Yarbro, Jessica L; Mehlenbeck, Robyn
This article addresses a current need in psychological practice by describing a financially feasible model that moves toward integrated care of behavioral health services in a pediatric endocrinology clinic. Financial information (costs and revenue associated with behavioral health services) for the clinic, over an 18-month period (July 2012 to December 2013), was obtained through the hospital's financial department. The clinic meets one half day per week. Over the 18-month period, the behavioral health services generated a net gain of $3661.45 in the favor of the clinic. We determined that the psychologist and clinical psychology residents needed to see a total of four patients per half-day clinic for the clinic to "break-even." We describe one financially feasible way of integrating behavioral health services into a pediatric endocrinology clinic in the hope that this will be generalizable to other medical settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
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Cho, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kim, Ho Seong; Kim, Jeong-Ho
Defining pediatric reference intervals is one of the most difficult tasks for laboratory physicians. The continuously changing physiology of growing children makes their laboratory values moving targets. In addition, ethnic and behavioral differences might also cause variations. The aim of this study was to establish age- and sex-specific partitioned reference intervals for 13 serum biochemical analytes in Korean children. A total of 2474 patients, girls aged 2-14 years and boys aged 2-16 years, who underwent a short stature workup but were diagnosed as normal at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) between September 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. The levels of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartic aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin were measured using a Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Reference intervals were partitioned according to sex or age subgroups using the Harris and Boyd method. Most analytes except calcium and albumin required partitioning either by sex or age. Age-specific partitioned reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and total bilirubin were established for both males and females after being partitioned by sex. Additional age-specific partitioning of aspartic aminotransferase in females and total protein and uric acid in males was also required. Inorganic phosphorus, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose were partitioned only by sex. This study provided updated age- and sex-specific pediatric reference intervals for 13 basic serum chemistry analytes from a sufficient number of healthy children by using a modern analytical chemistry platform. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Jones, Marybeth R; Robbins, Brett W; Augustine, Marilyn; Doyle, Jackie; Mack-Fogg, Jean; Jones, Heather; White, Patience H
Adult and pediatric endocrinologists share responsibility for the transition of youth with type 1 diabetes from pediatric to adult healthcare. This study aimed to increase successful transfers to adult care in subspecialty practices by establishing a systematic health care transition (HCT) process. Providers from the adult and pediatric endocrinology divisions at the University of Rochester Medical Center met monthly to customize and integrate the Six Core Elements (6CEs) of HCT into clinical workflows. Young adult patients with type 1 diabetes having an outpatient visit during a 34-month pre-post intervention period were eligible (N = 371). Retrospective chart review was performed on patients receiving referrals to adult endocrinology (n = 75) to obtain (1) the proportion of patients explicitly tracked during transfer from the pediatric to adult endocrinology practice, (2) the providers' documentation of the use of the 6CEs, and (3) the patients' diabetes control and healthcare utilization during the transition period. The percent of eligible patients with type 1 diabetes who were explicitly tracked in their transfer more than doubled compared to baseline (11% vs. 27% of eligible patients; P<.01). Pediatric providers started to use transition readiness assessments and create medical summaries, and adult providers increased closed-loop communication with pediatric providers after a patient's first adult visit. Glycemic control and healthcare utilization remained stable. Successful implementation of the 6CEs into pediatric and adult subspecialty practices can result in improvements of planned transfers of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes to adult subspecialty providers. 6CEs = six core elements; AYA = adolescent and young adult; DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; ED = emergency department; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HCT = health care transition.
Fisher, Delbert A
Pediatric endocrinology evolved as a subspecialty from the era of biochemical and metabolic clinical investigation led by John Howland, Edwards Park, and James Gamble at Johns Hopkins; Allan Butler at Boston University and Harvard University; Daniel Darrow at Yale University; and Irving McQuarrie at the University of Rochester and the University of Minnesota during the early 20th century. The father of the new subspecialty was Lawson Wilkins, a private pediatric practitioner in Baltimore, Maryland, who was invited by Dr. Edwards Park to establish an endocrine clinic at the Harriet Lane Home at Johns Hopkins in 1935. Dr. Wilkins managed his practice and the clinic until 1946, when, at the age of 52, he accepted a full-time position at the University. Dr. Nathan Talbot was invited to develop a pediatric endocrine clinic at Massachusetts General Hospital by Allan Butler in 1942. These units and their associated subspecialty training programs during the 1950s and 1960s provided the large majority of the second-generation pediatric endocrinologists who went on to establish endocrine subspecialty programs in university medical centers in North America as well as Europe and South America. Diabetes as a clinical pediatric discipline evolved in parallel from the early clinics of Elliott Joslin and Priscilla White in Boston, M.C. Hardin and Robert Jackson at the University of Iowa, George Guest at the University of Cincinnati Children's Hospital, and Alex Hartman at the St. Louis Children's Hospital. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society was founded in 1971, and the Council on Diabetes and Youth was established within the American Diabetes Association in 1980. Medical and economic factors led to increasing integration of pediatric diabetes and general endocrine care and training, and diabetes care now is a major activity within the subspecialty of pediatric endocrinology. The growth of pediatric endocrinology in North America has paralleled the growth of academic
The Pediatric Exercise Science Year That Was section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2016 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) Induction of T4 to T3 conversion by type 2 deiodinase following aerobic exercise in skeletal muscles was associated with concomitant increase in peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and therefore plays an important mechanistic role in the muscle adaptation to exercise training. 2) Hypothyroidism in fetal and early postnatal life was associated with impaired spatial learning and memory and with reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor in male and female rat pups. Forced (treadmill) and voluntary (wheel) exercise alleviated all these biochemical and neuro-cognitive deficits. 3) The relationship between different exercise intensities and carbohydrate requirements to maintain euglycemia at basal insulin levels among adolescent and young adults with Type 1 diabetes are nonlinear but rather inverted- U with no exogenous glucose required to maintain stable glucose level at high-intensity exercise (80%). The implication of these studies to the pediatric population, their importance and the new research avenues that were opened by these studies is emphasized.
Paediatric endocrinology started its independent development early in the general development of this specialty, with a strong focus on research and clinical excellence. Slovenian paediatric endocrinology was an integral part of the European paediatric endocrinology from its beginnings and a founding member of the first ‘International Study Group for Diabetes in Children and Adolescents’. After the pioneering work of Prof. Lev Matajc, Prof. Ciril Kržišnik firmly integrated the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases at the University Children’s Hospital in Ljubljana in the international scientific community. In the last decade, the department participates in cutting-edge research and provides clinical services at highest international standards. PMID:27646909
Ketha, Siva S; Singh, Ravinder J; Ketha, Hemamalini
The advent of mass spectrometry into the clinical laboratory has led to an improvement in clinical management of several endocrine diseases. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry found some of its first clinical applications in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, in quantitative steroid analysis, and in drug analysis laboratories. Mass spectrometry assays offer analytical sensitivity and specificity that is superior to immunoassays for many analytes. This article highlights several areas of clinical endocrinology that have witnessed the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keil, Margaret F; Lipman, Terri H
In 1990, the Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) developed a grant program to provide funding to advance pediatric endocrinology nursing practice through basic and applied research. Minimal data exist regarding the effect of grant funding on professional development and research dissemination. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that PENS' grant funding has resulted in professional presentations, publications, and further research funding. Nineteen grants that received funding were identified. Survey questions included whether the results of the PENS-funded study were presented, published, and resulted in subsequent funding from other sources. Outcome data were available for 11 of 18 grants (61%). All funded studies were presented at PENS conference; 55% were presented at other national or international conferences. Sixteen publications resulted from seven funded studies; 64% of PENS' funded studies led to additional funding, and 18% resulted in additional research studies. In summary, the research grant program of PENS funded 19 grants, which resulted in numerous publications, presentations, and, in some cases, additional research funding from other sources. Many grant recipients acknowledged that PENS was their first source of research funding and gave them the opportunity to become experienced in their role as clinical researchers.
Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H
Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive
Shubeska Stratrova, S
The Clinic of Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic disorders was founded in 1975 by Prof d-r Alexandar Plashevski. Healthcare, educational and scientific activities in the Clinic of Endocrinology are performed in its departments. The Department for hospitalized diabetic and endocrine patients consists of the metabolic and endocrine intensive care unit, the department for diagnosis and treatment of diabetics and endocrine patients, day hospital, the department for education of diabetic patients, and the national center for insulin pump therapy. The Center for Diabetes was established in 1972 by Prof d-r Dimitar Arsov. In 1975, Prof d-r Alexandar Plasheski broadened the activities of the Center for Diabetes. It was dislocated in 1980, with new accommodation outside the clinic. Since then the Center has consisted of several organized units: two specialist outpatient clinics for diabetic patients, biochemical and endocrine laboratory, sub-departments for: diabetic foot, cardiovascular diagnosis, ophthalmology, and urgent interventions. The Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders for outclinic endocrine patients was established in 1980, and it integrates the following sub-departments: thyrology, andrology, reproductive endocrinology, obesity and lipid disorders and sub-department for osteoporosis. The educational staff of the Clinic of Endocrinology organizes theoretical and practical education about Clinical Investigation and Internal Medicine with credit transfer system course of study of the Medical Faculty, Faculty of Stomatology, postgraduate studies, specializations and sub-specializations. Symposiums, 3 congresses, schools for diabetes and osteoporosis and continuous medical education were also organized. The Clinic of Endocrinology was initiator, organizer, founder and the seat of several medical associations.
Vicente Delgado, Almudena; Gómez Enterría, Pilar; Tinahones Madueño, Francisco
Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition are branches of Medicine that deal with the study of physiology of body glands and hormones and their disorders, intermediate metabolism of nutrients, enteral and parenteral nutrition, promotion of health by prevention of diet-related diseases, and appropriate use of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive tools related to these disciplines. Development of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition support services requires accurate definition and management of a number of complex resources, both human and material, as well as adequate planning of the care provided. It is therefore essential to know the services portfolio of an ideal Department of Endocrinology and Clinical Nutrition because this is a useful, valid and necessary tool to optimize the available resources, to increase efficiency, and to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Limbers, Christine; Young, Danielle; Jernigan, Stephanie; Bryant, William; Stephen, Matt
Behavioral rating scales represent one potential method for screening of cognitive functioning in routine clinical care. It is not yet known if objective performance based measures and behavioral rating scales of cognitive functioning completed by parents yield similar information in pediatric endocrinology patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the associations between performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales of memory and attention/concentration completed by parents of pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity. The sample consisted of 73 pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity (BMI > 95th percentile) ages 6-16 years (mean age = 12.29 years) referred to an outpatient pediatric endocrinology clinic. Youth were administered the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML-2). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale. Pearson's Product Moment Correlations were examined among the performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales. All intercorrelations between the performance-based measures and behavioral rating scales completed by parents were in the small range. The only statistically significant (P < 0.05) and approaching medium correlation was between the PedsQL Cognitive Functioning Scale and WRAML-2 Verbal Memory Index (r = 0.28). On behavioral rating scales and performance-based measures of visual memory and attention/concentration, our sample exhibited greater difficulties than healthy youth from previously published data (P < 0.05). One possible explanation for our findings is that behavioral rating scales of attention/concentration and memory completed by parents measure different aspects of cognitive functioning than performance based measures in pediatric patients with Type 1 Diabetes or obesity.
Marcucci, G; Cianferotti, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Capezzone, M; Cetani, F; Colao, A; Davì, M V; degli Uberti, E; Del Prato, S; Elisei, R; Faggiano, A; Ferone, D; Foresta, C; Fugazzola, L; Ghigo, E; Giacchetti, G; Giorgino, F; Lenzi, A; Malandrino, P; Mannelli, M; Marcocci, C; Masi, L; Pacini, F; Opocher, G; Radicioni, A; Tonacchera, M; Vigneri, R; Zatelli, M C; Brandi, M L
Rare endocrine-metabolic diseases (REMD) represent an important area in the field of medicine and pharmacology. The rare diseases of interest to endocrinologists involve all fields of endocrinology, including rare diseases of the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands, paraganglia, ovary and testis, disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, energy and lipid metabolism, water metabolism, and syndromes with possible involvement of multiple endocrine glands, and neuroendocrine tumors. Taking advantage of the constitution of a study group on REMD within the Italian Society of Endocrinology, consisting of basic and clinical scientists, a document on the taxonomy of REMD has been produced. This document has been designed to include mainly REMD manifesting or persisting into adulthood. The taxonomy of REMD of the adult comprises a total of 166 main disorders, 338 including all variants and subtypes, described into 11 tables. This report provides a complete taxonomy to classify REMD of the adult. In the future, the creation of registries of rare endocrine diseases to collect data on cohorts of patients and the development of common and standardized diagnostic and therapeutic pathways for each rare endocrine disease is advisable. This will help planning and performing intervention studies in larger groups of patients to prove the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of a specific treatment.
Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Di Giorgio, Angela; Bernasconi, Sergio
Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis and appendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases. Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalence in newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidin levels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has been described as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infections may increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT) in oral mode for the measurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, the transmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing or pasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, pain in children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation will likely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of the Family Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence, infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials.
Main progresses in endocrinology, gastroenterology, hemato-oncology, infectious diseases, otolaryngology, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory tract illnesses selected from articles published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2011 were reviewed. Risk factors for gastroenteritis and appendicitis in developing countries may be useful in improving our understanding of these diseases. Childhood hearing impairment is a world-wide problem which continues to have an high prevalence in newborns. Among the mechanisms of diseases, obese children often have asthma and high hepcidin levels that may reduce serum iron concentrations. In cystic fibrosis, 18q distal deletion has been described as a novel mutation. Hypothyroidism in children with central nervous system infections may increase mortality rates. Infrared tympanic thermometer (IRTT) in oral mode for the measurement of body temperature may be useful in fever screening in a busy setup. In newborns, the transmission of CMV infection through breast milk may be prevented through freezing or pasteurization. Recent advances in treatment of constipation, urinary tract infections, leukemia, pain in children with cancer, neonates with sepsis or difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation will likely contribute towards optimizing management of these common disorders. The work of the Family Pediatricians Medicines for Children Research Network aims to develop competence, infrastructure, networking and education for pediatric clinical trials. PMID:22682313
Angeles Gálvez Moreno, M
In 2006, the Healthcare Commission of Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition did a survey in order to know the actual situation of endocrinology and clinical nutrition healthcare in Public Sanitary Systems in Spain. The survey has been more extensive than the last and it has taken up number and geographical distribution of specialists in Spain in addition to data about clinical assistance. The mean of public hospitals with endocrinologist participation has been 50%. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, K; Drop, S L S; Schuwirth, L
Global accessibility and dissemination of developments in pediatric endocrinology prompted to examine how to develop an educational interactive e-SPE web portal. A systematic approach was used to identify the relevant aspects of accessibility and dissemination. An orientation at the big idea was made, executed by an analysis of the needs of student and teacher pediatric endocrinologists, a definition of the learning objectives, a research in educational literature and an exploration of ICT design specifications. The intensive collaboration between medical, educational and information technology disciplines resulted in a portal design. The portal meets requirements of adult learning, stresses interaction between partners in learning and offers direct feedback during the learning process. The portal supports the development of not only knowledge but also competences both at junior and advanced levels. When the e-SPE portal is completed, the options for summative assessment will be examined as a medium for international certification in conjunction with local and national requirements (http://espe.elearning.nl). Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Using journal metrics, this paper explores whether Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism has internationalized 4 years after changing its language to English only. From the journal's website and the Web of Science Core Collection, the following metrics were counted or calculated: Number of citable articles, countries of authors and editorial board members, total citations, impact factor, countries of citing authors, citing journal titles, and Hirsch index. From 2012 to 2017, 208 articles were citable. The authors had affiliations in 7 countries and the editorial board members in 14 countries. From 2014 to 2017, the total citations each year were 8, 81, 141, and 61; and the impact factors from 2014 to 2016 were calculated as 0.05, 0.987, and 1.165. The citing authors were from 60 countries, among which the United States, China, South Korea, Italy, and Germany were most common. The journal was cited by 215 journal titles. The Hirsch index was 7. These journal metrics showed that the journal achieved international status 4 years after changing the journals' language into English only. The journal's language policy successfully enabled the journal to rebrand as an international journal.
Purpose Using journal metrics, this paper explores whether Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism has internationalized 4 years after changing its language to English only. Methods From the journal's website and the Web of Science Core Collection, the following metrics were counted or calculated: Number of citable articles, countries of authors and editorial board members, total citations, impact factor, countries of citing authors, citing journal titles, and Hirsch index. Results From 2012 to 2017, 208 articles were citable. The authors had affiliations in 7 countries and the editorial board members in 14 countries. From 2014 to 2017, the total citations each year were 8, 81, 141, and 61; and the impact factors from 2014 to 2016 were calculated as 0.05, 0.987, and 1.165. The citing authors were from 60 countries, among which the United States, China, South Korea, Italy, and Germany were most common. The journal was cited by 215 journal titles. The Hirsch index was 7. Conclusion These journal metrics showed that the journal achieved international status 4 years after changing the journals' language into English only. The journal's language policy successfully enabled the journal to rebrand as an international journal. PMID:28690984
Regueras Santos, L; Díaz Moro, A; Iglesias Blázquez, C; Rodríguez Fernández, C; Quiroga González, R; de Paz Fernández, J A; Rodríguez Fernández, L M
Parental obesity is a risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to determine if parental obesity influences the adherence and success of obesity treatment in a hospital paediatric endocrinology clinic. An analytical, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted on obese children aged 4-14. An initial body mass index (BMI), and again at 6 months after receiving health, hygiene and dietary recommendations. Success was considered as a decrease of 0.5 in the BMI Z-score, and adherence to attending the 6-month review. Parental BMI was determined to identify overweight. The χ(2) test was used for qualitative variables and the T-Student test for quantitative (significance, p<.05). The study included 100 children (52 male), 9.9±2.7 years old, BMI 28.1± 4.5kg/m(2) and BMI Z-Score 3.11±0.98. (85% had a BMI Z-score>3). More than half (59%) of the children had one or both parents obese (41 fathers and 37 mothers were obese). Treatment was not adhered to by 25 children. Adherence was worse if both parents were obese OR 3.65 (1.3 to 10.5) (P<=.01) and adherence was better if the mother was not obese, although the father was (P=.01). The treatment had significant success in 40 patients. If the mother was the only obese one in the family, the possibility of treatment failure was greater OR 5.6 (1.4 to 22.4) (P<.01) CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of children with severe obesity have obese parents. The mother has an important influence on adherence and response to treatment for the severely obese child. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bailey, Timothy S; Grunberger, George; Bode, Bruce W; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jovanovič, Lois; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Rodbard, David; Tamborlane, William V; Walsh, John
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.
Hendrickson, Chase D; Saini, Saumya; Pothuloori, Avin; Mecchella, John N
Outpatient specialty consultations rely on the timeliness and completeness of referral information to facilitate a valuable patient-specialist interaction. This project aimed to increase essential diagnostic information availability at the initial consultation for patients referred for common endocrine conditions frequently lacking such data-diabetes mellitus, thyroid nodule, thyrotoxicosis, and hypercalcemia. At an endocrinology clinic at an academic medical center in rural New England, providers see several thousand new patients annually, the majority of whom are referred by providers external to the clinic's healthcare system. Through consensus, endocrinology clinic providers agreed on the two or three data elements essential for a meaningful initial consultation for each. A quality improvement team employed a planned series of interventions based on previously published methods and an innovative approach: dissemination of a referral guideline, an assessment of referral adequacy in the endocrinology clinic workflow, coupled with focused requests for missing items, and a pre-visit lab appointment. Between April 2015 and March 2016, 762 referrals were reviewed. At baseline for the four conditions, referrals contained all essential elements only 27.5% (22 of 80) of the time. Over a 7-month period, the team implemented the interventions, with subsequent referrals containing all essential elements increasing to 75.5% (P<.0001), largely attributable to the pre-visit lab appointment. Incoming referrals that lack essential information are a significant problem in specialty care and may adversely affect patient experience, provider satisfaction, and clinic efficiency. Improvement may require innovative approaches, such as the potentially transferable and generalizable ones employed here. DHMC = Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center EHR = electronic health record PDSA = Plan-Do-Study-Act.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ASSOCIAZIONE MEDICI ENDOCRINOLOGI MEDICAL GUIDELINES FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF THYROID NODULES--2016 UPDATE.
Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Garber, Jeffrey R; Duick, Daniel S; Harrell, R Mack; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Valcavi, Roberto; Vitti, Paolo
malignant or suspicious nodules. The present document updates previous guidelines released in 2006 and 2010 by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME).
Li, Xiao-Hong; Han, Zi-Yan; She, Wen-Jing; Lei, Hai-Ke
To investigate patients' communication with their gynecologists in the first visit of the gynecological endocrinology outpatient clinics. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate 379 women' expectations of their first visit, information-giving about illness, and understanding of the consultation they encountered from April to August 2010. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Before the first visit, 55% (208/379) of participants hoped to get the doctors' special attention, and 60% (227/379) of patients expected a very satisfying consultation. During the consultation, only 34% (129/379) of patients provided their case history clearly according to physicians' inquiry, 21% (81/379) of patients understood the examination and 28% (105/379) of patients understood the therapeutic regime after doctors' explanation. Correlation analysis showed that sociodemographic characteristics such as young age (under 20 years old), low level of education (primary school or less), and lack of medical knowledge affected patients' information-giving about illness and understanding of their first visit (all ps < 0.05). Patients expected a patient-centered doctor-patient communication in gynecological endocrinology outpatient clinics. They could not communicate well with their doctors, which was affected by age, education, and medical background.
Kota, Sunil Kumar; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Krishna, S. V. S.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.
Successful outcome of pregnancy depends upon genetic, cellular, and hormonal interactions, which lead to implantation, placentation, embryonic, and fetal development, parturition and fetal adaptation to extrauterine life. The fetal endocrine system commences development early in gestation and plays a modulating role on the various physiological organ systems and prepares the fetus for life after birth. Our current article provides an overview of the current knowledge of several aspects of this vast field of fetal endocrinology and the role of endocrine system on transition to extrauterine life. We also provide an insight into fetal endocrine adaptations pertinent to various clinically important situations like placental insufficiency and maternal malnutrition. PMID:23961471
Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Dascola, Carlotta Povesi; Mirra, Virginia; Sperli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Sergio
This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections.
This review will provide new information related to pathophysiology and management of specific diseases that have been addressed by selected articles published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2013, focusing on allergology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hypertension, infectious diseases, neonatology, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses in children. Recommendations for interpretation of skin prick test to foods in atopic eczema, management of allergic conjunctivitis, hypertension and breastfeeding in women treated with antiepileptic drugs and healthy breakfast have been reported. Epidemiological studies have given emphasis to high incidence of autoimmune disorders in patients with Turner syndrome, increasing prevalence of celiac disease, frequency of hypertension in adolescents, incidence and risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity. Advances in prevention include elucidation of the role of probiotics in reducing occurrence of allergies and feeding intolerance, and events of foetal life that influence later onset of diseases. Mechanistic studies suggested a role for vitamin D deficiency in asthma and type 1 diabetes and for reactivation of Varicella-Zoster virus in aseptic meningitis. Regarding diagnosis, a new mean for the diagnosis of hyperbilirubinaemia in newborns, a score for recognition of impaired nutritional status and growth and criteria for early Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome have been suggested. New therapeutic approaches consist of use of etanercept for reducing insulin dose in type 1 diabetes, probiotics in atopic eczema, and melatonin in viral infections. PMID:25015124
Pujalte, George G. A.; Ahanogbe, Isabella; Thurston, McKennan J.; White, Richard O.; Roche-Green, Alva
There is an epidemic of pediatric obesity in the United States. In most cases, there is an excess in the amount of calories consumed, compared with the amount of calories expended. Numerous body systems are affected by pediatric obesity, with complications varying between boys and girls. Behavioral, genetic, and environmental factors affect the ability of children to avoid becoming obese. Primary care physicians should screen for obesity in children as much as possible. Associated risk factors for obesity should be uncovered. Methods of preventing obesity should be discussed routinely with children and their families. Healthy dietary habits are key, and so are family-oriented interventions, such as eating together at dinnertime. One hour of moderate to vigorous activity daily is recommended for children and adolescents. While pediatric bariatric surgery is an option, there are also numerous nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures available as management for pediatric obesity. Family-based approaches, such as reducing screen time, have been very successful. Non–weight-bearing exercises also help children and adolescents expend calories without causing injury to themselves. Family availability, activity preference, and developmental levels should all be considerations when managing pediatric obesity. Motivational interviewing may also be helpful, especially when customized for each specific patient and family. Clinicians will play an increasing role in terms of identifying, treating, and preventing pediatric obesity; measures that can be done in the clinic should be considered more and more. PMID:29119130
Bollerslev, Jens; Rejnmark, Lars; Marcocci, Claudio; Shoback, Dolores M; Sitges-Serra, Antonio; van Biesen, Wim; Dekkers, Olaf M
Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a rare (orphan) endocrine disease with low calcium and inappropriately low (insufficient) circulating parathyroid hormone levels, most often in adults secondary to thyroid surgery. Standard treatment is activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation and not replacement of the lacking hormone, as in other hormonal deficiency states. The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with guidance on the treatment and monitoring of chronic HypoPT in adults who do not have end-stage renal disease. We intend to draft a practical guideline, focusing on operationalized recommendations deemed to be useful in the daily management of patients. This guideline was developed and solely sponsored by The European Society of Endocrinology, supported by CBO (Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement) and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles as a methodological base. The clinical question on which the systematic literature search was based and for which available evidence was synthesized was: what is the best treatment for adult patients with chronic HypoPT? This systematic search found 1100 articles, which was reduced to 312 based on title and abstract. The working group assessed these for eligibility in more detail, and 32 full-text articles were assessed. For the final recommendations, other literature was also taken into account. Little evidence is available on how best to treat HypoPT. Data on quality of life and the risk of complications have just started to emerge, and clinical trials on how to optimize therapy are essentially non-existent. Most studies are of limited sample size, hampering firm conclusions. No studies are available relating target calcium levels with clinically relevant endpoints. Hence it is not possible to formulate recommendations based on strict evidence. This guideline is therefore mainly based on how patients are managed in clinical practice
Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo; Torres, Beatriz; López Gómez, Juan Jose; Gómez Hoyos, Emilia; Villar, Aurelia; Romero, Enrique; de Luis, Daniel A
No conclusive data exist on the value of a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic for management of nodular thyroid disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of and user satisfaction with a high resolution thyroid nodule clinic (HRTNC) in coordination with primary care. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 3,726 patients (mean age 61±12 years; 85% women) evaluated at an HRTNC during 2014 and 2015. Demographic data (sex and age), number of ultrasound examinations and fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNAC), referral center and consultation type were assessed. In 2014 and 2015, 3,726 neck ultrasound examinations and 926 FNACs (3.8% rated as non-diagnostic) were performed. Among the 1,227 patients evaluated for the first time, 21.5% did not require a second endocrine appointment, which resulted in mean estimated savings of 14,354.55 euros. Of all patients, 41.1% were referred from primary care, 33.4% from endocrinology, and 26.5% from other specialties. As compared to 2013, the number of thyroid ultrasound examinations requested decreased by 65.3% and 59.7% in 2014 and 2015 respectively, with mean estimated savings of 137,563.92 euros. Mean user satisfaction assessed was 4.0 points (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.3) on a 5-point scale. HRTNCs at endocrinology departments, coordinated with primary care, are a viable, cost-effective alternative with a positive user perception. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bradley, John S.; Peacock, Georgina; Krug, Steven E.; Bower, William A.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Pavia, Andrew T.
