (both with bilateral posterior capsular abnormality). The remaining 12 families each had mutations in 12 different genes (CRYAA, CRYBA1, AKR1E2, AGK, BFSP2, CYP27A1, CYP51A1, EPHA2, GCNT2, LONP1, RNLS, WDR87) with unique phenotypes noted for CYP27A1 (bilateral juvenile fleck with anterior and/or posterior capsular cataract and later cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis), EPHA2 (bilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature), and BFSP2 (bilateral flecklike with cloudy cortex). Potential carrier signs were documented for several families. In this recessive pediatric cataract case series most identified genes are noncrystallin. Recessive pediatric cataract phenotypes are generally nonspecific, but some notable phenotypes are distinct and associated with specific gene mutations. Marked variable expressivity can occur from a recessive missense CRYAB mutation. Genetic analysis of apparently isolated pediatric cataract can sometimes uncover mutations in a syndromic gene. Some gene mutations seem to be associated with apparent heterozygous carrier signs.
Khan, Arif O.; Aldahmesh, Mohammed A.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.
Purpose: To assess for phenotype-genotype correlations in families with recessive pediatric cataract and identified gene mutations. Methods: Retrospective review (2004 through 2013) of 26 Saudi Arabian apparently nonsyndromic pediatric cataract families referred to one of the authors (A.O.K.) and for which recessive gene mutations were identified. Results: Fifteen different homozygous recessive gene mutations were identified in the 26 consanguineous families; two genes and five families are novel to this study. Ten families had a founder CRYBB1 deletion (all with bilateral central pulverulent cataract), two had the same missense mutation in CRYAB (both with bilateral juvenile cataract with marked variable expressivity), and two had different mutations in FYCO1 (both with bilateral posterior capsular abnormality). The remaining 12 families each had mutations in 12 different genes (CRYAA, CRYBA1, AKR1E2, AGK, BFSP2, CYP27A1, CYP51A1, EPHA2, GCNT2, LONP1, RNLS, WDR87) with unique phenotypes noted for CYP27A1 (bilateral juvenile fleck with anterior and/or posterior capsular cataract and later cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis), EPHA2 (bilateral anterior persistent fetal vasculature), and BFSP2 (bilateral flecklike with cloudy cortex). Potential carrier signs were documented for several families. Conclusions: In this recessive pediatric cataract case series most identified genes are noncrystallin. Recessive pediatric cataract phenotypes are generally nonspecific, but some notable phenotypes are distinct and associated with specific gene mutations. Marked variable expressivity can occur from a recessive missense CRYAB mutation. Genetic analysis of apparently isolated pediatric cataract can sometimes uncover mutations in a syndromic gene. Some gene mutations seem to be associated with apparent heterozygous carrier signs. PMID:26622071
Nejat, Farhad; Sarahati, Sara; Nobari, Sahar Mojaled; Jadidi, Khosrow; Naderi, Mostafa; Nejat, Mohammad Amin
Purpose: To report the preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery in Iranian patients. Methods: This prospective case series included 21 eyes of 21 patients with cataract. Mean patient age was 66.7 ± 10 years. The patients underwent femtosecond-laser assisted cataract surgery (VICTUS Femtosecond Laser Platform: Bausch + Lomb) and intraocular lens (IOL) implementation in Bina Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran between May and October, 2014. Visual outcomes, intraocular pressure (IOP), and complications were evaluated three months after surgery. Results: Mean preoperative best-spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) was 0.40 ± 0.21 logMAR which significantly improved to 0.02 ± 0.03 logMAR three months postoperatively (P < 0.001). Mean preoperative IOP was 17.88 ± 2.70 mmHg which significantly decreased to 12.5 ± 1.51 mmHg three months after operation (P < 0.001). Mean duration of operation for these patients was 29.30 ± 8 minutes and mean femtosecond laser process time was 4.20 ± 2 minutes. In terms of complications, 9 patients developed fine subconjunctival hemorrhage and eye redness and 2 patients had mild corneal edema which all subsided within less than 7 days. Serious complications such as anterior or posterior capsule tears were not encountered. Conclusion: Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery is a relatively new method of cataract PMID:28299005
Lambert, Scott R.; Plager, David A.; Lynn, Michael; Wilson, M. Edward
Objective To evaluate the impact on visual acuity of reducing or abandoning patching therapy during the first six years of life after early unilateral cataract surgery. Methods We reviewed the medical records of nine children with unilateral congenital cataracts who underwent cataract surgery when ≤6 weeks of age. All had good compliance with optical correction until 6 years of age and patching therapy until at least 12 months of age. Results The children underwent cataract surgery at a mean age of 21.7 ± 9.5 days. At 12 months of age the children were patched a mean of 6.7 ± 2.4 hours/day. Patching compliance declined steadily thereafter. By 6 years of age, they were only being patched a mean of 1.7 ± 2.0 hours/day. Four children abandoned patching prior to the 6 year exam; the acuities improved or remained the same for three of these children, but worsened for one child by two lines. Conclusions Visual acuity remained relatively stable even when patching therapy was reduced or abandoned by children ≤ 6 years of age provided cataract surgery was performed during early infancy, an optical correction was consistently worn and there was good compliance with patching therapy during early childhood. PMID:18695101
Erkul, Evren; Duvvuri, Umamaheswar; Mehta, Deepak; Aydil, Utku
Pediatric robotic surgery is a relatively new technology that has been shown to be safe and feasible for a number of pediatric procedures. Our literature analysis was performed using Pubmed database between January 2005 and December 2015, using key words: "robotic," "robotic surgery," "TORS," "pediatric," "children," "head and neck," and "da Vinci". We selected only publications in English. Eight published reports met the selection criteria. We totally found 41 patients, and the age range was between 2 months and 19 years. The cases are 16 only lingual tonsillectomy, nine base of tongue and lingual tonsillectomy, two malignant disease in the oropharynx (high-grade undifferentiated sarcoma and biphasic synovial sarcoma), one tongue base thyroglossal duct cyst, 11 laryngeal cleft cyst, one posterior glottic stenosis, and one congenital true vocal cord paralysis surgeries. One intraoperative complication was reported. No patient needed postoperative tracheotomy. Hospital duration time had a range of 1-16 days. TORS is new for pediatric patients in head and neck areas, and there were few reports. It is becoming increasingly used in head and neck surgeries and those reports above are encouraging for pediatric robotic airway surgeries in otolaryngology in the future.
Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd
From antiquity through the Renaissance, congenital blindness was generally regarded as incurable, as noted in both medical and lay publications. The earliest reference to congenital cataract surgery that we identified, reported in 1663, referred to an 18-year-old female treated by English oculist John Stepkins (d. 1652). An examination of the literature related to the Stepkins family reveals the presence of male and female oculists during that period, including his daughter, Lady Theodosia Ivy. Eye waters attributed to Stepkins contained tutty (an oxide of zinc), roses, sugar candy, and other ingredients. Interestingly, John Thomas Woolhouse, the author of the next identified report of congenital cataract surgery in 1706, stated that he was related to Stepkins. Woolhouse reported by 1721 that he had performed 36 congenital cataract surgeries, with the youngest patient being 18 months of age.
Mönestam, E; Lundquist, B; Wachtmeister, L
Aims: To determine visual function in drivers who had cataract surgery 5 years previously, and to analyse longitudinal data, by comparing preoperative and postoperative changes in subjective driving ability and objective visual function. Methods: All patients (810) who underwent cataract surgery, during a 1 year period, were prospectively studied. Data regarding present driving status were collected from self administered questionnaires and visual acuity (VA) data were measured before and after surgery. All patients who were alive 5 years later were invited to participate with a new eye examination and questionnaire. Results: Before surgery 36 active drivers (16%) did not fulfil the visual requirements for driving; with improved glasses this number could be reduced to 24 (11%). 5 years after surgery, the corresponding figures were 5% and 3% (5/174), respectively. Before surgery 50% stated visual difficulties while driving in daylight and 79% in darkness. A few months and 5 years after surgery the corresponding figures were 6% and 5%, respectively, for daytime driving and 34% and 44%, respectively, for night-time driving. Conclusions: Long term results regarding cataract surgery in car drivers are beneficial. 5 years after surgery only a few patients drove not fulfilling the requirements, but there were a larger proportion of patients with problems driving in darkness compared with a few months after surgery. PMID:15774924
McGwin, Gerald; Scilley, Kay; Brown, Jay; Owsley, Cynthia
To examine the impact of cataract surgery on older adults' self-reported visual difficulties and compare them with those of patients with cataract who declined surgery over the same period. Twelve area practices. This was a consecutive chart review over a 6-month period. Primary inclusion criteria were 55 years or older, cataract in 1 or both eyes with 20/40 visual acuity or worse (best corrected, distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye. The Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS) and visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and disability glare tests were administered at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up visit. This study comprised 245 patients, 156 of whom elected to have cataract surgery and 89 of whom declined. Those electing surgery were more likely to be white, female, and have worse visual acuity and no ocular comorbidities. At baseline, ADVS subscale scores ranged from 53 to 76 in the surgery group and from 72 to 89 in the no-surgery group. In the surgery group, subscale scores improved by 15 to 21 points on average at the 1-year follow-up; scores were unchanged or worse in the no-surgery group over this period. This difference between the groups remained statistically significant after adjustment for group baseline differences in demographics, vision, and ADVS score. In the surgery group, visual acuity improvement in the first eye was an independent predictor of increases in the ADVS overall score and night driving and glare disability subscales; contrast sensitivity was an independent predictor of improvement in the night driving subscale. A reduction in disability glare in the second eye was independently linked to increases in the overall ADVS score and the night driving, near vision, and glare disability subscales. Baseline findings suggest that cataract patients who have surgery have more difficulty in visual tasks than those who decline surgery. After surgery, patients reported less difficulty with visual tasks. In the no-surgery group
Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Keke; He, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiangjia; Zhou, Peng; Lu, Yi
Purpose. To compare pain scores between first-eye and second-eye cataract surgery and to determine the affecting factors. Methods. 106 first-eye and 53 second-eye cataract surgery patients (mean age: 67 ± 13 and 69 ± 10 years, resp.) were enrolled. The patients completed simplified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and visual analog scale (VAS) for anxiety questionnaires before surgery, and VAS for pain and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale questionnaires after surgery. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded perioperatively. Results. A greater proportion of patients who underwent second-eye surgery reported intraoperative pain compared with first-eye surgery patients (85% versus 35%, P < 0.001). The pain scores were higher in second-eye surgery, while the VAS anxiety score was lower in second-eye surgery. Moreover, 31 patients reported greater pain during second-eye surgery than their first one, with higher pain scores than other 22 patients (P = 0.032 and 0.003, resp.). The VAS pain score of these 31 patients was positively correlated with the differences between the intraoperative and postoperative diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and HR. Conclusions. Cataract patients were likely to have more pain during second-eye surgery, which may be related to lower preoperative anxiety. Monitoring perioperative BP and HR may help to identify patients with intraoperative pain. PMID:26064671
Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract.
Ang, Marcus; Evans, Jennifer R; Mehta, Jod S
Age-related cataract is the opacification of the lens, which occurs as a result of denaturation of lens proteins. Age-related cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, except in the most developed countries. A key question is what is the best way of removing the lens, especially in lower income settings. To compare two different techniques of lens removal in cataract surgery: manual small incision surgery (MSICS) and extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to September 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to September 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to September 2014), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S), (January 1990 to September 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 23 September 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only. Participants in the trials were people with age-related cataract. We included trials where MSICS with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implant was compared to ECCE with a posterior chamber IOL implant. Data were collected independently by two authors. We aimed to collect data on presenting visual acuity 6/12 or better and best-corrected visual acuity of less than 6/60 at three months and one year after surgery. Other outcomes included intraoperative complications, long-term complications (one year or more after surgery), quality of life, and cost
Manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS) with posterior chamber intraocular lens versus extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens for age-related cataract.
Ang, Marcus; Evans, Jennifer R; Mehta, Jod S
Age-related cataract is the opacification of the lens, which occurs as a result of denaturation of lens proteins. Age-related cataract remains the leading cause of blindness globally, except in the most developed countries. A key question is what is the best way of removing the lens, especially in lower income settings. To compare two different techniques of lens removal in cataract surgery: manual small incision surgery (MSICS) and extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1950 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to February 2012), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 14 February 2012. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) only. Participants in the trials were people with age-related cataract. We included trials where MSICS with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implant was compared to ECCE with a posterior chamber IOL implant. Data were collected independently by two authors. We aimed to collect data on presenting visual acuity 6/12 or better and best-corrected visual acuity of less than 6/60 at three months and one year after surgery. Other outcomes included intraoperative complications, long-term complications (one year or more after surgery), quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. There were not enough data available from the included trials to perform a meta-analysis. Three trials randomly allocating people with age
Nacamuli, Randall P; Wan, Derrick C; Lenton, Kelly A; Longaker, Michael T
Pediatric plastic surgery research is a rapidly expanding field. Unique in many ways, researchers in this field stand at the union of multiple scientific specialties, including biomedical engineering, tissue engineering, polymer science, molecular biology, developmental biology, and genetics. The goal of this scientific effort is to translate research advances into improved treatments for children with congenital and acquired defects. Although the last decade has seen a dramatic acceleration in research related to pediatric plastic surgery, the next 10 years will no doubt lead to novel treatment strategies with improved clinical outcomes.
Li, Emmy Y; Liu, Yingpeng; Zhan, Xingkai; Liang, Yuan Bo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zheng, Chongren; Jhanji, Vishal; Xu, Ping; Chang, David F; Lam, Dennis S C
To define the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment (VI) in people in rural Hainan using the rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) and to report the outcomes of cataract surgery among the residents. Population-based, cross-sectional survey. A total of 6482 rural residents of the Hainan province. A total of 136 clusters, each of which consisted of 50 people aged ≥50 years, were selected through probability-proportionate-to-size sampling. Door-to-door visits were performed by 2 outreach teams. Visual acuity (VA) was measured on site, and those with VA <6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. Causes of blindness and VI were determined. The causes of poor visual outcome after cataract surgery were evaluated. Information regarding barriers to receiving surgery was collected by trained interviewers. Prevalence and causes of blindness (VA <3/60), severe VI (SVI) (VA <6/60 but ≥3/60), and VI (VA <6/18 but ≥6/60) based on presenting VA (PVA) were assessed. Outcomes of cataract surgery performed in public and private hospitals and charitable organizations were compared. A total of 6482 subjects were examined (response rate, 95.3%). The sample prevalence of blindness was 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-6.8). The prevalence of SVI and VI was 1.9% (95% CI, 0-4.3) and 9.9% (95% CI, 7.6-12.2), respectively. Age and sex were associated with increased prevalence of blindness, SVI, and VI. Overall, cataract accounted for approximately 60% of blindness and SVI. Of the 524 eyes that had received cataract surgery, 87.2% had intraocular lenses implanted, 21% had a poor visual outcome (PVA <6 /60), and 20% had a borderline visual outcome (PVA <6/18 but ≥6/60). Eyes that received surgery in charitable organizations had a higher rate of intraocular lens implantation and good visual outcome (VA ≥6/18) compared with eyes that were operated on elsewhere. The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and VI was high among rural residents in Hainan
Hellinger, Walter C; Hasan, Saiyid A; Bacalis, Laura P; Thornblom, Deborah M; Beckmann, Susan C; Blackmore, Carina; Forster, Terri S; Tirey, Jason F; Ross, Mary J; Nilson, Christian D; Mamalis, Nick; Crook, Julia E; Bendel, Rick E; Shetty, Rajesh; Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Edelhauser, Henry F
Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS), a complication of cataract surgery, is a sterile inflammation of the anterior chamber of the eye. An outbreak of TASS was recognized at an outpatient surgical center and its affiliated hospital in December 2002. Medical records of patients who underwent cataract surgery during the outbreak were reviewed, and surgical team members who participated in the operations were interviewed. Potential causes of TASS were identified and eliminated. Feedwater from autoclave steam generators and steam condensates were analyzed by use of spectroscopy and ion chromatography. During the outbreak, 8 (38%) of 21 cataract operations were complicated by TASS, compared with 2 (0.07%) of 2,713 operations performed from January 1996 through November 2002. Results of an initial investigation suggested that cataract surgical equipment may have been contaminated by suboptimal equipment reprocessing or as a result of personnel changes. The frequency of TASS decreased (1 of 44 cataract operations) after reassignment of personnel and revision of equipment reprocessing procedures. Further investigation identified the presence of impurities (eg, sulfates, copper, zinc, nickel, and silica) in autoclave steam moisture, which was attributed to improper maintenance of the autoclave steam generator in the outpatient surgical center. When impurities in autoclave steam moisture were eliminated, no cases of TASS were observed after more than 1,000 cataract operations. Suboptimal reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may evolve over time in busy, multidisciplinary surgical centers. Clinically significant contamination of surgical equipment may result from inappropriate maintenance of steam sterilization systems. Standardization of protocols for reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may prevent outbreaks of TASS and may be of assistance during outbreak investigations.