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which has multiple routes of infection in humans, manifesting in different initial presentations of disease. Because B anthracis has the potential to be used as a biological weapon and can rapidly progress to systemic anthrax with high mortality in those who are exposed and untreated, clinical guidance that can be quickly implemented must be in place before any intentional release of the agent. This document provides clinical guidance for the prophylaxis and treatment of neonates, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21 (referred to as “children”) in the event of a deliberate B anthracis release and offers guidance in areas where the unique characteristics of children dictate a different clinical recommendation from adults. PMID:24777226
Case reports have been used as an educational tool in medicine for a long time, as they are usually the first kind of publications prepared by new authors. In compliance with the rules of the EBM, the evidence-based medicine, a clinical case report (which describes and analyses the manner of diagnosis and treatment) appears at the bottom of the hierarchy of scientific evidences. As a result, medical periodicals limit the publishing of case reports. The aim of the study is to assess how important case reports are in the modern pediatric literature, with special interests in endocrine and metabolic disorders. Searching Medline over the last 5 years (October 2004-October 2009) using key words "case report" was performed. The limitations: "human", age "all children: 0-18 years" and the kind of publication: "case report" were used. For the huge number of publications found, the number and language of the publication was analyzed, and the first 100 free full-text publications in field of endocrine and metabolic disorders in English (from 2007-2009) were rated depending on the kind of case and aim of the publication. A total of 55379 publications classified by Pubmed as case reports were found, including 48805 English, 1592 Spanish, 1538 French, 794 German, 370 Polish, 356 Chinese, 265 Russian and 135 Italian. The published case reports were more often informative than educational in character. The content of the published case reports deals more often with the notification of a new mutation, less frequently presentation of an interesting, rare, unusual case or a new illness or the description of a novel therapy. Less often the published case reports appear to be of educational character or those concerning diagnostic problems or treatment failure. Case reports remain an important contribution to the pediatric literature, mainly fulfilling an essential role in providing information about new medical problems. Medical literature published in Polish is relatively rich in
Uçar, Ahmet; Abacı, Ayhan; Pirgon, Özgür; Dündar, Bumin; Tütüncüler, Filiz; Çatlı, Gönül; Anık, Ahmet; Kılınç Uğurlu, Aylin; Büyükgebiz, Atilla
A comprehensive survey was conducted courtesy of the Turkish Turner study group to evaluate the shortcomings of clinical care in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) in Turkey. A structured questionnaire prepared by the Turner study group in Turkey, which covers relevant aspects of the care of patients with TS, was sent to all pediatric endocrinology centers. Eighteen centers (41%) returned the questionnaire. In the majority of the centers, diagnostic genetic testing, screening for Y chromosomal material, protocols regarding the timing and posology of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen, thrombophilia screening, fertility information, and screening for glucose intolerance, thyroid, and coeliac diseases in patients with TS were in line with the current consensus. Thirteen centers (72.2%) performed GH stimulation tests. Only four centers (22.2%) used oxandrolone in patients with TS with very short stature. The majority of the centers relied on bone age and breast development to assess estrogen adequacy, though together with variable combinations of oestrogen surrogates. Two centers (11.1%) reported performing serum estradiol measurements. Eight centers (44.4% ) routinely conducted cardiac/thoracic aorta magnetic resonance imaging. Screening for hearing, dental, and ophthalmologic problems were performed by thirteen (72.2%), six (33.3%), and ten (55.6 %) centers, respectively. Psychiatric assessments were made by four centers (22.2%) at diagnosis, with only one center (5.6% ) requiring annual reassessments. Although we found some conformity between the current consensus and practice of the participating centers in Turkey regarding TS, further improvements are mandatory in the multi-disciplinary approach to address co-morbidities, which if unrecognized, may be associated with reduced quality of life, and even mortality.
Newborn Screening Guidelines for Congenital Hypothyroidism in India: Recommendations of the Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE) - Part I: Screening and Confirmation of Diagnosis.
Desai, M P; Sharma, R; Riaz, I; Sudhanshu, S; Parikh, R; Bhatia, V
The Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology has formulated locally relevant Clinical Practice Guidelines for newborn screening, diagnosis and management of primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Screening should be done for every newborn using cord blood, or postnatal blood, ideally at 48 to 72 h of age. On this screen sample, neonates with TSH > 20 mIU/L serum units (or >34 mIU/L for samples taken between 24 to 48 h of age) should be recalled for confirmation. For screen TSH > 40 mIU/L, immediate confirmatory venous T4/FT4 and TSH, and for milder elevation of screen TSH, a second screening TSH at 7 to 10 d of age, should be taken. Preterm and low birth weight infants should undergo screening at 48-72 h postnatal age. Sick babies should be screened at least by 7 d of age. Venous confirmatory TSH >20 mIU/L before age 2 wk and >10 mIU/L after age 2 wk, with low T4 (<10 μg/dL) or FT4 (<1.17 ng/dL) indicate primary CH and treatment initiation. Imaging is recommended by radionuclide scintigraphy and ultrasonography after CH is biochemically confirmed but treatment should not be delayed till scans are performed. Levothyroxine is commenced at 10 to 15 μg/kg in the neonatal period. Serum T4/FT4 is measured at 2 wk and TSH and T4/FT4 at 1 mo, then 2 monthly till 6 mo, 3 monthly from 6 mo-3 y and every 3-6 mo thereafter. Babies with the possibility of transient congenital hypothyroidism should be re-evaluated at age 3 y, to assess the need for lifelong therapy.
Goldberg, Philip A; Varriale, David J; Mercurio, Mark R
To present 2 challenging cases of patients who request endocrine therapies that their physician considers to be outside of the standard of care. With these complex cases as a backdrop, we explore the constructs of medicine, malpractice law, and professional ethics that guide physicians' medical decision-making processes. These cases illustrate a common conundrum for clinical endocrinologists, who often find themselves struggling to balance patient satisfaction and well-being with generally accepted standards of medical care. From the perspective of a malpractice lawyer, we review the keys to limiting medicolegal liability, with emphasis on thorough documentation, informed consent, and effective doctor-patient communication. We then review the constructs of professional ethics that guide patient care, with emphasis on virtues of the "good physician," patients' right to self-determination, and paternalism. Finally, we explore some justifications for a compassionate physician to refuse a patient's desired treatment plan. In the end, we hope that this manuscript helps to facilitate best medical, legal, professional, and ethical practices of clinical endocrinology.
In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with
Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio
In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with
Verloop, Herman; Dekkers, Olaf M; Peeters, Robin P; Schoones, Jan W; Smit, Johannes W A
Iodothyronine deiodinases represent a family of selenoproteins involved in peripheral and local homeostasis of thyroid hormone action. Deiodinases are expressed in multiple organs and thyroid hormone affects numerous biological systems, thus genetic variation in deiodinases may affect multiple clinical endpoints. Interest in clinical effects of genetic variation in deiodinases has clearly increased. We aimed to provide an overview for the role of deiodinase polymorphisms in human physiology and morbidity. In this systematic review, studies evaluating the relationship between deiodinase polymorphisms and clinical parameters in humans were eligible. No restrictions on publication date were imposed. The following databases were searched up to August 2013: Pubmed, EMBASE (OVID-version), Web of Science, COCHRANE Library, CINAHL (EbscoHOST-version), Academic Search Premier (EbscoHOST-version), and ScienceDirect. Deiodinase physiology at molecular and tissue level is described, and finally the role of these polymorphisms in pathophysiological conditions is reviewed. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) polymorphisms particularly show moderate-to-strong relationships with thyroid hormone parameters, IGF1 production, and risk for depression. D2 variants correlate with thyroid hormone levels, insulin resistance, bipolar mood disorder, psychological well-being, mental retardation, hypertension, and risk for osteoarthritis. D3 polymorphisms showed no relationship with inter-individual variation in serum thyroid hormone parameters. One D3 polymorphism was associated with risk for osteoarthritis. Genetic deiodinase profiles only explain a small proportion of inter-individual variations in serum thyroid hormone levels. Evidence suggests a role of genetic deiodinase variants in certain pathophysiological conditions. The value for determination of deiodinase polymorphism in clinical practice needs further investigation. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.
Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. A summary regarding this position statement is listed below: New information available from randomized clinical trials and epidemiologic studies reported after 2011 was critically reviewed. No previous recommendations from the 2011 menopause clinical practice guidelines have been reversed or changed. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, SERMs, and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. New recommendations in this position statement include: 1. the use of menopausal hormone therapy in symptomatic postmenopausal women should be based on consideration of all risk factors for
Malloch, Lindsay; Rhoton-Vlasak, Alice
To assess the clinical use and practice attitudes among Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) members regarding the use of letrozole for ovulation induction and infertility treatment. The SART clinic physicians were mailed a cover letter and consent form, a two-page survey, and return envelope. The surveys were returned and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Not applicable. None. A 13-question survey. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility physicians use patterns and attitudes regarding letrozole. A total of 77.9% of physician prescribe letrozole. Of those who do not, 32.4% cited concern about the US Food and Drug Administration warning, 35.1% cited satisfaction with current medications, 25.7% cited both reasons, and 6.8% cited no experience with letrozole. Physicians (11.5%) were unaware of the US Food and Drug Administration warning. Physicians (99.7%) were aware that ovulation induction is an off-label use of letrozole. The most common use was for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Physicians (14.9%) prescribe letrozole as first-line ovulation therapy prior to clomid, 47.9% use for clomid failures, and 25.7% reported use in both situations. Most physicians surveyed use letrozole for ovulation induction despite the current US Food and Drug Administration warning. Even when accounting for nonrespondents, more than 25% of physicians indicated success with letrozole use. Questions regarding doses and clinical concerns about letrozole revealed no standardized manner of letrozole administration despite wide interest, therefore additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Vázquez-Cárdenas, Alejandra; Magaña-Torres, María Teresa; Guevara, Ornella; Muñoz, María Carolina; Parrilla-Alvarez, Alberto; Márquez, Yuliangelys; Medeiros, Ana; Bourbon, Mafalda
To assess the frequency and the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in subjects attending an endocrinology unit. An observational, descriptive study evaluating 3,140 subjects attending the endocrinology unit of Centro Médico Orinoco in Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela, from 7 January 2013 to 9 December 2016. The index cases were selected using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. Plasma lipid levels were measured, and a molecular analysis was performed by DNA sequencing of the LDLR and APOB genes. Ten (0.32%) of the 3,140 study patients had clinical and biochemical characteristics consistent with FH. All but one were female. Three had first-degree relatives with prior premature coronary artery; and none had a personal history of this condition. Three patients were obese; three had high blood pressure; and no one suffered from diabetes. Three patients had a history of tendon xanthomas, and one of corneal arcus. LDL-C levels ranged from 191 to 486mg/dL. Two patients were on statin therapy. The genetic causes of FH were identified in four patients, and were LDLR gene mutations in three of them and an APOB gene mutation in exon 26 in the other. Approximately, one out of every 300 people attending this endocrinology unit in those four years had FH, and LDLR gene mutations were the most prevalent cause. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vinik, Aaron I; Camacho, Pauline M; Davidson, Jaime A; Handelsman, Yehuda; Lando, Howard M; Leddy, Anne L; Reddy, Sethu K; Cook, Richard; Spallone, Vicenza; Tesfaye, Solomon; Ziegler, Dan
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.
Goodman, Neil; Guay, Andre; Dandona, Paresh; Dhindsa, Sandeep; Faiman, Charles; Cunningham, Glenn R
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.
Liang, Jennifer J; Jolly, Divya; Chan, Kelly J; Safer, Joshua D
Most transgender women depend on medical treatment alone to lower testosterone levels in order to align physical appearance with gender identity. The medical regimen in the United States typically includes spironolactone and estrogens. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the testosterone suppression achieved among transgender women treated with spironolactone and estrogens. Testosterone and estradiol levels were extracted from the electronic medical records of 98 anonymized transgender women treated with oral spironolactone and oral estrogen therapy at the Endocrinology Clinic at Boston Medical Center. Patients starting therapy required about 9 months to reach a steady-state testosterone, with significant heterogeneity of levels achieved among patients. Patients with normal body mass index (BMI) had higher testosterone levels, whereas patients with obese BMI had lower testosterone levels throughout treatment. Stratification of patients by age or spironolactone dosage revealed no significant difference in testosterone levels achieved. At steady state, patients in the highest suppressing quartile were able to achieve testosterone levels of 27 ng/dL, with a standard deviation of 21 ng/dL. Measured serum estradiol levels did not change over time and did not correlate with dosage of estradiol administered. Among a cohort of transgender women treated with spironolactone and estrogen, the highest suppressing quartile could reliably achieve testosterone levels in the female range at virtually all times. The second highest suppressing quartile could not achieve female levels but remained below the male range virtually all of the time. One quartile was unable to achieve any significant suppression. BMC = Boston Medical Center BMI = body mass index CPY = cyproterone acetate LC-MS/MS = liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Q = quartile.
Newborn Screening Guidelines for Congenital Hypothyroidism in India: Recommendations of the Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE) - Part II: Imaging, Treatment and Follow-up.
Sudhanshu, S; Riaz, I; Sharma, R; Desai, M P; Parikh, R; Bhatia, V
The Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology has formulated Clinical Practice Guidelines for newborn screening, diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This manuscript, part II addresses management and follow-up. Screening should be done for every newborn using cord blood, or postnatal blood ideally at 48 to 72 h of age. Neonates with screen TSH > 20 mIU/L serum units (or >34 mIU/L for samples taken between 24 and 48 h of age) should be recalled for confirmation. For screen TSH > 40 mIU/L, immediate confirmatory venous T4/FT4 and TSH, and for mildly elevated screen TSH, a second screening TSH at 7 to 10 d of age, should be taken. Preterm and low birth weight infants should undergo screening at 48-72 h age. Sick babies should be screened at least by 7 d of age. Venous confirmatory TSH >20 mIU/L before age 2 wk and >10 mIU/L after age 2 wk, with low T4 (<10 μg/dL) or FT4 (<1.17 ng/dL) indicate primary CH and treatment initiation. Imaging is recommended by radionuclide scintigraphy and ultrasonography after CH is biochemically confirmed but treatment should not be delayed till scans are performed. Levothyroxine is commenced at 10-15 μg/kg in the neonatal period. Serum T4/FT4 is measured at 2 wk and TSH and T4/FT4 at 1 mo, then 2 monthly till 6 mo, 3 monthly from 6 mo-3 y and every 3-6 mo thereafter. Babies with the possibility of transient CH should be re-evaluated at age 3 y, to assess the need for lifelong therapy.
Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael
= Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists AAP = American Academy of Pediatrics ACC = American College of Cardiology ACE = American College of Endocrinology ACS = acute coronary syndrome ADMIT = Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial ADVENT = Assessment of Diabetes Control and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Niaspan Trial AFCAPS/TexCAPS = Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study AHA = American Heart Association AHRQ = Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AIM-HIGH = Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides trial ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ATP = Adult Treatment Panel apo = apolipoprotein BEL = best evidence level BIP = Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention trial BMI = body mass index CABG = coronary artery bypass graft CAC = coronary artery calcification CARDS = Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study CDP = Coronary Drug Project trial CI = confidence interval CIMT = carotid intimal media thickness CKD = chronic kidney disease CPG(s) = clinical practice guideline(s) CRP = C-reactive protein CTT = Cholesterol Treatment Trialists CV = cerebrovascular CVA = cerebrovascular accident EL = evidence level FH = familial hypercholesterolemia FIELD = Secondary Endpoints from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes trial FOURIER = Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects With Elevated Risk trial HATS = HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HeFH = heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia HHS = Helsinki Heart Study HIV = human immunodeficiency virus HoFH = homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia HPS = Heart Protection Study HPS2-THRIVE = Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events trial HR = hazard ratio HRT = hormone replacement therapy hsCRP = high-sensitivity CRP IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes
McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael
Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.
Watson, Sara E.; Greene, Ariana; Lewis, Katherine; Eugster, Erica A.
Objective Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are standard of care for the treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP). GnRHa have also been prescribed in other clinical settings with the hope of increasing adult stature, although evidence to support this practice is lacking. The degree to which GnRHa are being prescribed for indications other than CPP in routine clinical care has not been described. We sought to systematically examine GnRHa prescribing practices among the pediatric endocrinologists at our academic medical center. Methods We reviewed medical records of children treated with GnRHa during a 6-year interval. Variables analyzed included gender, age at start of treatment, indication for therapy, and use of growth hormone as adjunctive treatment. Nonparametric analyses were utilized to compare treatment characteristics of those with CPP versus those without. Results A total of 260 patients (82% female) aged 8.06 ± 2.68 years were identified. Of these, 191 (73.5%) were treated for CPP, whereas 69 (26.5%) were treated for normally timed puberty in the context of idiopathic short stature/poor predicted height (n = 37), growth hormone deficiency (n = 17), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (n = 10), primary hypothyroidism (n = 4), and developmental delay (n = 1). Of the 161 girls with CPP, GnRHa therapy was initiated at ≥8 years of age in 62 (39%). Conclusion Whereas most patients were treated for CPP, ~27% were treated for other indications. Of girls with CPP, 39% were treated at an age when benefit in terms of height is unlikely. This highlights the need for rigorous studies of GnRHa use for indications beyond CPP. PMID:25667370
Yan, Li; Xu, Ming Tong; Yuan, Li; Chen, Bing; Xu, Zhang Rong; Guo, Qing Hua; Li, Qiang; Duan, Yu; Huang Fu, Jian; Wang, Yong Jian; Zhang, Miao; Luo, Zuo Jie; Zhao, Wei Gang; Wang, You Min; Yuan, Zhen Fang; Wang, Wei Qing; Wang, Peng Hua; Ran, Xing Wu; Wang, Yan Jun; Yang, Hua Zhang; Gao, Ling; Chen, Wei Qing; Ning, Guang
The aim of this study was to assess the levels of serum lipid and awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients from top-ranked endocrinology clinics in large cities of China. A cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 4807 Chinese adults 40 to 75 years of age was conducted during 2010 to 2011 at 20 endocrinology clinics in top-ranked hospitals covering most of the major cities of China. Serum lipid levels were measured, and treatment of dyslipidemia was recorded and assessed. In the present study, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 67.1% in T2DM subjects. Among those with dyslipidemia, the proportion of awareness and treatment was 68.7% and 55.9%. Among participants with lipid-lowering therapy, 686 subjects achieved the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control less than 2.60 mmol/L, with the rate being 39.4%. In those patients with previous cardiovascular disease, the percentage of participants who achieved LDL-C goal (1.80 mmol/L) was 15.3%. The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high, and the awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia are relatively low in Chinese T2DM patients. This calls for the awareness and intervention of dyslipidemia in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills
Background Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Methods Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. Results For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007). Conclusion Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an
A randomized controlled pilot trial comparing the impact of access to clinical endocrinology video demonstrations with access to usual revision resources on medical student performance of clinical endocrinology skills.
Hibbert, Emily J; Lambert, Tim; Carter, John N; Learoyd, Diana L; Twigg, Stephen; Clarke, Stephen
Demonstrating competence in clinical skills is key to course completion for medical students. Methods of providing clinical instruction that foster immediate learning and potentially serve as longer-term repositories for on-demand revision, such as online videos demonstrating competent performance of clinical skills, are increasingly being used. However, their impact on learning has been little studied. The aim of this study was to determine the value of adjunctive on-demand video-based training for clinical skills acquisition by medical students in endocrinology. Following an endocrinology clinical tutorial program, 2nd year medical students in the pre-assessment revision period were recruited and randomized to either a set of bespoke on-line clinical skills training videos (TV), or to revision as usual (RAU). The skills demonstrated on video were history taking in diabetes mellitus (DMH), examination for diabetes lower limb complications (LLE), and examination for signs of thyroid disease (TE). Students were assessed on these clinical skills in an observed structured clinical examination two weeks after randomization. Assessors were blinded to student randomization status. For both diabetes related clinical skills assessment tasks, students in the TV group performed significantly better than those in the RAU group. There were no between group differences in thyroid examination performance. For the LLE, 91.7% (n = 11/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 40% (n = 4/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.024). For the DMH, 83.3% (n = 10/12) of students randomized to the video were rated globally as competent at the skill compared with 20% (n = 2/10) of students not randomized to the video (p = 0.007). Exposure to high quality videos demonstrating clinical skills can significantly improve medical student skill performance in an observed structured clinical examination of these skills, when
Waldman, Amy; Ness, Jayne; Pohl, Daniela; Simone, Isabella Laura; Anlar, Banu; Amato, Maria Pia; Ghezzi, Angelo
Multiple sclerosis (MS) in children manifests with a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) disease course. Acute relapses consist of new neurologic deficits persisting greater than 24 hours, in the absence of intercurrent illness, and occur with a higher frequency early in the disease as compared to adult-onset RRMS. Most pediatric patients with MS recover well from these early relapses, and cumulative physical disability is rare in the first 10 years of disease. Brainstem attacks, poor recovery from a single attack, and a higher frequency of attacks portend a greater likelihood of future disability. Although prospective pediatric-onset MS cohorts have been established in recent years, there remains very limited prospective data detailing the longer-term clinical outcome of pediatric-onset MS into adulthood. Whether the advent of MS therapies, and the largely off-label access to such therapies in pediatric MS, has improved prognosis is unknown. MS onset during the key formative academic years, concurrent with active cognitive maturation, is an important determinant of long-term outcome, and is discussed in detail in another article in this supplement. Finally, increasing recognition of pediatric MS worldwide, recent launch of phase III trials for new agents in the pediatric MS population, and the clear imperative to more fully appreciate health-related quality of life in pediatric MS through adulthood highlight the need for standardized, validated, and robust outcome measures. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.
Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K
To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alemón-Medina, Radamés; Chávez-Pacheco, Juan Luis; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Ramírez-Mendiola, Blanca; García-Álvarez, Raquel; Sámano-Salazar, Cynthia; Manuel Dávila-Borja, Víctor
In response to the lack of pediatric formulations of metformin to control type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemic obesity, and dyslipidemias, we developed liquid formulations of metformin by dissolving 3 generic brands of 500-mg metformin(*,)(†,)(‡) tablets in water sweetened with sucralose. The physicochemical stabilities of these drugs were assessed and compared with those of formulations made with the innovative brand of metformin.(∥) A method to measure metformin plasma levels was proposed and then tested in 2 healthy subjects. This method may be useful to survey treatment compliance in the future. The biological safety profiles of the metformin solutions were assessed preliminarily in a system of hormone-dependent cancer cells (human breast cancer MCF-7 cells). Metformin solutions stored at 25°C exposed to light and at 25°C, 4°C, and 40°C protected from light, underwent physicochemical analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, the mobile phase consisting of 0.2 M potassium monobasic phosphate (pH 6.5), 4.6 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), and acetonitrile (63:7:30) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in a Symmetry C8 150 × 4.6 mm column (Milford, Massachusetts) at 40°C (236 nm). MCF-7 cells were grown in 96-well ELISA plates (2 × 10(5) cells/well) and were exposed to 10, 20, and 40 mg/mL sucralose(§), Stevia rebaudiana (Svetia; Metco, S.A. de C.V., México, D.F., Mexico), and metformin (50 mg/mL) for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was determined using the WST-1 colorimetric assay (Roche, USA) in an Epoch ELISA reader (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont) at 440 nm. All brands of metformin were stable at all storage conditions for up to 30 days and retained >90% of the initial amount. Sucralose and Stevia rebaudiana caused zero cytotoxicity (ANOVA, P ≤ 0.05). The ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method was adapted to determine metformin level in very small blood samples (40 μL), which was
Fonseca, Vivian A; Grunberger, George; Anhalt, Henry; Bailey, Timothy S; Blevins, Thomas; Garg, Satish K; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Orzeck, Eric A; Roberts, Victor Lawrence; Tamborlane, William
Barriers to continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use continue to hamper adoption of this valuable technology for the management of diabetes. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology convened a public consensus conference February 20, 2016, to review available CGM data and propose strategies for expanding CGM access. Conference participants agreed that evidence supports the benefits of CGM in type 1 diabetes and that these benefits are likely to apply whenever intensive insulin therapy is used, regardless of diabetes type. CGM is likely to reduce healthcare resource utilization for acute and chronic complications, although real-world analyses are needed to confirm potential cost savings and quality of life improvements. Ongoing technological advances have improved CGM accuracy and usability, but more innovations in human factors, data delivery, reporting, and interpretation are needed to foster expanded use. The development of a standardized data report using similar metrics across all devices would facilitate clinician and patient understanding and utilization of CGM. Expanded CGM coverage by government and private payers is an urgent need. CGM improves glycemic control, reduces hypoglycemia, and may reduce overall costs of diabetes management. Expanding CGM coverage and utilization is likely to improve the health outcomes of people with diabetes. A1C = glycated hemoglobin AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASPIRE = Automation to Simulate Pancreatic Insulin Response CGM = continuous glucose monitoring HRQOL = health-related quality of life ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio JDRF = Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation MARD = mean absolute relative difference MDI = multiple daily injections QALY = quality-adjusted life years RCT = randomized, controlled trial SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR = Sensor
Handelsman, Yehuda; Henry, Robert R; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Einhorn, Daniel; Ferrannini, Ele; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; LeRoith, Derek; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Weir, Matthew R
AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMA = European Medicines Agency FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration SGLT-2 = sodium glucosecotransporter 2 T1D = type 1 diabetes T2D = type 2 diabetes.
Warenik-Szymankiewicz, A; Słopień, R; Kedzia, H; Grotowski, W
11 patients with ovarian gonadal tumors were treated at Clinic of Endocrinological-Gynecology of Academy of Medicine in Poznań. All presented symptoms of hormonal ovetproduction. In 9 cases we performed adnexectomy, only in 1 case (patient after menopause) hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy.
Anderson, Zachary L; Scopelliti, Emily M; Trompeter, Jessica M; Havrda, Dawn E
To compare the management of prediabetes between a family practice clinic and internal medicine/endocrinology practice. A randomized, retrospective evaluation of the medical history in 168 eligible patients with a diagnosis of prediabetes or abnormal blood glucose (BG) at a family practice clinic (n = 78) and an internal medicine/endocrinology practice (n = 90). The internal medicine/endocrinology practice provided more counseling regarding lifestyle modifications (91.1% vs 76.9%, P = .039), specific physical activity recommendations (26.7% vs 7.7%, P = .003), and recommended more patients receive 150 minutes/week of moderate exercise (8.9% vs 1.3%, P = .038). The family practice clinic provided more written dietary information (16.9% vs 13.3%, P = .044) and specific weight loss goals (20.5% vs 6.7%, P = .015). The internal medicine/endocrinology practice initiated pharmacological therapy in more patients (51.1% vs 3.8%, P< .001) and had a significant decrease in fasting BG from baseline compared to the family practice clinic (-9.0 vs -5.6 mg/dL, P< .001). Providers are likely to initiate nonpharmacological therapy but may not provide specific education recommended by the American Diabetes Association. The integration of a multidisciplinary team to provide guideline-based nonpharmacologic counseling may be beneficial in improving outcomes in the management of prediabetes. © The Author(s) 2013.
Most children born with low weight or intrauterine growth restriction develop catch-up growth that allows them to reach a final height according to their genetic target height. However, in about 15% of children this growth is insufficient. In both, children who have adequate compensatory growth and therefore normal height and children who remain low in childhood, it is necessary to take into account that if puberty starts early, the final height could be compromised. Timely and appropriate intervention could improve it. Control of body weight is also important, as an excessive gain in childhood is associated with metabolic complications in adolescence and adult life. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Garbutt, Jane M; Mandrell, Kathy M; Sterkel, Randall; Epstein, Jay; Stahl, Kristin; Kreusser, Katherine; Sitrin, Harold; Ariza, Adolfo; Reis, Evelyn Cohen; Siegel, Robert; Pascoe, John; Strunk, Robert C
To describe pediatric primary care providers' attitudes toward retail clinics and their experiences of retail clinics use by their patients. A 51-item, self-administered survey from 4 pediatric practice-based research networks from the midwestern US, which gauged providers' attitudes toward and perceptions of their patients' interactions with retail clinics, and changes to office practice to better compete. A total of 226 providers participated (50% response). Providers believed that retail clinics were a business threat (80%) and disrupted continuity of chronic disease management (54%). Few (20%) agreed that retail clinics provided care within recommended clinical guidelines. Most (91%) reported that they provided additional care after a retail clinic visit (median 1-2 times per week), and 37% felt this resulted from suboptimal care at retail clinics "most or all of the time." Few (15%) reported being notified by the retail clinic within 24 hours of a patient visit. Those reporting prompt communication were less likely to report suboptimal retail clinic care (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.10-0.42) or disruption in continuity of care (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15-0.71). Thirty-six percent reported changes to office practice to compete with retail clinics (most commonly adjusting or extending office hours), and change was more likely if retail clinics were perceived as a threat (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.56-8.76); 30% planned to make changes in the near future. Based on the perceived business threat, pediatric providers are making changes to their practice to compete with retail clinics. Improved communication between the clinic and providers may improve collaboration. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Garbutt, Jane M.; Mandrell, Kathy M.; Sterkel, Randall; Epstein, Jay; Stahl, Kristin; Kreusser, Katherine; O’Neil, Jerome; Sitrin, Harold; Ariza, Adolfo; Reis, Evelyn Cohen; Siegel, Robert; Pascoe, John; Strunk, Robert C.
Objective To describe pediatric primary care providers’ attitudes toward retail clinics and their experiences of retail clinics use by their patients. Study design A 51-item, self-administered survey from four pediatric practice-based research networks from the Midwestern United States, which gauged providers’ attitudes toward and perceptions of their patients’ interactions with retail clinics, and changes to office practice to better compete. Results A total of 226 providers participated (50% response). Providers believed that retail clinics were a business threat (80%) and disrupted continuity of chronic disease management (54%). Few (20%) agreed that retail clinics provided care within recommended clinical guidelines. Most (91%) reported that they provided additional care after a retail clinic visit (median 1–2 times per week) and 37% felt this resulted from suboptimal care at retail clinics “most or all of the time.” Few (15%) reported being notified by the retail clinic within 24 hours of a patient visit. Those reporting prompt communication were less likely to report suboptimal retail clinic care (OR 0.20, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.42) or disruption in continuity of care (OR 0.32, 95%CI 0.15 to 0.71). Thirty-six percent reported changes to office practice to compete with retail clinics (most commonly adjusting or extending office hours) and change was more likely if retail clinics were perceived as a threat (OR 3.70, 95%CI 1.56 to 8.76); 30% planned to make changes in the near future. Conclusions Based on the perceived business threat, pediatric providers are making changes to their practice to compete with retail clinics. Improved communication between the clinic and providers may improve collaboration. PMID:23810720
TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.
Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.
Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Camacho, Pauline; Correa, Ricardo; Figaro, M Kathleen; Garber, Jeffrey R; Jasim, Sina; Pantalone, Kevin M; Trence, Dace; Upala, Sikarin
Clinical practice guideline (CPG), clinical practice algorithm (CPA), and clinical checklist (CC, collectively CPGAC) development is a high priority of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE). This 2017 update in CPG development consists of (1) a paradigm change wherein first, environmental scans identify important clinical issues and needs, second, CPA construction focuses on these clinical issues and needs, and third, CPG provide CPA node/edge-specific scientific substantiation and appended CC; (2) inclusion of new technical semantic and numerical descriptors for evidence types, subjective factors, and qualifiers; and (3) incorporation of patient-centered care components such as economics and transcultural adaptations, as well as implementation, validation, and evaluation strategies. This third point highlights the dominating factors of personal finances, governmental influences, and third-party payer dictates on CPGAC implementation, which ultimately impact CPGAC development. The AACE/ACE guidelines for the CPGAC program is a successful and ongoing iterative exercise to optimize endocrine care in a changing and challenging healthcare environment. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACC = American College of Cardiology ACE = American College of Endocrinology ASeRT = ACE Scientific Referencing Team BEL = best evidence level CC = clinical checklist CPA = clinical practice algorithm CPG = clinical practice guideline CPGAC = clinical practice guideline, algorithm, and checklist EBM = evidence-based medicine EHR = electronic health record EL = evidence level G4GAC = Guidelines for Guidelines, Algorithms, and Checklists GAC = guidelines, algorithms, and checklists HCP = healthcare professional(s) POEMS = patient-oriented evidence that matters PRCT = prospective randomized controlled trial.
The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Verdelli, C; Corbetta, S
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the third most common endocrine disease. Kidney is a target of both chronic elevated PTH and calcium in PHPT. The classic PHPT complications of symptomatic kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis have become rare and the PHPT current presentation is asymptomatic with uncertain and long-lasting progression. Nonetheless, the routine use of imaging and of biochemical determinations have revealed the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic kidney stones, hypercalciuria and reduced kidney function in asymptomatic PHPT patients. Though the pathogenesis is far from being elucidated, PHPT is associated with reduced renal function, in terms of estimated glomerular filtration rate, and related increased morbidity and mortality. In the last decade, the effort of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) panel of experts highlighted that even mild reduction of kidney function is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These considerations provided the basis for the Fourth Workshop recommendations of a more extensive diagnostic workout about kidney features and of wider criteria for parathyroid surgery including asymptomatic kidney disease. Moreover, kidney involvement in PHPT is likely to be affected by variants of genes coding the key molecules regulating the calcium and ions renal handling; these features might have clinical relevance and should be considered both during diagnostic workout and follow-up. Finally, the effects of parathyroid surgery and of medical treatment on kidney involvement of PHPT are reviewed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Wu, Harold Y; Yin, Ophelia; Monseur, Brent; Selter, Jessica; Collins, Lillian J; Lau, Brandyn D; Christianson, Mindy S
To assess geographical distribution and practice characteristics of fertility clinics inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. Cross-sectional analysis. Not applicable. None. None. Prevalence and geographical distribution of fertility clinic websites with LGBT-specific content, indicated by keywords and home page cues specific to the LGBT patient population. Assessment of relationship between LGBT-specific content and clinic characteristics, including U.S. region, clinic size, private versus academic setting, and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage. Of 379 websites analyzed, 201 (53%) contained LGBT content. Clinics with the highest proportion of LGBT website content were in the Northeast (59/82, 72%) and West (63/96, 66%), while the lowest proportion was in the Midwest (29/74, 39%) and South (50/127, 39%). Most frequently used terms included lesbian (72%), LGBT/LGBTQ (69%), and gay (68%), while less used terms included trans/transgender (32%) and bisexual (15%). Larger clinic size was associated with LGBT-specific website content (odds ratio, 4.42; 95% confidence interval, 2.07-9.67). Practice type and state-mandated fertility insurance coverage were not associated with a clinic website having LGBT content. Over half of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology member fertility clinics included LGBT content on their websites, yet those in the Midwest and South were significantly less likely to do so. Predictive factors for having LGBT website content included location in northeastern and western regions and increasing clinic size. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inclusion of LGBT content on clinic websites impacts use of reproductive services by the LGBT patient population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción
Routine thyroid ultrasound examination in a single medical appointment is rarely performed in Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the care and economic impact of thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment. A prospective, observational, descriptive study was conducted to analyze data from 2274 patients (mean age, 59±16 years; 83% females) performed at least one thyroid US in a single visit to an endocrinology clinic during 2013 and 2014. The number of endocrine acts with thyroid US, single endocrine and US acts without review, and the change in the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department and total thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department during the study period were assessed. In 2013 and 2014, 2558 endocrine acts with thyroid US were performed, of which 42.2% were single endocrine and US appointments without a second endocrine act, with estimated savings of €58,946.40. As compared to 2012, the number of thyroid US requested by endocrinologists to the radiology department decreased by 43.3% and 86.0% in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and total thyroid US performed by the radiology department decreased by 28.1% and 68.3% respectively, with estimated savings of €94,441.36. Thyroid US examination in a single endocrine appointment allows for decreasing the number of both second endocrine acts and thyroid US examinations performed at the radiology department, thus reducing the number of unnecessary clinic visits and promoting considerable economic savings. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Balestrazzi, P; Corrini, L; Villani, G; Bolla, M P; Casa, F; Bernasconi, S
This report concerns two new cases of the Cohen syndrome and gives further information on the variable phenotypical pattern of the disease. The frequency of major and minor clinical signs is reviewed from all the published reports. Among the minor signs we found previously undescribed skeletal abnormalities in one of our patients. The reported delay onset of puberty, which appears to be a frequent aspect of the syndrome, seems to occur without LH and FSH deficiency, as our patients show. Images PMID:6782211
Garber, Alan J; Abrahamson, Martin Julian; Barzilay, Joshua I; Blonde, Lawrence; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Bush, Michael A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Davidson, Michael B; Einhorn, Daniel; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jellinger, Paul S; McGill, Janet B; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Rosenblit, Paul David; Umpierrez, Guillermo E
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinology. Where there were no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is defined most commonly according to the proceedings of an expert conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in April 1990, which noted the disorder as having 1) hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia, 2) oligoovulation, and 3) exclusion of known disorders. Alternatively, another expert conference held in Rotterdam in May 2003 defined PCOS, after the exclusion of related disorders, by two of the following three features: 1) oligo- or anovulation, 2) clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, or 3) polycystic ovaries. In essence, the Rotterdam 2003 expanded the NIH 1990 definition creating two new phenotypes: 1) ovulatory women with polycystic ovaries and hyperandrogenism, and 2) oligoanovulatory women with polycystic ovaries, but without hyperandrogenism. The objective of this study was to ascertain the validity of using the Rotterdam 2003 criteria rather than the NIH 1991 criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS. Interventions included the use of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria for diagnosing PCOS and, in particular, the proposal to define two new phenotypes as PCOS. POSITIONS: Available data suggest that hyperandrogenic ovulatory women with polycystic ovaries tend to have mild insulin resistance and mild evidence of ovarian dysfunction, although significantly less than women with anovulatory PCOS. However, whether these women will have an increased risk of infertility or metabolic complications, such as type 2 diabetes, remains to be determined. Alternatively, the risk of insulin resistance and long-term metabolic risks of oligoovulatory women with polycystic ovaries is even less well characterized and may be nonexistent. Because of the paucity of data on the two new phenotypes and their long-term implications and the potential negative impact on research, clinical practice, and patient insurability, the adoption of the Rotterdam 2003 criteria for defining PCOS should be considered premature. However
Boretti, F S; Breyer-Haube, I; Kaspers, B; Reusch, C E
During the years of 1996-2001, hypothyroidism was diagnosed at the clinic for small animal internal medicine, University of Zurich, in 32 dogs. Most of the dogs were large breeds. The most frequent clinical characteristics observed were exercise intolerance, obesity, dermatological, neurological and gastrointestinal signs. Predominant laboratory abnormalities were a low red blood cell count, increased concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides and fructosamin. 29 dogs had a T4 below the reference range (< 1.5 micrograms/dl), one dog had a T4 at the lower limit thereof (1.6 micrograms/dl). One dog had a T4 within the reference range (3.4 micrograms/dl), another had a very high T4 of 206.8 micrograms/dl; the results of the latter 2 dogs were interpreted as incorrectly increased T4 values due to in vitro interference with T4-autoantibodies. Diagnosis was confirmed in all of the dogs based on TSH-stimulation testing. Endogenous TSH (cTSH) measured parallelly, was elevated in only 60% of the dogs. In about 67% of the dogs, hypothyroidism was associated with thyroglobulin-autoantibodies. Canine hypothyroidism is a rather rare endocrine disorder in Switzerland. The TSH-stimulation test remains the gold standard in confirming the disease; a definitive diagnosis can be challenging for practitioners because bovine TSH, used for the TSH-stimulation test is not licensed for use in dogs. Since assessment of cTSH using current assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs, the diagnostic value is only limited. In most of the hypothyroid dogs T4 is decreased, with the presence of autoantibodies to T4, it can be normal or increased.
Desjardins, Claude; Bach, Mark A; Cappola, Anne R; Seely, Ellen W; Ehrenberg, Ronald G
The United States lacks timely reliable mechanisms for assessing the professional work of subspecialty physicians. The aim was to use early-career members of The Endocrine Society as a model to estimate subspecialty physician involvement in patient care, teaching, research, and administration among clinical, academic, federal, and pharmaceutical/biotech workplaces and to assess the workforce for research within individual workplaces. Physicians joining The Endocrine Society from 1991-2005 and residing in North America were invited to complete a Web-based survey. This report relies on 817 early-career endocrinologists or 29.6% of eligible respondents. Respondents from all types of workplaces engaged in patient care, teaching, research, and administration. The time committed to the four tasks, however, differed significantly among workplaces. Research (basic, translational, disease, patient, population, and prevention) was accomplished within all workplaces, but the scope and scale of investigative work was employer dependent. Recipients of National Institutes of Health K08/23 awards succeeded in receiving federal research project grants (P < 0.001). Respondents associated research with lowered incomes, a perception validated by an estimated drop in annual earnings of 2.8% per half-day spent on research (P < 0.001). Women in academic settings earned less than men (P < 0.01) and were less likely to occupy tenure-eligible positions (P < 0.01). Web-based surveys offer a simple tool for estimating the work of subspecialty physicians and provide a framework for improving biomedical investigation. Several interventions should be considered for endocrinology: recruit physicians from underrepresented demographic groups, increase K08/23 awards, incentivize investigative careers, and improve the national infrastructure for biomedical research.
Barrios, Ellen K; Hageman, Joseph; Lyons, Evelyn; Janies, Kathryn; Leonard, Daniel; Duck, Stephen; Fuchs, Susan
This study aimed to investigate the management of pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) presenting to emergency departments (EDs) participating in the Illinois Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Facility Recognition program. In 2010, Illinois EMSC conducted a survey (including case scenarios) and medical record review regarding management of pediatric patients with DKA. Data were submitted by 116 EDs. Survey response rate was 94%. Only 34% of EDs had a documented DKA guideline/policy; 37% reported that they did not have hospital adult or pediatric endocrinology services. Case scenarios identified a high percentage of respondents given an intravenous (IV) isotonic sodium chloride solution of 10 to 20 mL/kg during the first hour. However 17% to 21% would use an alternative choice such as administering initial IV solution of 0.45 sodium chloride, initiating an insulin drip before fluids, or waiting for more laboratory results before giving fluids or insulin. A total of 532 medical record reviews were submitted. In 87% of records, patients received an initial IV isotonic sodium chloride solution within the first hour. In 74%, patients received IV insulin infusion/drip (0.1 U/kg/h) after the initial fluid bolus. Of the patients, 51% were transferred to another facility; 22% were admitted to an intensive care unit. Best ED practice management of pediatric DKA includes establishing a specific guideline/protocol and ensuring access to a pediatric endocrinologist. Both were identified as improvement areas in this project. Illinois EMSC has developed an educational module and provided direct feedback to all participating EDs, to improve their management of pediatric patients with DKA.
Garza-Leon, Manuel; Garcia, Lourdes Arellanes
To describe the clinical features of Ocular Toxoplasmosis in pediatric patients. A retrospective, non-comparative series of cases was studied. We reviewed the clinical records of patients 16 year old or younger diagnosed with Ocular Toxoplasmosis. Forty patients (56 eyes) were included. The mean age was 9.5 yrs old. Twenty were female. Unilateral involvement was noticed in 60% of patients. The most common symptoms were strabismus (32.1%) and reduced VA in (23.2%). An inactive retinal scar was observed in most cases (71.4%). Panuveitis was found in 8 eyes (14.2%), and posterior uveitis in 7 eyes of 7 patients (12.5%); one eye presented neuroretinitis. The most frequent location of retinochoroidal lesions was the posterior pole (72.7%). In children, ocular toxoplasmosis is most commonly diagnosed during the inactive stage. When inflammation is present, it can be severe and frequently associated with other complications such vasculitis and papillitis.
Orel, Rok; Reberšak, Lea Vodušek
Prebiotics are non-digestible components of food that in a selective manner trigger the expansion of microbes in the gut with valuable effects for the health of the host. In our document, current literature pertaining to the clinical effects of the use of prebiotics for the treatment and prevention of some common pediatric pathology such as infantile colic, constipation, absorption of minerals, weight gain, diarrhea, respiratory infections, and eczema is reviewed. Data was collected through search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, UpToDate, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database as well as through references from relevant articles, all until September 2015. However, only the results of publications with adequate methodological quality were included. Prebiotics seem to be very appealing in treatment of many clinical conditions, explicitly in the fight against constipation, poor weight gain in preterm infants, and eczema in atopic children. In contrast to probiotics, the evidence of true clinical efficacy of prebiotics, supported with exact type and dose information are rather sparse, and there are a limited number of randomized controlled trials concerning prebiotics in children, especially beyond the age of infancy. Large well-designed, controlled, confirmatory clinical trials are required, using commercially available products, to help healthcare providers in making an appropriate decision concerning the appropriate use of prebiotics in different conditions.
Pendergrast, Robert A.
Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761
Laventhal, Naomi; Tarini, Beth A; Lantos, John
Children have been identified as uniquely vulnerable clinical research subjects since the early 1970s. This article reviews the historical underpinnings of this designation, the current regulatory framework for pediatric and neonatal research, and common problems in pediatric research oversight. It also presents 3 areas of pediatric and neonatal research (genomic screening, healthy children donating stem cells, and therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) that highlight contemporary challenges in pediatric research ethics, including balancing risk and benefit, informed consent and assent, and clinical equipoise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mehrotra, Nitin; Bhattaram, Atul; Earp, Justin C; Florian, Jeffry; Krudys, Kevin; Lee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Yeon; Liu, Jiang; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Yu, Jingyu; Zhao, Ping; Sinha, Vikram
Dose selection is one of the key decisions made during drug development in pediatrics. There are regulatory initiatives that promote the use of model-based drug development in pediatrics. Pharmacometrics or quantitative clinical pharmacology enables development of models that can describe factors affecting pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics in pediatric patients. This manuscript describes some examples in which pharmacometric analysis was used to support approval and labeling in pediatrics. In particular, the role of pharmacokinetic (PK) comparison of pediatric PK to adults and utilization of dose/exposure-response analysis for dose selection are highlighted. Dose selection for esomeprazole in pediatrics was based on PK matching to adults, whereas for adalimumab, exposure-response, PK, efficacy, and safety data together were useful to recommend doses for pediatric Crohn's disease. For vigabatrin, demonstration of similar dose-response between pediatrics and adults allowed for selection of a pediatric dose. Based on model-based pharmacokinetic simulations and safety data from darunavir pediatric clinical studies with a twice-daily regimen, different once-daily dosing regimens for treatment-naïve human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected pediatric subjects 3 to <12 years of age were evaluated. The role of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling (PBPK) in predicting pediatric PK is rapidly evolving. However, regulatory review experiences and an understanding of the state of science indicate that there is a lack of established predictive performance of PBPK in pediatric PK prediction. Moving forward, pharmacometrics will continue to play a key role in pediatric drug development contributing toward decisions pertaining to dose selection, trial designs, and assessing disease similarity to adults to support extrapolation of efficacy. Copyright © 2016 U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY 2018 POSITION STATEMENT ON INTEGRATION OF INSULIN PUMPS AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS.
Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Haas, Richard A; Roberts, Victor L; Umpierrez, Guillermo E
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician. AACE/ACE Task Force on Integration of Insulin Pumps and Continuous Glucose Monitoring in the Management of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Chair George Grunberger, MD, FACP, FACE Task Force Members Yehuda Handelsman, MD, FACP, FNLA, MACE Zachary T. Bloomgarden, MD, MACE Vivian A. Fonseca, MD, FACE Alan J. Garber, MD, PhD, FACE Richard A. Haas, MD, FACE Victor L. Roberts, MD, MBA, FACP, FACE Guillermo E. Umpierrez, MD, CDE, FACP, FACE Abbreviations: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology A1C = glycated hemoglobin BGM = blood glucose monitoring CGM = continuous glucose monitoring CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion DM = diabetes mellitus FDA = Food & Drug Administration MDI = multiple daily injections T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus SAP = sensor-augmented pump SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose STAR 3 = Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction phase 3 trial.
Marcil, Lucy E; Hole, Michael K; Wenren, Larissa M; Schuler, Megan S; Zuckerman, Barry S; Vinci, Robert J
The earned income tax credit (EITC), refundable monies for America's working poor, is associated with improved child health. Yet, 20% of eligible families do not receive it. We provided free tax preparation services in clinics serving low-income families and assessed use, financial impact, and accuracy. Free tax preparation services ("StreetCred") were available at 4 clinics in Boston in 2016 and 2017. We surveyed a convenience sample of clients ( n = 244) about experiences with StreetCred and previous tax services and of nonparticipants ( n = 100; 69% response rate) and clinic staff ( n = 41; 48% response rate) about acceptability and feasibility. A total of 753 clients received $1 619 650 in federal tax refunds. StreetCred was associated with significant improvement in tax filing rates. Of surveyed clients, 21% were new filers, 47% were new users of free tax preparation, 14% reported new receipt of the EITC, and 21% reported new knowledge of the EITC. StreetCred had high client acceptability; 96% would use StreetCred again. Families with children were significantly more likely to report StreetCred made them feel more connected to their doctor ( P = .02). Clinic staff viewed the program favorably (97% approval). Free tax services in urban clinics are a promising, feasible financial intervention to increase tax filing and refunds, save fees, and link clients to the EITC. With future studies, we will assess scalability and measure impact on health. StreetCred offers an innovative approach to improving child health in primary care settings through a financial intervention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kenyon, Lisa K; Birkmeier, Marisa; Anderson, Deborah K; Martin, Kathy
At the Section on Pediatrics Education Summit in July 2012, consensus was achieved on 5 essential core competencies (ECCs) that represent a knowledge base essential to all graduates of professional physical therapist education programs. This article offers suggestions for how clinical instructors (CIs) might use the ECCs to identify student needs and guide student learning during a pediatric clinical education experience. Pediatric CIs potentially might choose to use the ECCs as a reference tool in clinical education to help (1) organize and develop general, clinic-specific clinical education objectives, (2) develop and plan individualized student learning experiences, (3) identify student needs, and (4) show progression of student learning from beginner to intermediate to entry level. The ECCs may offer CIs insights into the role of pediatric clinical education in professional physical therapist education.
Rubenstein, Jonathan; Zettel, Julie C; Lee, Eric; Cote, Michelle; Aziza, Albert; Connolly, Bairbre L
Development of a pediatric interventional radiology clinic is a necessary component of providing a pediatric interventional radiology service. Patient satisfaction is important when providing efficient, high-quality care. To analyze the care provided by a pediatric interventional radiology clinic from the perspective of efficiency and parent satisfaction, so as to identify areas for improvement. The prospective study was both quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative component measured clinic efficiency (waiting times, duration of clinic visit, nurse/physician time allocation and assessments performed; n = 91). The qualitative component assessed parental satisfaction with their experience with the pediatric interventional radiology clinic, using a questionnaire (5-point Likert scale) and optional free text section for feedback (n = 80). Questions explored the family's perception of relevance of information provided, consent process and overall satisfaction with their pediatric interventional radiology clinic experience. Families waited a mean of 11 and 10 min to meet the physician and nurse, respectively. Nurses and physicians spent a mean of 28 and 21 min with the families, respectively. The average duration of the pediatric interventional radiology clinic consultation was 56 min. Of 80 survey participants, 83% were satisfied with their experience and 94% said they believed providing consent before the day of the procedure was helpful. Only 5% of respondents were not satisfied with the time-efficiency of the interventional radiology clinic. Results show the majority of patients/parents are very satisfied with the pediatric interventional radiology clinic visit. The efficiency of the pediatric interventional radiology clinic is satisfactory; however, adherence to stricter scheduling can be improved.
Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Hurley, Daniel L; Garvey, W Timothy
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) have created a chronic care model, advanced diagnostic framework, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical practice algorithm for the comprehensive management of obesity. This coordinated effort is not solely based on body mass index as in previous models, but emphasizes a complications-centric approach that primarily determines therapeutic decisions and desired outcomes. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) is a new diagnostic term for obesity that explicitly identifies a chronic disease, alludes to a precise pathophysiologic basis, and avoids the stigmata and confusion related to the differential use and multiple meanings of the term "obesity." Key elements to further the care of patients using this new ABCD term are: (1) positioning lifestyle medicine in the promotion of overall health, not only as the first algorithmic step, but as the central, pervasive action; (2) standardizing protocols that comprehensively and durably address weight loss and management of adiposity-based complications; (3) approaching patient care through contextualization (e.g., primordial prevention to decrease obesogenic environmental risk factors and transculturalization to adapt evidence-based recommendations for different ethnicities, cultures, and socio-economics); and lastly, (4) developing evidence-based strategies for successful implementation, monitoring, and optimization of patient care over time. This AACE/ACE blueprint extends current work and aspires to meaningfully improve both individual and population health by presenting a new ABCD term for medical diagnostic purposes, use in a complications-centric management and staging strategy, and precise reference to the obesity chronic disease state, divested from counterproductive stigmata and ambiguities found in the general public sphere. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ABCD = Adiposity
Fleseriu, Maria; Hamrahian, Amir H; Hoffman, Andrew R; Kelly, Daniel F; Katznelson, Laurence
Recurrence of hypercortisolemia after initial treatment of Cushing disease (CD) is more common than previously thought, with a third of patients suffering a recurrence over their lifetime. Awareness of this high rate and delayed timeline (sometimes decades) of potential recurrence is critical and patients with CD should be monitored at regular intervals throughout their lives. In this manuscript, we review the complex evaluation needed for defining CD remission versus persistent disease after surgery, and focus on challenges in diagnosing early recurrent hypercortisolemia. Late night salivary cortisol appears to be an earlier predictor of recurrence when compared with urinary free cortisol (UFC) excretion. We also review the criteria suggested to define recurrence of hypercortisolemia in patients treated with medical therapy. Further research is needed to determine the optimal way to evaluate a patient with CD recurrence as well as the riskbenefit ratio of treatment in early, mild recurrent disease. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AI = adrenal insufficiency CD = Cushing disease CDDT = coupled dexamethasone desmopressin test CR = circadian rhythm CRH = corticotropin-releasing hormone GC = glucocorticoid GCR = global clinical response HPA = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal LDDST = low-dose dexamethasone suppression test LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol ODST = overnight dexamethasone suppression test TSS = trans-sphenoidal surgery.
Davies, Louise; Morris, Luc G.T.; Haymart, Megan; Chen, Amy Y.; Goldenberg, David; Morris, John; Ogilvie, Jennifer B.; Terris, David J.; Netterville, James; Wong, Richard J.; Randolph, Gregory
Objective (1) Describe current epidemiology of thyroid cancer in the United States; (2) evaluate hypothesized causes of the increased incidence of thyroid cancer; and (3) suggest next steps in research and clinical action. Methods Analysis of data from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results System and the National Center for Vital Statistics. Literature review of published English-language articles through December 31, 2013. Results The incidence of thyroid cancer has tripled over the past 30 years, whereas mortality is stable. The increase is mainly comprised of smaller tumors. These facts together suggest the major reason for the increased incidence is detection of subclinical, nonlethal disease. This has likely occurred through: health care system access, incidental detection on imaging, more frequent biopsy, greater volumes of and extent of surgery, and changes in pathology practices. Because larger-size tumors have increased in incidence also, it is possible that there is a concomitant true rise in thyroid cancer incidence. The only clearly identifiable contributor is radiation exposure, which has likely resulted in a few additional cases annually. The contribution of the following causes to the increasing incidence is unclear: iodine excess or insufficiency, diabetes and obesity, and molecular disruptions. The following mechanisms do not currently have strong evidence to support a link with the development of thyroid cancer: estrogen, dietary nitrate, and autoimmune thyroid disease. Conclusion Research should focus on illuminating which thyroid cancers need treatment. Patients should be advised of the benefits as well as harms that can occur with treatment of incidentally identified, small, asymptomatic thyroid cancers. PMID:26135963
The Department of Pediatrics of Peking University First Hospital has a long term of outstanding history. It was established about 60 years ago. After the division of pediatric neurology (DPN) had been established in 1960s, it had been assigned to cover genetic disorders. During the recent 20 years, efforts have been put on three aspects: (1) Pediatric neurology clinical service and education; (2) research studies of childhood epilepsies and pediatric neurogenetic disorders; and (3) development of a strong DPN team to establish a comprehensive pediatric neurological program. In this paper, we reviewed the history of the pediatric neurology division in our department, our clinical and research work and achievements for neurogenetic diseases.