Xiao, Xian-Wen; Hao, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Fang
AIM To analyze the optical quality after implantation of toric intraocular lens with optical quality analysis system. METHODS Fifty-two eyes of forty-four patients with regular corneal astigmatism of at least 1.00 D underwent implantation of AcrySof toric intraocular lens, including T3 group 19 eyes, T4 group 18 eyes, T5 group 10 eyes, T6 group 5 eyes. Main outcomes evaluated at 3mo of follow-up, included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), residual refractive cylinder and intraocular lens (IOL) axis rotation. Objective optical quality were measured using optical quality analysis system (OQAS II®, Visiometrics, Spain), included the cutoff frequency of modulation transfer function (MTFcutoff), objective scattering index (OSI), Strehl ratio, optical quality analysis system value (OV) 100%, OV 20% and OV 9% [the optical quality analysis system (OQAS) values at contrasts of 100%, 20%, and 9%]. RESULTS At 3mo postoperative, the mean UDVA and CDVA was 0.18±0.11 and 0.07±0.08 logMAR; the mean residual refractive cylinder was 0.50±0.29 D; the mean toric IOL axis rotation was 3.62±1.76 degrees, the mean MTFcutoff, OSI, Strehl ratio, OV 100%, OV 20% and OV 9% were 22.862±5.584, 1.80±0.84, 0.155±0.038, 0.76±0.18, 0.77±0.19 and 0.78±0.21. The values of UDVA, CDVA, IOL axis rotation, MTFcutoff, OSI, Strehl ratio, OV100%, OV20% and OV9% depending on the power of the cylinder of the implantation were not significantly different (P>0.05), except the residual refractive cylinder (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The optical quality analysis system was useful for characterizing the optical quality of AcrySof toric IOL implantation. Implantation of an AcrySof toric IOL is an effective and safe method to correct corneal astigmatism during cataract surgery. PMID:25709910
In 1741, Nicolas Andry, counsellor of King Louis XV, published a book about "orthopedics," inventing this word. The book is interesting as the author refers to beliefs and habits of the time. In 1864, Guersant published Notes About Pediatric Surgery, a real textbook which was translated into English and German and dealt with the importance of children's psychological training, anesthesia, and water or mother's milk after the operation, and also described tracheotomy, draining of cervical adenitis, and lithotrity. The classification of bone affections was still very confused. Tuberculosis and syphilis have an important place; hypospadias is not treated by surgery. In 1905, Froehlich published Pediatric Surgery Studies dealing exclusively with visceral surgery and demonstrating progress compared to Guersant's study. In 1906, Kirmisson published Pediatric Surgical Textbook, containing the first discussion of radiology and the description of the pathology of the omphalomesenteric duct and of other congenital malformations. Osteomyelitis was given its proper name, and cervical fistulas were explained. In 1914, A. Broca achieved further progress describing treatments of megacolon, intussusception, and the operation of Fredet Ramstedt. The book by Ombredanne, already out of date at the time of its publication, showed that he was not aware of the wartime, progress achieved by Ladd and Gross in the USA. French publications have diminished since then, and French pediatric surgery is still trying to find a precise identity.
Du, Dongyi Tony; Wagoner, Austin; Barone, Samuel B; Zinderman, Craig E; Kelman, Jeffrey A; Macurdy, Thomas E; Forshee, Richard A; Worrall, Chris M; Izurieta, Hector S
To estimate the incidence of infectious endophthalmitis after corneal transplant or cataract surgery, to evaluate the trend of endophthalmitis during the study period, and to assess demographic risk factors for endophthalmitis after surgeries. A retrospective population-based cohort study. Study cohorts were derived from the Medicare claims databases, 2006 to 2011. Patients were continuously enrolled in Medicare Part A, Part B, and Part D. Patients undergoing corneal transplant or cataract surgery were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure codes. Endophthalmitis was defined in 3 different ways: (1) using ICD-9-CM codes (sensitive definition), (2) combining ICD-9-CM codes with Current Procedural Terminology, Fourth Edition (CPT-4) codes (specific definition), or (3) combining ICD-9-CM codes with antifungal prescriptions for endophthalmitis caused by fungal infection. Demographic risk factors for endophthalmitis were examined using multivariate Cox models. Incidence rates of endophthalmitis were calculated and compared for each definition of endophthalmitis at 6-week and 6-month intervals after corneal transplant or cataract surgery. The infectious endophthalmitis incidence rates ranged from 0.11% to 1.05% in the corneal transplant cohort, 0.06% to 0.20% in the cataract surgery cohort, and 0.16% to 0.68% in the concurrent surgery cohort, depending on the definition and time interval after surgery. Compared with the cataract surgery cohort, the corneal transplant cohort had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of endophthalmitis within the 6-week postoperative interval (HR, 2.744; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.544-4.880 in the sensitive definition and HR, 2.792; 95% CI, 1.146-6.802 in the specific definition) and within the 6-month postoperative interval (HR, 4.607; 95% CI, 3.144-6.752 for the sensitive definition and HR, 4.385; 95% CI, 2.245-8.566 for the specific definition). It is
Gosling, D B; Chan, T K J
PurposeTo report the clinical experience of using the Tecnis PCB00 (Abbott Medical Optics, Santa Ana, CA, USA) preloaded one-piece intraocular lens (IOL) in the setting of a tertiary referral centre for paediatric cataract.MethodsA retrospective case note review of all paediatric cataract surgeries using the Tecnis PCB00 IOL, at a single UK paediatric ophthalmology department.ResultsNine eyes in seven patients received the IOL between December 2014 and January 2016. All patients underwent lens aspiration and insertion of the IOL 'in the bag.' The indications for surgery included developmental cataract (8/9) and traumatic cataract (1/9). Mean age at the time of surgery was 7 years (range 2-14). The median improvement in logMAR best-corrected visual acuity was 0.475 (range 0.250-1.500). The mean follow-up duration was 5 months (range 1-13). No operative or post-operative complications occurred as a result of using the device.ConclusionThe Tecnis PCB00 preloaded IOL appears to be a safe and effective device in treating paediatric cataract.
Ursea, Roxana; Feng, Matthew T; Zhou, Michael; Lien, Vivian; Loeb, Robert
To compare pain and anxiety between first and second cataract extractions under topical anesthesia with monitored anesthesia care. University ophthalmology clinic. Cohort study. Consecutive adults having bilateral sequential clear corneal cataract extraction using phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia with monitored anesthesia care were recruited. Exclusion criteria included baseline eye pain, poor comprehension, and complicated cataract extraction. Patients completed 4 short perioperative surveys with each cataract extraction as follows: the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale (STAI) preoperatively and a 0-to-10 visual analog scale pain survey twice after surgery. Pain and difference in pain were the primary outcomes. Of the 65 patients who completed the study, 26 (40%) reported higher visual analog scale pain scores for the second cataract extraction. Overall, the median pain score was 0 (range 0 to 6) for the first cataract extraction and 1 (range 0 to 9) for the second (P = .004). By 1 day postoperatively, the pain scores were similar (median 0; range 0 to 9; P = .58). Both APAIS and STAI anxiety scores decreased between surgeries (P = .003 and P < .001, respectively). Although cataract extraction remained relatively painless under topical anesthesia with monitored anesthesia care, there was a subtle increase in pain in the second surgery relative to the first. This appears to be associated with decreased preoperative anxiety and may be related to the amnestic effects of intravenous sedation. These data may explain a common operative observation. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lam, Chee Kiang; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Sulaiman, Mohd Nazri
The aim of this study was to review the capability of virtual reality simulators in the application of phacoemulsification cataract surgery training. Our review included the scientific publications on cataract surgery simulators that had been developed by different groups of researchers along with commercialized surgical training products, such as EYESI® and PhacoVision®. The review covers the simulation of the main cataract surgery procedures, i.e., corneal incision, capsulorrhexis, phacosculpting, and intraocular lens implantation in various virtual reality surgery simulators. Haptics realism and visual realism of the procedures are the main elements in imitating the actual surgical environment. The involvement of ophthalmology in research on virtual reality since the early 1990s has made a great impact on the development of surgical simulators. Most of the latest cataract surgery training systems are able to offer high fidelity in visual feedback and haptics feedback, but visual realism, such as the rotational movements of an eyeball with response to the force applied by surgical instruments, is still lacking in some of them. The assessment of the surgical tasks carried out on the simulators showed a significant difference in the performance before and after the training.
Elfersy, Adrian J; Prinzi, Robert A; Peracha, Zuhair H; Kim, Daniel D; Crandall, David A; Darnley-Fisch, Deborah A; Imami, Nauman R
To determine the incidence of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on postoperative day 1 (POD1) after cataract surgery performed by resident surgeons compared with attending surgeons and to examine the influence of associated variables on the incidence of postoperative IOP elevation. Retrospective review of 2472 consecutive 2.2 to 2.8 mm temporal clear corneal cataract extractions by phacoemulsification performed by either residents or attending surgeons at Henry Ford Health System. Fellow eyes were excluded, resulting in 1847 eyes. IOP measurements of >40, >30, and >23 mm Hg were noted along with incremental IOP elevations of ≥10 and 20 mm Hg over preoperative/baseline IOP. Associated variables included: age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, uveitis, prior ocular trauma, and vitreous loss at surgery. Resident-performed cataract surgery was associated with statistically significant higher rates of IOP elevation in all categories and in all clinical situations known to be associated with postoperative IOP spike, that is, vitreous loss at surgery, prior ocular trauma, and preexisting glaucoma. The incidence of postoperative day 1 IOP elevation after phacoemulsification performed by resident surgeons was 2 to 5 times that of experienced cataract surgeons. Variables including vitreous loss at surgery, prior ocular trauma, preexisting glaucoma, glaucoma suspect status, and male sex were significant contributors. Consideration for prophylactic IOP lowering is advised in high-risk patients.
Stein, I; Schoenfelder, T; Kugler, J
The evaluation of patient satisfaction provides important information about subjective quality indicators from the patient's perspective. In Germany, cataract surgery is mostly done ambulatory in a special surgery or in a hospital. This study examines if there are differences in global patient satisfaction of either outpatient setting and if there are different determinants of global satisfaction with regard to the outpatient settings. The survey comprises ambulatory operated cataract patients in Saxony between 2014 and 2015. A total of 4800 cataract patients sent back a standardized, written questionnaire. Regression analysis identified determinants of global patient satisfaction in both groups. The most influencing parameters for the global satisfaction were satisfaction with the treatment outcome, atmosphere and facilities in the surgery or hospital as well as the staff's level of kindness. Results of the conducted study show most identified determinants of patient satisfaction are associated with service variables, such as atmosphere and facilities in surgery or hospital and waiting time in surgery or hospital. These aspects should be focused on to improve patient satisfaction in cataract patients.
Wu, B. M.; Williams, G. P.; Tan, A.; Mehta, J. S.
The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs), coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA), the Victus (USA), and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland). PMID:26483973
Wu, B M; Williams, G P; Tan, A; Mehta, J S
The introduction of femtosecond lasers is potentially a major shift in the way we approach cataract surgery. The development of increasingly sophisticated intraocular lenses (IOLs), coupled with heightened patient expectation of high quality postsurgical visual outcomes, has generated the need for a more precise, highly reproducible and standardized method to carry out cataract operations. As femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) becomes more commonplace in surgical centers, further evaluation of the potential risks and benefits needs to be established, particularly in the medium/long term effects. Healthcare administrators will also have to weigh and balance out the financial costs of these lasers relative to the advantages they put forth. In this review, we provide an operational overview of three of five femtosecond laser platforms that are currently commercially available: the Catalys (USA), the Victus (USA), and the LDV Z8 (Switzerland).
Kastenberg, Zachary; Dutta, Sanjeev
Surgical innovation involves the conceptualization, research, and translation of a novel idea into a viable procedure or device. The technological advancements made within the field of pediatric surgery over the last century have led to major improvements in patient care and outcomes. There has, however, been a parallel increase in the complexity of the regulatory bodies governing research and device implementation. This article briefly outlines the history of innovation in pediatric surgery, describes the existing regulatory bodies governing surgical research and device development (i.e., Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration), and offers a set of guidelines for the pediatric surgeon planning to incorporate a new procedure or device into clinical practice.
Johnson, Jay D
Herpetological medicine and surgery requires knowledge and understanding of many different species. Herpetological pediatrics requires even more knowledge and understanding of the differences between adult and neonate, juvenile, and subadult patients. Proper environmental conditions and diet are critical to the health of growing reptiles, and providing the proper conditions and care for hospitalized patients is a vital component of treatment. Challenges often exist due to patient size. Exams, diagnostics, treatments, and surgeries can all be performed successfully on most pediatric patients. Flexibility in thought processes and techniques, the ability to adjust to the specific needs of each case, and some special small or fine equipment enable veterinarians to provide high-quality veterinary care to pediatric patients.
Zhang, Xiujuan; Li, Emmy Y.; Leung, Christopher Kai-Shun; Musch, David C.; Tang, Xin; Zheng, Chongren; He, Mingguang; Chang, David F.
Purpose To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment (VI), and report the outcomes of cataract surgery in Chaonan Region, Guangdong Province, southern China Design Cross-sectional population-based survey Participants A total of 3484 participants including 1397 men (40.1%) and 2087 women (59.9%) aged ≥50 years were examined (94.2% response rate). Method A two-stage cluster sampling procedure was used to select 3700 participants aged ≥50 years from 74 clusters of Chaonan Region. Participants were examined according to the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) method. Blindness and visual impairment (VI) were defined by the World Health Organization criteria. Participants with visual acuity (VA) < 6/18 in either eye were examined by ophthalmologists. The primary causes of blindness and VI were reported with reference to the participant’s better eye. Main outcome measures Prevalence and main causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), VI and the outcomes of cataract surgery Results The standardized prevalence rates of blindness, SVI, and VI were 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–2.9%), 1.0% (95% CI, 0.7–1.4%), and 6.4% (95% CI, 5.6%– 7.1%), respectively. The principal cause of blindness and SVI was cataract, accounting for 67.1% and 67.6% respectively, and the principal cause of VI was refractive error (46.9%). One hundred and fifty five out of 3484 (4.4%) people (211 eyes) had cataract surgery. Of the 211 eyes that had cataract surgery, 96.7% were pseudophakic. 67.2% of the 211 operated eyes had a presenting visual acuity (PVA) of 6/18 or better. Conclusions The prevalence of blindness, SVI, and VI was high among rural residents in Chaonan. Cataract remained the leading cause of avoidable blindness. Outcomes of cataract surgery performed in rural private clinics were suboptimal. Quality-control initiatives such as hands-on training program should be introduced to improve cataract surgery outcomes. PMID
Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Wu; Li, Jing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi
Soft-lens cataract surgeries are becoming increasingly common for cataract surgeons and chopping the soft nucleus using conventional techniques is problematic. We introduced a femtosecond laser combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery and evaluated the safety and efficacy of using this technique. Sixty-six patients with soft-nucleus cataracts ranging from grade 1~3 were divided into 3 groups based on nuclear staging. Those groups were further divided into three subgroups: femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique (subgroup 1), conventional manual cataract surgery with a non-chopping rotation technique (subgroup 2) and conventional manual cataract surgery with a quick-chop technique (subgroup 3).Patients were followed up at 1, 7, and 30 days after surgery. There was an 84.6% and a 63.34% reduction in ultrasound time and cumulative dissipated energy, respectively, between the subgroup 1 and the subgroup 3; and this was associated with a 36.1% and 29.7% reduction in endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare. There were no adverse events at the follow-up times. With its reduced ultrasound energy, endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare, the femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation technique was more efficient than conventional manual cataract surgery for soft-nucleus cataracts.
Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Chen, Wan; Zhang, Bo; Xiang, Wu; Li, Jing; Chen, Weirong; Liu, Yizhi
Soft-lens cataract surgeries are becoming increasingly common for cataract surgeons and chopping the soft nucleus using conventional techniques is problematic. We introduced a femtosecond laser combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique for soft-nucleus cataract surgery and evaluated the safety and efficacy of using this technique. Sixty-six patients with soft-nucleus cataracts ranging from grade 1~3 were divided into 3 groups based on nuclear staging. Those groups were further divided into three subgroups: femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation phacoemulsification technique (subgroup 1), conventional manual cataract surgery with a non-chopping rotation technique (subgroup 2) and conventional manual cataract surgery with a quick-chop technique (subgroup 3).Patients were followed up at 1, 7, and 30 days after surgery. There was an 84.6% and a 63.34% reduction in ultrasound time and cumulative dissipated energy, respectively, between the subgroup 1 and the subgroup 3; and this was associated with a 36.1% and 29.7% reduction in endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare. There were no adverse events at the follow-up times. With its reduced ultrasound energy, endothelial cell loss and aqueous flare, the femtosecond laser pretreatment combined with a non-chopping rotation technique was more efficient than conventional manual cataract surgery for soft-nucleus cataracts. PMID:26728573
Harris, Toi B; Sibley, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Carlos; Brandt, Mary L
The optimal care of children with surgical diseases requires acquiring skills in the psychosocial assessment and therapy of children. Developing and implementing a curriculum to teach these concepts to pediatric surgery trainees should result in decreased perioperative stress for the child and improved patient outcomes and family satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, Wenyong; Huang, Guofu; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J; He, Mingguang
The outcomes of cataract surgery have been well reported in rural China; however, the situation in the urban population remains unclear. This study assessed the outcomes of cataract surgery in urban southern China. Data were gathered from the Liwan Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in people aged 50 years or more in the Liwan District of Guangzhou. Presenting and best corrected visual acuity and a detailed eye examination were performed. For all aphakic and pseudophakic participants identified, information on the date, setting, type, and complications of cataract surgery were recorded. Of the 1405 participants, 62 people (90 eyes) had undergone cataract surgery. Of those, 54.4% underwent the phacoemulsification (Phaco) technique, 33.3% extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and 11.1% ECCE without IOL; 1 patient had intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE). Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was >6/18 in 56 (62.2%) eyes, <6/18 to >6/60 in 20 (22.2%) eyes, <6/60 to >3/60 in 3 (3.3%) eyes, and <3/60 in 11(12.3%) eyes. Of the 34 eyes with PVA less than 6/18, the principal causes were 26.5% retinal abnormalities, 20.6% glaucoma, 35.3% uncorrected aphakia or refractive error, and 14.5% posterior capsule opacification (PCO). ECCE or Phaco with IOL are the major surgical techniques used in urban southern China. More than half of the eyes with poor outcomes due to uncorrected aphakia, refractive error, or PCO are potentially treatable. This result suggests a pressing need for improved surgical training and postoperative care.
Zhu, Xiang-Jia; Wolff, Don; Zhang, Ke-Ke; He, Wen-Wen; Sun, Xing-Huai; Lu, Yi; Zhou, Peng
The purpose of this study was to assess the inflammatory status of the aqueous humor in the fellow eye after uneventful cataract surgery in the first eye. At the screening stage, aqueous humor samples from 15 first-eye and 15 second-eye cataract patients were collected just before cataract surgery and assayed using human cytokine antibody array. Screened cytokines were then verified using a suspension array system with aqueous humor samples obtained from 35 first-eye and 36 second-eye cataract patients. The cytokine antibody array revealed that interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il-1ra) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1a and MIP-1b were expressed at high levels in first-eye patients and were lower in second-eye patients, whereas opposite trends were found for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and for regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES) (all, P < 0.05, Student's t-test). However, only MCP-1 and IL-1ra were significantly different between the two groups after Bonferroni correction (both P < 0.00125). In the replication stage, the suspension cytokine array revealed that only MCP-1 expression was significantly greater in the aqueous humor of second-eye patients than in that of first-eye patients (P = 0.0067, Student's t-test). This study revealed that expression of MCP-1, a pain-related inflammatory chemokine, was significantly increased in aqueous humor in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery. This suggests there may be a sympathetic ophthalmic type uveitis in the contralateral eye after first-eye cataract surgery and that may help to explain why second-eye phacoemulsification is often more painful. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01824927.)
Prakairungthong, Nauljira; Charukamnoetkanok, Puwat; Isipradit, Saichin
To describe and analyze the demography and distribution of preoperative corneal astigmatism in patients undergoing cataract surgery at Mettapracharak Hospital. The medical records of consecutive patients who had cataract surgery between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2011 at Mettapracharak Hospital were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Patient demographic and keratometric data were collected and analyzed. The present study evaluated the keratometric data in 2,688 eyes of 2,671 patients who had cataract surgery with the mean age of 66.23±10.79 years. The mean corneal astigmatism was 1.09 D (range 0.00-8.50 D). Corneal astigmatism was higher than 1.00 D in 36.6%, between 0.51 D and 1.00 D in 37.9% and 0.50 D or less in 25.5% of eyes. The mean steep keratometry and flat keratometry values were 44.89±1.52 D and 43.81±1.57 D respectively. The magnitude of corneal astigmatism was positively correlated with age (p<0. 001) and there was a tendency for corneal astigmatism to increase with age above 50 years. Female had significantly steeper corneas than male. Corneal astigmatism was mainly against-the-rule (the steepest meridian at 180±30 degrees). The type of corneal astigmatism was strongly correlated with age. Against-the-rule astigmatism increased with older age. While aging decreased with-the-rule astigmatism. The present report showed the pattern of corneal astigmatism before cataract surgery in Thai governmental hospital, approximately one third of cataract patients had more than 1.00 D of astigmatism. This finding provide the important normative reference and help ophthalmologists to plan and manage the cost-effective correction of preexisting corneal astigmatism in cataract patients to achieve the best visual outcome.
Kruger, Stacey J.; DuBois, Lindreth; Becker, Edmund R.; Morrison, David; Wilson, Lorri; Wilson, M. Edward; Lambert, Scott R.
Purpose To analyze differences in the cost of treatment for infants randomized to primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation versus optical correction with a contact lens (CL) after unilateral cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Design Retrospective cost analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial based on Georgia Medicaid reimbursement data as well as actual costs of supplies used during the study, adjusted for inflation. Participants The IATS is a multicenter (n=12) randomized, clinical trial comparing the optical treatment of aphakia with either primary IOL implantation (n=57) or CL correction (n=57) in 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract. Intervention One hundred fourteen infants underwent unilateral cataract surgery and were either optically corrected by primary IOL implantation at the time of surgery or were corrected with a CL after surgery. Main Outcome Measures The mean cost of cataract surgery and all additional surgeries, examinations and supplies used up to 5 years of age. Results The 5-year treatment cost of an infant with a unilateral congenital cataract optically corrected with an IOL was $35,293 versus $33,452 for a patient treated with a CL after initial cataract surgery. The total cost of supplies was $2669 in the IOL group vs $6128 in the CL group. Conclusions Unilateral cataract surgery in infancy coupled with primary IOL implantation is about 5% more expensive than aphakia and CL correction. Patient costs are more than double with CL versus IOL. PMID:25439604
Selvander, Madeleine; Asman, Peter
To investigate construct validity for modules hydromaneuvers and phaco on the Eyesi surgical simulator. Seven cataract surgeons and 17 medical students performed capsulorhexis, hydromaneuvers, phaco, navigation, forceps, cracking and chopping modules in a standardized manner. Three trials were performed on each module (two on phaco) in the above order. Performance parameters as calculated by the simulator for each trial were saved. Video recordings of the second trial of the modules capsulorhexis, hydromaneuvers and phaco were evaluated with the modified Objective Structured Assessment of Surgical Skill (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill (OSACSS) tools. Cataract surgeons outperformed medical students with regard to overall score on capsulorhexis (p < 0.001, p = 0.035, p = 0.010 for the tree iterations, respectively), navigation (p = 0.024, p = 0.307, p = 0.007), forceps (p = 0.017, p = 0.03, p = 0.028). Less obvious differences in overall score were found for modules cracking and chopping (p = 0.266, p = 0.022, p = 0.324) and phaco (p = 0.011, p = 0.081 for the two iterations, respectively). No differences in overall score were found on hydromaneuvers (p = 0.588, p = 0.503, p = 0.773), but surgeons received better scores from the evaluations of the modified OSATS (p = 0.001) and OSACSS (capsulorhexis, p = 0.003; hydromaneuvers, p = 0.017; phaco, p = 0.001). Construct validity was found on several modules previously not investigated (phaco, hydromaneuvers, cracking and chopping, navigation), and our results confirm previously demonstrated construct validity for capsulorhexis and forceps modules. Interestingly, validation of the hydromaneuvers module required OSACSS video evaluation tool. A further development of the scoring system in the simulator for the hydromaneuvers module would be advantageous and make training and evaluation of progress more accessible and immediate. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta
Kim, Eun Chul; Byun, Yong Soo; Kim, Man Soo
To compare the efficacy of microincision and small-incision coaxial phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different ultrasound power modes. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized clinical trial. Eyes with hard cataract were randomized to have an initial incision of 1.80 mm, 2.20 mm, or 2.75 mm. The eyes in each group were equally randomized to treatment with burst, pulse, or continuous mode. Ultrasound time (UST), mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), surgically induced corneal astigmatism, incisional and central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell counts were evaluated. The study enrolled 180 eyes, 60 in each group. Two months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in UST, CDE, CDVA, CCT, or percentage endothelial cell loss between the 3 incision groups. The 2.75 mm incision induced more astigmatism at 2 months and less incisional corneal edema at 1 week than the 1.80 mm or 2.20 mm incision (P<.05). The UST, CDE, incisional corneal thickness, and CCT at 1 week and the percentage endothelial cell loss at 2 months with continuous mode were statistically significantly higher than with pulse mode and burst mode in all 3 incision groups (P<.05). Phacoemulsification using microincisions may be as safe and effective as the conventional small incision for hard cataract. The intraoperative energy use and ocular damage was less with the pulse and burst modes than with the continuous mode. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jasinskas, Vytautas; Zemaitiene, Reda; Kusleika, Saulius; Miniauskiene, Goda; Acas, Saulius
Evaluate the outcome of cataract surgery in Clinic of Ophthalmology, Kaunas University of Medicine (COKUM) and to compare it with the outcome of the European Cataract Outcome Study Group (ECOSG) data. The study was started on the 1st of October, 2000 and ended on the 30th April, 2001 on the basis of the protocol of the European Cataract Outcome Study Group. Every patient at each participating unit having surgery during the first study month was evaluated. The study was closed 6 months after surgery. The study enroled 3944 patients, out of them 361 was from COKUM. The mean induced astigmatism was 0.86+/-0.21 D in COKUM and 0.63+/-0.23 D in ECOSG. The visual acuity of the operated eye was 0.3 or lower in 28.1 percent of patients, 0.4-0.7 in 31.7 percent and 0.8 or higher in 40.2 percent of COKUM patients in the whole study group percentages were 11.8, 27.6 and 60.6, respectively. 44.3 percent of COKUM patients; underwent phacoemulsiphication, while among ECOSG this procedure was the most common (91.8 percent). The number of complications during surgery was 5.5 percent of all cases in COKUM while in European countries it was 3.7 percent. Cataract surgery data collected from 39 units in 18 European countries allowed participants to compare their performance with that of colleagues in an anonymous manner. This study is also an indicator of cataract surgery development in COKUM and in Lithuania.
Context Cataract surgery is one of the most frequently performed intra-ocular surgeries, of these manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) is a time tested technique of cataract removal. Any corneal incisional surgery, including cataract surgery, can induce dry eye postoperatively. Various factors have been implicated, of which oneis the inflammation induced by the surgery. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein present in tears is said to have anti-inflammatory effects, and promotes cell growth. It has been used orally in patients of immune mediated dry eye to alleviate symptoms. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the dry eyes induced by manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, and the effect if any, of oral lactoferrin on the dry eyes. Settings and Trial Design A single centre, prospective randomised controlled trial with a concurrent parallel design. The study was carried out on patients presenting in the OPD of Rohilkhand Medical College hospital for cataract surgery. Materials and Methods Sixty four patients of cataract surgery were included in the study. Patients with pre-existing dry eyes, ocular disease or systemic disease predisposing to dry eyes were excluded from the study. The selected patients were assigned into two groups by simple randomisation-Control Group A-32 patients that did not receive oral lactoferrin postoperatively. Group B-32 patients that received oral lactoferrin 350 gm postoperatively from day 1 after SICS. All patients were operated for cataract and their pre and postoperative (on days 7, 14, 30 and 60) dry eye status was assessed using the mean tear film break-up time (tBUT) and Schirmer test 1 (ST 1) as the evaluating parameters. Subjective evaluation of dry eye was done using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scoring. Data was analysed for 58 patients, as 6 did not complete the follow up. Statistical Analysis Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p-values. Result There was a statistically significant difference between the t
Aptel, Florent; Colin, Cyrille; Kaderli, Sema; Deloche, Catherine; Bron, Alain M; Stewart, Michael W; Chiquet, Christophe
Prevention and management of postoperative ocular inflammation with corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been evaluated in several randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, neither consensus regarding the efficacies of different regimens nor established guidelines are currently available. This has resulted in different practice patterns throughout the world. A systematic literature review found that for the management of postcataract inflammation nepafenac produced a positive outcome in three of three RCTs (3/3), as did ketorolac (1/1), bromfenac (7/7), loteprednol (3/3) and difluprednate (6/6), but not flurbiprofen (0/1). A single study found that betamethasone produced inconclusive results after retinal detachment (RD) surgery; ketorolac was effective (1/1) after vitrectomy, but triamcinolone was ineffective (0/1) after trabeculectomy. A two-round Delphi survey asked 28 international experts to rate both the inflammatory potential of different eye surgeries and their agreement with different treatment protocols. They rated trabeculectomy, RD surgery and combined phacovitrectomy as more inflammatory than cataract surgery. Vitrectomies for macular hole or epiretinal membrane were not deemed more inflammatory than cataract surgery. For trabeculectomy, they preferred to treat longer than for cataract surgery (NSAID + corticosteroid three times a day for 2 months vs 1 month). For vitrectomy alone, RD surgery and combined phacovitrectomy, the panel preferred the same treatment as for cataract surgery (NSAID + corticosteroid three times a day for 1 month). The discrepancy between preferred treatment and perception of the eye's inflammatory status by the experts for RD and combined vitreoretinal surgeries highlights the need for RCTs to establish treatment guidelines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless
PURPOSE Post-operative corneal astigmatism following cataract surgery can leave the patient with visual impairment. Correcting it at the time of surgery with a toric intraocular lens (TIOL) can give patients a better final visual outcome. The purpose was to determine the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in a cataract population and assess the demand for TIOL. METHODS Keratometric data was collected and analyzed for all patients who attended for routine cataract surgery under the care of a single surgeon based in Altnagelvin Area Hospital, Northern Ireland (NI). All patients were included between January 2008 and December 2014. Data was collected retrospectively for this observational study. RESULTS There were 2080 consecutive eyes of 1788 patients. The mean corneal astigmatism was 1.09 ± 0.83. Corneal astigmatism was 1.50D or less in 1621 eyes (78%). It was more than 2.00 D in 242 eyes (11.6%), more than 2.50 D in 127 eyes (6.1%), more than 3.00D in 68 eyes (3.27%) and more than 3.50 D in 45 eyes (2.16%). CONCLUSION For routine cataract surgery, 41.3% of eyes had more than 1.00 D of corneal astigmatism and 11.6% had more and 2.00D. Females had more astigmatism than males. This shows the potential demand for the TIOL in this population.
Dupps, William J; Oetting, Thomas A
We describe a technique that uses flexible iris retractors in a diamond configuration for small-pupil extracapsular or intracapsular cataract surgery in eyes with unusually dense nuclear sclerosis. Advantages of this technique include ease of conversion from phacoemulsification, optimal orientation of the maximum pupil diameter for nucleus expression or intracapsular lens removal, and conservation of iris tissue.
Geneau, R; Lewallen, S; Bronsard, A; Paul, I; Courtright, P
Aims: To describe and understand better the barriers that elderly cataract patients in Kilimanjaro region (Tanzania) experience at the family level in order to access surgery. Methods: A phenomenological study carried out in the catchment area of a teaching hospital in Kilimanjaro Region. 60 semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients and ex-cataract patients. Results: The perceived need for sight and for surgery appears partly socially constructed at the family level. It was found that women were less likely to express a need for sight for fear of being seen as a burden. Furthermore, young heads of family are more inclined to support old men than old women. The consensus is that asking children for help can be difficult. Going for cataract surgery must be seen as a social process where elderly patients might have to wait or negotiate support for weeks, months, or even years. Conclusions: Eye programmes must promote the benefits of cataract surgery to all family members, not just to the patient. A changing social climate, changing expectations of vision, and evolving cost sharing systems will have significant, sometimes contradictory, impacts on use of eye care services. Strategies for reaching those without access to financial resources need to be strengthened. PMID:16234438
Schmoll, Conrad; Tendo, Christelle; Aspinall, Peter; Dhillon, Bal
Since 2002 the discovery of a novel population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, expressing the photopigment melanopsin, has attracted broad interest in human blue-light mediated non-visual effects including circadian regulation and cognitive function. Ageing is associated with insomnia and cognitive decline. It has been postulated that reduced blue-light transmission through the formation of cataract impairs melanopsin dependant non-visual brain responses mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. We aimed to establish if any objective improvement in cognition could be demonstrated using a reaction time task (RTT) following cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation. Following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 patients (age range 59-87, mean 75.4 years) with bilateral cataract performed the RTT before and after surgery on one eye. The mean and the SD of two modalities of reaction time, namely complex reaction time and simple reaction time, were measured and analysed. Responses became both quicker and more consistent following surgery, with statistically significant improvements in the complex reaction time (p=0.016) and the complex reaction time SD (p=0.055), which were not due to a learning effect or improved vision. The results suggest that improved blue-light transmission following cataract surgery has a beneficial effect on cognitive function. We advocate the RTT as an objective platform for exploring these benefits in large sample randomised controlled trials.
Sande, Pablo H; Álvarez, Javier; Calcagno, Javier; Rosenstein, Ruth E
Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in dogs. Phacoemulsification (PE) is currently the surgical treatment of choice to remove the opaque lens; however, it is associated with varying degrees of postoperative inflammation. We assessed the effect of melatonin on postoperative complications of canine cataract surgery. Eleven diabetic and thirteen healthy owned dogs with cataracts. All dogs underwent cataract surgery by PE. The anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin was compared with the reference treatments: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for diabetic dogs, and dexamethasone for nondiabetic dogs. Eyes were examined by means of clinical evaluation and intraocular pressure (IOP). In diabetic dogs, melatonin was more effective than topical and systemic NSAIDs in reducing the clinical score at 2, 7, and 20 days postsurgery, while it showed a similar efficacy to topical dexamethasone in dogs with hereditary cataracts. IOP decreased in all groups at 2 days postsurgery, but this decrease reached statistical significance only in diabetic dogs treated with NSAIDs, and persisted at 7 days postsurgery in this group. Afterward, IOP returned to normal values in all groups. Melatonin decreased the occurrence of surgical sequelae in diabetic and nondiabetic dogs. These results indicate that melatonin might constitute a useful tool for reducing postoperative PE complications in dogs. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Marhuenda, C; Giné, C; Asensio, M; Guillén, G; Martínez Ibáñez, V
Despite several surgical robots operating in Spain, the experience in pediatric pathology is limited. We found interesting to review the first full pediatric series in our country. We would like to share as well our views on the transition from conventional to robotic laparoscopy. Retrospective review of all the pediatric laparoscopic surgery assisted by the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical), in our center, between April 2009 and February 2010. 8 patients were operated (7-15 years), with an average weight of 42 Kg (18 to 83 Kg). 11 procedures were performed: bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (1), inguinal hernia (1), cholecystectomy (4), splenectomy (2), resection of pancreatic mass (1), fundoplication (1), adrenalectomy (1). All proceedings, except two, were completed with the robot. As complications, there was one intraoperative bleeding that required blood transfusion, and in the postoperative period, there was a surgical wound infection. There were no conversions to open surgery. The average time of preparation before surgery was 130 minutes. The three-dimensional vision and lack of tremor are the main advantages cited by all surgeons. The learning curve of Robotic Surgery is shorter than that of conventional laparoscopy. Trained surgeons can perform complex procedures laparoscopically from the outset. The main difficulty in children is the proper planning of trocar placement, due to the smaller size of the surgical field. The organization of surgery is complex and success depends on close collaboration of all stakeholders.
Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla
Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for daily surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597
Butler, Marilyn W
Pediatric general surgeons volunteering internationally often work independently, some without prior assessment of the needs of those they wish to assist. Consequently, care may be inefficient, duplicated, or misdirected. A study was performed to assess whether a network for pediatric surgery volunteer work exists. A search of the Internet was performed to determine whether a pediatric surgery network exists. Worldwide pediatric surgery societies were identified and grouped by country according to income. Web sites for medical volunteer organizations were examined for links to a network of pediatric surgery volunteer work. A search of the Internet revealed no pediatric surgery volunteer network. Ninety-seven pediatric surgery societies were identified. Fifty-one of the organizations were identified as residing in low- and middle-income countries. Searching 50 Web sites for these societies revealed no existing pediatric surgery network. Of 45 Web sites for volunteer medical work, 1 surgery networking Web site was identified. Only 4 pediatric general surgery international volunteer opportunities were cited on that Web site. This study demonstrated that no pediatric surgery volunteer network exists. By identifying pediatric surgery organizations in low- and middle-income countries, it is speculated that one might link the surgeons in these regions with those wishing to volunteer their services. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kessel, Line; Andresen, Jens; Erngaard, Ditte; Flesner, Per; Tendal, Britta; Hjortdal, Jesper
The need for cataract surgery is expected to rise dramatically in the future due to the increasing proportion of elderly citizens and increasing demands for optimum visual function. The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based recommendation for the indication of cataract surgery based on which group of patients are most likely to benefit from surgery. A systematic literature search was performed in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and COCHRANE LIBRARY databases. Studies evaluating the outcome after cataract surgery according to preoperative visual acuity and visual complaints were included in a meta-analysis. We identified eight observational studies comparing outcome after cataract surgery in patients with poor (<20/40) and fair (>20/40) preoperative visual acuity. We could not find any studies that compared outcome after cataract surgery in patients with few or many preoperative visual complaints. A meta-analysis showed that the outcome of cataract surgery, evaluated as objective and subjective visual improvement, was independent on preoperative visual acuity. There is a lack of scientific evidence to guide the clinician in deciding which patients are most likely to benefit from surgery. To overcome this shortage of evidence, many systems have been developed internationally to prioritize patients on waiting lists for cataract surgery, but the Swedish NIKE (Nationell Indikationsmodell för Katarakt Ekstraktion) is the only system where an association to the preoperative scoring of a patient has been related to outcome of cataract surgery. We advise that clinicians are inspired by the NIKE system when they decide which patients to operate to ensure that surgery is only offered to patients who are expected to benefit from cataract surgery.
Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi; Grant, Eric J; Masunari, Naomi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Minamoto, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E
To examine the incidence of clinically important cataracts in relation to lens radiation doses between 0 and approximately 3 Gy to address risks at relatively low brief doses. Informed consent was obtained, and human subjects procedures were approved by the ethical committee at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Cataract surgery incidence was documented for 6066 atomic bomb survivors during 1986-2005. Sixteen risk factors for cataract, such as smoking, hypertension, and corticosteroid use, were not confounders of the radiation effect on the basis of Cox regression analysis. Radiation dose-response analyses were performed for cataract surgery incidence by using Poisson regression analysis, adjusting for demographic variables and diabetes mellitus, and results were expressed as the excess relative risk (ERR) and the excess absolute risk (EAR) (ie, measures of how much radiation multiplies [ERR] or adds to [EAR] the risk in the unexposed group). Of 6066 atomic bomb survivors, 1028 underwent a first cataract surgery during 1986-2005. The estimated threshold dose was 0.50 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10 Gy, 0.95 Gy) for the ERR model and 0.45 Gy (95% CI: 0.10 Gy, 1.05 Gy) for the EAR model. A linear-quadratic test for upward curvature did not show a significant quadratic effect for either the ERR or EAR model. The linear ERR model for a 70-year-old individual, exposed at age 20 years, showed a 0.32 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.53) [corrected] excess risk at 1 Gy. The ERR was highest for those who were young at exposure. These data indicate a radiation effect for vision-impairing cataracts at doses less than 1 Gy. The evidence suggests that dose standards for protection of the eye from brief radiation exposures should be 0.5 Gy or less. © RSNA, 2012.
Lin, Jing; Fang, Xiaoqun; Wu, Suhong
To evaluate the management practice and process of a cataract surgery day ward. From January to December in 2012, a portion of the cataract patients were evaluated for the pattern of day ward management. Methods were as follows: 1) Establish the cataract day ward. 2) Enroll the patients who met the following criteria: voluntary, local residents or outsiders who stayed in a hotel near the hospital, accompanied by family, and who had simple senile cataract without any systemic major diseases. 3) Establish the hospitalization process. 4) Analyze the nursing process. After cataract day surgery, the patients were followed for 2 hours and completed a questionnaire about their needs and sentiments. A total of 3971 cases were observed in this study; 49 cases were switched to a normal pattern of hospitalization because of operative complications, 1 case had a strong desire to switch to a normal pattern of hospitalization because of ocular discomfort, 8 cases went back to the hospital for treatment because of ocular pain, and 52 cases called on the phone to seek help. Overall, 3820 cases(96.2%) returned on time the next day to visit the doctor. No patients showed severe postoperative complications and 98% expressed great satisfaction with the day ward process. Only 200 cases expressed great concern about not knowing how to deal with postoperative pain, the changes in condition outside the hospital, the therapeutic effects, and the problem of expense reimburse-ment. Day ward cataract surgery is an efficient and safe mode, and has the potential to relieve the demand for inpatient beds and to ensure timely treatment of the patients. In addition, it helps the patients enjoy health care at public expense, reserving reimbursement for those who need to be hospitalized. Nurses should pay more attention to systemic evaluation of the patients, health education, and psychological guidance, and keep in close communication with doctors, which is the key to ensure the safety of day ward
Li, Z H; Ye, Z
Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is known as an innovative new technology. Compared with traditional surgical approach, FLACS is more accurate, more predictable and less energy used. However, in the current stage of development, there still may be intraoperative and postoperative complications, or even serious complications. FLACS has obvious advantages in certain surgical steps, but there are still clear disadvantages, so it still cannot completely replace the traditional phacoemulsification surgery.
Clinch, Thomas E.
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% as antibacterial prophylaxis in the surgical setting. Methods: Two prospective safety surveillance studies were conducted—one in the cataract surgery setting and the other in the laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery setting. Cases from patients aged 18 years and above were eligible for inclusion. In both surveillance studies, data were collected from consecutive cases of routine primary cataract surgery and LASIK surgery, respectively, in which besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% or moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% was used as the topical perioperative prophylactic antibacterial medication as part of the clinician's routine standard of care. The primary safety endpoint was the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: The cataract surgery surveillance study included 485 cases/eyes (besifloxacin, n = 333; moxifloxacin, n = 152), whereas the LASIK surveillance study included 456 cases/eyes (besifloxacin, n = 344; moxifloxacin, n = 112). In the cataract study, only 1 TEAE was reported in a besifloxacin case (mild hypersensitivity/allergic reaction considered possibly related to besifloxacin). No TEAEs were reported in the LASIK study. In both studies, surgical outcomes were similar with both treatments. The frequency of preoperative and/or postoperative dosing was generally lower for besifloxacin than that for moxifloxacin. Conclusions: In prospective safety surveillance studies of patients undergoing cataract extraction or LASIK, TEAEs associated with prophylactic use of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% were rare, and surgical outcomes with besifloxacin were similar to those with moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5%. PMID:24637269
Ahangar, Andleeb; Sufi, Aalia Rasool; Nabi, Mushood; Rather, Muddasar Hassan
Cataract surgery is aimed at restoring sight to near normal vision. This study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, is an attempt to determine the causes of subnormal vision in patients following cataract surgery at a tertiary hospital in Kashmir. One hundred patients who underwent cataract surgery with an unaided visual acuity of <6/9 at 16 weeks postoperatively were included in the study. Postoperative follow-up examinations were conducted until the 16th week. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded to determine the cause of subnormal vision. Of 100 patients, 40 underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), 30 underwent small incision cataract surgery (SICS) and 30 underwent phacoemulsification. Seventy-five percent of the patients who underwent ECCE had postoperative astigmatism with a mean astigmatism of 2.2 ± 0.81 diopters at 16 weeks, with the majority having with-the-rule astigmatism. In the SICS group, 17 (56.6 %) patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.75 ± 0.40 diopters, with the majority (82.3 %) having against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. In the phacoemulsification group, 13 (43.3 %) of the patients had a mean postoperative astigmatism of 0.48 ± 0.23 diopters with the majority having ATR astigmatism. Other causes of subnormal vision were pseudophakic ametropia, posterior capsular opacity and intraoperative complications like posterior capsular rent and vitreous loss. Postoperative astigmatism was the major cause of subnormal vision with greater astigmatism seen in the ECCE group. Therefore, procedures like smaller incision sutureless surgery and careful biometry are advocated to improve visual outcome and patient satisfaction.