Alveno, Renata A; Miranda, Caroline V; Passone, Caroline G; Waetge, Aurora R; Hojo, Elza S; Farhat, Sylvia C L; Odone-Filho, Vicente; Tannuri, Uenis; Carvalho, Werther B; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Silva, Clovis A
To describe the characteristics of children and adolescentes with chronic diseases of outpatient clinics at a tertiary university hospital. A cross-sectional study was performed with 16,237 patients with chronic diseases followed-up in one year. The data were collected through the electronic system, according to the number of physician appointments in 23 pediatric specialties. Patients were divided in two groups: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Early (10-14 years) and late (15-19 years) adolescent groups were also analyzed. Of the total sample, 56% were children and 46% were adolescents. The frequencies of following pediatric specialties were significantly higher in adolescents when compared with children: cardiology, endocrinology, hematology, nephrology/renal transplantation, neurology, nutrology, oncology, palliative and pain care, psychiatry, and rheumatology (p<0.05). The frequencies of emergency service visits (30% vs. 17%, p<0.001), hospitalizations (23% vs. 11%, p<0.001), intensive care unit admissions (6% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and deaths (1% vs. 0.6%, p=0.002) were significantly lower in adolescents than in children. However, the number of physician appointments (≥13) per patient was also higher in the adolescent group (5% vs. 6%, p=0.018). Further analysis comparison between early and late adolescents revealed that the first group had significantly more physician appointments (35% vs. 32%, p=0.025), and required more than two pediatric specialties (22% vs. 21%, p=0.047). Likewise, the frequencies of emergency service visits (19% vs. 14%, p<0.001) and hospitalizations (12% vs. 10%, p=0.035) were higher in early adolescents. This study evaluated a large population in a Latin American hospital and suggested that early adolescents with chronic diseases required many appointments, multiple specialties and hospital admissions. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Dunne, Julia; Murphy, M Dianne; Rodriguez, William J
To examine the characteristics of pediatric trials conducted under US legislation and to compare results with data from 2002 to 2007. We reviewed all pediatric trials provided to the US Food and Drug Administration in submissions that were approved between September 28, 2007 and December 21, 2010. We extracted data for each trial including age range, therapeutic indication, design, duration, and patient and center enrollment by location. Overall 346 studies on 113 drugs and biologicals enrolled 55 819 pediatric patients. The United States participated in 86% of the studies, providing 71% of the centers and 74% of the patients. Corresponding percentages for non-US countries were 43%, 29%, and 26% respectively. Developing or transition countries participated in 22% of the studies, providing 12% of the centers and 10% of the patients; our earlier analysis found corresponding percentages of 38%, 12%, and 23%. The most common therapeutic areas studied in the latter countries were infectious, neurologic, and pulmonary diseases. Seventy-eight vaccine studies enrolled 147 692 patients. The United States participated in 40% of the studies, providing 39% of the centers and 22% of the patients. Corresponding percentages for non-US countries were 74%, 61%, and 78% respectively. Developing or transition countries participated in 27% of the studies, providing 15% of the centers and 52% of the patients. The United States remains an important location for pediatric trials. Developing country involvement in pediatric drug development is not increasing, although these countries participate significantly in vaccine trials.
The Brazilian consensus for the clinical approach and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in adults: recommendations of the thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Sgarbi, Jose A; Teixeira, Patrícia F S; Maciel, Lea M Z; Mazeto, Glaucia M F S; Vaisman, Mario; Montenegro Junior, Renan M; Ward, Laura S
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), defined as elevated concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) despite normal levels of thyroid hormones, is highly prevalent in Brazil, especially among women and the elderly. Although an increasing number of studies have related SCH to an increased risk of coronary artery disease and mortality, there have been no randomized clinical trials verifying the benefit of levothyroxine treatment in reducing these risks, and the treatment remains controversial. This consensus, sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism and developed by Brazilian experts with extensive clinical experience with thyroid diseases, presents these recommendations based on evidence for the clinical management of SCH patients in Brazil. After structuring the clinical questions, the search for evidence in the literature was initially performed in the MedLine-PubMed database and later in the Embase and SciELO - Lilacs databases. The strength of evidence was evaluated according to the Oxford classification system and established based on the experimental design used, considering the best available evidence for each question and the Brazilian experience. The topics covered included SCH definition and diagnosis, natural history, clinical significance, treatment and pregnancy, and the consensus issued 29 recommendations for the clinical management of adult patients with SCH. Treatment with levothyroxine was recommended for all patients with persistent SCH with serum TSH values > 10 mU/L and for certain patient subgroups.
Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond
Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A]; 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,790 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 353 (19.7%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American
Styne, Dennis M; Arslanian, Silva A; Connor, Ellen L; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Murad, M Hassan; Silverstein, Janet H; Yanovski, Jack A
The European Society of Endocrinology and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society. To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the assessment, treatment, and prevention of pediatric obesity. The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of 6 experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned 2 systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees and members and co-sponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of this guideline. Pediatric obesity remains an ongoing serious international health concern affecting ∼17% of US children and adolescents, threatening their adult health and longevity. Pediatric obesity has its basis in genetic susceptibilities influenced by a permissive environment starting in utero and extending through childhood and adolescence. Endocrine etiologies for obesity are rare and usually are accompanied by attenuated growth patterns. Pediatric comorbidities are common and long-term health complications often result; screening for comorbidities of obesity should be applied in a hierarchal, logical manner for early identification before more serious complications result. Genetic screening for rare syndromes is indicated only in the presence of specific historical or physical features. The psychological toll of pediatric obesity on the individual and family necessitates screening for mental health issues and counseling as indicated. The prevention of pediatric obesity by promoting healthful diet, activity, and environment should be a primary goal, as
Al-Futaisi, Amna; Shevell, Michael
Clinical research involves direct observation or data collection on human subjects. This study was conducted to evaluate the profile of pediatric neurology clinical research over a decade. Trends in pediatric neurology clinical research were documented through a systematic comparative review of articles published in selected journals. Eleven journals (five pediatric neurology, three general neurology, three general pediatrics) were systematically reviewed for articles involving a majority of human subjects less than 18 years of age for the years 1990 and 2000. Three hundred thirty-five clinical research articles in pediatric neurology were identified in the 11 journals for 1990 and 398 for 2000, a 19% increase. A statistically significant increase in analytic design (21.8% vs 39.5%; P = .01), statistical support (6% vs 16.6%; P < .0001), and multidisciplinary team (69.9% vs 87%; P = .003) was observed. In terms of specific study design, a significant decline in case reports (34.3% vs 10.3%; P < .0001) and an increase in case-control studies (11.3% vs 22.9%; P = .02) were evident over the 10-year interval. This comparative audit revealed that there has been a discernible change in the methodology profile of clinical research in child neurology over a decade. Trends apparently suggest a more rigorous approach to study design and investigation in this field.
Plouin, P F; Amar, L; Dekkers, O M; Fassnacht, M; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A P; Lenders, J W M; Lussey-Lepoutre, C; Steichen, O
Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours. Standard treatment is surgical resection. Following complete resection of the primary tumour, patients with PPGL are at risk of developing new tumoural events. The present guideline aims to propose standardised clinical care of long-term follow-up in patients operated on for a PPGL. The guideline has been developed by The European Society of Endocrinology and based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) principles. We performed a systematic review of the literature and analysed the European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours (ENS@T) database. The risk of new events persisted in the long term and was higher for patients with genetic or syndromic diseases. Follow-up in the published cohorts and in the ENS@T database was neither standardised nor exhaustive, resulting in a risk of follow-up bias and in low statistical power beyond 10 years after complete surgery. To inform patients and care providers in this context of low-quality evidence, the Guideline Working Group therefore prepared recommendations on the basis of expert consensus. Key recommendations are the following: we recommend that all patients with PPGL be considered for genetic testing; we recommend assaying plasma or urinary metanephrines every year to screen for local or metastatic recurrences or new tumours; and we suggest follow-up for at least 10 years in all patients operated on for a PPGL. High-risk patients (young patients and those with a genetic disease, a large tumour and/or a paraganglioma) should be offered lifelong annual follow-up. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Background Although Adolescent Medicine is a pediatric subspecialty, it addresses many issues that differ from other aspects of pediatrics clinical training. The aim of this study was to explore the general experiences of pediatric residents during their rotations in Adolescent Medicine. Methods Qualitative methods were applied. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with pediatric residents who had completed a rotation in Adolescent Medicine. Emergent themes were identified. Results Three key themes emerged: gaining exposure, taking on a professional role, and achieving self-awareness. Subcategories were also identified. There was particular emphasis on the multidisciplinary team and the biopsychosocial approach to adolescent health care. Conclusions The experiences in Adolescent Medicine reflected residents' learning, notably gains in the "non-expert" as well as "medical expert" physician competencies. Future studies should explore how the interprofessional nature of an Adolescent Medicine team and the patient populations themselves contribute to this learning. PMID:21122143
Short message service (SMS) or text messaging is growing in use in personal, business, and more recently healthcare matters. If and how a tool used in adult healthcare may be transitioned to pediatric patients must be carefully studied to minimize potential harms. The current surveys were performed to examine approval for the use of SMS among both parents of pediatric patients as well as pediatric healthcare practitioners. A prospective, paper-based survey was distributed to parents of patients attending pediatric clinics in our large, urban medical center. An online survey was used to poll healthcare providers at all levels who provide care in those same clinics. Overall approval was positive for the use of SMS, with appointment reminders being felt to be the most likely use for the technology by healthcare practitioners. Parental approval was highest when they were able to see the answers their children provided, but parents also approved of the use of SMS when they could not. Among parents and healthcare providers at our large urban pediatric clinics, approval for SMS use was high for a large range of patient ages and clinical uses.
Splawski, Judy B; Pffefferkorn, Marian D; Schaefer, Marc E; Day, Andrew S; Soldes, Oliver S; Ponsky, Todd A; Stein, Philip; Kaplan, Jess L; Saeed, Shehzad A
Pediatric Crohn disease is characterized by clinical and endoscopic relapses. The inflammatory process is considered to be progressive and may lead to strictures, fistulas, and penetrating disease that may require surgery. In addition, medically refractory disease may be treated by surgical resection of inflamed bowel in an effort to reverse growth failure. The need for surgery in childhood suggests severe disease and these patients have an increased risk for recurrent disease and potentially more surgery. Data show that up to 55% of patients had clinical recurrence in the first 2 years after initial surgery. The current clinical report on postoperative recurrence in pediatric Crohn disease reviews the risk factors for early surgery and postoperative recurrence, operative risk factors for recurrence, and prevention and monitoring strategies for postoperative recurrence. We also propose an algorithm for postoperative management in pediatric Crohn disease.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY GUIDELINES FOR MANAGEMENT OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE - EXECUTIVE SUMMARYComplete Appendix to Guidelines available at http://journals.aace.com.
Jellinger, Paul S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Rosenblit, Paul D; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Alan J; Grunberger, George; Guerin, Chris K; Bell, David S H; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Wyne, Kathleen; Smith, Donald; Brinton, Eliot A; Fazio, Sergio; Davidson, Michael; Zangeneh, Farhad; Bush, Michael A
The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Each Recommendation is based on a diligent review of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. The Executive Summary of this document contains 87 Recommendations of which 45 are Grade A (51.7%), 18 are Grade B (20.7%), 15 are Grade C (17.2%), and 9 (10.3%) are Grade D. These detailed, evidence-based recommendations allow for nuance-based clinical decision making that addresses multiple aspects of real-world medical care. The evidence base presented in the subsequent Appendix provides relevant supporting information for Executive Summary Recommendations. This update contains 695 citations of which 202 (29.1 %) are evidence level (EL) 1 (strong), 137 (19.7%) are EL 2 (intermediate), 119 (17.1%) are EL 3 (weak), and 237 (34.1%) are EL 4 (no clinical evidence). This CPG is a practical tool that endocrinologists, other healthcare professionals, regulatory bodies and health-related organizations can use to reduce the risks and consequences of dyslipidemia. It provides guidance on screening, risk assessment, and treatment recommendations for a range of patients with various lipid disorders. These recommendations emphasize the importance of treating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in some individuals to lower goals than previously recommended and support the measurement of coronary artery calcium scores and inflammatory markers to help stratify risk. Special consideration is given to patients with diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, women, and pediatric patients with dyslipidemia. Both clinical and cost-effectiveness data are provided to support treatment decisions. A1C = hemoglobin A1C ACE = American College of
Glade Bender, Julia; Verma, Anupam; Schiffman, Joshua D
The present study describes the recent advances in the identification of targetable genomic alterations in pediatric cancers, along with the progress and associated challenges in translating these findings into therapeutic benefit. Each field within pediatric cancer has rapidly and comprehensively begun to define genomic targets in tumors that potentially can improve the clinical outcome of patients, including hematologic malignancies (leukemia and lymphoma), solid malignancies (neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma), and brain tumors (gliomas, ependymomas, and medulloblastomas). Although each tumor has specific and sometimes overlapping genomic targets, the translation to the clinic of new targeted trials and precision medicine protocols is still in its infancy. The first clinical tumor profiling studies in pediatric oncology have demonstrated feasibility and patient enthusiasm for the personalized medicine paradigm, but have yet to demonstrate clinical utility. Complexities influencing implementation include rapidly evolving sequencing technologies, tumor heterogeneity, and lack of access to targeted therapies. The return of incidental findings from the germline also remains a challenge, with evolving policy statements and accepted standards. The translation of genomic discoveries to the clinic in pediatric oncology continues to move forward at a brisk pace. Early adoption of genomics for tumor classification, risk stratification, and initial trials of targeted therapeutic agents has led to powerful results. As our experience grows in the integration of genomic and clinical medicine, the outcome for children with cancer should continue to improve.
Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol
In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Chitnis, Tanuja; Tardieu, Marc; Amato, Maria Pia; Banwell, Brenda; Bar-Or, Amit; Ghezzi, Angelo; Kornberg, Andrew; Krupp, Lauren B; Pohl, Daniela; Rostasy, Kevin; Tenembaum, Silvia; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Wassmer, Evangeline
Pediatric studies for new biological agents are mandated by recent legislation, necessitating careful thought to evaluation of emerging multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies in children with MS. Challenges include a small patient population, the lack of prior randomized clinical trials, and ethical concerns. The goal of this meeting was to assess areas of consensus regarding clinical trial design and outcome measures among academic experts involved in pediatric MS care and research. The Steering Committee of the International Pediatric MS Study Group identified key focus areas for discussion. A total of 69 meeting attendees were assembled, including 35 academic experts. Regulatory and pharmaceutical representatives also attended, and provided input, which informed academic expert consensus decisions. The academic experts agreed that clinical trials were necessary in pediatric MS to obtain pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy data, and regulatory approval allowing for greater medication access. The academic experts agreed that relapse was an appropriate primary outcome measure for phase III pediatric trials. An international standardized cognitive battery was identified. The pros and cons of various trial designs were discussed. Guidelines surrounding MRI studies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and registries were developed. The academic experts agreed that given the limited subject pool, a stepwise approach to the launch of clinical trials for the most promising medications is necessary in order to ensure study completion. Alternative approaches could result in unethical exposure of patients to trial conditions without gaining knowledge. Consensus points for conduct of clinical trials in the rare disease pediatric MS were identified amongst a panel of academic experts, informed by regulatory and industry stakeholders.
Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Balch, Alfred; Yu, Tian; Ward, Robert M; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T
It is not trivial to conduct clinical trials with pediatric participants. Ethical, logistical, and financial considerations add to the complexity of pediatric studies. Optimal design theory allows investigators the opportunity to apply mathematical optimization algorithms to define how to structure their data collection to answer focused research questions. These techniques can be used to determine an optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The aim of this review is to demonstrate how to determine optimal sample size, optimal sample times, and the number of samples required from each patient by presenting specific examples using optimal design tools. Additionally, this review aims to discuss the relative usefulness of sparse vs rich data. This review is intended to educate the clinician, as well as the basic research scientist, whom plan on conducting a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic clinical trial in pediatric patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Licata, Angelo A; Binkley, Neil; Petak, Steven M; Camacho, Pauline M
High-quality dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are necessary for accurate diagnosis of osteoporosis and monitoring of therapy; however, DXA scan reports may contain errors that cause confusion about diagnosis and treatment. This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology consensus statement was generated to draw attention to many common technical problems affecting DXA report conclusions and provide guidance on how to address them to ensure that patients receive appropriate osteoporosis care. The DXA Writing Committee developed a consensus based on discussion and evaluation of available literature related to osteoporosis and osteodensitometry. Technical errors may include errors in scan acquisition and/or analysis, leading to incorrect diagnosis and reporting of change over time. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry advocates training for technologists and medical interpreters to help eliminate these problems, many lack skill in this technology. Suspicion that reports are wrong arises when clinical history is not compatible with scan interpretation (e.g., dramatic increase/decrease in a short period of time; declines in previously stable bone density after years of treatment), when different scanners are used, or when inconsistent anatomic sites are used for monitoring the response to therapy. Understanding the concept of least significant change will minimize erroneous conclusions about changes in bone density. Clinicians must develop the skills to differentiate technical problems, which confound reports, from real biological changes. We recommend that clinicians review actual scan images and data, instead of relying solely on the impression of the report, to pinpoint errors and accurately interpret DXA scan images. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ISCD = International
Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Marco Martínez, Amparo; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; López Fernández, Judith
Sporting activity is becoming a common practice in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This situation requires both a preliminary medical assessment and a wide range of changes in treatment which have scarcely been addressed in medical literature. To prepare a clinical guideline on the medical approach to patients with diabetes who practice sport regularly. An expert panel from the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) reviewed the most relevant literature in each of the sections. Based both on this review and on data from the experience of a number of athletes with DM, a number of recommendations were agreed within each section. Finally, the Working Group and representatives of the SEEN jointly discussed all these recommendations. The guideline provides recommendations ranging from medical assessment before patients with DM start to practice sport to actions during and after physical activity. Recommendations are also given on aspects such as the impact of sport on blood glucose control, training schemes, or special risk situations. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pasquali, Sara K.; Burstein, Danielle S.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian; Li, Jennifer S.
Background Recent studies have examined the globalization of clinical research. These studies focused on adult trials, and the globalization of pediatric research has not been examined to date. We evaluated the setting of published studies conducted under the US Pediatric Exclusivity Program, which provides economic incentives to pharmaceutical companies to conduct drug studies in children. Methods Published studies containing the main results of trials conducted from 1998–2007 under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision were included. Data were extracted from each study and described, including the therapeutic area of drug studied, number of patients enrolled, number of sites, and location where the study was conducted, if reported. Results Overall, 174 trials were included (sample size 8–27,065 patients); 9% did not report any information regarding the location or number of sites where the study was conducted. Of those that did report this information, 65% were conducted in at least one country outside the US, and 11% did not have any sites in the US. Fifty-four different countries were represented and 38% of trials enrolled patients in at least one site located in a developing/transition country, including more than one third of infectious disease, cardiovascular, and allergy/immunology trials. Conclusions The majority of published pediatric trials conducted under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision included sites outside of the US, and over a third of trials enrolled patients in developing/transition countries. While there are many potential benefits to the globalization of pediatric research, this trend also raises certain scientific and ethical concerns which require further evaluation. PMID:20732941
Loads of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion and nitric oxide, that overburden antioxidant systems induce oxidative stress in the body. Major cellular targets of ROS are membrane lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Circumstantial evidence suggests that ROS play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of various diseases in children and adolescents. The involvement of ROS and oxidative stress in pediatric diseases is an important concern, but oxidative stress status in young subjects and appropriate methods for its measurement remain to be defined. Recently, specific biomarkers for oxidative damage and antioxidant defense have been introduced into the field of pediatric medicine. This review is intended to provide an overview of clinical applications of oxidative stress biomarkers in the field of pediatric medicine. First, this review presents the biochemistry and pathophysiology of ROS and antioxidant defense systems. Second, it presents a list of clinically applicable biomarkers, along with pediatric diseases in which enhanced oxidative stress might be involved. The discussion emphasizes that several reliable biomarkers are easily measurable using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Third, this review presents age-related reference normal ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers, including urinary acrolein-lysine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, nitrite/nitrate, and pentosidine, and the changes of the parameters in several clinical conditions, including atopic dermatitis and diabetes mellitus. New and interesting data on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in neonatal biology are also presented. Fourth, this review discusses the ever-accumulating body of data linking oxidative stress to disturbances of the nitric oxide system and vascular endothelial activation/dysfunction. Finally, this review describes the reported clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants for oxidative-stress related diseases
Progress in pediatrics in 2015: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, haematology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, nutrition, oncology and pulmonology.
Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Di Mauro, Dora; Mastrorilli, Carla; Mirra, Virginia; Bernasconi, Sergio
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature. Epidemiological studies have evidenced the high incidence of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients with Down syndrome. Documentation of novel risk factors for celiac disease are of use to develop strategies for prevention in the population at-risk. Diagnostic criteria for non-celiac gluten sensitivity have been reported. Negative effect on nervous system development of the supernumerary X chromosome in Klinefelter syndrome has emerged. Improvements have been made in understanding rare diseases such as Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Eltrombopag is an effective therapy for immune trombocytopenia. Children with sickle-cell anemia are at risk for nocturnal enuresis. Invasive diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes are still common despite of vaccination. No difference in frequency of antibiotic prescriptions for acute otitis media between before the publication of the national guideline and after has been found. The importance of timing of iron administration in low birth weight infants, the effect of probiotics for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and perspectives for managing jaundice and cholestasis in neonates have been highlighted. New strategies have been developed to reduce the risk for relapse in nephrotic syndrome including prednisolone during upper respiratory infection. Insights into the pathophysiology of cerebral palsy, arterial ischemic stroke and acute encephalitis
Pinxten, Wim; Nys, Herman; Dierickx, Kris
The participation of minors in clinical trials is essential to provide safe and effective medical care to children. Because few drugs have been tested in children, pediatricians are forced to prescribe medications off-label with uncertain efficacy and safety. In this article, we analyze how the enrollment of minors in clinical trials is negotiated within relationships of mutual trust between clinicians, minors, and their parents. After a brief description of the problems associated with involving minors in clinical research, we consider how existing "relationships of trust" can be used as a place where the concerns of research subjects can be more fully discussed and addressed. Building on the tacit recognition of trust found in The European Clinical Trials Directive we make policy recommendations that allow for clearer, more ethically informed guidelines for enrolling minors in clinical research.
Duncan, Daniel R; Breuer, Christopher K
The development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in cardiovascular surgery holds great promise for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with complex congenital cardiac anomalies. Currently used synthetic grafts have a number of shortcomings in this setting but a tissue engineering approach has emerged in the past decade as a way to address these limitations. The first clinical trial of this technology showed that it is safe and effective but the primary mode of graft failure is stenosis. A variety of murine and large animal models have been developed to study and improve tissue engineering approaches with the hope of translating this technology into routine clinical use, but challenges remain. The purpose of this report is to address the clinical problem and review recent advances in vascular tissue engineering for pediatric applications. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of neovessel formation and stenosis will enable rational design of improved tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
Qubty, William; Patniyot, Irene; Gelfand, Amy
The aim of this prospective study was to survey our patients about their experience with our clinic's telemedicine program to better understand telemedicine's utility for families, and to improve patient satisfaction and ultimately patient care. This was a prospective survey study of patients and their families who had a routine telemedicine follow-up visit with the University of California San Francisco Pediatric Headache Program. The survey was administered to patients and a parent(s) following their telemedicine visit. Fifty-one of 69 surveys (74%) were completed. All (51/51) patients and families thought that (1) telemedicine was more convenient compared to a clinic visit, (2) telemedicine caused less disruption of their daily routine, and (3) they would choose to do telemedicine again. The mean round-trip travel time from home to clinic was 6.8 hours (SD ± 8.6 hours). All participants thought telemedicine was more cost-effective than a clinic visit. Parents estimated that participating in a telemedicine visit instead of a clinic appointment saved them on average $486. This prospective, pediatric headache telemedicine study shows that telemedicine is convenient, perceived to be cost-effective, and patient-centered. Providing the option of telemedicine for routine pediatric headache follow-up visits results in high patient and family satisfaction. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.
Juvenile toxicology studies in animals provide useful information to guide monitoring of potential adverse effects in children especially on growth and development. In order to continue to gain knowledge and build upon these preclinical studies, recent experience has suggested that additional approaches for monitoring of safety concerns in the pediatric population may be required. Recently, pediatric guidance has become available from the health authorities which provide pharmacovigilance concepts as they specifically relate to drugs being developed for pediatric indications. Clinical trials are typically not robust enough to detect rare or delayed safety effects as the pediatric trials are relatively short-term. Furthermore, such long term or rare effects may not be detected via standard voluntary postmarketing surveillance. Safety monitoring of children with Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis (JIA) taking nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)s will be used as an example to describe a post-marketing risk management and pharmacovigilance program that serves to better evaluate safety data from various sources. The intent of this program is to identify adverse events (AE), including events with longer latency, which may be associated with NSAID use in a pediatric population. In this presentation, the 4 major components of the program are to be addressed. Such a program may serve as a model to proactively generate and monitor safety data in order to identify AEs that may be associated with new therapeutics for a pediatric population.
Tan, Jason; Paquette, Vanessa; Levine, Marc; Ensom, Mary H H
Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) with a unique mechanism of action. Older AEDs can cause serious short- and long-term adverse drug reactions and complications, rendering them undesirable to use in pediatric patients. Characteristics that make levetiracetam a near-ideal AED include its broad spectrum of activity, good tolerability profile, and minimal drug-drug interactions. Clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring (CPM) is often recommended in pediatric patients for certain AEDs due to large interindividual pharmacokinetic differences and unpredictable drug disposition. Our objective was to determine whether monitoring levetiracetam concentrations is warranted for pediatric patients with epilepsy, using a previously published 9-step decision-making algorithm. A literature search of the MEDLINE (1946-August 2016), EMBASE (1974-August 2016), CENTRAL, and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify relevant English-language articles and answer the questions posed in the algorithm for levetiracetam CPM in pediatric epilepsies. Additional articles were identified from a manual bibliographic review of the relevant literature. We found that levetiracetam CPM met some criteria of the algorithm: levetiracetam is an appropriate adjunctive or monotherapy for pediatric patients with either focal or generalized seizures; it is readily measurable in plasma, with an appropriate degree of sensitivity, accuracy, and precision; it exhibits interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics; often, its pharmacologic effect cannot be easily measured; and the duration of therapy is expected to be long-term. However, important criteria not met include the following: there is no clear evidence for a concentration-response relationship for efficacy or toxicity; the proposed therapeutic range of 12-46 μg/mL is not well-defined and is generally considered as wide. Thus, clinical decision making is unlikely to be affected as a result of routine levetiracetam CPM. In
Hennessey, James V; Garber, Jeffrey R; Woeber, Kenneth A; Cobin, Rhoda; Klein, Irwin
Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can be readily diagnosed and can be treated in a safe, cost-effective manner. Professional organizations have given guidance on how and when to employ thyroid-stimulating hormone testing for the detection of thyroid dysfunction. Most recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force did not endorse screening for thyroid dysfunction based on a lack of proven benefit and potential harm of treating those with thyroid dysfunction, which is mostly subclinical disease. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) is concerned that this may discourage physicians from testing for thyroid dysfunction when clinically appropriate. Given the lack of specificity of thyroid-associated symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis of thyroid disease requires biochemical confirmation. The Thyroid Scientific Committee of the AACE has produced this White Paper to highlight the important difference between screening and case-based testing in the practice of clinical medicine. We recommend that thyroid dysfunction should be frequently considered as a potential etiology for many of the nonspecific complaints that physicians face daily. The application and success of safe and effective interventions are dependent on an accurate diagnosis. We, therefore, advocate for an aggressive case-finding approach, based on identifying those persons most likely to have thyroid disease that will benefit from its treatment.