Gilbert, Claire E; Razavi, Hessom; Turner, Elizabeth L; Lindfield, Robert J
Abstract Objective To describe the preoperative surgical case mix among patients undergoing cataract extraction and explore associations between case mix, country level of development (as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI) and cataract surgery rates (CSRs). Methods Ophthalmologists in 50 countries were invited to join the newly-established International Eye Research Network and asked to complete a web-based questionnaire about their eye hospitals. Those who complied received a data collection form for recording demographic and clinical data on 100 consecutive patients about to undergo cataract surgery. Countries were ranked into five HDI categories and multivariable regression was used to explore associations. Findings Ophthalmologists at 112 eye hospitals (54% of them nongovernmental) in 50 countries provided data on 11 048 cataract procedures over 9 months in 2008. Patients whose visual acuity (VA) before surgery was < 6/60 in the better eye comprised 47% of the total case mix in poorly developed countries and 1% in developed countries (P < 0.001). Overall, 72% of the eyes undergoing surgery had a VA < 6/60. Very low VA before cataract surgery was strongly associated with poor development at the country level and inversely associated with national CSR. Conclusion The proportion of patients with very poor preoperative VA is a simple indicator that can be easily measured periodically to monitor progress in ophthalmological services. Additionally, the internet can be an effective tool for developing and supporting an ophthalmological research network capable of providing a global snapshot of service activity, particularly in developing countries. PMID:22084513
Karaman Özlü, Zeynep; Tuğ, Özgür; Çay Yayla, Ayşegül
This study was to determine the effect of preoperative patient training on the concern level of patients who would be undergoing cataract surgery. Cataract is one of the main causes of blindness in the world. Cataract surgery is located among the quite frequently performed surgeries today. This study was an experimental study. The subject pool for this research consisted of patients admitted to the Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical Faculty Hospital Ophthalmology Department for cataract surgery. The sampling consisted of volunteers who were able to communicate and were deemed suitable patients within the limitations of this study (a total of 100 patients; control group = 50, experimental group = 50). Patient identification forms and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory I-II scale were used as data collection tools. The mean State Trait Anxiety Inventory pretest score for the experimental group was significantly higher than the mean final test score (53·30 ± 7·02 and 27·54 ± 3·25, respectively, p < 0·05). The mean State Trait Anxiety Inventory pretest score of the control group was 53·82 ± 7·42 and the mean final test score was 49·22 ± 13·17; there was no significant difference between these average scores (p > 0·05). However, the mean final test scores of the experimental and control groups were significantly different (p < 0·05). In the experimental group in this study, informative, educational and planned nursing care had a significant impact on anxiety levels in patients who had cataract surgery. Although it is not implemented in most hospitals, and implementation in some hospitals is unplanned, systematically planned preoperative education should take place as part of standard nursing practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Borghol-Kassar, R; Menezo-Rozalén, J L; Harto-Castaño, M A; Desco-Esteban, M C
The aim of this article is to study the effect of unilateral congenital cataract surgery on ocular growth and corneal flattening. This is a cross-sectional study of 59 patients operated on due to a unilateral congenital cataract. The median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 17 months (interquartile range, 5-39 months). The median age at cataract the time of surgery was 28 months (interquartile range, 8-52 months), and the mean follow-up between cataract surgery and assessments was 149.7±69.9 months (range, 30-319 months). Axial length and corneal curvature were measured in both operated and non-operated eyes, comparing the results between them. There were no statistically significant differences for axial length growth or corneal flattening between operated and non-operated eyes: axial length (P=.327, Student t test) and corneal curvature (P=.078, Student t test). A sub-analysis was performed using the visual acuity and the age of the patient at the time of surgery. The only statistically significant data (P=.007, Student t test) was a lower axial length in operated eyes compared to non-operated eyes, in the non-deep-amblyopia group. No significant axial length growth modifications were observed between operated and non-operated eyes. Only the non-deep-amblyopia group presented with a lower axial length in the operated eyes compared to non-operated eyes. No significant differences in corneal flattening were found between groups after unilateral congenital cataract surgery. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kant, Adrien J; Klein, Michael D; Langenburg, Scott E
Robotic surgery will give surgeons the ability to perform essentially tremorless microsurgery in tiny spaces with delicate precision and may enable procedures never before possible on children, neonates, and fetuses. Collaboration with radiologists, engineers, and other scientists will permit refinement of image-guided technologies and allow the realization of truly remarkable concepts in minimally invasive surgery. While robotic surgery is now in clinical use in several surgical specialties (heart bypass, prostate removal, and various gastrointestinal procedures), the greatest promise of robotics lies in pediatric surgery. We will briefly review the history and background of robotic technology in surgery, discuss its present benefits and uses and those being explored, and speculate on the future, with attention to the current and potential involvement of imaging modalities and the role of image guidance. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag
Congdon, N; Rao, S K; Choi, K; Wang, W; Lin, S; Chen, S; Chen, L J; Liu, K; Hu, I C; Lam, D S C
To study patient sources of knowledge about cataract surgical services, and strategies for financing surgery in rural China. Cross-sectional case series. Patients undergoing cataract surgery by local surgeons in a government, village-level facility in Sanrao, Guangdong between 8 August and 31 December 2005 were examined and had standardised interviews an average of 12 months after surgery. Of 313 eligible patients, 239 (76%) completed the questionnaire. Subjects had a mean (SD) age of 69.9 (10.2) years, 36.4% (87/239) were male, and 87.0% (208/239) had been blind (presenting visual acuity < or = 6/60) before surgery. Word-of-mouth advertising was particularly important: 198 (85.0%) of the subjects knew a person who had undergone cataract surgery, of whom 191 (96.5%) had had cataract surgery at Sanrao itself. Over 70% of subjects (166/239) watched TV daily, whereas 80.0% (188/239) "never" read the newspaper. Nearly two-thirds of suggestions from participants (n = 211, 59.6%) favoured either TV advertisements or word-of-mouth to publicise the programme. While the son or daughter had paid for surgery in over 70% of cases (164/233), the patient's having paid without help was the sole predictor of undergoing second-eye surgery (OR 2.27 (95% CI 1.01 to 5.0, p = 0.04)). Strategies to increase uptake of cataract surgery in rural China may benefit from enhancing word-of-mouth advertising (such as with pseudophakic motivators), using television advertising where affordable, and micro-credit or other programmes to enable patients to pay their own fees, thus increasing uptake of second-eye surgery.
Chen, Jiayao; Li, Wenxian; Hu, Xiao; Wang, Dingding
The aim of this study was to determine whether the concurrent use of either of a subhypnotic dose of midazolam, propofol or ketamine with fentanyl just before discontinuing the sevoflurane anesthesia would effectively sedate the children as they recovered and significantly decrease the incidence and severity of emergence agitation and would not delay patient awakening and discharge. Postoperative emergence agitation may occur in children after general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics. Children who undergo cataract surgery after sevoflurane induction and sevoflurane-remifentanil maintenance may experience this type of agitation. In 120 un-premedicated children aged 1-7 years, mask induction with sevoflurane was performed and they were then randomly assigned to one of the three antiagitation postoperative groups (n = 40). We studied the postoperative antiagitation effects of subhypnotic doses of midazolam combined with fentanyl, propofol with fentanyl or ketamine with fentanyl administered just before discontinuing the sevoflurane anesthesia. A score for the level of agitation can be assigned based on the recovery mental state (RMS) scale and the recently published pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale (PAED). Postoperative factors assessed included emergence behaviors, the time to eye opening, the time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) to the ward. There were significantly more agitated children in the ketamine-group when compared to the midazolam-group or to the propofol-group at all time P < 0.05), especially at 10 and 15 min. The PAED scale showed a significant advantage for midazolam-fentanyl [5 (2-15)] and propofol-fentanyl [6 (3-15)] versus ketamine-fentanyl [10 (3-20)] (P < 0.05). The time to discharge from the PACU to the ward was not significantly different among the groups. Intravenous administration of a subhypnotic dose of midazolam or propofol in addition to a low dose of fentanyl just before discontinuing the sevoflurane
Bhagat, Neelakshi; Nissirios, Nicholas; Potdevin, Lindsay; Chung, Jacob; Lama, Paul; Zarbin, Marco A; Fechtner, Robert; Guo, Suquin; Chu, David; Langer, Paul
Aim To describe the complications related to cataract surgery performed by phacoemulsification technique by third‐year ophthalmology residents at New Jersey Medical School, who are trained to perform phacoemulsification without any prior experience with extracapsular extraction. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods A retrospective chart review of 755 patients who underwent cataract surgery by third‐year residents between July 2000 and June 2005 at the Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science was performed. Details of intraoperative complications (posterior capsular rupture, vitreous loss, subluxation of lens fragments into the vitreous, extracapsular cases converted to phacoemulsification, retinal detachment, vitreous haemorrhage and haemorrhagic choroidals) of the cases done by phacoemulsification technique were recorded. Results were analysed and compared with complication rates reported from other residency programmes and from experienced ophthalmologists. Results Of 755 cataract surgeries, 719 were performed using phacoemulsification technique. Posterior capsule disruption occurred in 48 (6.7%), vitreous loss in 39 (5.4%) and dislocated lenticular fragments in 7 (1.0%) of 719 cases that underwent phacoemulsification technique. Subsequent pars plana lensectomy was required in 5 (0.7%) cases; 1 case (0.1%) experienced retinal detachment and haemorrhagic choroidal detachment. Conclusion The residents can perform phacoemulsification well with a very low complication rate, without prior training with extracapsular cataract extraction technique. PMID:17431020
Ruan, Xiangcai; Tang, Haoying; Yang, Weizhong; Xian, Zhuanhua; Lu, Min
Purpose. To investigate whether adding video assistance to traditional verbal informed consent advisement improved satisfaction among cataract surgery patients. Methods. This trial enrolled 80 Chinese patients with age-related cataracts scheduled to undergo unilateral phacoemulsification surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups: the video group watched video explaining cataract-related consent information and rewatched specific segments of the video at their own discretion, before receiving traditional verbal consent advisement; the control group did not watch the video. Outcomes included patient satisfaction, refusal to consent, time to complete the consent process, and comprehension measured by a ten-item questionnaire. Results. All 80 enrolled patients signed informed consent forms. Compared with the control group, members of the video group exhibited greater satisfaction (65% versus 86%, p = 0.035) and required less time to complete the consent process (12.3 ± 6.7 min versus 5.6 ± 5.4 min, p < 0.001), while also evincing levels of comprehension commensurate with those reported for patients who did not watch the video (accuracy rate, 77.5% versus 80.2%, p = 0.386). Conclusion. The video-assisted informed consent process had a positive impact on patients' cataract surgery experiences. Additional research is needed to optimize patients' comprehension of the video. PMID:28191349
Schmier, Jordana K; Hulme-Lowe, Carolyn K; Covert, David W; Lau, Edmund C
Background Endophthalmitis, which can occur after ophthalmic surgery, is an inflammation of the intraocular cavity and causes temporary or permanent vision impairment. However, little is known about the cost of treatment. The objective of this analysis was to update and expand upon the results of a previously published report that estimated the direct medical cost of treatment for endophthalmitis. Methods Retrospective data analysis using 2010 through 2014 United States Medicare Limited Data Sets. Procedure codes were used to identify beneficiaries who underwent cataract surgery; demographic and clinical characteristics at the time of diagnosis were determined. Patients were stratified into cases (those who developed endophthalmitis) and controls (those who did not develop endophthalmitis) in the 3 months following surgery. Claims (ie, charges) and reimbursements (ie, costs) for cases and controls in the 6 months following cataract surgery were identified and compared. Results are presented in 2015 US dollars. Results Of a total of 153,860 cataract surgery patients, 181 were diagnosed with endophthalmitis following cataract surgery, at a rate of 1.2 per 1,000. Cases were more likely to be male and less likely to be white than controls; age was similar. Total medical claims and reimbursements as well as ophthalmic claims and reimbursements were significantly higher for cases compared with controls. Total reimbursements, adjusted for age, sex, and region, were $4,893 higher (83% greater) and adjusted ophthalmic reimbursements were $3,002 higher (156% greater) for cases than for controls. Claims and reimbursements were significantly higher across all types of Medicare cost components. Conclusion Postcataract surgery endophthalmitis is associated with a substantial cost. Successful prophylaxis with antibiotic agents would reduce the significant costs associated with treating endophthalmitis. PMID:27822008
Carrigan, Anna K; DuBois, Lindreth G; Becker, Edmund R; Lambert, Scott R
To describe the differences in treatment costs for infants randomized to contact lens correction versus primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation after unilateral cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Retrospective cost analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial based on Georgia Medicaid data and the actual costs of supplies used. The IATS is a randomized, multicenter (n=12) clinical trial comparing treatment of aphakia with a primary IOL or contact lens in 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract. Infants underwent cataract surgery with or without placement of an IOL. The mean cost of cataract surgery and all additional surgeries, examinations, and supplies used up to 12 months of age. The mean cost of treatment for a unilateral congenital cataract with primary IOL implantation was $14 752 versus $10 726 with contact lens correction. The initial cataract surgery accounted for approximately 50% of the treatment costs for both groups. Contact lens costs accounted for 15% ($1600/patient) in the aphakic group, whereas glasses costs represented only 4% ($535/patient) in the IOL group. The increased costs in the IOL group were primarily due to the higher cost of cataract surgery in this group ($7302 vs. $5357) and the cost of additional operations. For IATS patients up to 12 months of age, cataract surgery coupled with IOL implantation and spectacle correction was 37.5% (∼$4000) more expensive than cataract surgery coupled with contact lens correction. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chiacchio, Brenda Biagio; Sato, Ricardo Mitsuo; Siqueira, Roberta Bianca Peres; Marques, Frederico França
To evaluate the correlation between the preoperative visual acuity (VA) obtained by the potential acuity meter (PAM) and the postoperative VA in a patient submitted to cataract surgery, as well as its correlation with the dominant morphologic classification of the cataract. This is a prospective study performed at the Hospital Monumento Study Center. Sixty-three eyes of 45 patients submitted to phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation were enrolled in this study and 1 eye had been excluded. Besides the complete examination in the preoperative period, PAM was used and its results were compared with the VA at the third postoperative month and correlated with the dominant morphologic cataract classification. The result was called satisfactory when the variation was equal to or less than two lines at the Snellen chart. We transformed the AV into logMAR for comparison with the literature. The mean age was 45.3 years with a mean VA of 0.64 logMAR by the PAM. At the third postoperative month, the mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.09 logMAR. The PAM overestimated the BCVA in 8 eyes (13%), underestimated it in 41 eyes (66%) and in 13 eyes (21%) the BCVA were the same. The satisfactory results regarding nuclear cataract were reduced in cases of higher density (1+/4 with 75.5% e 4+/4 with 33.3%) and increased in the posterior subcapsular cataracts (85.7%). PAM revealed an underestimation or maintenance of the BCVA in most cases (87%). Its fidelity was inversely proportional in the nuclear cataracts (1+/4 with 75.5% e 4+/4 with 33.3%) and higher in the posterior subcapsular cataracts.
Kalani, M Yashar S; Elhadi, Ali M; Ramey, Wyatt; Nakaji, Peter; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F
Aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population and tend to include a greater proportion of large and giant lesions. A subset of these large and giant aneurysms are not amenable to direct surgical clipping and require complex treatment strategies and revascularization techniques. There are limited data available on the management of these lesions in the pediatric population. This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of treatment of large and giant aneurysms that required microsurgical revascularization and vessel sacrifice in this population. The authors retrospectively identified all cases in which pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with aneurysms were treated using cerebral revascularization in combination with other treatment modalities at their institution between 1989 and 2013. The authors identified 27 consecutive patients (19 male and 8 female) with 29 aneurysms. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 11.5 years (median 13 years, range 1-17 years). Five patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 with symptoms related to mass effect, 2 with stroke, and 3 with seizures; in 6 cases, the aneurysms were incidental findings. Aneurysms were located along the internal carotid artery (n = 7), posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (n = 2), anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) (n = 14), basilar artery (n = 2), vertebral artery (n = 1), and at the vertebrobasilar junction (n = 1). Thirteen were giant aneurysms (45%). The majority of the aneurysms were fusiform (n = 19, 66%), followed by saccular (n = 10, 34%). Three cases were previously treated using microsurgery (n = 2) or an endovascular procedure (n = 1). A total of 28 revascularization procedures were performed, including superficial temporal artery (STA) to MCA (n = 6), STA to PCA (n = 1), occipital artery to PCA (n = 1), extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass using radial artery graft (n = 3), EC-IC using a saphenous vein graft (n = 7), STA
Beasley, Spencer W.