Nathanson, Constance A.; Becker, Marshall H.
The sources and consequences of variations in work satisfaction are investigated in a study of approximately 100 physicians in six pediatric outpatient clinics, half of them associated with teaching hospitals and half with community hospitals. Measures of work satisfaction, role conflict, and performance are related to physicians' perceived internal and external reward values, controlling for clinic attributes and physicians' background characteristics, and differences between the two clinic types are documented. Implications of the study results for potential conflict between outpatient care and academic aims in teaching hospitals are discussed and avenues of possible further research are suggested. PMID:4705214
Aburahma, Samah K; Khader, Yousef S; Alzoubi, Karem; Sawalha, Noor
To evaluate the frequency and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in children attending a pediatric neurology clinic in North Jordan, a parent completed questionnaire survey of children attending the pediatric neurology clinic at King Abdullah University Hospital from March to July 2008 was conducted. A review of 176 completed questionnaires showed that 99 parents (56%) had used CAM for their child's specific neurological illness. The most common modalities were prayer/reciting the Quran (77%), religious healers (30%), massage with olive oil (32%), and consumption of honey products (29%). The most common reason was religious beliefs in 68%. None reported lack of trust in conventional medicine as the reason behind seeking CAM. Factors significantly associated with CAM use were speech delay, belief in its usefulness, father's age more than 30 years, and mothers with education less than high school. CAM had a supplementary role in relation to traditional western medicine use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avery, Robert A; Rajjoub, Raneem D; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Waldman, Amy T
For nearly two centuries, the ophthalmoscope has permitted examination of the retina and optic nerve-the only axons directly visualized by the physician. The retinal ganglion cells project their axons, which travel along the innermost retina to form the optic nerve, marking the beginning of the anterior visual pathway. Both the structure and function of the visual pathway are essential components of the neurologic examination as it can be involved in numerous acquired, congenital and genetic central nervous system conditions. The development of optical coherence tomography now permits the pediatric neuroscientist to visualize and quantify the optic nerve and retinal layers with unprecedented resolution. As optical coherence tomography becomes more accessible and integrated into research and clinical care, the pediatric neuroscientist may have the opportunity to utilize and/or interpret results from this device. This review describes the basic technical features of optical coherence tomography and highlights its potential clinical and research applications in pediatric clinical neuroscience including optic nerve swelling, optic neuritis, tumors of the visual pathway, vigabatrin toxicity, nystagmus, and neurodegenerative conditions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Avery, Robert A.; Rajjoub, Raneem D.; Trimboli-Heidler, Carmelina; Waldman, Amy T.
For nearly two centuries, the ophthalmoscope has permitted examination of the retina and optic nerve—the only axons directly visualized by the physician. The retinal ganglion cells project their axons, which travel along the innermost retina to form the optic nerve, marking the beginning of the anterior visual pathway. Both the structure and function of the visual pathway are essential components of the neurologic examination as it can be involved in numerous acquired, congenital and genetic central nervous system conditions. The development of optical coherence tomography now permits the pediatric neuroscientist to visualize and quantify the optic nerve and retinal layers with unprecedented resolution. As optical coherence tomography becomes more accessible and integrated into research and clinical care, the pediatric neuroscientist may have the opportunity to utilize and/or interpret results from this device. This review describes the basic technical features of optical coherence tomography and highlights its potential clinical and research applications in pediatric clinical neuroscience including optic nerve swelling, optic neuritis, tumors of the visual pathway, vigabatrin toxicity, nystagmus, and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:25803824
Hill, Kevin D.; Henderson, Heather T.; Hornik, Christoph P.; Li, Jennifer S.
Recent regulatory initiatives in the United States and Europe have transformed the pediatric clinical trials landscape by significantly increasing capital investment and pediatric trial volume. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the impact of these initiatives on the pediatric cardiovascular trials landscape when compared to other pediatric sub-specialties. We also evaluate factors that may have contributed to the success or failure of recent major pediatric cardiovascular trials so as to inform the optimal design and conduct of future trials in the field. PMID:26377725
Sizonenko, P C
Many endocrinological factors control cellular growth of different tissues (cell multiplication and cell volume) and skeletal growth. The role of neuro-transmitters and of hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting factors of growth hormone secretion will be reviewed. The importance of the somatomedins on cartilage growth will be stressed. Thyroid hormones, androgens, and oestrogens have important stimulating actions on skeletal growth and maturation. Conversely, glucocorticoids have an important inhibitory effect on growth. The precise roles of these hormone factors in the regulation of growth hormone secretion, somatomedin production and tissue growth, particularly the cartilage, remain to be completely elucidated.
Goda, Yvonne; Sauer, Harald; Schöndorf, Dominik; Hennes, Pia; Gortner, Ludwig; Gräber, Stefan; Meyer, Sascha
Systematic and up-to-date Cochrane reviews in pediatrics in general and in pediatric gastroenterology in particular are important tools in disseminating the best available evidence to the medical community, thus providing the physician at the bedside with invaluable information and recommendations with regard to specific clinical questions. A systematic literature review was conducted, including all Cochrane reviews published by the Cochrane Review Group in the field of pediatric gastroenterology between 1993 and 2012, with regard to the percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention provided a benefit, percentage of reviews that concluded that a certain intervention should not be performed, and percentage of studies that concluded that the current level of evidence was inconclusive. In total, 86 reviews in the field of pediatric gastroenterology were included. The majority of reviews assessed pharmacological interventions (46/86); other important fields included prevention (15/86) and nutrition (9/86). A total of 33/86 reviews issued definite recommendations (positive, 19/86; negative, 14/86). The remaining 53/86 reviews were either inconclusive (24/86) or only of limited conclusiveness (29/86). The percentage of inconclusive reviews increased from 9% (1998-2002) to 19% (2003-2007; P < 0.05) to finally 24% (2008-2012) (P < 0.05). The three most common reasons for the need for further research were heterogeneity of studies (26/86), small number of patients (18/86), and insufficient data (16/86). Further high-quality research is necessary to increase the proportion of reviews with clear recommendations. Funding and research agencies are key to selecting the most appropriate research programs. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.
Hillier, Stephen G
Through pioneering human IVF as a global infertility treatment, Robert Edwards and his clinical partner Patrick Steptoe launched the field of IVF endocrinology. Following repeated failures with oocytes collected in human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) primed cycles timed to injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), the first successful IVF pregnancy came from a spontaneous menstrual cycle. Intensive endocrine monitoring was used to track pre-ovulatory follicular development and collect a single ripe egg timed to the natural LH surge. Despite this groundbreaking achievement, ovulation induction was clearly required to make IVF treatment clinically robust and reliable. Ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate was used to achieve the first maternity from a superovulated human IVF cycle in 1980. HMG/HCG regimens were then successfully introduced-including substitution of 'pure' follicle-stimulating hormone as the principal ovarian stimulant. The application and success of IVF treatment were dramatically enhanced by the introduction of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues that enabled elective control of endogenous gonadotrophin release during ovarian stimulation. Programmed gonadotrophin regimes yielding double-digit oocyte numbers became normal: 'more is better' was the ethos. Bob Edwards expressed increasing concern over the cost, complexity and potential long-term health risks of such high-order ovarian stimulation. In later life he repeatedly called for a return to minimalist approaches based on the natural menstrual cycle to improve oocyte quality over quantity. This article reviews the application of ovulation induction to human IVF and celebrates Edwards' abiding impact on the field, which firmly grounds him in the reproductive endocrinology pantheon.
Ni, Caiyun; Yu, Huafeng; Han, Xiaorong; Meng, Chen; Zhang, Yanqing
This study is to explore the efficacy and safety of bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment for pediatric disease of poor ventilation. Seventy pediatric patients of airway stenosis and obstruction as well as pharyngeal and laryngeal cysts received bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment, including 15 cases of epiglottic cyst, 13 cases of cicatricial hyperplasia of fibrous tissue after trachea intubation, 5 cases of foreign body in bronchus and 37 cases of endobronchial tuberculosis. Before and after the last electrocoagulation treatment, treatment efficacy was evaluated by examining the patients’ clinical presentations and lesions in airway under bronchoscope, examining chest CT and pulmonary function, and estimating pulmonary atelectasis and ventilation function. Seventy cases of pediatric patients were treated by bronchoscopic electrocoagulation, with the total treatment number of 106 times. Among them, 66 cases were treated with marked efficacy and 4 cases were with effective treatment. There was no invalid treatment. The treatment efficacy was 100% without complications. Bronchoscopic electrocoagulation treatment is a fast, effective and safe therapeutic method in treating airway stenosis and obstruction, such as foreign body in bronchus, granulation tissue hyperplasia, and epiglottic cysts. It is worthy of being widely applied in clinic. PMID:25664086
Levi, Jessica R; Ames, Julie A; Gitman, Lyuba; Morlet, Thierry; O'Reilly, Robert C
To determine the clinical characteristics of children with granular myringitis. Case series with chart review of children with granular myringitis. Tertiary care children's hospitals in Delaware and Florida. From July 1, 2006, to June 30, 2011, 15 patients were identified with granular myringitis based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code 384.1 (10 male, 5 female; 10 left-sided, 5 right-sided). Average age at onset was 10 years (range, 4-18 years). Average length of symptoms was 21 months (range, 3-48 months). Thirteen of the 15 patients (87%) had myringotomy tube placement prior to diagnosis of myringitis, and 11 had a previous perforation (73%). Eleven myringoplasties were performed on 8 (53%) patients prior to the onset of granular myringitis (5 fascia, 2 fat, 2 cartilage, 1 paper patch, and 1 at an outside hospital that was unknown). A total of 27 otolaryngologic surgical procedures were done on 14 of 15 patients. Ten patients (67%) had audiometry performed, and 6 (40%) had ear cultures. Medical treatment included ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone otic drops in all patients, oral antibiotics in 4 patients, and additional topical agents in 8 patients. Two patients had laser resurfacing, and 1 patient had surgical curettage. Five patients had long-term remission, 8 had intermittent remission, and 2 had no remission of their symptoms. Granular myringitis is a chronic, recalcitrant disease typically preceded by myringotomy and tube placement or myringoplasty/tympanoplasty. Medical and surgical intervention is varied and often does not lead to permanent resolution of the disease.
Walid, Mohammad Sami; Robinson, Joe Sam
In this paper, we used search engine technology to study outcome analysis and cost awareness of child hydrocephalus in the literature. The aggregate hospital charges of hydrocephalus treatment procedures for patients <18 years old was extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. Hydrocephalus literature was probed through the PubMed biomedical search engine. Aggregate hospital charges associated with ventriculo-peritoneal shunting as the principle procedure for patients <18 years old have increased 1.7-fold over a 13-year period to 235.6 million in 2009. Hospital discharges, however, decreased from 3,390 in 1997 to 2,525 in 2009 (25.5% decrease over 13 years). The number of papers in English language indexed by PubMed in relation to child hydrocephalus in humans increased from 81 papers in 1996 to 133 in 2010 (1.6-fold increase), totaling 1,694 over 15 years. Randomized controlled trials published in relation to child hydrocephalus totaled 16 over the same period (0.94% of child hydrocephalus papers). Papers related to child hydrocephalus with "costs and cost analysis" as medical subject heading totaled 13 papers (0.77%). Over the past 15 years, disappointingly the number of printed child hydrocephalus papers appeared to have only plateaued. Strikingly, only a very small number of these papers were directed toward randomized control studies, the sine qua non of high-grade clinical evidence. Moreover, very few papers make reference to cost analysis or economics in the treatment of hydrocephalus - an issue coming increasingly before the nation at this point.
Fassnacht, Martin; Arlt, Wiebke; Bancos, Irina; Dralle, Henning; Newell-Price, John; Sahdev, Anju; Tabarin, Antoine; Terzolo, Massimo; Tsagarakis, Stylianos; Dekkers, Olaf M
: By definition, an adrenal incidentaloma is an asymptomatic adrenal mass detected on imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas are nonfunctioning adrenocortical adenomas, but may also represent conditions requiring therapeutic intervention (e.g. adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hormone-producing adenoma or metastasis). The purpose of this guideline is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions crucial for the management of adrenal incidentaloma patients, addressing these four with systematic literature searches: (A) How to assess risk of malignancy?; (B) How to define and manage low-level autonomous cortisol secretion, formerly called 'subclinical' Cushing's syndrome?; (C) Who should have surgical treatment and how should it be performed?; (D) What follow-up is indicated if the adrenal incidentaloma is not surgically removed? SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS: (i) At the time of initial detection of an adrenal mass establishing whether the mass is benign or malignant is an important aim to avoid cumbersome and expensive follow-up imaging in those with benign disease. (ii) To exclude cortisol excess, a 1mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test should be performed (applying a cut-off value of serum cortisol ≤50nmol/L (1.8µg/dL)). (iii) For patients without clinical signs of overt Cushing's syndrome but serum cortisol levels post 1mg dexamethasone >138nmol/L (>5µg/dL), we propose the term 'autonomous cortisol secretion'. (iv) All patients with '(possible) autonomous cortisol' secretion should be screened for hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, to ensure these are appropriately treated. (v) Surgical treatment should be considered in an individualized approach in patients with
Szema, Anthony M; Khedkar, Meera; Maloney, Patrick F; Takach, Patricia A; Nickels, Michael S; Patel, Harshit; Modugno, Francesmary; Tso, Alan Y; Lin, Deborah H
New York City residents were exposed to a variety of inhaled substances after the collapse of the World Trade Center. Exposure to these substances might lead to an increase in asthma severity, with residential distance from Ground Zero predictive of the degree of change. We sought to assess the effect of the World Trade Center collapse on local pediatric asthmatic patients. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 205 pediatric patients with established asthma from a clinic in lower Manhattan's Chinatown. Clinical data were obtained for the year before and the year after September 11, 2001. Measurements included numbers of visits, asthma medication prescriptions, oral corticosteroid prescriptions, weekly doses of rescue inhaler, and peak expiratory flow rates. Residential zip codes were used to compare the asthma severity of patients living within and beyond a 5-mile radius of Ground Zero. After September 11, 2001, these children had more asthma-related clinic visits (P = .002) and received more prescriptions for asthma medications (P = .018). No significant differences in oral steroid or rescue inhaler use were noted. Those living within 5 miles had more clinic visits after September 11, 2001 (P = .013); the increase in clinic visits for patients living more than 5 miles from Ground Zero was not significant. Mean percent predicted peak expiratory flow rates decreased solely for those patients living within 5 miles of Ground Zero during the 3 months after September 11, 2001. Asthma severity worsened after September 11, 2001, in pediatric asthmatic patients living near Ground Zero. Residential proximity to Ground Zero was predictive of the degree of decrease in asthma health.
Conti, Rossana; Colucci, Roberta; Arunachalam, Meena; Berti, Samantha; Fabroni, Caterina; De Martino, Maurizio; Dragoni, Federica; Lazzeri, Linda; Pisaneschi, Lisa; Moretti, Silvia
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of hair and scalp disorders in children referred to the Pediatric Dermatology Outpatient Clinic. We performed a retrospective study of children with hair loss problems or scalp diseases who turned to the Pediatric Dermatology Service, Anna Meyer Pediatric Hospital, Florence, Italy, from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009. Demographics, personal and familial medical history, laboratory tests, clinical examination, final diagnosis and therapeutic interventions were obtained from the manual chart review. Of the 2,640 children who had access to the Pediatric Dermatology Service, 190 (7.19%) had a hair or scalp disorder. Among the 190 children, 60 (31.57%) presented with nonscarring alopecia, 56 (29.47%) had benign neoplasias, hamartomas or vascular malformations of the scalp, 51 (26.84%) had scalp inflammatory diseases, 14 (7.36%) had scarring alopecia, 5 (2.63%) had infections and 2 (1.05%) had infestation of the scalp. A case of constitutional hypertrichosis (0.52%) and also a case (0.52%) of lamellar ichthyosis were diagnosed. Our results underline that hair and scalp diseases represent an important percentage of admittances to a dermatological pediatric outpatient clinic. The variety and complexity of the diseases observed in this study included diseases commonly found also in adulthood. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
...] Workshop on Optimizing Clinical Trial Design for the Development of Pediatric Cardiovascular Devices AGENCY... (AAP), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and... Development of Pediatric Cardiovascular Devices.'' The topic to be discussed is pediatric cardiovascular...
Statler, Kimberly D; Dong, Li; Nielsen, Denise M; Bratton, Susan L
Acute care utilization patterns are not well described but may help inform care coordination and treatment for pediatric stroke. The Kids Inpatient Database was queried to describe demographics and clinical characteristics of children with stroke, compare acute care utilization for hemorrhagic vs. ischemic stroke and Children's vs. non-Children's Hospitals, and identify factors associated with aggressive care and in-hospital mortality. Using a retrospective cohort of children hospitalized with stroke, demographics, predisposing conditions, and intensive (mechanical ventilation, advanced monitoring, and blood product administration) or aggressive (pharmacological therapy and/or invasive interventions) care were compared by stroke and hospital types. Factors associated with aggressive care or in-hospital mortality were explored using logistic regression. Hemorrhagic stroke comprised 43% of stroke discharges, was more common in younger children, and carried greater mortality. Ischemic stroke was more common in older children and more frequently associated with a predisposing condition. Rates of intensive and aggressive care were low (30% and 15%), similar by stroke type, and greater at Children's Hospitals. Older age, hemorrhagic stroke, predisposing condition, and treatment at a Children's Hospital were associated with aggressive care. Hemorrhagic stroke and aggressive care were associated with in-hospital mortality. Acute care utilization is similar by stroke type but both intensive and aggressive care are more common at Children's Hospitals. Mortality remains relatively high after pediatric stroke. Widespread implementation of treatment guidelines improved outcomes in adult stroke. Adoption of recently published treatment recommendations for pediatric stroke may help standardize care and improve outcomes.
Mehta, Seema; Lopez, Monica E; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Mazziotti, Mark V; Brandt, Mary L; Fishman, Douglas S
Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008. We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279). Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.
Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei
Although genetics determines endocrine phenotypes, it cannot fully explain the great variability and reversibility of the system in response to environmental changes. Evidence now suggests that epigenetics, i.e. heritable but reversible changes in gene function without changes in nucleotide sequence, links genetics and environment in shaping endocrine function. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA, partition the genome into active and inactive domains based on endogenous and exogenous environmental changes and developmental stages, creating phenotype plasticity that can explain interindividual and population endocrine variability. We will review the current understanding of epigenetics in endocrinology, specifically, the regulation by epigenetics of the three levels of hormone action (synthesis and release, circulating and target tissue levels, and target-organ responsiveness) and the epigenetic action of endocrine disruptors. We will also discuss the impacts of hormones on epigenetics. We propose a three-dimensional model (genetics, environment, and developmental stage) to explain the phenomena related to progressive changes in endocrine functions with age, the early origin of endocrine disorders, phenotype discordance between monozygotic twins, rapid shifts in disease patterns among populations experiencing major lifestyle changes such as immigration, and the many endocrine disruptions in contemporary life. We emphasize that the key for understanding epigenetics in endocrinology is the identification, through advanced high-throughput screening technologies, of plasticity genes or loci that respond directly to a specific environmental stimulus. Investigations to determine whether epigenetic changes induced by today's lifestyles or environmental `exposures' can be inherited and are reversible should open doors for applying epigenetics to the prevention and treatment of endocrine disorders. PMID:21322125
Lai, Wyman W.; Richmond, Marc; Li, Jennifer S.; Saul, J. Philip; Mital, Seema; Colan, Steven D.; Newburger, Jane W.; Sleeper, Lynn A.; McCrindle, Brain W.; Minich, L. LuAnn; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Marino, Bradley S.; Williams, Ismee A.; Pearson, Gail D.; Evans, Frank; Scott, Jane D.; Cohen, Meryl S.
Background Wyman W. Lai, MD, MPH, and Victoria L. Vetter, MD, MPH. The Pediatric Heart Network (PHN), funded under the U.S. National Institutes of Health-National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NIH–NHLBI), includes two Clinical Research Skills Development (CRSD) Cores, which were awarded to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and to the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York–Presbyterian. To provide information on how to develop a clinical research career to a larger number of potential young investigators in pediatric cardiology, the directors of these two CRSD Cores jointly organized a one-day seminar for fellows and junior faculty from all of the PHN Core sites. The participants included faculty members from the PHN and the NHLBI. The day-long seminar was held on April 29, 2009, at the NHLBI site, immediately preceding the PHN Steering Committee meeting in Bethesda, MD. Methods The goals of the seminar were 1) to provide fellows and early investigators with basic skills in clinical research 2) to provide a forum for discussion of important research career choices 3) to introduce attendees to each other and to established clinical researchers in pediatric cardiology, and 4) to publish a commentary on the future of clinical research in pediatric cardiology. Results The following chapters are compilations of the talks given at the 2009 PHN Clinical Research Skills Development Seminar, published to share the information provided with a broader audience of those interested in learning how to develop a clinical research career in pediatric cardiology. The discussions of types of clinical research, research skills, career development strategies, funding, and career management are applicable to research careers in other areas of clinical medicine as well. Conclusions The aim of this compilation is to stimulate those who might be interested in the research career options available to investigators. PMID:21167335
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITYEXECUTIVE SUMMARYComplete Guidelines available at https://www.aace.com/publications/guidelines.
Garvey, W Timothy; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Brett, Elise M; Garber, Alan J; Hurley, Daniel L; Jastreboff, Ania M; Nadolsky, Karl; Pessah-Pollack, Rachel; Plodkowski, Raymond
Development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres to published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Recommendations are based on diligent review of clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors. There are 9 broad clinical questions with 123 recommendation numbers that include 160 specific statements (85 [53.1%] strong [Grade A], 48 [30.0%] intermediate [Grade B], and 11 [6.9%] weak [Grade C], with 16 [10.0%] based on expert opinion [Grade D]) that build a comprehensive medical care plan for obesity. There were 133 (83.1%) statements based on strong (best evidence level [BEL] 1 = 79 [49.4%]) or intermediate (BEL 2 = 54 [33.7%]) levels of scientific substantiation. There were 34 (23.6%) evidence-based recommendation grades (Grades A-C = 144) that were adjusted based on subjective factors. Among the 1,788 reference citations used in this CPG, 524 (29.3%) were based on strong (evidence level [EL] 1), 605 (33.8%) were based on intermediate (EL 2), and 308 (17.2%) were based on weak (EL 3) scientific studies, with 351 (19.6%) based on reviews and opinions (EL 4). The final recommendations recognize that obesity is a complex, adiposity-based chronic disease, where management targets both weight-related complications and adiposity to improve overall health and quality of life. The detailed evidence-based recommendations allow for nuanced clinical decision-making that addresses real-world medical care of patients with obesity, including screening, diagnosis, evaluation, selection of therapy, treatment goals, and individualization of care. The goal is to facilitate high-quality care of patients with obesity and provide a rational, scientific approach to management that optimizes health outcomes and safety. A1C = hemoglobin A1c AACE = American
Howard, David J; Coovert, Sally A; Coovert, Michael D; Nelson, Robert M
Medical residents receive both medical education and clinical skills training. New technologies and pedagogies are being developed to address each of these phases. Our research focuses on the efficacy of an iPad(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) for clinical skills training. For a period of 3 years, the University of South Florida provided incoming pediatric residents (n=94) with an iPad. At the end of the 3-year program, we surveyed the residents, measuring perceptions and satisfaction of iPad use in clinical training. Sixty percent of the residents responded to the survey. Ninety-three percent reported at least some iPad usage per day on clinical activities. We classified 13 facets of clinical training into three conceptual areas and provided figures detailing iPad use for each facet relative to other facets in the same cluster. The obtaining, management, and display of information are primary uses of iPad applications in clinical training. Finally, we provide information relative to perceived obstacles in clinical training, with weight of the device being the most frequently cited. The role of graduate medical education is changing with the introduction of new technologies. These technologies can differentially impact the various aspects of residency education and training. Residents reported using an iPad extensively in their clinical training. We argue that in addition to impacting traditional educational strategies, iPads can successfully facilitate aspects of clinical training in medical education.
Gaioli, Marisa; Amoedo, Diego; González, Daniel
Children environmental health is considered by The World Health Organization as one of the main challenges of Public Health during the Century XXI. They promote the development of programs that allow approaching, disclosure or mitigation of the impact of polluting agents on health at every level of pediatric attention. The Children Hospital "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" has created an Environmental Health Office in order to address the demands of those patients with suspected or verified exposure to environmental risks. An Environmental Clinical History has been elaborated with this purpose.
Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Cerda-Cristerna, Bernardino; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury
Pediatric clinical research on new drugs and biomaterials involves children in order to create valid and generalizable knowledge. Research on vulnerable populations, such as children, is necessary but only admissible when researchers strictly follow methodological and ethical standards, together with the respect to human rights; and very especially when the investigation cannot be conducted with other population or when the potential benefits are specifically for that age group. Clinical research in Pediatric Dentistry is not an exception. The aim of the present article was to provide the bioethical principles (with respect to the child/parents' autonomy, benefit/risk analysis, and distributive justice), and recommendations, including informed consent, research ethics committees, conflict of interest, and the "equipoise" concept. Current and future worldwide oral health research in children and adolescents must be conducted incorporating their perspectives in the decision-making process as completely as possible. This concept must be carefully considered when a dental clinical study research is going to be planned and conducted, especially in the case of randomized controlled trials, in which children will be recruited as participants.
Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Birmaher, Boris
Background Over the past 20 years, the evidence regarding pediatric bipolar disorder (BP) has increased substantially. As a result, recent concerns have focused primarily on prevalence and differential diagnosis. Method Selective review of the literature. Results BP as defined by rigorously applying diagnostic criteria has been observed among children and especially adolescents in numerous countries. In contrast to increasing diagnoses in clinical settings, prevalence in epidemiologic studies has not recently changed. BP-spectrum conditions among youth are highly impairing and confer high risk for conversion to BP-I and BP-II. Compared to adults, youth with BP have more mixed symptoms, more changes in mood polarity, are more often symptomatic and seem to have worse prognosis. The course, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of BP among children and adolescents are in many ways otherwise similar to those of adults with BP. Nonetheless, many youth with BP receive no treatment and most do not receive BP-specific treatment. Conclusion Despite increased evidence supporting the validity of pediatric BP, discrepancies between clinical and epidemiologic findings suggest that diagnostic misapplication may be common. Simultaneously, low rates of treatment of youth with BP suggest that withholding of BP diagnoses may also be common. Clinicians should apply diagnostic criteria rigorously in order to optimize diagnostic accuracy and ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:22652925
Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Hara, Junichi; Ozono, Keiichi
With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists.
Komvilaisak, Patcharee; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Komwilaisak, Ratana; Jirapradittha, Junya; Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan
Hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring is an alpha-globin gene variant due to a mutation of the stop codon resulting in the elongation of the encoded polypeptide from 141 to 172 amino acid residues. Patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring are usually mildly anemic. We retrospectively describe clinical manifestations, diagnosis, laboratory investigations, treatment, and associated findings in pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring followed-up at Srinagarind Hospital. Sixteen pediatric cases (5 males and 11 females) were diagnosed in utero (N=6) or postnatal (n=10). Eleven cases were diagnosed with homozygous Hb Constant Spring, 4 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with heterozygous Hb E, and 1 with homozygous Hb Constant Spring with homozygous Hb E. Three cases were delivered preterm. Six patients had low birth weights. Clinical manifestations included fetal anemia in 6 cases, hepatomegaly in 1 case, hepatosplenomegaly in 2 cases, splenomegaly in 1 case. Twelve cases exhibited early neonatal jaundice, 9 of which required phototherapy. Six cases received red cell transfusions; 1 (3), >1 (3). After the first few months of life, almost all patients had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and an increased reticulocyte count with a wide red cell distribution (RDW), but no longer required red cell transfusion. At 1 to 2 years of age, some patients still had mild microcytic hypochromic anemia and some had normocytic hypochromic anemia with Hb around 10 g/dL, increased reticulocyte count and wide RDW. Associated findings included hypothyroidism (2), congenital heart diseases (4), genitourinary abnormalities (3), gastrointestinal abnormalities (2), and developmental delay (1). Pediatric patients with homozygous Hb Constant Spring developed severe anemia in utero and up to the age of 2 to 3 months postnatal, requiring blood transfusions. Subsequently, their anemia was mild with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly. Their Hb level was above 9 g/dL with hypochromic
Kim, Dong Soon; Lee, Cho Long
Purpose To investigate the frequency of childhood sleep problems at pediatric clinics in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces. Methods Children (n=936) and their parents who visited 5 primary and 1 secondary pediatric outpatient clinics were invited to complete a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Results Among patients, 901 (96.3%) answered questionnaires in sufficient detail for evaluation. The participant's mean age was 4.35±3.02 years (range, 0–18 years). The male to female ratio was 1:0.93 (466 boys, 435 girls). Habitual snoring (>3 day/week) was reported in 16.9% of the participants. The prevalence of habitual snoring in children <2 years and those between 2–5 years was 9% and 18%, respectively. Sleep disordered breathing was found in 15.1% (106 of 700) of children >2 years. Insomnia was reported in 13.2% of children. The prevalence of sleepwalking, night terrors, and bruxism, is 1.6%, 19%, and 21.1%, respectively. Snoring was associated with increased incidence of sleepwalking, night terrors, and bruxism. Age was associated with insomnia and habitual snoring (P<0.05). Insomnia was more prevalent in younger (21%) than in older children (6%). Snoring was more frequent in both preschool (34%) and school-aged children (33%). The frequency of sleep disordered breathing and insomnia did not vary significantly with gender. However, snoring was more prevalent in boys. Conclusion Sleep problems are frequent among children in Korea. Children with snoring have an increased risk of sleepwalking, night terror, and bruxism. Primary clinicians should consider children's sleep habits to improve their health. PMID:28592979
Pysher, Theodore J; Bach, Philip R; Geaghan, Sharon M; Hamilton, Marilyn S; Laposata, Michael; Lockitch, Gillian; Brugnara, Carlo; Coffin, Cheryl M; Pasquali, Marzia; Rinaldo, Piero; Roberts, William L; Rutledge, Joe C; Ashwood, Edward R; Blaylock, Robert C; Campos, Joseph M; Goldsmith, Barbara; Jones, Patricia M; Lim, Megan; Meikle, A Wayne; Perkins, Sherrie L; Perry, Deborah A; Petti, Cathy A; Rogers, Beverly B; Steele, Paul E; Weiss, Ronald L; Woods, Gail
Laboratory data are essential to the medical care of fetuses, infants, children, and adolescents. However, the performance and interpretation of laboratory tests on specimens from these patients, which may constitute a significant component of the workload in general hospitals and integrated health care systems as well as specialized perinatal or pediatric centers, present unique challenges to the clinical pathologist and the laboratory. Therefore, pathology residents should receive training in pediatric laboratory medicine. Children's Health Improvement through Laboratory Diagnostics, a group of pathologists and laboratory scientists with interest and expertise in pediatric laboratory medicine, convened a task force to develop a list of curriculum topics, key resources, and training experiences in pediatric laboratory medicine for trainees in anatomic and clinical pathology or straight clinical pathology residency programs and in pediatric pathology fellowship programs. Based on the experiences of 11 training programs, we have compiled a comprehensive list of pediatric topics in the areas of clinical chemistry, endocrinology, hematology, urinalysis, coagulation medicine, transfusion medicine, immunology, microbiology and virology, biochemical genetics, cytogenetics and molecular diagnostics, point of care testing, and laboratory management. This report also includes recommendations for training experiences and a list of key texts and other resources in pediatric laboratory medicine. Clinical pathologists should be trained to meet the laboratory medicine needs of pediatric patients and to assist the clinicians caring for these patients with the selection and interpretation of laboratory studies. This review helps program directors tailor their curricula to more effectively provide this training.
Enríquez, Diego; Gómez Traverso, Raúl; Szyld, Edgardo
Physicians are frequently victims of both physical and verbal violence. Specific training is required for staff so that they are able to deal with these situations. To assess the clinical management and behavior of pediatric medical residents towards a violent mother during a pediatric emergency simulation. To assess the clinical management and behavior of pediatric medical residents towards a violent mother during a pediatric emergency simulation. Sixty-eight pediatric medical residents divided into 15 groups were observed. Twelve handled the episode appropriately; only two groups asked the security staff to remove the mother from the scene (recommended behavior). Other two groups managed to remove the mother from the clinical scenario but in the midst of struggles. Out of all physicians, 54.4% (n = 37) came into physical contact with the mother, and 95.6% had not previously received guidelines on how to manage violent situations. Only a few groups managed to remove the violent mother from the scene. Unconsented physical contact with the mother was one of the most commonly observed behaviors. A lack of institutional guidelines on how to handle violent situations was detected. patient simulation, violence, workplace violence. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Ogura, H; Kubota, H; Murakami, N; Tomoda, T; Hamada, F; Matsumoto, K; Araki, K; Ogura, Y; Kurashige, T; Kitamura, I
A new oxacephem antibiotic, flomoxef sodium (FMOX, 6315-S), was studied for its clinical efficacy in the field of pediatrics. The treated patients were infants and children ranging from 6 months to 14 years old suffering from bacterial pneumonia in 3 cases, acute tonsillitis in 2 cases, acute enterocolitis in 2 cases, and cellulitis and urinary tract infection in 1 case each, a total of 9 cases. FMOX was administered at (levels of) 57-150 mg/kg in daily dose with durations of treatment ranging from 5 to 18 days. Clinical efficacies of good or excellent results were obtained in all cases (excellent in 4, good in 5). As an adverse reaction, eosinophilia was observed in 1 patient. This elevation is, however, normalized with the cessation of the treatment.
Tucquet, Belinda; Leung, Maggie
This article presents the results of a national clinical practice review conducted in Australia of music therapy services in pediatric oncology hospitals. Literature specifically related to music therapy and symptom management in pediatric oncology is reviewed. The results from a national benchmarking survey distributed to all music therapists working with children with cancer in Australian pediatric hospitals are discussed. Patient and family feedback provided from a quality improvement activity conducted at a major pediatric tertiary hospital is summarized, and considerations for future growth as a profession and further research is proposed. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
Minamitani, M; Hachimori, K; Kaneda, K
Ceftazidime (CAZ), developed by Glaxo U.K., was used in pediatric patients with acute infections, and the following results were obtained. The mean blood concentrations of CAZ in 2 children were 142, 70.3, 46.9, 35.7, 16.2, 5.82 and 2.36 micrograms/ml at 5, 15, 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours, respectively, after start of 5 minutes' intravenous injection of 20 mg/kg, with the half-life of 1.25 hours. CAZ was administered to 19 pediatric patients with acute infections. Out of them, 15 patients, i.e., 3 with acute tonsillitis, 1 with acute bronchitis, 5 with bronchopneumonia, 2 with pertussis accompanying pneumonia, 2 with Salmonella enteritis, 1 with impetigo staphylogenes and 1 with subdural abscess, were adopted for the evaluation, and the other 4 were excluded from the evaluation because of inadequate indications. The efficacy rate in these 15 cases was 93.3%. The doses used in 14 out of the evaluated 15 cases ranged from 31 to 50 mg/kg/day, the frequency of dosing was twice daily in 8 cases and 3 times daily in 7 cases. One shot intravenous injection was used in 6 cases, intravenous drip infusion in 8, and combination of these, in 1 case. The duration of treatment was 2 days in 3 cases, 3 days in 3, 4 days in 4, and 5 days in 3 cases. Patients with severe infections were generally given large doses for long-term. No clinical adverse event was observed in any case. In laboratory examinations, slight elevation of S-GPT alone was observed in 1 case. From the above results, CAZ was considered to be a highly useful drug in the field of pediatrics.
Greenberg, Rachel G; Gamel, Breck; Bloom, Diane; Bradley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Hinton, Denise; Nambiar, Sumathi; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K
Enrollment of children into pediatric clinical trials remains challenging. More effective strategies to improve recruitment of children into trials are needed. This study used in-depth qualitative interviews with parents who were approached to enroll their children in a clinical trial in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to pediatric clinical trial participation. Twenty-four parents whose children had been offered the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial were interviewed: 19 whose children had participated in at least 1 clinical trial and 5 who had declined participation in any trial. Each study aspect, from the initial explanation of the study to the end of the study, can affect the willingness of parents to consent to the proposed study and future studies. Establishing trust, appropriate timing, a transparent discussion of risks and benefits oriented to the layperson, and providing motivation for children to participate were key factors that impacted parents' decisions. In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.
Liu, Yalu; Zhang, Qi; Li, Jing; Ji, Xunda; Xu, Yu; Zhao, Peiquan
The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with ocular toxocariasis. Ocular toxocariasis was diagnosed and treated in 46 children from Shanghai and surrounding provinces. The diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis was confirmed immunologically by performing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on serum and/or intraocular fluid. All pediatric patients and their guardians completed a questionnaire concerning their cases and living habits. The mean age of onset was 6 ± 3 years. Most children (85%) resided in rural areas, and 91% of the children had contact with adult dogs or puppies. At the first visit, visual acuity (VA) was <20/200 in 36 cases, and we detected peripheral granuloma in 36 patients. In our study, the most common signs were vitritis, vitreous strands, and tractional retinal detachment. The Optomap 200Tx device detected granuloma with an 85% sensitivity, which is much higher than that of other techniques. We treated 40 cases (87%) with topical corticosteroids, while 28 patients (61%) were treated with systemic corticosteroids. Only 18 children (39%) required surgical intervention. All patients were examined and treated by the same ophthalmologists. Preschool children in China are more often affected by toxocariasis compared with other age groups. The most common signs included unilateral granuloma and ocular inflammation. In our study, clinical manifestations were severe and complicated. At the first visit, VA was <20/200 in most patients. Ocular toxocariasis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms; the diagnosis was confirmed by immunological testing. Techniques using the Optomap 200Tx device can facilitate the early detection and lead to better visual prognosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wilby, Kyle John; Black, Emily Kathleen; MacLeod, Claire; Wiens, Matthew; Lau, Tim T Y; Paiva, Maria A; Gorman, Sean
There is a need to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines in order to ensure safe and effective practices are being implemented to optimize patient care. Appraising guidelines within one therapeutic area enable recommendations for improvement during guideline creation and dissemination. Study objectives were to systematically appraise selected published guidelines used in the treatment of pediatric infectious diseases and to make recommendations for improvement throughout the development and dissemination processes. The study occurred between collaborative academic and practice-based institutions located in Canada and Qatar. A literature search identified guidelines for management of pediatric infectious diseases from 1997 to 2013. Each guideline was appraised by four independent assessors, according to the appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation II (AGREE II) instrument. Standardized domain scores were calculated for each guideline and pooled. Final endorsements for use in clinical practice were also determined. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Standardized domain scores according to the AGREE II instrument. Twenty guidelines met inclusion criteria and were appraised. Pooled domain scores were: scope and purpose (69.9), stakeholder involvement (40.1), rigour of development (47.1), clarity of presentation (73.4), applicability (23.7), editorial independence (46.7), and overall assessment (55.8). Two (10%) guidelines were recommended for use without revision, 13 (65%) guidelines were recommended with modifications, and 5 (25%) guidelines were not recommended for implementation into practice. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to good with intra-class correlations of 0.65-0.93 per guideline. The majority of appraised guidelines were moderately rated, with a 25% of guidelines not recommended for use. Strategies for improvement require the involvement of all key stakeholders (caregivers, patients
Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M
Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (<18 years) and young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p < 0.001; 13- to 17-year-olds: OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.77, p = 0.02] and calcium × phosphorus product (young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p < 0.001; 13- to 17-year-olds: OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.56, p = 0.01) than younger children. In summary, there are significant differences in clinical indices between pediatric and young adult ESRD patients.
...] Cell and Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Pediatric Populations; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Cell and Gene Therapy... regarding best practices related to cell and gene therapy clinical trials in pediatric populations, as well...
Greenberg, Rachel G; Corneli, Amy; Bradley, John; Farley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Lin, Li; Nambiar, Sumathi; Noel, Gary J; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K
Despite legislation to stimulate pediatric drug development through clinical trials, enrolling children in trials continues to be challenging. Non-investigator (those who have never served as a clinical trial investigator) providers are essential to recruitment of pediatric patients, but little is known regarding the specific barriers that limit pediatric providers from participating in and referring their patients to clinical trials. We conducted an online survey of pediatric providers from a wide variety of practice types across the United States to evaluate their attitudes and awareness of pediatric clinical trials. Using a 4-point Likert scale, providers described their perception of potential barriers to their practice serving as a site for pediatric clinical trials. Of the 136 providers surveyed, 52/136 (38%) had previously referred a pediatric patient to a trial, and only 17/136 (12%) had ever been an investigator for a pediatric trial. Lack of awareness of existing pediatric trials was a major barrier to patient referral by providers, in addition to consideration of trial risks, distance to the site, and time needed to discuss trial participation with parents. Overall, providers perceived greater challenges related to parental concerns and parent or child logistical barriers than study implementation and ethics or regulatory barriers as barriers to their practice serving as a trial site. Providers who had previously been an investigator for a pediatric trial were less likely to be concerned with potential barriers than non-investigators. Understanding the barriers that limit pediatric providers from collaboration or inhibit their participation is key to designing effective interventions to optimize pediatric trial participation.
Stratakis, Constantine A.
SYNOPSIS Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) in pediatrics is rare; it may be caused by tumors that produce corticotropin (ACTH) in the pituitary gland (this form of CS is called Cushing disease) or elsewhere (ectopic CS), tumors that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) anywhere (mostly neuroendocrine tissues), and finally adrenocortical masses that produce cortisol, such as adrenocortical cancer (ACC) or adenomas, and bilateral adrenocortical hypeprlasia (BAHs). ACC is a very rare cause of CS in children but should be excluded first, especially among younger patients. CS in children is often caused by germline or somatic mutations in an expanding list of genes with implications for the prognosis of the patients and for their families. CS should be early recognized in children; otherwise, it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. All patients with suspected CS should be referred to specialized clinical centers for work-up; these centers should have access to experienced endocrine and neurological surgeons. PMID:27241967
Visser, J Carolina; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Frijlink, Henderik W
Children frequently receive medicines that are designed for adults. The dose of commercially available products is adapted, mostly based on the child's bodyweight, thereby neglecting differences in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics parameters. If commercial products are unsuitable for administration to children or are unavailable, extemporaneous pharmacy preparations are a good alternative. For this particular population, orodispersible films (ODFs) can be a highly attractive dosage form for the oral administration of drugs. ODFs are relatively easy to prepare in a hospital setting, create dose flexibility, and may suit an individual approach, especially for patients having difficulties in swallowing tablets or being fluid restricted. In this article, various aspects related to pharmacy preparations, clinical application, and preparation of ODFs for pediatric patients are highlighted and discussed.
Mohan, Anand; Podin, Yuwana; Tai, Nickson; Chieng, Chae-Hee; Rigas, Vanessa; Machunter, Barbara; Mayo, Mark; Wong, Desiree; Chien, Su-Lin; Tan, Lee-See; Goh, Charles; Bantin, Reginal; Mijen, Alexander; Chua, Wen-Yi; Hii, King-Ching; Wong, See-Chang; Ngian, Hie-Ung; Wong, Jin-Shyan; Hashim, Jamilah; Currie, Bart J; Ooi, Mong-How
Melioidosis is a serious, and potentially fatal community-acquired infection endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia, including Sarawak, Malaysia. The disease, caused by the usually intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei, most commonly affects adults with predisposing risk factors. There are limited data on pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak. A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics. Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster. Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.
Podin, Yuwana; Tai, Nickson; Chieng, Chae-Hee; Rigas, Vanessa; Machunter, Barbara; Mayo, Mark; Wong, Desiree; Chien, Su-Lin; Tan, Lee-See; Goh, Charles; Bantin, Reginal; Mijen, Alexander; Chua, Wen-Yi; Hii, King-Ching; Wong, See-Chang; Ngian, Hie-Ung; Wong, Jin-Shyan; Hashim, Jamilah; Currie, Bart J.; Ooi, Mong-How
Background Melioidosis is a serious, and potentially fatal community-acquired infection endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia, including Sarawak, Malaysia. The disease, caused by the usually intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei, most commonly affects adults with predisposing risk factors. There are limited data on pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak. Methods A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics. Findings Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster. Conclusions Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor. PMID:28599008
Kaushal, Kanica; Kalra, Sanjay
Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM), a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011-2014) was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section "endocrinology and gender" directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders.
Kaushal, Kanica; Kalra, Sanjay
Background: Endocrine and metabolic diseases especially diabetes have become focus areas for public health professionals. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IJEM), a publication of Endocrine Society of India, is a peer-reviewed online journal, which covers technical and clinical studies related to health, ethical and social issues in field of diabetes, endocrinology and metabolism. This bibliometric analysis assesses the journal from a community health perspective. Materials and Methods: Every article published in IJEM over a period of 4 years (2011–2014) was accessed to review coverage of community health in the field of endocrinology. Results: Seven editorials, 30 review articles, 41 original articles, 12 brief communications, 20 letter to editors, 4 articles on guidelines and 2 in the section “endocrinology and gender” directly or indirectly dealt with community health aspects of endocrinology. Together these amounted to 17% of all articles published through these 4 years. There were 14 articles on general, 60 pertaining to pancreas and diabetes, 10 on thyroid, 7 on pituitary/adrenal/gonads, 21 on obesity and metabolism and 4 on parathyroid and bone; all community medicine related. Conclusion: Community health is an integral part of the modern endocrinology diabetology and metabolism practice and it received adequate journal space during the last 4 years. The coverage is broad based involving all the major endocrine disorders. PMID:25932398
Bates, Katherine E; Vetter, Victoria L; Li, Jennifer S; Cummins, Susan; Aguel, Fernando; Almond, Christopher; Dubin, Anne M; Elia, Josephine; Finkle, John; Hausner, Elizabeth A; Joseph, Francesca; Karkowsky, Abraham M; Killeen, Matthew; Lemacks, Jodi; Mathis, Lisa; McMahon, Ann W; Pinnow, Ellen; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Stockbridge, Norman L; Stockwell, Margaret; Tassinari, Melissa; Krucoff, Mitchell W
Development of pediatric medications and devices is complicated by differences in pediatric physiology and pathophysiology (both compared with adults and within the pediatric age range), small patient populations, and practical and ethical challenges to designing clinical trials. This article summarizes the discussions that occurred at a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium-sponsored Think Tank convened on December 10, 2010, where members from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies discussed important issues regarding pediatric cardiovascular safety of medications and cardiovascular devices. Pediatric drug and device development may use adult data but often requires additional preclinical and clinical testing to characterize effects on cardiac function and development. Challenges in preclinical trials include identifying appropriate animal models, clinically relevant efficacy end points, and methods to monitor cardiovascular safety. Pediatric clinical trials have different ethical concerns from adult trials, including consideration of the subjects' families. Clinical trial design in pediatrics should assess risks and benefits as well as incorporate input from families. Postmarketing surveillance, mandated by federal law, plays an important role in both drug and device safety assessment and becomes crucial in the pediatric population because of the limitations of premarketing pediatric studies. Solutions for this wide array of issues will require collaboration between academia, industry, and government as well as creativity in pediatric study design. Formation of various epidemiologic tools including registries to describe outcomes of pediatric cardiac disease and its treatment as well as cardiac effects of noncardiovascular medications, should inform preclinical and clinical development and improve benefit-risk assessments for the patients. The discussions in this article summarize areas of emerging consensus and other areas in which consensus remains elusive
Fujii, R; Meguro, H; Kim, B; Yonezawa, H; Kawaoi, T; Tajima, T; Mashiko, J; Nakazawa, S; Niino, K; Sato, H
Since the efficacy and the safety of aspoxicillin (ASPC, TA-058) have been established on adult patients and the need of ASPC use on pediatric patients was anticipated, we performed a 16 center study on the clinical utility of ASPC in pediatric patients. 1. Pharmacokinetics ASPC was intravenously administered to 45 patients at a dose of 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg by one shot. Serum concentrations of ASPC were dependent of dose levels, and maximum levels of 58.4-230.8 micrograms/ml and half-lives (beta) of 1.08-1.16 hours were observed. Urinary recovery rates were 62.7-67.2% in 6 hours. Results obtained upon drip infusions (0.5-1 hour) were similar to one shot injections. 2. Clinical results (1) Clinical effectiveness Of 318 evaluable patients including 175 boys and 143 girls, 18.2% were nurslings and 61% were young children under 4 years of age. One hundred eighty six patients from whom causative organisms were isolated were classified as A group. Among them were 5 patients suffered with sepsis, but the ASPC treatment eradicated all the bacteria but Salmonella java in 1 case. All of 4 patients with meningitis were cured and all causative organisms (3 cases with Haemophilus influenzae and 1 case with Gram-positive coccus) were eradicated. Cure rates were 90% for 130 patients with respiratory tract infection, 88.6% for 35 with urinary tract infection, 85.7% for 7 with skin soft tissue infection and 89.8% for all the A group patients. Meanwhile, no causative organisms were isolated from 132 patients (B group patients) but cure rate of 91.7% was obtained for this group. No statistical difference was observed between A and B groups. For all the patients (318), the cure rate was 90.6%. (2) Bacteriological effects Of 63 Gram-positive bacteria isolated as pathogens, 58 strains were eradicated. Of 117 Gram-negative bacterial, 101 were eradicated. The eradication rate on all 180 strains was 88.3%. Overall, ASPC showed excellent effects against Streptococcus. Among strains of
Eidlitz-Markus, Tal; Haimi-Cohen, Yishai; Zeharia, Avraham
To investigate the characteristics of vomiting in pediatric migraineurs and the relationship of vomiting with other migraine-related parameters. The cohort included children and adolescents with migraine attending a headache clinic of a tertiary pediatric medical center from 2010 to 2016. Patients were identified by a retrospective database search. Data were collected from medical files. The presence of vomiting was associated with background and headache-related parameters. The study group included 453 patients, 210 boys (46.4%) and 243 girls (53.6%), of mean age 11.3 ± 3.7 years. Vomiting was reported by 161 patients (35.5%). On comparison of patients with and without vomiting, vomiting was found to be significantly associated with male gender (54% vs 42.1%, P < .018), younger age at migraine onset (8.0 ± 3. years vs 9.6 ± 3.7 years, P < .001), younger age at clinic admission (10.5 ± 3. years vs 11.6 ± 3.6 years, P = .002), higher rate of awakening headache (64.1% vs 38.7%, P < .001), lower headache frequency (10.5 ± 10.3 headaches/month vs 15.0 ± 11.7 headaches/month, P < .001), higher rate of episodic vs chronic migraine (67% vs 58.7%, P < .001), and higher rates of paternal migraine (24.1% vs 10.1%, P < .001), migraine in both parents (9.3% vs 3.1%, P = .007), and migraine in either parent (57.5% vs 45.5%, P = .02). The higher rate of vomiting in the younger patients and the patients with awakening pain may be explained by a common underlying pathogenetic mechanism of vomiting and migraine involving autonomic nerve dysfunction/immaturity. The association of vomiting with parental migraine points to a genetic component of vomiting and migraine. It should be noted that some of the findings may simply reflect referral patterns in the tertiary clinic. © 2017 American Headache Society.
Esteva de Antonio, Isabel; Asenjo Araque, Nuria; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Fernández Rodríguez, María; Vidal Hagemeijer, Ángela; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Lucio Pérez, María Jesús; López Siguero, Juan Pedro
Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood and adolescence is a complex condition where early detection and comprehensive treatment are essential to improve quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity, and improve GD. In this position statement, the Working Group on Gender Identity and Sexual Development of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (GIDSEEN), consisting of specialists in Endocrinology, Psychology, Psychiatry, Pediatrics and Sociology, sets out recommendations for evaluation and treatment of GD in children and adolescents. Interdisciplinary management of GD should be carried out at specialized units (UTIGs), considering that any clinical intervention should follow the principles of scientific rigor, experience, ethical and deontological principles, and the necessary caution in front of chronic, aggressive, and irreversible treatments. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wasserman, Richard C.
Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly common in pediatric patient care. EMR data represent a relatively novel and rich resource for clinical research. The fact, however, that pediatric EMR data are collected for the purposes of clinical documentation and billing rather than research creates obstacles to their use in scientific investigation. Particular issues include accuracy, completeness, comparability between settings, ease of extraction, and context of recording. Although these problems can be addressed through standard strategies for dealing with partially accurate and incomplete data, a longer term solution will involve work with pediatric clinicians to improve data quality. As research becomes one of the explicit purposes for which pediatricians collect EMR data, the pediatric clinician will play a central role in future pediatric clinical research. PMID:21622040
Sunakawa, K; Ishizuka, Y; Kawai, N; Saito, N; Iwata, S; Sato, Y; Akita, H; Kusano, S; Aoki, T
Bacteriological and clinical studies on flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) were performed and the results obtained are summarized below. 1. The MIC values of FMOX against 307 clinically isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were 0.024 to 100 micrograms/ml with a peak MIC of 0.39 microgram/ml, and the MIC90 value was 1.56 micrograms/ml. The MIC90 against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 25 micrograms/ml. 2. FMOX was administered to 15 children with pediatric bacterial infections, and the effectiveness was rated excellent or good in all cases. 3. In bacteriological evaluation, 7 of 11 strains identified prior to the treatment were eliminated (63.6%). 4. As side effects, diarrhea or soft stool was found in 3 cases and eruption in 1 case. As abnormal laboratory values, eosinophilia and thrombocytosis were found in 1 case each. 5. On the intestinal bacterial flora, FMOX had a marked influence just as did other Group 4 and 5 cephems antibiotics. 6. FMOX interfered little with the coagulation system or platelet aggregation.
Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are difficult to treat and are the leading cause of brain tumor deaths in children. Katherine Warren, M.D., of the Pediatric Oncology Branch is leading a pediatric clinical trial to determine the safety and best dose of panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, for slowing or stopping the growth of DIPGs. Read more…
...) To determine the accuracy of a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative endocrinology... determined under paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative endocrinology tests or...
...) To determine the accuracy of a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative endocrinology... determined under paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative endocrinology tests or...
...) To determine the accuracy of a laboratory's response for qualitative and quantitative endocrinology... determined under paragraph (c)(2) or (c)(3) of this section. (2) For quantitative endocrinology tests or...
Spackman, T. J.
The utilization of the Lixiscope in pediatrics was investigated. The types of images that can presently be obtained are discussed along with the problems encountered. Speculative applications for the Lixiscope are also presented.
Iwai, N; Nakamura, H; Taneda, Y; Miyazu, M; Kasai, K; Watanabe, Y
Clinical evaluation in pediatrics on cefdinir (CFDN, FK482) (5% fine granules), a new oral cephem, was performed. 1. CFDN was administered to 112 pediatric patients with ages between 1 month to 13 years with various infections. Dose levels used were 3.0-8.9 mg/kg (mean 5.1 mg/kg) t.i.d. for 3-14 days (mean 6.7 days). The studied patients included 2 patients with scarlet fever, 6 with acute pharyngitis, 6 with acute rhinopharyngitis, 52 with acute purulent tonsillitis, 8 with acute bronchitis, 24 with acute pneumonia, 7 with acute urinary tract infections, 1 with acute vaginitis, and 6 with impetigo. Total doses ranged from 0.6 to 4.05 g. One hundred eleven of the 112 patients were evaluated for clinical efficacy and all the patients were evaluated for safety. 2. Clinical effects were excellent in 51 cases, good in 57, and fair in 3 with an extremely high efficacy rate of 97.3%. Efficacy rates were 100% in scarlet fever, acute pharyngitis, acute purulent tonsillitis, acute bronchitis, acute vaginitis and impetigo, and 83.3%, 95.7%, 85.7% in acute rhinopharyngitis, acute pneumonia, and acute urinary tract infections, respectively. Good clinical effects were observed regardless of diseases. 3. Causative organisms were identified in 79 cases, of which 71 were found to be monobacterial infections and 8 were found to be multi-bacterial infections. In mono-bacterial infections, clinical efficacies were 100% for those caused by Staphylococcus aureus/Streptococcus pyogenes/Streptococcus pneumoniae/beta-Streptococcus except those in A and B groups with an overall efficacy of 100% against Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and they were 89.5%, 100%, 100% for those caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Escherichia coli, respectively, with an overall efficacy of 90.3% in Gram-negative rods (GNR). In multi-bacterial infections also, a clinical efficacy of 100% was obtained. 4. Bacteriological effects were studied for 89 strains in the 79 cases. The eradication
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Endocrinology. 493.1212 Section 493.1212 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....1212 Condition: Endocrinology. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Endocrinology...