Like most specialties, pediatric surgery is becoming more complex, and changes to health systems have not always been in the best interests of trainees or their surgical teachers. This paper outlines four of the current challenges faced by training boards in pediatric surgery worldwide, and documents their implications for the future training of pediatric surgeons. PMID:24400270
Nwomeh, Benedict C; Caniano, Donna A
With the rapid pace of technological advancement and changing political, social, and legal attitudes, physicians face new ethical dilemmas. For pediatric surgeons, these emerging issues affect our relationship with, and the care we provide, to our patients and their families. In this review, we explore issues related to professionalism in pediatric surgery practice, the value of apology, and the risks associated with sleep deprivation. Furthermore, we discuss how the imperative of patient safety presents an opportunity for specialty-driven effort to define standards for the surgical care of children and a responsible process for introducing surgical innovations. Finally, we remind pediatric surgeons of their ethical and professional duty to support clinical research, and advocate the acceptance of community equipoise as sufficient basis for enrolling children in clinical trials.
Karamzadeh, Amir M.; Ahuja, Gurpreet S.; Nguyen, John D.; Crumley, Roger
The smaller anatomy and limited access to instrumentation pose a challenge to the pediatric airway surgeon. The enhanced precision and ability to photocoagulate tissue while operating with the laser enhances the surgeon"s ability to successfully treat unique pediatric conditions such subglottic hemangiomas, congenital cysts, respiratory papillomatosis, and laryngeal or tracheal stenosis. Due to its shallow tissue penetration and thermal effect, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is generally considered the laser of choice for pediatric airway applications. The potential for increased scarring and damage to underlying tissue caused by the greater penetration depth and thermal effect of the Nd:YAG and KTP lasers preclude their use in this population. In this review, we will describe the specific advantages of using lasers in airway surgery, the current technology and where the current technology is deficient.
Schweitzer, C; Touboul, D; Ghiringhelli, C; Colin, J
We report the case of Mooren's ulcer recurrence after uncomplicated cataract surgery in a 61-year-old woman. This cataract developed because of repetitive inflammation of the anterior chamber and corticotherapy. Local and general corticotherapy with cyclosporin 2% drops was started in association with an anterior lamellar graft and a conjunctival recession due to a preperforation condition. Secondarily cyclophosphamide was necessary to control recurrence with a good anatomic result and an increase in visual acuity. The case updates physiopathologic and diagnostic data on this rare limbic autoimmune ulcerative disease. The diagnosis was made by histology and the dosage of specific autoantibodies against cornea. The prevention of recurrence after surgery requires a long clinical quiescent period, minimally invasive surgery long after inflammation has subsided, and a gradual tapering of corticotherapy over several weeks.
Yao, Ke; Wang, Wei; Wu, Wei; Tang, Xia-jing; Li, Zhao-chun; Jin, Chong-fei
To study and compare the outcomes of coaxial 1.8 mm microincision phacoemulsification with conventional coaxial 3 mm small-incision cataract surgery. A randomized prospective study was conducted on 89 patients with age-related cataract: coaxial 1.8 mm microincision cataract surgery (MICS group) was performed in 45 cases (45 eyes), and coaxial 3 mm small-incision cataract surgery (SICS group) was performed in 44 cases (44 eyes). Statistical analysis was taken with the data of 40 cases (40 eyes) in the MICS group and 40 cases (40 eyes) in the SICS group. The average ultrasound power (AVE) and effective phacoemulsification time (EPT) were recorded during the operation. Visual acuity, endothelial cell density and cornea thickness were compared at intervals of 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after surgery. In addition, surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was analyzed. Statistic analysis was taken by student's t test and chi square test. There was no significant difference on AVE and EPT (P > 0.05) between these two groups. One day after the surgery, the MICS group showed better uncorrected visual acuity (0.16 ± 0.14) as compared to the SICS group (0.23 ± 0.12). The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences on best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density and cornea thickness between these two groups. One week, 1 month and 3 months after the surgery, SIA was (0.62 ± 0.28) D, (0.48 ± 0.28) D, (0.47 ± 0.25) D, (0.40 ± 0.24) D in the MICS group, and (1.27 ± 0.65) D, (1.18 ± 0.59) D, (1.02 ± 0.56) D, (0.79 ± 0.48) D in the SICS group, respectively. The differences between the MIC and SICS groups were statistically significant (P < 0.01). SIA decreased significantly and became stable 1 week after surgery in MICS group, while the similar tendency appeared one month after the surgery in the SICS group. Coaxial 1.8 mm microincision cataract surgery could significantly reduce SIA and obtain more stable
Han, Kyung Eun; Chung, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Sekyung; Kim, Terry
Purpose To compare the epithelial wound healing response of two preservative-free fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin, in patients who underwent cataract surgery. Materials and Methods In this prospective, evaluator-masked, randomized clinical trial, 59 eyes of 50 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive moxifloxacin 0.5% (n=32 eyes) or levofloxacin 0.5% (n=27 eyes). All patients instilled moxifloxacin or levofloxain four times daily for 1 week prior to surgery and 2 weeks after surgery. The epithelial wound healing status in the corneal incision site was scanned with a raster scan mode of fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The number of eyes showing epithelial defect images and average number of corneal epithelial defect cuts per eye were compared between groups. All patients were evaluated on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 10. Results On postoperative days 1, 2, and 3, the number of eyes showing epithelial defects in FD-OCT was not statistically different (all p>0.05). The average number of corneal epithelial defect cuts was also not statistically different between the two groups (all p>0.05). No eyes showed epithelial defects on postoperative day 10 in either group. Conclusion There were no differences on epithelial wound healing comparing these two different fluoroquinolones at the incision site of cataract surgery. PMID:24339307
A randomised controlled trial in progress for more than five years, with no loss to follow-up (except death), assessed 333 eyes treated by three methods of cataract surgery. They were (A) intracapsular extraction and contact lens usage, (B) intracapsular extraction and implantation of an iris supported lens (Federov I), and (C) extracapsular extraction and implantation of an iridocapsular lens (Binkhorst 2-loop). The purpose of the paper is to report interim visual results, complications, and corneal endothelial cell loss. More eyes in groups A (contact lens) and C (extracapsular + implant) achieved better visual acuity than in group B (intracapsular + Federov lens), which also had more postoperative complications. Both implant groups lost more endothelial cells than the non-implant group, which did not differ significantly from group B before one year. PMID:2872913
Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Miotto, Giuseppe; Rangel, Carlos M.
A 44-year-old man with anterior megalophthalmos arrived at the clinic presenting a cataract in the right eye. The corneal diameter was 13 mm. Iridodonesis and phacodonesis were evident during slit lamp examination. Anterior chamber depth was 5.89 mm, and the diameter of the capsular bag was approximately 14.45 mm. Due to the large capsular bag, a standard posterior chamber intraocular lens was considered inadequate because of potential instability. Phacoemulsification and an implantation of an iris-claw lens (Artisan for aphakia®, Ophtec) in the posterior chamber were performed with good results. In the fourth postoperative month, uncorrected distance visual acuity was 20/30, and 20/20 was achieved with +0.75 −1.25 × 10°. We consider retropupillary aphakic iris-claw intraocular lenses to be a worthwhile option in these cases of megalophthalmos and cataract, since instability is avoided and the procedure is less challenging than suturing the lens. PMID:23341820
Christman, Tyler; Li, Ying
Pediatric patients who undergo spinal surgery are frequently involved in sporting activities. Return to play is often an important postoperative concern for the patient and family. A PubMed search was conducted for articles in the English language on return to play after treatment of pediatric acute disc herniation, degenerative disc disease, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, and scoliosis from 1980 to 2015. Reference lists were reviewed for additional pertinent articles. We included articles that focused on return to sports after surgical treatment of these conditions in this review. Clinical review. Level 4. There are no published guidelines, and most of the literature in this area has focused on return to play after spinal injury rather than after spinal surgery. Most children and adolescents have excellent outcomes with minimal pain at 1 year after lumbar discectomy. The majority of surgeons allow return to full activity once pain-free range of motion and strength are regained, typically at 8 to 12 weeks postoperatively. Pediatric patients with spondylolysis have good outcomes after direct pars repair. Satisfactory outcomes have been demonstrated after fusion for low- and high-grade spondylolisthesis. Most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 6 months after surgical treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Return to contact and collision sports is controversial. After posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, most surgeons allow return to noncontact sports by 3 months and return to contact sports between 6 months and 1 year. Return to collision sports is controversial. There is little evidence to guide practitioners on return to sports after pediatric spinal surgery. Ultimately, the decision to allow any young athlete to resume sports participation after spinal injury or surgery must be individualized. © 2016 The Author(s).
Petrov, Dmitriy; Uohara, Michael Y; Ichord, Rebecca; Ali, Zarina; Jastrzab, Laura; Lang, Shih-Shan; Billinghurst, Lori
Pediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is an important, though less common subtype of pediatric stroke. It has been linked to several risk factors, including cranial procedures, with few studies highlighting this relationship. The aim of this study was to characterize the diagnosis and treatment of CSVT after cranial surgery. An institutional pediatric stroke research database was used to identify all CSVT cases diagnosed within 30 days of cranial surgery from November 2004 to December 2014. Thirteen subjects were retrospectively analyzed for clinical presentation, surgical details, radiographic characteristics, laboratory study results, treatment, and outcome. Diagnostic testing and treatment adhered to a consensus-based institutional stroke protocol. Cranial vault reconstruction, subdural empyema evacuation, and tumor resection were each observed in three subjects. Eleven (85%) subjects had sinus exposure during surgery, and eight (73%) developed thrombus in a sinus within or adjacent to the operative field. Two (15%) had documented iatrogenic sinus injury. On post-operative testing, ten (77%) subjects had prothrombotic abnormalities. Seven (54%) were treated with anti-coagulation therapy (ACT) starting on a median of post-operative day (POD) 3 (IQR 1-3) for a median of 2.9 months (IQR 2.4-5.4). Median time to imaging evidence of partial or complete recanalization was 2.4 months (IQR 0.7-5.1). No symptomatic hemorrhagic complications were encountered. Pediatric CSVT may be encountered after cranial surgery, and decisions related to anti-coagulation are challenging. The risk of CSVT should be considered in pre-surgical planning and post-operative evaluation of cases with known risk factors. In our study, judicious use of ACT was safe in the post-operative period.
Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Agarwal, Anand; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sihota, Ramanjit; Panda, Anita
To study the effect of cataract extraction on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and assessment by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), at the glaucoma service of a tertiary care center in North India. Thirty-two eyes of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent RNFL analysis by SLP (GDx VCC) before undergoing phacoemulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (Acrysof SA 60 AT) four weeks following cataract surgery. The RNFL thickness parameters evaluated both before and after surgery included temporal, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal (TSNIT) average, superior average, inferior average, and nerve fiber index (NFI). The mean age of subjects was 57.6 +/- 11.7 years (18 males, 14 females). Mean TSNIT average thickness (microm) pre- and post-cataract surgery was 49.2 +/- 14.1 and 56.5 +/- 7.6 ( P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in RNFL thickness parameters (TSNIT average, superior average, and inferior average) and decrease in NFI post-cataract surgery as compared to the baseline values. Mean NFI pre- and post-cataract surgery was 41.3 +/- 15.3 and 21.6 +/- 11.8 ( P = 0.001). Measurement of RNFL thickness parameters by scanning laser polarimetry is significantly altered following cataract surgery. Post the cataract surgery, a new baseline needs to be established for assessing the longitudinal follow-up of a glaucoma patient. The presence of cataract may lead to an underestimation of the RNFL thickness, and this should be taken into account when analyzing progression in a glaucoma patient.
Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Agarwal, Anand; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sihota, Ramanjit; Panda, Anita
Purpose: To study the effect of cataract extraction on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and assessment by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), with variable corneal compensation (GDx VCC), at the glaucoma service of a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 32 subjects were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent RNFL analysis by SLP (GDx VCC) before undergoing phacoemulsification cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (Acrysof SA 60 AT) four weeks following cataract surgery. The RNFL thickness parameters evaluated both before and after surgery included temporal, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal (TSNIT) average, superior average, inferior average, and nerve fiber index (NFI). Results: The mean age of subjects was 57.6 ± 11.7 years (18 males, 14 females). Mean TSNIT average thickness (μm) pre- and post-cataract surgery was 49.2 ± 14.1 and 56.5 ± 7.6 (P = 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in RNFL thickness parameters (TSNIT average, superior average, and inferior average) and decrease in NFI post-cataract surgery as compared to the baseline values. Mean NFI pre- and post-cataract surgery was 41.3 ± 15.3 and 21.6 ± 11.8 (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Measurement of RNFL thickness parameters by scanning laser polarimetry is significantly altered following cataract surgery. Post the cataract surgery, a new baseline needs to be established for assessing the longitudinal follow-up of a glaucoma patient. The presence of cataract may lead to an underestimation of the RNFL thickness, and this should be taken into account when analyzing progression in a glaucoma patient. PMID:20689193
Geneau, Robert; Massae, Patrick; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan
Cataract is the leading cause of avoidable blindness in Africa. There are various documented barriers to the uptake of cataract surgery, cost being one of them. There is, however, little evidence regarding patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for cataract surgery in Africa and the best way to measure it. We conducted a grounded theory study in order to understand better cataract patients' WTP for surgery in Tanzania. A total of 47 cataract patients from three regions of Tanzania were interviewed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The coding process involved identifying emerging themes and categories and their interconnection. Our study reveals that the main factors behind patients' WTP for cataract surgery are (1) the level of perceived need for sight and cataract surgery; (2) the decision-making processes at the family level and (3) the characteristics of local eye care programs. Our study shows that WTP concerns not only the patients but also their relatives. For most patients and families, the amount of $20-$30 is deemed reasonable for a sight-restoring procedure. It does not appear realistic for eye care program managers to charge the real cost of cataract surgery at present (about US $70-in Kilimanjaro). However, eye care programs can influence WTP for cataract surgery by providing quality services and by offering adequate counseling about the procedure. The qualitative findings enriched the interpretation of a previously reported quantitative survey and yield implications for both researchers and decision-makers using or relying on WTP methodologies in developing countries.
Long, Erping; Xu, Shuangjuan; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Zhang, Xiayin; Wang, Jinghui; Li, Wangting; Liu, Runzhong; Chen, Zicong; Chen, Kexin; Yu, Tongyong; Wu, Dongxuan; Zhao, Xutu; Chen, Jingjing; Lin, Zhuoling; Cao, Qianzhong; Lin, Duoru; Li, Xiaoyan; Cai, Jingheng; Lin, Haotian
The majority of rare diseases are complex diseases caused by a combination of multiple morbigenous factors. However, uncovering the complex etiology and pathogenesis of rare diseases is difficult due to limited clinical resources and conventional statistical methods. This study aims to investigate the interrelationship and the effectiveness of potential factors of pediatric cataract, for the exploration of data mining strategy in the scenarios of rare diseases. We established a pilot rare disease specialized care center to systematically record all information and the entire treatment process of pediatric cataract patients. These clinical records contain the medical history, multiple structural indices, and comprehensive functional metrics. A two-layer structural equation model network was applied, and eight potential factors were filtered and included in the final modeling. Four risk factors (area, density, location, and abnormal pregnancy experience) and four beneficial factors (axis length, uncorrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and age at diagnosis) were identified. Quantifiable results suggested that abnormal pregnancy history may be the principle risk factor among medical history for pediatric cataracts. Moreover, axis length, density, uncorrected visual acuity and age at diagnosis served as the dominant factors and should be emphasized in regular clinical practice. This study proposes a generalized evidence-based pattern for rare and complex disease data mining, provides new insights and clinical implications on pediatric cataract, and promotes rare-disease research and prevention to benefit patients.