Ahn, Chang Hoon; Han, Seung-A; Kong, Young Hwa
Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed. Finally, 17 patients were enrolled and divided into a renal-origin hypertension group and a non-renal-origin hypertension group according to the underlying cause. We compared the clinical features and brain MRI findings between the 2 groups. Results The renal group included renal artery stenosis (4), acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (2), lupus nephritis (2), and acute renal failure (1); the nonrenal group included essential hypertension (4), pheochromocytoma (2), thyrotoxicosis (1), and acute promyelocytic leukemia (1). The mean systolic blood pressure of the renal group (172.5±36.9 mmHg) was higher than that of the nonrenal group (137.1±11.1 mmHg, P<0.05). Seizure was the most common neurologic symptom, especially in the renal group (P<0.05). Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), which is the most typical finding of hypertensive encephalopathy, was found predominantly in the renal group as compared with the nonrenal group (66.6% vs. 12.5%, P<0.05). Conclusion We conclude that the patients with renal-origin hypertension had a more severe clinical course than those with non-renal-origin hypertension. Furthermore, the renal-origin group was highly associated with PRES on brain MRI. PMID:29042869
Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R.; O’Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P.; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D.; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul
Background: Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Study Design: Randomized crossover study design. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch’s 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. Results: A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. Conclusion: There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Clinical Relevance: Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood. PMID
Newland, Pamela; Newland, John M; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Smith, Judith M; Oliver, Brant J
The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the feasibility of using common data elements (CDEs) to search for information on the pediatric patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and provide recommendations for future quality improvement and research in the use of CDEs for pediatric MS symptom management strategies Methods: The St. Louis Children's Hospital (SLCH), Washington University (WU) pediatrics data network was evaluated for use of CDEs identified from a database to identify variables in pediatric MS, including the key clinical features from the disease course of MS. The algorithms used were based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision, codes and text keywords to identify pediatric patients with MS from a de-identified database. Data from a coordinating center of SLCH/WU pediatrics data network, which houses inpatient and outpatient records consisting of patients (N = 498 000), were identified, and detailed information regarding the clinical course of MS were located from the text of the medical records, including medications, presence of oligoclonal bands, year of diagnosis, and diagnosis code. There were 466 pediatric patients with MS, with a few also having the comorbid diagnosis of anxiety and depression. St. Louis Children's Hospital/WU pediatrics data network is one of the largest databases in the United States of detailed data, with the ability to query and validate clinical data for research on MS. Nurses and other healthcare professionals working with pediatric MS patients will benefit from having common disease identifiers for quality improvement, research, and practice. The increased knowledge of big data from SLCH/WU pediatrics data network has the potential to provide information for intervention and decision-making that can be personalized to the pediatric MS patient.
Sun, Haihao; Vesely, Richard; Lee, Kerry Jo; Klein, Agnes; Ikima, Mutsuhiro; Mulberg, Andrew E
There is a pressing need for drug development in pediatric Crohn disease (CD). Our aim was to provide strategic approaches toward harmonization of current thinking about clinical outcome assessments (COAs) and biomarkers to facilitate drug development in pediatric CD. Scientists from the United States Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency, Health Canada, and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency of Japan had monthly teleconferences from January 2014 through May 2015. A literature review was conducted to assess the measurement properties of all existing COA tools and to evaluate the current landscape of biomarkers used in pediatric CD. Based on the findings of literature review, we reached the consensus on the strategic approaches for evaluating outcomes in pediatric CD trials. The pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index, Crohn's Disease Activity Index, and Harvey-Bradshaw's index were used in pediatric CD clinical studies. But they lack adequate measurement properties (validity, reliability, and ability to detect change of the treatment) that are required to support approval of products intended to treat pediatric CD. Biomarkers (ie, fecal lactoferrin, osteoprotegerin, and calprotectin) have shown some promise for their potential as noninvasive surrogate endpoints in CD. Lack of well-defined and reliable COAs presents a hurdle for global drug development in pediatric CD. It is essential to develop well-defined and reliable COAs that can measure meaningful clinical benefit for patients in terms of how they feel, function, and survive. Development of noninvasive biomarkers as reliable surrogate endpoints needs to be further explored.
Objectives Chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis are common conditions in cystic fibrosis (CF). Approximately 2–3% of pediatric CF patients per year have sinus disease requiring surgery. It has been well established that there is a significant negative impact on quality of life associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the non‐CF patient population. However, the impact of CRS on the pediatric CF population remains uncertain. The purpose of this article is to review the current state of outcome measures for CRS in pediatric CF patients. Data Sources PubMed and EMBASE literature review Methods PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases were searched using Boolean searches that incorporated mesh headings and plain language for quality of life, symptom evaluation, pediatric patients, and sinusitis/rhinosinusitis. Studies were included if the study primarily evaluated a pediatric Cystic Fibrosis‐Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CF‐CRS) population and the primary outcome measure was quality of life evaluation. Results The search yielded 34 unique articles. A total of 7 articles met inclusion criteria Conclusions Despite the high frequency of chronic rhinosinusitis in the pediatric CF patient population, its impact on quality of life is not well understood. Currently there is a lack of a validated disease specific quality of life instruments available to assess the impact of CRS on the pediatric CF patient population. Level of Evidence 5. PMID:29094071
Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul
Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R 2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.
Dudas, Robert A; Colbert, Jorie M; Goldstein, Seth; Barone, Michael A
Medical knowledge is one of six core competencies in medicine. Medical student assessments should be valid and reliable. We assessed the relationship between faculty and resident global assessment of pediatric medical student knowledge and performance on a standardized test in medical knowledge. Retrospective cross-sectional study of medical students on a pediatric clerkship in academic year 2008-2009 at one academic health center. Faculty and residents rated students' clinical knowledge on a 5-point Likert scale. The inter-rater reliability of clinical knowledge ratings was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for residents' ratings, faculty ratings, and both rating types combined. Convergent validity between clinical knowledge ratings and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) clinical subject examination in pediatrics was assessed with Pearson product moment correlation correction and the coefficient of the determination. There was moderate agreement for global clinical knowledge ratings by faculty and moderate agreement for ratings by residents. The agreement was also moderate when faculty and resident ratings were combined. Global ratings of clinical knowledge had high convergent validity with pediatric examination scores when students were rated by both residents and faculty. Our findings provide evidence for convergent validity of global assessment of medical students' clinical knowledge with NBME subject examination scores in pediatrics. Copyright Â© 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Reyes García, Rebeca; Jódar Gimeno, Esteban; García Martín, Antonia; Romero Muñoz, Manuel; Gómez Sáez, José Manuel; Luque Fernández, Inés; Varsavsky, Mariela; Guadalix Iglesias, Sonsoles; Cano Rodriguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María Dolores; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Cortés Berdonces, María; Fernández García, Diego; Calleja Canelas, Amparo; Palma Moya, Mercedes; Martínez Díaz-Guerra, Guillermo; Jimenez Moleón, José J; Muñoz Torres, Manuel
To provide practical recommendations for evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis associated to endocrine diseases and nutritional conditions. Members of the Bone Metabolism Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology, a methodologist, and a documentalist. Recommendations were formulated according to the GRADE system (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. A systematic search was made in MEDLINE (Pubmed), using the following terms associated to the name of each condition: AND "osteoporosis", "fractures", "bone mineral density", and "treatment". Papers in English with publication date before 18 October 2011 were included. Current evidence for each disease was reviewed by two group members, and doubts related to the review process or development of recommendations were resolved by the methodologist. Finally, recommendations were discussed in a meeting of the Working Group. The document provides evidence-based practical recommendations for evaluation and management of endocrine and nutritional diseases associated to low bone mass or an increased risk of fracture. For each disease, the associated risk of low bone mass and fragility fractures is given, recommendations for bone mass assessment are provided, and treatment options that have shown to be effective for increasing bone mass and/or to decreasing fragility fractures are listed. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Welp, K; Gieler, U
25 male patients suffering from acne vulgaris were examined by means of endocrinological, morphological, and 5 psychometric procedures in order to check the correlations and interactions between the psychological and dermatological aspects of the disease. In comparison with a control group, the acne patients did not show any striking endocrinological abnormalities; we found no correlation between the extensiveness of the lesions and the level of DHEA sulphate. All the psychological tests yielded results deviating from those achieved by the representative controls, but they were comparable with those of other patients suffering from psychosomatic diseases. The individual feeling of being "disfigured" found its expression in self-consciousness, lack of trust in his/her own body, as well as the clinically relevant difference between his/her conception of self and the ideal of self. During times of enhanced psychosocial strains subjectively assumed by the patients, the lesions increased and the patients were disturbed in social interaction and communication. Surprisingly, we did not find any correlation between the clinical status and significant psychometric findings. Our results show that in acne vulgaris, the individual experience of wanting physical attractiveness, associated with a predominantly neurotic depressive personal structure, may play a central part in a disturbed process of interaction with the environment and suggest the influence of psychic factors in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.
Bowen, Asha C.; Pang, Joselyn; Hesp, Cees; Kariminia, Azar; Sohn, Annette H.
Abstract Characterizing intraregional differences in current pediatric HIV care and treatment in Asia can guide the development of clinical practice guidelines and improve the understanding of local resource availability. The Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) Pediatric Program is a collaboration of clinics and referral hospitals studying pediatric HIV outcomes in the region. A Web-based survey to characterize clinical management practices and monitoring resources was developed and distributed to 20 sites in January 2008. Seventeen (85%) sites from 6 countries responded through April 2008; 14 (82%) were hospital-based and 16 (94%) were public facilities. Of 4050 HIV-infected children under care, 3606 (89%) were on antiretroviral treatment; 80% were on their first mono-, dual-, or triple-drug regimen and 74% were on nevirapine- or efavirenz-based regimens. Fifteen (88%) sites had consistent access to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for infant diagnosis. All sites had access to CD4 testing, with 13 (76%) routinely monitoring patients every 3–6 months; 7 (41%) sites monitored viral load at 6- to 12-month intervals. Although there is some variation in clinical practices, high levels of treatment and monitoring resources were available at these sites. The availability of PCR for early infant diagnosis positions them to implement recent WHO recommendations to treat HIV-infected children younger than 1 year of age. This information will be used to develop future research and programs to support children with HIV in Asia. PMID:20059355
Fujii, R; Meguro, H; Arimasu, O; Tagaya, M; Fujita, K; Sakata, H; Yoshioka, H; Maruyama, S; Sanae, N; Nagamatsu, I
Ceftriaxone (CTRX), a new injectable cephem antibiotic agent, was evaluated bacteriologically and clinically for its efficacy and safety in the pediatric field by a study group organized with pediatricians from all over the country. The following are a summary of the results of the evaluation. Antibacterial effects: The inhibition of growth was attained for over 90% of strains of K. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and Salmonella spp. at the concentration of 0.10 micrograms/ml and of strains of S. pneumoniae and E. coli at the concentration of 2.0 micrograms/ml. The CTRX was proved to have excellent antibacterial effects. Absorption and excretion: Thirty minutes after one shot intravenous administration with 10, 20, 40 and 50 mg/kg of CTRX, its serum levels were 73, 124, 169 and 190 micrograms/ml, respectively, a clear tendency of dose-response relationship being noticed. The serum levels decreased only gradually and stayed as high as 10 to 20 micrograms/ml even after 12 hours. The half-lives of the drug were 5.5, 6.3, 6.0 and 4.7 hours for the 4 different dose levels, respectively. Following the intravenous injection with 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, the urinary excretion rates were 55, 52 and 54%, respectively. Following the one shot intravenous administration or by the drip infusion for 30 minutes with about 50 mg/kg, CTRX levels in the cerebrospinal fluid ranged from 1 to 20.3 micrograms/ml in case of purulent meningitis (5 to 10 micrograms/ml in most cases). A total of 322 cases was enrolled. The efficacy of CTRX was evaluated in 295 cases out of the 322, excluding drop-outs and the cases which did not meet the protocols. The clinical efficacy rate was 94% of 191 cases where the causative bacteria were identified, CTRX being "excellent" in 108 cases and "effective" in 72. In the remaining 104 cases where the causative bacteria were not identified, the efficacy rate was 92%, CTRX being "excellent" in 42 cases and "effective" in 54. Furthermore, the efficacy rate was 89% of 18
Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay A; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Drenzek, Cherie; Peralta, Gianna; Cranmer, Lisa C; Anderson, Evan J; Milla, Sarah S; Abramowicz, Shelly; Yi, Jumi; Hilinski, Joseph; Rajan, Roy; Whitley, Matthew K; Gower, Verlia; Berkowitz, Frank; Shapiro, Craig A; Williams, Joseph K; Harmon, Paula; Shane, Andi L
Mycobacterium abscessus is an uncommon cause of invasive odontogenic infection. M abscessus-associated odontogenic infections occurred in a group of children after they each underwent a pulpotomy. A probable case-child was defined as a child with facial or neck swelling and biopsy-confirmed granulomatous inflammation after a pulpotomy between October 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. M abscessus was isolated by culture in confirmed case-children. Clinical presentation, management, and outcomes were determined by medical record abstraction. Among 24 children, 14 (58%) were confirmed case-children. Their median age was 7.3 years (interquartile range, 5.8-8.2 years), and the median time from pulpotomy to symptom onset was 74 days (range, 14-262 days). Clinical diagnoses included cervical lymphadenitis (24 [100%] of 24), mandibular or maxillary osteomyelitis (11 [48%] of 23), and pulmonary nodules (7 [37%] of 19). Each child had ≥1 hospitalization and a median of 2 surgeries (range, 1-6). Of the 24 children, 12 (50%) had surgery alone and 11 (46%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Nineteen of the 24 (79%) children experienced complications, including vascular access malfunction (7 [64%] of 11), high-frequency hearing loss (5 [56%] of 9), permanent tooth loss (11 [48%] of 23), facial nerve palsy (7 [29%] of 24), urticarial rash (3 [25%] of 12), elevated liver enzyme levels (1 [20%] of 5), acute kidney injury (2 [18%] of 11), incision dehiscence/fibrosis (3 [13%] of 24), and neutropenia (1 [9%] of 11). M abscessus infection was associated with significant medical morbidity and treatment complications. Unique manifestations included extranodal mandibular or maxillary osteomyelitis and pulmonary nodules. Challenges in the identification of case-children resulted from an extended incubation period and various clinical manifestations. Clinicians should consider the association between M abscessus infection and pulpotomy in children who present with subacute cervical
Singh, Divya; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Tripathi, Abhay Mani
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the eff-cacy of 'audio distraction' in anxious pediatric dental patients. Sixty children were randomly selected and equally divided into two groups of thirty each. The first group was control group (group A) and the second group was music group (group B). The dental procedure employed was extraction for both the groups. The children included in music group were allowed to hear audio presentation throughout the treatment procedure. Anxiety was measured by using Venham's picture test, pulse rate, blood pressure and oxygen saturation. 'Audio distraction' was found efficacious in alleviating anxiety of pediatric dental patients. 'Audio distraction' did decrease the anxiety in pediatric patients to a significant extent. How to cite this article: Singh D, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Tripathi AM. Stress Reduction through Audio Distraction in Anxious Pediatric Dental Patients: An Adjunctive Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):149-152.
Leite, Heitor Pons; Pinheiro Nogueira, Larissa Araújo; Teodosio, Ariane Helena Calassa
The objective of this study is to investigate the factors associated with serum phosphate concentrations in severely burned children and whether hypophosphatemia is associated with outcome. Seventy-eight children with a total body surface area of 24% (6.0-68.5) were retrospectively analyzed for serum phosphate concentrations during the first 10 days of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). The method of generalized estimating equations was used to evaluate the effect of the exposure variables for serum phosphate concentrations during the study period. Outcome variables were the probability of ICU discharge at 30 days and time on mechanical ventilation. Potential explanatory variables for clinical outcome were hypophosphatemia (serum phosphate <3.8 mg/dL for children <2 years and <3.5 mg/dL for older children), age, sex, percent total body surface area burn, inhalation injury, and severe sepsis and/or septic shock. Competing-risk analysis was applied to calculate the probability of ICU discharge at 30 days, and death was assumed as the competing event. The rate of hypophosphatemia was 79.5%. Serum phosphate concentrations were associated with C-reactive protein (coefficient: -0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.96 to -0.30; P = .001). Hypophosphatemia was independently associated with a 68% decrease in the probability of ICU discharge at 30 days (subhazard ratio: -0.32; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.53; P = .001) and an increase of 2.9 days in mechanical ventilation (coefficient: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.16, 4.66; P = .001). Serum phosphate concentrations in pediatric burn patients are associated with the magnitude of inflammatory response. Hypophosphatemia is associated with decreased probability of ICU discharge and increased time on mechanical ventilation.
Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic with unique pharmacological properties, used for a variety of indications, including psychotic and mood disorders in youth. Existing literature was reviewed to summarize experience with this agent in that population. A review of relevant literature using the key words aripiprazole, children, pediatric, all child, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and atypical antipsychotics was conducted. A total of 140 articles and book chapters were identified, of which 7 reported double-blind controlled trials with aripiprazole, 5 were meta-analyses of pooled data, 11 were open label trials, 10 were chart reviews, and 17 were case reports or case series. Although every effort was made to locate all available data, some information from posters or researchers was not available. Publication bias tends to report positive outcomes with a treatment, while negative studies are less likely to be reported. Most trials are of short duration. Treatment with aripiprazole is associated with significant reduction of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores in youth with schizophrenia, and reductions in items in the negative symptom scores at higher doses (30 mg/day). Significant reductions in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) have been demonstrated in youth with bipolar disorder. In mixed populations, reductions in the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI-S) have also been demonstrated when compared with treatment with placebo. Head-to-head comparisons are fewer in number, and overall aripiprazole compares favorably with other atypical antipsychotics (ATAs) in the populations studied. Treatment with aripiprazole is reported to have a lower incidence of weight gain, and less elevation of prolactin. At higher doses, it appears more likely to result in extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tremor. Copyright Â© 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rozenblyum, E V; Levy, D M; Allen, U; Harvey, E; Hebert, D; Silverman, E D
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpesvirus and antibodies to this virus are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, few studies have examined the relationship between CMV infection and SLE. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the prevalence of CMV infection at the time of SLE diagnosis, and 2) to determine the risk factors for CMV infection. A database review of 670 patients with pediatric SLE (pSLE) seen over a 20-year period identified seven patients with a CMV infection detected at the time of diagnosis of SLE. CMV was diagnosed by serology, urine and bronchoalveolar lavage. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, virology studies and treatments were reviewed. CMV infection was detected in seven patients at the time of SLE diagnosis (1.04% of total cohort): six were female: mean age was 13 years. Predominant features included non-Caucasian ethnicity (p < 0.01 as compared to total SLE cohort), persistent fevers on prednisone in seven and nephrotic syndrome in four. Laboratory findings included: anemia in seven, lymphopenia in five, elevated liver enzymes in four, with anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP antibodies present in six and five, respectively. Six patients received ganciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin (Cytogam®) with the continuation of prednisone during CMV treatment. Six of seven fully recovered without sequelae (one without treatment) but one patient died with active CMV infection. There were 1.04% of patients with pSLE who developed CMV infection. All were of non-Caucasian ethnicity. Persistent fever despite prednisone, with concomitant anemia, may be additional clues to CMV infection in pSLE. We suggest all patients have routine testing for CMV immunity at initial presentation of pSLE. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Arredondo, Francisco; Noble, Luis S
Following implantation, the maintenance of the pregnancy is dependent on a multitude of endocrinological events that will eventually aid in the successful growth and development of the fetus. Although the great majority of pregnant women have no pre-existing endocrine abnormalities, a small number of women can have certain endocrine alterations that could potentially lead to recurrent pregnancy losses. It is estimated that approximately 8 to 12% of all pregnancy losses are the result of endocrine factors. During the preimplantation period, the uterus undergoes important developmental changes stimulated by estrogen, and more importantly, progesterone. Progesterone is essential for the successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Therefore, disorders related to inadequate progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum are likely to affect the outcome of the pregnancy. Luteal phase deficiency, hyperprolactinemia, and polycystic ovarian syndrome are some examples. Several other endocrinological abnormalities such as thyroid disease, hypoparathyroidism, uncontrolled diabetes, and decreased ovarian reserve have been implicated as etiologic factors for recurrent pregnancy loss.
Moon, Margaret; Taylor, Holly A; McDonald, Erin L; Hughes, Mark T; Carrese, Joseph A
To describe the ethics issues that pediatric residents encounter during routine care in an outpatient teaching clinic. Qualitative study including in-depth interviews with pediatric residents and direct observation of interactions between preceptors and residents in a pediatric teaching clinic. The Johns Hopkins Harriet Lane Pediatric Primary Care Clinic, March 20 through April 11, 2006. A convenience sample including all pediatric faculty preceptors supervising at the clinic during the 19 half-day sessions that occurred during the observation period (N = 15) and the pediatric residents seeing patients during these clinic sessions (N = 50). Main Outcome Measure Field notes of preceptor-resident discussions about patient care were made and transcribed for qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis of the ethics content of cases presented by residents in this pediatric teaching clinic identified 5 themes for categorizing ethics challenges: (1) promoting the child's best interests in complex and resource-poor home and social settings; (2) managing the therapeutic alliance with parents and caregivers; (3) protecting patient privacy and confidentiality; (4) balancing the dual roles of learner and health care provider; and (5) using professional authority appropriately. Qualitative analysis of the ethics content of directly observed preceptor-resident case discussions yielded a set of themes describing the ethics challenges facing pediatric residents. The themes are somewhat different from the lists of residents' ethics experiences developed using recall or survey methods and may be very different from the ideas usually included in hospital-based ethics discussions. This may have implications for improving ethics education during residency training.
Gruber, C J; Wieser, F; Gruber, I M L; Ferlitsch, K; Gruber, D M; Huber, J C
The extragenital effects of ovarian steroids are relevant to the metabolism of skin and hair, the changes in body composition and the alterations of the subcutaneous fat distribution throughout life. When ovarian steroids become deficient or are produced in excess, different problems may arise in these tissues and some of these problems, i.e., obesity and cellulite, display gender-specific components. Therefore, a new field in endocrine research known as aesthetic endocrinology is gaining more interest. Because sex steroids are small molecules they can be transported into the skin by topical application when properly formulated. This possibility is used in aesthetic endocrinology in order to achieve local effects but to avoid systemic reactions. After reviewing the current data it collectively seems legitimate to recommend estrogens, either orally or topically, in order to counteract the aging of the skin after menopause. Although a reconstitution of juvenile skin cannot be achieved through this method, a slowing in the skin aging process seems a reasonable expectation. In contrast, the successful treatment of hair loss in women is only confirmed for the application of the non-hormonal compound minoxidil. Apart from the difficult problem of hirsutism, acne and changes in body composition offer promising therapeutical options for endocrinological methods.
Huff, Robin A; Maca, Jeff D; Puri, Mala; Seltzer, Earl W
BackgroundPediatric clinical trials commonly experience recruitment challenges including limited number of patients and investigators, inclusion/exclusion criteria that further reduce the patient pool, and a competitive research landscape created by pediatric regulatory commitments. To overcome these challenges, innovative approaches are needed.MethodsThis article explores the use of Bayesian statistics to improve pediatric trial feasibility, using pediatric Type-2 diabetes as an example. Data for six therapies approved for adults were used to perform simulations to determine the impact on pediatric trial size.ResultsWhen the number of adult patients contributing to the simulation was assumed to be the same as the number of patients to be enrolled in the pediatric trial, the pediatric trial size was reduced by 75-78% when compared with a frequentist statistical approach, but was associated with a 34-45% false-positive rate. In subsequent simulations, greater control was exerted over the false-positive rate by decreasing the contribution of the adult data. A 30-33% reduction in trial size was achieved when false-positives were held to less than 10%.ConclusionReducing the trial size through the use of Bayesian statistics would facilitate completion of pediatric trials, enabling drugs to be labeled appropriately for children.
Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop.
Cohen, P; Rogol, A D; Deal, C L; Saenger, P; Reiter, E O; Ross, J L; Chernausek, S D; Savage, M O; Wit, J M
Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field. Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience. Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on each document section. ISS is defined auxologically by a height below -2 sd score (SDS) without findings of disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 microg/kg.d) for children shorter than -2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not available. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treatment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3-0.5. The mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of 4-7 yr) is 3.5-7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (>2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other GH indications.
Malhotra, Armaan K; Amed, Shazhan; Bucevska, Marija; Bush, Kevin L; Arneja, Jugpal S
Primary evidence for the role of endocrinologic investigations in patients with adolescent gynecomastia is lacking in the current literature. The objective of this study was to assess the yield of endocrinologic investigations in the evaluation of adolescent gynecomastia to inform current practice for this common condition. A 26-year retrospective review was conducted. Data collection included patients with gynecomastia presenting to endocrinology at a quaternary children's hospital with a catchment area of 1 million. Clinical metrics, endocrinologic results, treatments, and costs were reviewed. One hundred ninety-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Ninety-eight (50 percent) were overweight or obese and 29 (15 percent) had a positive family history. The median age at onset was 11.5 years; 25 cases (13 percent) were prepubertal. A total of 15 patients (7.6 percent) were diagnosed with secondary gynecomastia (10 related to exogenous substance use). Endocrine investigations were performed in 173 patients (87 percent), with positive findings in three cases (1.7 percent). One hundred one patients were observed, with a median age at resolution of 14.6 years; 86 patients underwent surgery at a median age of 16.5 years. The case-cost of endocrine evaluation was $389. Endocrinologic workup identified secondary gynecomastia in 7.6 percent of patients, of which only 1.7 percent were evident on blood work. This workup is associated with an avoidable case-cost burden to the health care system and largely unnecessary testing for the child. Because a majority of secondary gynecomastia cases (67 percent) were drug-induced, we do not suggest routine endocrinology workup, as it adds little value. The authors' data suggest that referral for surgery is warranted if gynecomastia persists beyond 16 years of age. Diagnostic, IV.
Chang, Soo Hee; Park, Kie Young; Kang, Sung Kil; Kang, Ki Soo; Na, So Young; Yang, Hye Ran; Uhm, Ji Hyun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics. A prospective survey using the Rome III criteria was distributed to a group of parents of children with a constipation history and its control group in May 2008. The mean prevalence of constipation was 6.4%, which was similar to those in other countries. Statistically significant variables for children without constipation were that more children had a body mass index of below the 10th percentile even though they received more mother's care and ate balanced meals compared to the constipation group. Meanwhile, the constipation group frequently showed a history of constipation in infancy, picky-eating, lack of exercise, and retentive posturing. When analyzed with the Rome III criteria, the children showed greater than 60% rate of hard stools, painful stools, a history of large fecal mass in rectum, and its disappearance of constipation symptoms after passing a large stool. Our study found different approaches amongst pediatric gastroenterologists like rectal examinations, disimpaction, or drug treatment. Several factors addressed in our study can provide better guidelines for clinicians treating constipation and its future research. PMID:24015043
Chang, Soo Hee; Park, Kie Young; Kang, Sung Kil; Kang, Ki Soo; Na, So Young; Yang, Hye Ran; Uhm, Ji Hyun; Ryoo, Eell
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and management of functional constipation at pediatric gastroenterology clinics. A prospective survey using the Rome III criteria was distributed to a group of parents of children with a constipation history and its control group in May 2008. The mean prevalence of constipation was 6.4%, which was similar to those in other countries. Statistically significant variables for children without constipation were that more children had a body mass index of below the 10th percentile even though they received more mother's care and ate balanced meals compared to the constipation group. Meanwhile, the constipation group frequently showed a history of constipation in infancy, picky-eating, lack of exercise, and retentive posturing. When analyzed with the Rome III criteria, the children showed greater than 60% rate of hard stools, painful stools, a history of large fecal mass in rectum, and its disappearance of constipation symptoms after passing a large stool. Our study found different approaches amongst pediatric gastroenterologists like rectal examinations, disimpaction, or drug treatment. Several factors addressed in our study can provide better guidelines for clinicians treating constipation and its future research.