Nkumbe, H E; Razafinimpanana, N; Rakotondrajoa, L P
Lack of information is one of the main reasons why people who are visually impaired or blind as a result of cataracts do not visit eye care centers for surgery that can restore their sight. This study was conducted to determine the best ways to inform the main target groups about the possibility of restoring sight to those whose visual impairment and blindness is due to cataracts and about outreach visits by the mobile eye clinic of FLM SALFA, Sambava, in the Sava region of Madagascar from November 2008 through October 2009. Two community eye health workers conducted awareness campaigns and delivered posters to radio stations, religious leaders, and administrative authorities of the 17 most populated municipalities in the region of Sava, two weeks before these visits. All participants who visited the mobile clinic were interviewed, and the ophthalmologist's diagnosis was noted on the questionnaire. Women accounted for 51.5% of the 955 participants. Radio was the most effective means of communication in the region overall, and specifically for reaching men (P=0.044); churches were more successful for reaching women (P = 0.000). Cataract was diagnosed in 16.2% of men and 8.1% of women (p = 0.0001). To significantly increase the number of people, especially women, having cataract surgery in the Sava region, it is essential to work closely with the leaders of all religious groups, as well as with radio stations.
Mönestam, Eva I; Lundqvist, Britta M; Jonsson, Åsa C
Background/aims To assess longitudinal 5-year results of cataract surgery on low vision patients. Methods In this prospective, long-time, observational case-series, we report the outcome regarding the subjective visual function (n = 35) assessed by a visual function questionnaire (VF-14) and the visual acuity (n = 30) of surviving low vision patients 5 years after surgery. We compare with data recorded on the same patients before surgery and 4 months postoperatively. Results Five years after surgery, 57% had unchanged or better VF-14 score compared with preoperatively, and 37% compared with postoperatively. Maculopathy patients had a significantly larger deterioration 5 years after surgery compared with postoperatively (40.2 versus 51.7, p = 0.004), but for the glaucoma patients there was no significant change (52.6 versus 53.1). There were no significant associations between age of the patient and change in VF-14 score or change in visual acuity 5 years after surgery, neither compared with before surgery nor postoperatively. Conclusion Results suggest a favorable functional outcome 5 years after cataract surgery on most low-vision patients. Glaucoma patients have a more stable outcome than patients with macular degeneration. The severity of the disease-process for each individual patient might be the most important factor affecting the long-time results. PMID:19668403
What to ask your doctor about cataracts; Lens implants - what to ask your doctor ... What is a cataract? How will cataract surgery help my vision? If I have cataracts in both eyes, can I have surgery on ...
Kıvanç, S A; Kıvanç, M; Bayramlar, H
To evaluate the bacterial flora of corneal wounds at the end of cataract surgery before intracameral antibiotic use and to determine agents to treat postoperative endophthalmitis, the potential for biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. This cross-sectional clinical study included patients who underwent cataract surgery using the phacoemulsification technique without any complications. The hemifacial skin, periocular area, eyelids and eyelashes were washed with 10% povidone-iodine and the conjunctiva was washed with 5% povidoneiodine before cataract surgery. After uncomplicated surgery, a wipe sample was taken from the bulbar conjunctival surface, corneal surface, and wound rim before administering intracameral antibiotics. All samples were plated on blood agar, MRS agar, M17 agar, calcium-lactate agar, plate-count agar, and Sabouraud-dextrose agar. Biofilm formation was evaluated by microtitre plates and the Congo red-agar method. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates were determined by the agar-disk diffusion method. We recruited 50 patients and studied 55 eyes, obtaining 34 isolates from the cultures of 16 eyes. Isolated organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (35.3%), Bacillus cereus (29.4%) and Pseudomonas spp. (5.9%). We obtained isolates from 64% of diabetic cases and 20% of non-diabetic cases, (p=0.002). It was observed that 21 out of 34 isolates produced a weakly positive biofilm, 8 were moderately positive, three were strongly positive, and two isolates were biofilm negative. Of the CoNS strains four of the 11 were resistance to four or more antibiotics. Microorganisms that remained at the end of cataract surgery had the capacity to produce biofilm and had high antibiotic resistance. Appropriate preoperative disinfection is very important and adequate disinfection and suitable antibiotics should be kept in mind for avoiding endophthalmitis, especially for diabetic patients. Biofilm is one of the major factors affecting the
Jung, Ji Won; Han, Soo Jung; Nam, Sang Min; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul
To investigate the possible mechanisms by which cataract surgery aggravates meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), we evaluated the changes in tear cytokines and ocular surface parameters after cataract surgery according to the preoperative MGD grade. Prospective, observational case series. A total of 50 eyes from 50 patients who underwent cataract surgery were included. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I had no or minimal MGD, and group II had grades 2-4 MGD. Ocular surface parameters were measured, including tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test, ocular surface staining and Ocular Surface Disease Index, and tear cytokine levels were measured. The main outcomes were changes in ocular surface parameters and inflammatory tear cytokine concentrations. In group II, preoperative MGD grade, ocular surface staining, tear film break-up time and Ocular Surface Disease Index were worse, and mean interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were higher than those of group I. MGD and ocular surface parameters were worsened to a greater degree after surgery in group II than in group I (P < 0.050). In group II, IL-6 and TNF-α levels significantly increased at postoperative 1 month, and there were significant correlations between changes in ocular surface parameters and tear cytokines (IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α; P < 0.050). The extent to which the MGD grade was aggravated following cataract surgery differed based on preoperative MGD grade. Preoperative MGD and ocular surface status should be carefully evaluated. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Zarnowski, Tomasz; Machowicz-Matejko, Eulalia; Zagórski, Zbigniew
The aim of the study was to estimate the early breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) following uneventful cataract surgery in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Aqueous flare was estimated in 54 diabetic eyes before and after cataract surgery. Fifteen eyes underwent uneventful ECCE (extracapsular cataract extraction with "can opener" capsulotomy) and 39 phacoemulsification with continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis. All procedures were performed by experienced surgeons. Fifty six eyes of age-matched healthy patients undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery served, as control. Anterior chamber flare was quantified preoperatively, 1 and 3 days postoperatively, using laser-flare meter (Kowa FM-500). Laser flare values were expressed in photon counts/millisecond. Mean preoperative anterior chamber flare in diabetes type 2 was as follows: normal fundus--6.7, background retinopathy--8.6 and proliferative retinopathy--14.1 (p < 0.01 vs NF group). Significantly lower anterior chamber flare measurements following phacoemulsification (25.0-1 day, 17.8-3 days post surgery), than after ECCE (63.7 and 45.6, respectively) (p < 0.01) were observed in diabetic eyes. In phaco group, we noted lower flare values in eyes without retinopathy; 25.2-1 day, 14.0-3 days post surgery, than in proliferative retinopathy (31.5 and 28.4, respectively) (p < 0.05 vs no retinopathy group). Phacoemulsification, as a less traumatising technique produces less BAB breakdown and seems to be more suitable than ECCE in diabetic eyes. Following phacoemulsification, eyes with proliferative retinopathy had significantly higher flare values than eyes without retinopathy.
Kim, Hyojin; Whang, Woong-Joo; Joo, Choun-Ki
To report the long-term outcomes of corneal astigmatism after cataract surgery. The study included 55 eyes of 46 patients who underwent cataract surgery with temporal 3-mm clear corneal incisions from January 2001 to December 2003. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination including keratometry at the preoperative visit and at 2 months and 10 years after surgery. Only those eyes that underwent a follow-up of 10 years or longer from the time of cataract surgery were enrolled. Arithmetic and vector analyses were performed to obtain the change in corneal astigmatism with advancing age. The mean age of the patients was 59.11 ± 12.33 years (range: 18 to 75 years), and 58.7% of the patients were women. The mean follow-up period was 131.28 ± 14.36 months. The average magnitudes of surgically induced astigmatism and long-term astigmatism change were 0.66 ± 0.42 and 0.57 ± 0.47 diopters (D), respectively. The vector difference was 0.56 ± 0.55 D at 90° ± 0° between the preoperative and 2-month visits. However, there was no difference in vector values between postoperative 2 months and 10 years (0.00 ± 0.74 D at 0° ± 0°). Patients with corneal astigmatism who underwent cataract surgery did not show a long-term against-the-rule change in corneal astigmatism during a 10-year follow-up. These results provide useful information when planning toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with corneal astigmatism. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(6):404-409.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Chang, John S.M.; Ng, Jack C.M.; Chan, Vincent K.C.; Law, Antony K.P.
Purpose To report visual outcomes and complications after cataract surgery in nanophthalmic eyes with a phacoemulsification system using the active fluidics control strategy. Methods This is a retrospective case series. All eyes with an axial length of less than 20 mm that underwent cataract surgery or refractive lens exchange using the Centurion Vision System (Alcon Laboratories Inc.) in Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital were evaluated. The visual acuity and intraoperative and postoperative complications were reported. Prior approval from the Hospital Research Committee has been granted. Results Five eyes of 3 patients were included. The mean follow-up period was 10.2 ± 5.3 months (range, 4–18). Two eyes (40%) had a one-line loss of corrected distance visual acuity. No uveal effusion and posterior capsular tear developed. An optic crack and haptic breakage in the intraocular lens developed in 1 eye (20%) and 2 eyes (40%), respectively. Additional surgeries to treat high postoperative intraocular pressure were required in 1 eye (20%). Conclusion The use of a new phacoemulsification system, which actively monitors and maintains the intraoperative pressure, facilitated anterior chamber stability during cataract surgery in nanophthalmic eyes. This minimized the risk of major complications related to unstable anterior chambers such as uveal effusion and posterior capsular tear. Development of intraoperative crack/breakage in a high-power intraocular lens was common. PMID:27920717
Toussaint, Brian W; Appenzeller, Matthew F; Miller, Daniel M; Petersen, Michael R; Foster, Robert E; Osher, Robert H; Snyder, Michael E; Hunt, Christine K; Sisk, Robert A; Riemann, Christopher D
To report the outcomes of combined cataract surgery with toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation when performed in conjunction with transconjunctival sutureless pars plana vitrectomy. Retrospective interventional case series. Consecutive series of 55 eyes of 51 patients from April 2007 to December of 2010. All eyes underwent combined simultaneous small incision cataract surgery, toric IOL implantation, and transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy surgery. Postoperative visual acuity, postoperative astigmatism, and rotational stability of the IOL. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was 0.32 ± 0.15 logMar (Snellen 20/43) and improved to 0.16 ± 0.10 (Snellen 20/29) postoperatively uncorrected (P < 0.01) and to 0.08 ± 0.11 best-corrected (Snellen 20/24) (P < 0.01). Preoperative astigmatism was 1.75 ± 1.0 diopters (D) (range, 0-4.75 D) and improved to 0.5 ± 0.50 D (range, 0-2.5 D) postoperatively (P < 0.01). Final measured postoperative IOL axis deviation from target axis was 4 ± 6° (range, 0-32). Final IOL axis was within 5° of target in 47 (85%) eyes, within 10 degrees of target in 51 (93%) eyes, and was within 15° of target in 52 (95%) eyes. Toric lens position and axis remained stable after implantation during combined cataract surgery and transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy.
Purpose. To compare the efficacy of perioperative ranibizumab injections on diabetic macular edema (DME) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Methods. This study included 59 eyes of 59 patients. All patients had advanced cataract with DME and underwent an uneventful phacoemulsification surgery. There were 3 subgroups. The first group received intravitreal ranibizumab injection 2 weeks preoperatively, the second group received intraoperatively, and the third group received 2 weeks postoperatively. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 week as well as at 1 and 3 months. Results. Baseline visual acuity showed a significant increase in all groups at 1 month. In group 1, compared to baseline value, foveal thickness (FT) increased significantly at 1 month and showed a significant decrease up to month 3. In group 2, FT increased at month 1 and this continued up to month 3. In group 3, FT increased at month 1 and was almost stable up to month 3. There were not any significant differences for visual acuity and FT between the groups. Conclusions. Although intrapostoperative ranibizumab injection for DME seems to be more effective than preoperative injections in patients undergoing cataract surgery, the treatment still needs to be continued following surgery. PMID:27493795
Erie, Andrew J; McHugh, Ryan; Warner, Mary; Erie, Jay C
To determine the safety and practicality of a combined anesthesiologist and registered nurse model of anesthesia care in cataract surgery. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. Case series. This retrospective review comprised consecutive patients having phacoemulsification cataract surgery and peribulbar injection anesthesia combined with propofol intravenous sedation between August 1, 2004, and July 31, 2006. In all cases, anesthesiologist-supervised intravenous propofol sedation during injection anesthesia was followed by registered nurse observation for the remainder of the surgery. Outcome measures were the rate of subsequent anesthesiologist intervention, intraoperative complications, and associated risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to estimate risk for anesthesiologist intervention. The study reviewed 3656 cases. There were no serious medical complications leading to postoperative hospitalization. Fifty-four cases (1.5%) required subsequent intraoperative anesthesiologist intervention. Evaluation of systolic hypertension (40 of 54 cases, 74%) was the most common reason for anesthesiologist intervention. There was no correlation between anesthesiologist intervention and patient age or sex (P=.77 and P=.41, respectively). The risk for anesthesiologist intervention increased 2.2-fold for every 1 unit increase in the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score (P=.007). The monitoring of cataract surgery patients by registered nurses after anesthesiologist-supervised intravenous propofol sedation during injection anesthesia was associated with very low complication and anesthesiologist intervention rates. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trevisani, Lorenzo F M; Nguyen, Hiep T
Minimally invasive surgeries such as conventional laparoscopic surgery and robotic assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) have significant advantages over the traditional open surgical approach including lower pain medication requirements and decreased length of hospitalization. However, open surgery has demonstrated better success rates and shorter surgery time when compared to the other modalities. Currently, it is unclear which approach has better long-term clinical outcomes, greater benefits and less cost. There are limited studies in the literature comparing these three different surgical approaches. In this review, we will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of RALS compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery and open surgery for commonly performed pediatric urological procedures such as pyeloplasty, ureteral reimplantation, complete and partial nephrectomy, bladder augmentation and creation of continent catheterizable channels. Although it is not yet possible to demonstrate the superiority of one single surgical modality over another, RALS has been shown to be feasible, well tolerated and advantageous in reconstructive urological procedures. With experience, the outcomes of RALS are improving, justifying its usage. However, cost remains a significant issue, limiting the accessibility of RALS, which in the future may improve with market competition and device innovation.
Kato, Kumiko; Miyake, Kensaku; Kondo, Nagako; Asano, Sayaka; Takeda, Junko; Takahashi, Akiko; Takashima, Yuko; Kondo, Mineo
To determine the effects of topical diclofenac or betamethasone with concomitant application of topical rebamipide on the conjunctival goblet cell density in eyes after cataract surgery. Randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients who were scheduled for cataract surgery. Patients were randomized into 4 groups according to the postoperative topical drugs to be given; Group A, diclofenac alone; Group B, diclofenac and rebamipide; Group C, betamethasone alone; and Group D, betamethasone and rebamipide. Impression cytology was performed before and at 1 month after the surgery, and the mean density of goblet cells was determined. The mean (± SD) density of goblet cells before the surgery in Group A was 257.0 ± 188.7 cells/mm(2), and it decreased significantly to 86.5 ± 76.7 cells/mm(2) at 1 month after the surgery (P = .002). In Group B, the goblet cell density was not statistically different between before (238.5 ± 116.6 cells/mm(2)) and at 1 month after the surgery (211.3 ± 184.4 cells/mm(2), P = .55). In Groups C and D, the mean density of goblet cells was decreased at 1 month after the surgery, but the decreases were not significant (P = .11 and P = .52, respectively). After cataract surgery with postoperative topical diclofenac, the conjunctival goblet cell density was significantly reduced, and this reduction was blocked by the concomitant use of topical rebamipide. These results suggest that the concomitant use of topical rebamipide with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is beneficial, especially in cases with postoperative dry eyes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoffmeister, Lorena; Román, Rubén; Comas, Mercè; Cots, Francesc; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Castells, Xavier
Background Despite recommendations for greater use of second-eye cataract surgery and the bilateral progression of the disease, there is a substantial proportion of unmet need for this treatment. Few studies have explored the factors associated with second-eye cataract surgery utilisation. The objective of our study was to estimate the proportion of second-eye cataract surgery, evaluate its time-trend, and explore differences in utilisation by patients' gender, age, and region of residence. Methods All senile cataract surgeries performed between 1999 and 2002 in the public health system of Catalonia (Spain) were obtained from the Minimum Data Set. The proportion of second-eye surgery from November 2000 to December 2002 was calculated. The time-trend of this proportion was characterised through linear regression models with the logarithmic transformation of time. Results The proportion of second-eye surgery was 30.0% and showed an increasing trend from 24.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 21.6; 26.1) in November 2000 to 31.8% (95% CI 31.4; 33.6) in December 2002. This proportion was 1.9% (95% CI 0.9; 2.9) higher in women (p < 0.001) and held constant across time. Male patients aged less than 60 had the lowest proportion (22.6%; 95% CI 22.4; 22.9) and females between 70 and 79 had the highest proportion (27.4%; 95% CI 26.9; 27.9). The time-trend for the proportion of second-eye surgery in those aged over 80 years was greater than for younger ages, showing an increase of 9% at the end of the period for both males and females. Variations between regions decreased over time because regions with the lowest initial proportions of second-eye surgery (approximately 17%) showed a greater increase over the study period. Conclusion We predict greater utilization of second-eye surgery in patients aged 70 to 79 years and in women. A greater increase in the utilisation rates of second-eye surgery is expected in the regions with lower proportions and in older patients. The observed
Jackson, T L; Donachie, P H J; Sparrow, J M; Johnston, R L
Aim To report the vitreoretinal (VR) surgical case mix in the United Kingdom, the intraoperative complication rate of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and the incidence of post-vitrectomy cataract extraction. Methods Participating hospitals prospectively collected ophthalmic data using a single electronic medical record system, with automatic extraction of anonymised data to a national database. This study included the subset of 11 618 VR operations undertaken on 9619 eyes, of 8741 patients, over 8 years, from 27 sites. Surgical data included the indication for surgery, all procedure elements, and whether or not an intraoperative complication occurred. Post-vitrectomy cataract data were also analysed. The main outcome measures were a description of the indications for surgery, intraoperative PPV complication rate, and percentage of eyes undergoing post-vitrectomy cataract surgery (PVCS). Results The most common indications for VR intervention were retinal breaks and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (48.5%), macular hole (9.8%), epiretinal membrane (9.6%), and diabetic eye disease (7.3%). Overall, 7.8% of PPVs had at least one intraoperative complication—the most common were iatrogenic retinal breaks (3.2%), and lens touch (1.2–1.6% of phakic eyes). PVCS occurred in 50.2, 68.7, and 74.0% of eyes at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion VR surgery is undertaken for a wide range of conditions, but a small number of diagnoses encompass the majority of cases. Intraoperative PPV complications are not uncommon, and post-vitrectomy cataract is to be expected in most phakic eyes. PMID:23449509
Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; García-Sáenz, Ma Carmen; Villar-Del-Campo, Ma Concepción; Andrés-Alba, Yolanda; Arias-Puente, Alfonso
To evaluate the clinical and economic impact of prophylactic administration of intracameral cefuroxime on cataract surgery. Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain. Quasi-experimental study with before and after analysis. The evolution of the cumulative incidence of endophthalmitis before and after (October 2005) administration of intracameral cefuroxime as endophthalmitis prophylaxis in cataract surgery was studied. The annual incidence adjusting to a Poisson distribution was compared. The effectiveness of the prophylaxis was evaluated with the relative risk (RR). The impact of cefuroxime was evaluated with the attributable risk fraction and the number of patients needed to treat to avoid a case of endophthalmitis. Cataract surgery was performed in 19 463 patients, 6595 patients before and 12 868 patients after October 2005. Endophthalmitis was diagnosed in 44 cases (39 before and 5 after). Positive microbiology cultures were obtained in 29 patients (66%). The overall cumulative incidence was 0.23 cases per 100 patients. Cefuroxime protected against endophthalmitis (RR = 0.06; P<.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.17); the impact or number needed to treat was 182, and the attributable risk fraction was -0.93% (P<.05; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.97). The cost of a dose of cefuroxime was €1, and the cost of a case of endophthalmitis was €1358. The potential saving with cefuroxime was €1177 for every 182 patients treated. Intracameral cefuroxime reduced the incidence of endophthalmitis in cataract surgery and had a high clinical and economic impact on its prevention. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ong-Tone, Lindsay; Bell, Ali; Tan, Yin Yin
To establish the practice patterns of the members of the Canadian Ophthalmological Society (COS) in cataract surgery. Web-based questionnaire. Members of the COS indicating practice focus to be cataract surgery. In January 2011 an e-mail with a link to Fluid Surveys was sent from the COS office to the 292 members who had indicated their practices' focus to be cataract surgery. A reminder e-mail was sent 3 weeks later. Approval for the survey was obtained from the Regina Qu'Appelle Health Region Research Ethics Board. All responses were collected anonymously. There were 92 responses (31.5%). In 2009, the response rate was 20.7%, and in 2010 it was 32.5%. The results of the 3 surveys were compared. There was a gradual increase in the use of topical-only anaesthesia, in the number of days during which the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye drops were used preoperatively, and in the use of multifocal and toric intraocular lenses. Postoperatively, the use of an NSAID eye drop alone remained unchanged, but there was a decrease in the use of steroid eye drops alone and a corresponding increase in the use of a combination steroid and NSAID eye drop. Over the past 3 years the majority of the practice patterns in cataract surgery by the members of the Canadian Ophthalmological Society have remained unchanged. However, there were certain areas where definite trends were noted. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simsek, T; Mutluay, A H; Elgin, U; Gursel, R; Batman, A
Aim To compare the mean central corneal thickness (CCT) among aphakic and pseudophakic patients following congenital cataract surgery with age matched controls. Methods This study included 43 eyes of 43 aphakic and pseudophakic patients following congenital cataract surgery. 44 healthy, age and sex matched volunteers were recruited for comparison with the patients. After a complete eye examination, corneal thickness and intraocular pressure were measured. Results In the study group, 33 eyes were aphakic, and the remaining 10 eyes were pseudophakic. The median CCT was 556.0 μm (range 490–640 μm) in the control group and 626 μm (range 523–870 μm) in the study group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in CCT between aphakic and pseudophakic eyes in which an intraocular lens (IOL) had been implanted at the time of congenital cataract surgery (p = 0.011). The same difference was not observed between aphakic and pseudophakic eyes in which an IOL had been implanted secondarily (p = 0.835). The median age of the patients at the time of lensectomy was 24 months (range 1 week to 120 months). There was a negative correlation between the age at lensectomy and CCT (r = −0.485, p = 0.001). Conclusion Aphakic and pseudophakic patients have significantly thicker corneas than age matched controls. This difference can have an important effect on interpreting intraocular pressures in these patients. It is also important to assess the effects of early surgery for congenital cataracts, as well as those of primary and secondary IOL implantation, on CCT. PMID:16707519
Bhogal, Maninder M; Angunawela, Romesh I; Little, Brian C
Reflective surgical practice is invaluable for surgeons at all levels of experience. For trainees in particular, every surgical opportunity must be optimized for its learning potential. Recording and reviewing cataract surgery is an invaluable tool. We describe a video recording device that has the advantages of ease of use; low cost; portability; and ease of review, editing, and dissemination, all of which encourage regular use and reflective surgical practice. Copyright (c) 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Modi, Neil; Shaw, Steve; Allman, Keith; Simcock, Peter
To assess factors influencing perception of pain, anxiety and overall satisfaction during local anaesthetic cataract surgery an audit was carried out at the West of England Eye Unit. Patients receiving sub-Tenons after previous peribulbar anaesthesia had significantly higher pain scores. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher when a handholder was present in theatre. Finally, no difference was found in the three variables whether anaesthesia was administered by an anaesthetic practitioner or an anaesthetist.
Lubiński, Wojciech; Kaźmierczak, Beata; Gronkowska-Serafin, Jolanta; Podborączyńska-Jodko, Karolina
Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes after uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric toric intraocular lens (IOL) during a 6-month follow-up. Methods. Prospective study including 27 consecutive eyes of 18 patients (mean age: 66.1 ± 11.4 years) with a visually significant cataract and corneal astigmatism ≥ 0.75 D and undergoing uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis ZCT toric IOL (Abbott Medical Optics). Visual, refractive, and keratometric outcomes as well as IOL rotation were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up. At the end of the follow-up, patient satisfaction and perception of optical/visual disturbances were also evaluated using a subjective questionnaire. Results. At 6 months after surgery, mean LogMAR uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were 0.19 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.10, respectively. Postoperative UDVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 92.6% of eyes. Mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly from −3.73 ± 1.96 to −1.42 ± 0.88 D (p < 0.001), while keratometric cylinder did not change significantly (p = 0.44). Mean absolute IOL rotation was 1.1 ± 2.4°, with values of more than 5° in only 2 eyes (6.9%). Mean patient satisfaction score was 9.70 ± 0.46, using a scale from 0 (not at all satisfied) to 10 (very satisfied). No postoperative optical/visual disturbances were reported. Conclusion. Cataract surgery with implantation of the Tecnis toric IOL is an effective method of refractive correction in eyes with corneal astigmatism due to the good IOL positional stability, providing high levels of patient's satisfaction. PMID:27022478
Haripriya, Aravind; Chang, David F; Reena, Mascarenhas; Shekhar, Madhu
To analyze the rate of intraoperative complications, reoperations, and endophthalmitis with phacoemulsification, manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS), and large-incision extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India. Retrospective cohort study. This study comprised consecutive cataract surgeries performed during a 12-month period. All surgical complications and endophthalmitis cases were tabulated and analyzed for each of 4 surgeon groups (staff, fellows, residents, visiting trainees). Within each surgeon group, complication rates with phacoemulsification, manual SICS, and ECCE were compared. The surgical distribution was 20,438 (26%) phacoemulsification, 53,603 (67%) manual SICS, and 5736 (7%) ECCE. The overall intraoperative complication rate was 0.79% for staff, 1.19% for fellows, 2.06% for residents, and 5% for visiting trainees. Extracapsular cataract extraction had the highest overall rate of surgical complications (2.6%). The overall complication rate was 1.01% for manual SICS and 1.11% for phacoemulsification. However, the combined complication rate for trainees was significantly higher with phacoemulsification (4.8%) than with manual SICS (1.46%) (P<.001). The corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12 in 96% after phacoemulsification complications and 89% after manual SICS complications (P<.001). There were 27 cases (0.04%) of endophthalmitis but no statistical differences between surgical methods or surgeon groups. For staff surgeons experienced with both phacoemulsification and manual SICS, intraoperative complication rates were comparably low. However, for trainee surgeons, the complication rate was significantly higher with phacoemulsification, suggesting that manual SICS may be a safer initial procedure to learn for inexperienced cataract surgeons in the developing world. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS
Desai, P.; Minassian, D; Reidy, A.
AIMS—A national survey of over 100 hospitals in the UK was carried out to collect routine clinical information on the outcomes of cataract surgery. The clinical outcomes of interest were: visual acuity at time of discharge from postoperative hospital follow up, visual acuity at time of final refraction; complications related to surgery occurring during the operation, within 48 hours of surgery, and within 3 months of surgery. In addition, information on age and comorbidity was obtained. This article reports on the findings of the experience of approximately 18 000 patients who had cataract surgery in the hospital eye service of the NHS. RESULTS—Of those with no ocular comorbidity, 85% achieved a visual acuity of 6/12 or better on discharge from postoperative hospital follow up, while 65% of patients with a serious co-existing eye disease achieved this level of acuity at this time. At final refraction, 92% of patients without ocular comorbidity and 77% of patients with ocular comorbidity achieved 6/12 or better visual acuity. The following main risk indicators were associated with visual outcomes and complications related to surgery: age, other eye diseases, diabetes and stroke, type of surgical procedure, and grade of surgeon. CONCLUSIONS—The acceptability of these findings could fruitfully be the subject of discussion within the ophthalmic community and hopefully issues arising out of the study can lead to research, especially in-depth studies of the outcomes of cataract surgery in those patients with co-existing serious eye conditions. PMID:10574810
Fisher, Bret L; Potvin, Rick
Purpose To compare the relative effectiveness of a Tri-Moxi-Vanc intraocular solution injected transzonularly into the vitreous with the topical formulation of Pred-Moxi-Ketor (given for the first week postoperatively) followed by Pred-Ketor (given for weeks 2–4 after surgery). Patients and methods This was a single-site, single-surgeon, prospective, randomized, subject-masked contralateral eye study with an active comparator and was approved by an appropriate ethics committee. Twenty-five subjects with uncomplicated cataract who were scheduled for cataract surgery were enrolled. If surgery was uneventful, subjects received either an injection in that eye or followed a minimum drop postoperative pharmaceutical regimen. The second eye surgery was performed with the opposite treatment. Subjects were followed for 1 month. Measures of interest were the changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline and the changes in corneal and macular thickness. Subjects were also asked to evaluate pain perception, visual quality, and overall satisfaction with surgery. They were also asked which regimen they preferred. Results IOP was not statistically significantly different between the groups (P=0.81); there was also no statistically significant difference in IOP over time (P=0.74). There was no statistically significant difference in central macular thickness at 1 week and 1 month between the groups (P=0.18). The central corneal thickness was significantly greater 1 day postoperatively relative to baseline, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at any time point (P=0.92). The difference in reported pain was also not statistically significantly different between the groups (P=0.67). Satisfaction with surgery was similar for both groups, but significantly more subjects preferred the injection for overall experience (P<0.01). Conclusion Cataract surgery completed with the two pharmaceutical regimens was similar in outcome. Significantly more
Fong, Calvin Sze-un; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Teber, Erdahl T; Hong, Thomas; Wang, Jie Jin
We assessed whether correction of visual impairment (VI) by cataract surgery was associated with improved long-term survival in an older Australian population. Population-based cohort study. In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 354 participants, aged ≥ 49 years, had both cataract and VI or had undergone cataract surgery before baseline examinations. They were subsequently examined after 5- and 10-year follow-ups. Associations between the mortality risk and the surgical correction of VI (visual acuity [VA] <20/40, attributable to cataract) were assessed in Cox proportional hazard regression models, after multivariate adjustment, using time-dependent variables for the study factor. All-cause mortality. The 15-year crude mortality of participants who had undergone cataract surgery at baseline with no subsequent VI (71.8%) was relatively similar to that in participants with cataract-related VI who had not yet undergone surgery (79.4%). However, after adjusting for age and sex, participants who underwent cataract surgery before baseline or during follow-up and no longer had VI had significantly lower long-term mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.77) than participants with VI due to cataract who had not undergone cataract surgery. This lower mortality risk in the group with surgically corrected VI (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73) persisted after further adjustment for smoking, body mass index, home ownership, qualifications, poor self-rated health, the presence of poor mobility, hypertension, diabetes, self-reported history of angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, asthma, and arthritis. This finding remained significant (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73) after additional adjustment for the number of medications taken (continuous variable) and the number (≥ 5 vs. <5) of comorbid conditions (poor mobility, hypertension, diabetes, angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, asthma, or arthritis) as indicators of frailty
Trikha, S; Turnbull, A M J; Morris, R J; Anderson, D F; Hossain, P
Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) represents a potential paradigm shift in cataract surgery, but it is not without controversy. Advocates of the technology herald FLACS as a revolution that promises superior outcomes and an improved safety profile for patients. Conversely, detractors point to the large financial costs involved and claim that similar results are achievable with conventional small-incision phacoemulsification. This review provides a balanced and comprehensive account of the development of FLACS since its inception. It explains the physiology and mechanics underlying the technology, and critically reviews the outcomes and implications of initial studies. The benefits and limitations of using femtosecond laser accuracy to create corneal incisions, anterior capsulotomy, and lens fragmentation are explored, with reference to the main platforms, which currently offer FLACS. Economic considerations are discussed, in addition to the practicalities associated with the implementation of FLACS in a healthcare setting. The influence on surgical training and skills is co