It is suggested that the endocrines hold the key position in the mechanism of resistance to all infection. In man the glands of internal secretion are divided into two counterbalancing groups. It is the function of the “katabolic” group—or glands of emergency—to react to acute infections. It is the function of the “anabolic” group—or glands of conservation of energy—to counterbalance the prolonged over-action of the katabolic group in chronic infections. In chronic pulmonary tuberculosis improvement is dependent on the predominance of the anabolic group. Clinical and biochemical evidence to this effect is brought forward. The individual ductless glands are discussed with a view to summarizing the known tests for detecting their functional variations during life. It is suggested that present methods for the determination of basal metabolic rate are inaccurate and cumbersome. An alternative biochemical method is described and illustrated, which, it is claimed, is both more simple and more accurate. Slides of the thyroid and parathyroid are shown indicating that the histological criteria of function correlate with these biochemical findings during life. The classification of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis according to the mode of reaction rather than to the extent of lung invasion, is advocated. A terminology and the clinical, endocrine, and applied biochemical tests by which the groups can be recognized are described. Emphasis is laid on the necessity for research into the hereditary and environmental factors which lead to injury of the ductless glands, and hence lowered resistance to disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19 PMID:19986232
Marceau, Lisa D; Welch, Lisa C; Pemberton, Victoria L; Pearson, Gail D
A gap in information about pediatric clinical trials exists, and parents remain uncertain about what is involved in research studies involving children. We aimed to understand parent perspectives about pediatric clinical research after viewing the online Children and Clinical Studies (CaCS) program. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted focus groups with parents and phone interviews with physicians. Three themes emerged providing approaches to improve parent's understanding of clinical research by including strategies where parents (a) hear from parents like themselves to learn about pediatric research, (b) receive general clinical research information to complement study-specific details, and (c) are provided more information about the role of healthy child volunteers. Parents found the website a valuable tool that would help them make a decision about what it means to participate in research. This tool can assist parents, providers, and researchers by connecting general information with study-specific information. © The Author(s) 2015.
Heidelbaugh, Joel J
Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more pituitary hormones due to a decline in function of the pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus, which can result in higher risks of morbidity and mortality and decreased quality of life. Although hypopituitarism is a rare condition, it commonly develops after traumatic brain injury and in the setting of functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The diagnosis is based on detailed investigation of symptoms of target endocrine gland function relative to the corresponding pituitary hormone deficiency. The clinical manifestations of hypopituitarism result from the degree of the specific hormone deficiency. A thorough and longitudinal history and physical examination, including visual field testing, are paramount. Management consists of prompt pharmacotherapy, surgery, and/or radiotherapy to restore normal endocrine function and quality of life. In most patients with anterior and posterior pituitary hormone deficiency, corresponding hormone replacement is the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis for patients with hypopituitarism depends on the manner of and age at presentation, degree and severity of hormonal impairment, and response to medical and surgical therapies. Patients with hypopituitarism require lifelong monitoring of serum hormone levels and symptoms of hormone deficiency or excess. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Kota, Sunil K.; Gayatri, Kotni; Jammula, Sruti; Kota, Siva K.; Krishna, S. V. S.; Meher, Lalit K.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.
The myometrium must remain relatively quiescent during pregnancy to accommodate growth and development of the feto-placental unit, and then must transform into a highly coordinated, strongly contracting organ at the time of labour for successful expulsion of the new born. The control of timing of labour is complex involving interactions between mother, fetus and the placenta. The timely onset of labour and delivery is an important determinant of perinatal outcome. Both preterm birth (delivery before 37 week of gestation) and post term pregnancy (pregnancy continuing beyond 42 weeks) are both associated with a significant increase in perinatal morbidity and mortality. There are multiple paracrine/autocrine events, fetal hormonal changes and overlapping maternal/fetal control mechanisms for the triggering of parturition in women. Our current article reviews the mechanisms for uterine distension and reduced contractions during pregnancy and the parturition cascade responsible for the timely and spontaneous onset of labour at term. It also discusses the mechanisms of preterm labour and post term pregnancy and the clinical implications thereof. PMID:23776853
Hari Kumar, K. V. S.; Garg, Anurag; Ajai Chandra, N. S.; Singh, S. P.; Datta, Rakesh
Voice is one of the advanced features of natural evolution that differentiates human beings from other primates. The human voice is capable of conveying the thoughts into spoken words along with a subtle emotion to the tone. This extraordinary character of the voice in expressing multiple emotions is the gift of God to the human beings and helps in effective interpersonal communication. Voice generation involves close interaction between cerebral signals and the peripheral apparatus consisting of the larynx, vocal cords, and trachea. The human voice is susceptible to the hormonal changes throughout life right from the puberty until senescence. Thyroid, gonadal and growth hormones have tremendous impact on the structure and function of the vocal apparatus. The alteration of voice is observed even in physiological states such as puberty and menstruation. Astute clinical observers make out the changes in the voice and refer the patients for endocrine evaluation. In this review, we shall discuss the hormonal influence on the voice apparatus in normal and endocrine disorders. PMID:27730065
Coordinated Care Program set forth by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs, Dr. Mendez , (January, 1992): "The Coordinated Care Program...William Walker, MC, Chief, Pediatric Clinic; CPT Kurt Allebach, MS, Administrator, Department of Pediatrics; Ms Carol Tross, Nursing Supervisor...of Defense moves to Coordinated Care with mandatory enrollment ( Mendez , 1992). The impact on this research may be an overestimation of the true level
Wolff, Margaret; Carney, Michele; Eldridge, Charles; Zaveri, Pavan; Kou, Maybelle
This article is the third in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article focuses on the skills beyond clinical training required of pediatric emergency medicine physicians including teaching, leadership, teamwork, and communication.
Pinheiro, Céline; Granja, Sara; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Faria, André M; Fragoso, Maria C B V; Lovisolo, Silvana M; Bonatelli, Murilo; Costa, Ricardo F A; Lerário, Antonio M; Almeida, Madson Q; Baltazar, Fátima; Zerbini, Maria C N
Discrimination between benign and malignant tumors is a challenging process in pediatric adrenocortical tumors. New insights in the metabolic profile of pediatric adrenocortical tumors may contribute to this distinction, predict prognosis, as well as identify new molecular targets for therapy. The aim of this work is to characterize the expression of the metabolism-related proteins MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, CD147, CD44, GLUT1 and CAIX in a series of pediatric adrenocortical tumors. A total of 50 pediatric patients presenting adrenocortical tumors, including 41 clinically benign and 9 clinically malignant tumors, were included. Protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in samples arranged in tissue microarrays. The immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in plasma membrane expression of GLUT1 in malignant lesions, when compared to benign lesions ( p =0.004), being the expression of this protein associated with shorter overall and disease-free survival ( p =0.004 and p =0.001, respectively). Although significant differences were not observed for proteins other than GLUT1, MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 were highly expressed in pediatric adrenocortical neoplasias (around 90%). GLUT1 expression was differentially expressed in pediatric adrenocortical tumors, with higher expression in clinically malignant tumors, and associated with shorter survival, suggesting a metabolic remodeling towards a hyperglycolytic phenotype in this malignancy.
Khandelwal, Deepak; Dutta, Deep; Singla, Rajiv; Surana, Vineet; Aggarwal, Sameer; Gupta, Yashdeep; Kalra, Sanjay; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Tandon, Nikhil
Background: Residents' perception on quality of endocrinology training in India is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the perceptions about endocrinology residency programs in India among current trainees as compared to practicing endocrinologists. Methods: Trainees attending a preconference workshop at the annual conference of Endocrine Society of India (ESI) were given a questionnaire designed to evaluate their perceptions on their training. These evaluated the reasons for choosing endocrinology, their experiences during residency, and career plans. Practicing endocrinologists attending ESICON with at least 5-year experience were evaluated as controls. Results: Questionnaires from 63 endocrine trainees and 78 practicing endocrinologists were analyzed. Endocrinology is perceived to be the super-specialty with the best quality of life (QOL) but fair with regard to financial remuneration. Among current trainees, 61.89%, 31.74%, and 34.91% are satisfied with training in clinical endocrinology, laboratory endocrinology, and clinical/translational research, respectively. The corresponding figures for practicing endocrinologists are 71.78%, 25.63%, and 30.75%, respectively. Exposure to national endocrinology conferences during their endocrinology residency was adequate. However, exposure to international endocrinology conferences, research publications, project writing, and grant application are limited. Laboratory endocrinology is rated as the most neglected aspect during endocrine residency. Most of the trainees want to establish their own clinical practice in the long run. Very few trainees (17.46%) wish to join the medical education services. Conclusion: There is a good perception of QOL in endocrinology in spite of average financial remuneration. There is dissatisfaction with the quality of training in laboratory endocrinology and clinical research. Very few endocrine trainees consider academics as a long-term career option in India. PMID:28459024
The development of microbial endocrinology is covered from a decidedly personal perspective. Specific focus is given to the role of microbial endocrinology in the evolutionary symbiosis between man and microbe as it relates to both health and disease. Since the first edition of this book series 5 years ago, the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis is additionally discussed. Future avenues of research are suggested.
Ricketts, Emily J; Gilbert, Donald L; Zinner, Samuel H; Mink, Jonathan W; Lipps, Tara D; Wiegand, Geoffrey A; Vierhile, Amy E; Ely, Laura J; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Woods, Douglas W
Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is an efficacious treatment with limited regional availability. As neurology and pediatric clinics are often the first point of therapeutic contact for individuals with tics, the present study assessed preliminary treatment response, acceptability, and feasibility of an abbreviated version, modified for child neurology and developmental pediatrics clinics. Fourteen youth (9-17) with Tourette disorder across 2 child neurology clinics and one developmental pediatrics clinic participated in a small case series. Clinician-rated tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) decreased from pre- to posttreatment, z = -2.0, P < .05, r = -.48, as did tic-related impairment, z = -2.4, P < .05, r = -.57. Five of the 9 completers (56%) were classified as treatment responders. Satisfaction ratings were high, and therapeutic alliance ratings were moderately high. Results provide guidance for refinement of this modified CBIT protocol. © The Author(s) 2015.
This paper describes an innovative methodology implemented in an acute care pediatric setting to build nurses' confidence and competence in questioning practice. The Growing Culture of Clinical Inquiry (GCCI) project was composed of several evidence-based strategies to attain and maintain a spirit of clinical inquiry. These strategies included PowerPoint presentations, evidence-based practice (EBP) unit champions, patient-intervention-comparison-outcome (PICO) boxes, Clinical Inquiry Posters, summaries of evidence (SOE), layman's SOE, medical librarian in-services, and journal clubs. After 1 year of implementation, the GCCI project was evaluated and found to be a promising methodology for fostering a culture of inquiry among pediatric nurses. © 2014.
Michihata, Nobuaki; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo
Pediatricians generally need to treat adult patients who require long-term care for pediatric diseases. However, little is known about the characteristics of adult patients in pediatric wards. Using a national inpatient database, the aim of this study was to determine the clinical details of adult patients admitted to pediatric wards in Japanese acute-care hospitals. We extracted all inpatients aged ≥19 years who were admitted to pediatric departments in Japan from April 2012 to March 2013. We examined the patients' main diagnoses and the use of life-supporting home medical devices. Of 417,352 patients admitted to pediatric wards during the study period, we identified 4,729 (1.1%) adult patients. The major diagnoses of the adult patients were malignancy, congenital heart disease, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy. More than 35% of the patients with cerebral palsy had a tracheostomy tube, gastrostomy tube, home central venous alimentation, or home respirator. More than 20% of patients aged ≥40 years in pediatric wards had adult diseases, including ischemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and adult malignancy. Many adult patients in pediatric wards had adult diseases. It is essential to establish a disease-oriented support system for adults with chronic conditions that originated in their childhood. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Very few high quality studies on pediatric reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology analytes have been performed. Three recent prospective community-based projects utilising blood samples from healthy children in Sweden, Denmark and Canada have substantially improved the situation. The Swedish survey included 701 healthy children. Reference intervals for general clinical chemistry and hematology were defined.
Bauer, Nerissa S.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Carroll, Aaron E.; Downs, Stephen M.
An autism module was added to an existing computer decision support system (CDSS) to facilitate adherence to recommended guidelines for screening for autism spectrum disorders in primary care pediatric clinics. User satisfaction was assessed by survey and informal feedback at monthly meetings between clinical staff and the software team. To assess…
Bimstein, E; Mayes, A; Mittal, Hc
To evaluate dental students' perspectives about pre- and post-doctoral pediatric dentistry education venues. Surveys with visual analog scales (from 0 to 100) measuring the educational contribution of pediatric dentistry venues were conducted. The pre-doctoral venues included a 3rd year university twilight clinic (UTC), a 3rd year urban community based clinic (CBC) and 4th year mobile clinics (MCs). The post-doctoral venues included treatment of children under general anesthesia, oral sedations, a regular clinic (no sedations), seminars, journal club, case conferences and studding for the American Board of Pediatric Dentistry. Analyses of variance between the scores indicated that the 3rd year CBC score (68.2 ± 4.5) was statistically significant higher (p= .007) than the one for the 3rd year UTC score (44.9 ± 6.1). The 4th year students' MCs score (61.4 ± 4.0) was statistically significant higher than their retrospective scores for the 3rd year CBC (56.4 ± 4.4) or UTC (42.2 ± 4.9) scores (p= .03 and .004 respectively). Among the didactic or clinical post-doctoral venues, the regular clinic and the seminars received the highest scores (84.3 ± 1.7 and 71.6 ± 2.8 respectively). pre-doctoral community-based clinical education and post-doctoral regular university based clinic are considered by students to provide the main contribution to pediatric dental education.
The discovery of regulatory peptides common to the nervous and the endocrine systems (brain, gut, and skin) has brought about a revolution in our concepts of endocrinology and neurology. We are beginning to understand some of the complex interrelationships between soma and psyche that might, someday, be important for an integrated treatment of diseases. Examples of the actions of certain peptides in the periphery and in the central nervous system are given, and their biosynthesis and molecular anatomy as carriers for information are discussed.
Traub, Flora; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée
Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and associated with risk for poor health outcomes in childhood and throughout the life course. Empirical literature on resilience over the past 40 years has identified protective factors for traumatized children that improve health outcomes. Despite these empirical investigations of resilience, there is limited integration of these findings into proactive strategies to mitigate the impact of adverse childhood experiences. We review the state of resilience research, with a focus on recent work, as it pertains to protecting children from the health impacts of early adversity. We identify and document evidence for 5 modifiable resilience factors to improve children's long- and short-term health outcomes, including fostering positive appraisal styles in children and bolstering executive function, improving parenting, supporting maternal mental health, teaching parents the importance of good self-care skills and consistent household routines, and offering anticipatory guidance about the impact of trauma on children. We conclude with 10 recommendations for pediatric practitioners to leverage the identified modifiable resilience factors to help children withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity. Taken together, these recommendations constitute a blueprint for a trauma-informed medical home. Building resilience in pediatric patients offers an opportunity to improve the health and well-being of the next generation, enhance national productivity, and reduce spending on health care for chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of two seemingly disparate fields, microbiology and neurobiology, and is based on the shared presence of neurochemicals that are exactly the same in host as well as in the microorganism. The ability of microorganisms to not only respond to, but also produce, many of the same neurochemicals that are produced by the host, such as during periods of stress, has led to the introduction of this evolutionary-based mechanism which has a role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The consideration of microbial endocrinology-based mechanisms has demonstrated, for example, that the prevalent use of catecholamine-based synthetic drugs in the clinical setting contributes to the formation of biofilms in indwelling medical devices. Production of neurochemicals by microorganisms most often employs the same biosynthetic pathways as those utilized by the host, indicating that acquisition of host neurochemical-based signaling system in the host may have been acquired due to lateral gene transfer from microorganisms. That both host and microorganism produce and respond to the very same neurochemicals means that there is bidirectionality contained with the theoretical underpinnings of microbial endocrinology. This can be seen in the role of microbial endocrinology in the microbiota-gut-brain axis and its relevance to infectious disease. Such shared pathways argue for a role of microorganism-neurochemical interactions in infectious disease.
Narus, Scott P.; Srivastava, Rajendu; Gouripeddi, Ramkiran; Livne, Oren E.; Mo, Peter; Bickel, Jonathan P.; de Regt, David; Hales, Joseph W.; Kirkendall, Eric; Stepanek, Richard L.; Toth, Jamie; Keren, Ron
Integrating clinical data with administrative data across disparate electronic medical record systems will help improve the internal and external validity of comparative effectiveness research. The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) currently collects administrative information from 43 pediatric hospital members of the Child Health Corporation of America (CHCA). Members of the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) network have partnered with CHCA and the University of Utah Biomedical Informatics Core to create an enhanced version of PHIS that includes clinical data. A specialized version of a data federation architecture from the University of Utah (“FURTHeR”) is being developed to integrate the clinical data from the member hospitals into a common repository (“PHIS+”) that is joined with the existing administrative data. We report here on our process for the first phase of federating lab data, and present initial results. PMID:22195159
Lombardi, Donald; Squires, Liza; Sjostedt, Philip; Eichler, Irmgard; Turner, Mark A; Thompson, Charles
Obtaining assent from children participating in clinical trials acknowledges autonomy and developmental ability to contribute to the consent process. This critical step in pediatric drug development remains poorly understood, with significant room for improving the clarity, efficiency, and implementation of the assent process. Beyond ethical necessity of informing children about their treatment, the assent process provides the advantages of including children in discussions about their diagnosis and treatment-allowing greater understanding of interventions included in the study. A formalized assent process acknowledges the child as a volunteer and provides a forum for questions and feedback. Legal, cultural, and social differences have historically prevented the development of clear, concise, and accessible materials to ensure children understand the clinical trial design. Published guidelines on obtaining pediatric assent are vague, with many decisions left to local institutional review boards and ethics committees, underscoring the need for collaboratively designed standards. To address this need, 2 surveys were conducted to quantify perspectives on assent in pediatric clinical trials. Two digital surveys were circulated in the United States and internationally (October 2014 to January 2015). The first survey targeted children, parents, and/or caregivers. The second polled clinical trial professionals on their organizations' experience and policies regarding pediatric assent. Forty-five respondents completed the child and parent/caregiver survey; 57 respondents completed the industry survey. Respondents from both surveys detailed experiences with clinical trials and the impediments to securing assent, offering potential solutions to attaining assent in pediatric patients. An important opportunity exists for standardized practices and tools to ensure pediatric patients make well-informed decisions regarding their participation in clinical trials, using materials
Davidge-Pitts, Caroline; Nippoldt, Todd B; Danoff, Ann; Radziejewski, Lauren; Natt, Neena
The transgender population continues to face challenges in accessing appropriate health care. Adequate training of endocrinologists in this area is a priority. Assess the status of transgender health care education in US endocrinology fellowship training programs and assess knowledge and practice of transgender health among practicing US endocrinologists. Mayo Clinic and the Endocrine Society developed and administered a Web-based anonymous survey to 104 endocrinology fellowship program directors (PDs; members of the Association of Program Directors in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism) and 6992 US medical doctor members of Endocrine Society. There were 54 total responses from 104 PDs (51.9%). Thirty-five of these 54 programs (72.2%) provide teaching on transgender health topics; however, 93.8% respondents indicated that fellowship training in this area is important. Barriers to provision of education included lack of faculty interest or experience. The most desired strategies to increase transgender-specific content included online training modules for trainees and faculty. Of 411 practicing clinician responders, almost 80% have treated a transgender patient, but 80.6% have never received training on care of transgender patients. Clinicians were very or somewhat confident in terms of definitions (77.1%), taking a history (63.3%), and prescribing hormones (64.8%); however, low confidence was reported outside of the hormonal realm. The most requested methods of education included online training modules and presentation of transgender topics at meetings. Confidence and competence in transgender health needs to increase among endocrinologists. Strategies include the development of online training modules, expansion of formal transgender curricula in fellowship programs, and presentations at national and international meetings. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Endocrinology. 493.843 Section 493.843 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.843 Standard; Endocrinology. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80 percent of...
Yu, Ashley M; Balasubramanaiam, Bannuya; Offringa, Martin; Kelly, Lauren E
In pediatric medicine, the usual treatment received by children ("standard of care") varies across centers. Evaluations of new treatments often compare to the existing "standard of care" to determine if a treatment is more effective, has a better safety profile, or costs less. The objective of our study was to evaluate intervention and "standard of care" control arms reported in published pediatric clinical trials. Pediatric clinical trials, published in 2014, reporting the use of a "standard of care" control arm were included. Duplicate assessment of reporting completeness was done using the 12-item TIDieR (Template for Intervention Description and Replication) checklist for both the "standard of care" control arms and intervention arms within the same published study. Following screening, 214 pediatric trials in diverse therapeutic areas were included. Several different terms were used to describe "standard of care." There was a significant difference between the mean reported TIDieR checklist items of "standard of care" control arms (5.81 (SD 2.13) and intervention arms (8.45 (SD 1.39, p < 0.0001). Reporting of intervention and "standard of care" control arms in pediatric clinical trials should be improved as current "standard of care" reporting deficiencies limit reproducibility of research and may ultimately contribute to research waste.
Thompson, Eric M; Gururangan, Sridharan; Grant, Gerald; Mitchell, Duane; Sampson, John H
Pediatric surgical trials are rare and the impact of such trials on the institutions in which they are conducted is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and financial impact of The Re-MATCH trial, a Phase I clinical trial requiring the biopsy or resection of recurrent medulloblastoma or PNET for enrollment. Inpatient financial and clinical volume information was collected during the 3 years of trial enrollment and the years preceding and following it. The primary endpoints were the difference in direct contribution margin (DCM), or net gain, of study and non-study patients and the difference in surgical volume during the study and non-study periods. The trial enrolled 18 patients; 15 had surgery at the sponsor institution and three had surgery at their home institution, then transferred tumor material to the sponsor institution. There were no differences between the two groups for potentially confounding variables such as neurosurgical procedure work relative value units (P = 0.13) or insurance provider (P = 0.26). There was no difference between the inpatient DCM per case for the institution for non-study patients (mean ± SD, $9039 ± $28,549) and study patients ($14,332 ± $20,231) (P = 0.4819). During the non-study period, there were a mean of 2.78 ± 1.65 pediatric brain tumor resections per month compared to 3.34 ± 1.66 cases per month during the study period, a 17% increase. When the 15 study patients were excluded, there were 2.97 ± 1.64 cases per month, a 7% increase. However, this increase in total case volume including study and non-study patients was not significant (P = 0.121). Phase I investigator-initiated surgically-based clinical trials may increase institutional surgical volume without imposing a financial burden. Finances are unlikely to be a barrier for researchers negotiating for resources to conduct such trials.
Maslow, Gary R; Banny, Adrienne; Pollock, McLean; Stefureac, Kristen; Rosa, Kendra; Walter, Barbara Keith; Hobbs Knutson, Katherine; Lucas, Joseph; Heilbron, Nicole
An estimated 1 in 5 children in the United States meet criteria for a diagnosable mental disorder, yet fewer than 20% receive mental health services. Unmet need for psychiatric treatment may contribute to patterns of increasing use of the emergency department. This article describes an integrated pediatric evaluation center designed to prevent the need for treatment in emergency settings by increasing access to timely and appropriate care for emergent and critical mental health needs. Preliminary results showed that the center provided rapid access to assessment and treatment services for children and adolescents presenting with a wide range of psychiatric concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sun, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Zai-De; Liao, Xiao-Feng; Yuan, Ji-Yan
AIM: To investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) count in pediatric malignant liver tumor and their clinical significances. METHODS: Fourteen children with malignant liver tumors including seven hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), five hepatoblastomas, one malignant mesenchymoma and one rhabdomyosarcoma were studied. Twelve adult HCC samples served as control group. All samples were examined with streptavidin-biotin peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemical staining for VEGF expression and MVD count. RESULTS: VEGF positive expression in all pediatric malignant liver tumors was significantly higher than that in adult HCC (0.4971±0.14 vs 0.4027±0.03, P<0.05). VEGF expression in pediatric HCC group was also markedly higher than that in adult HCC group (0.5665±0.10 vs 0.4027±0.03, P<0.01) and pediatric non-HCC group (0.5665±0.10 vs 0.4276±0.15, P<0.05). The mean value of MVD in pediatric malignant liver tumors was significantly higher than that in adult HCC (33.66±12.24 vs 26.52±4.38, P<0.05). Furthermore, MVD in pediatric HCC group was significantly higher compared to that in adult HCC group (36.94±9.28 vs 26.52±4.38, P<0.05), but there was no significant difference compared to the pediatric non-HCC group (36.94±9.28 vs 30.37±14.61, P>0.05). All 7 children in HCC group died within 2 years, whereas the prognosis in pediatric non-HCC group was better, in which two patients survived more than 5 years. CONCLUSION: Children with malignant liver tumors, especially with HCC, may have extensive angiogenesis that induces a rapid tumor growth and leads to a poor prognosis. PMID:15655835
Mittiga, Matthew R; Nagler, Joshua; Eldridge, Charles D; Ishimine, Paul; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; McAneney, Constance M
This article is the third in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article focuses on the clinical aspects of fellowship training including the impact of the clinical environment, modalities for teaching and evaluation, and threats and opportunities in clinical education.
Natarajan, Vivek; Bosch, Patrick; Dede, Ozgur; Deeney, Vincent; Mendelson, Stephen; Ward, Timothy; Brooks, Maria; Kenkre, Tanya; Roach, James
The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations specifically mandates the dual interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs by a radiologist in addition to the orthopaedist in all hospital-based orthopaedic clinics. Previous studies have questioned the utility of this practice. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the clinical significance of having the radiologist provide a second interpretation in a hospital-based pediatric orthopaedic clinic. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who had plain radiographs obtained in the pediatric orthopaedic clinic at an academic children's hospital over a 4-month period. For each radiographic series, the orthopaedist's note and the radiology interpretation were reviewed and a determination was made of whether the radiology read provided new clinically useful information and/or a new diagnosis, whether it recommended further imaging, or if it missed a diagnosis that was reflected in the orthopaedist's note. The hospital charges associated with the radiology read for each study were also quantified. The charts of 1570 consecutive clinic patients who were seen in the pediatric orthopaedic clinic from January to April, 2012 were reviewed. There were 2509 radiographic studies performed, of which 2264 had both a documented orthopaedist's note and radiologist's read. The radiologist's interpretation added new, clinically important information in 1.0% (23/2264) of these studies. In 1.7% (38/2264) of the studies, it was determined that the radiologist missed the diagnosis or clinically important information that could affect treatment. The total amount of the professional fees charged for the radiologists' interpretations was $87,362. On average, the hospital charges for each occurrence in which the radiologist's read provided an additional diagnosis or clinically important information beyond the orthopaedist's note were $3798. The results of this study suggest that eliminating the
Slusser, Wendy; Whitley, Margaret; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Kim, Sion L; Ponturo, Don
Telemedicine has been shown to be effective for rural populations, but little is reported on pediatric obesity care via telemedicine in urban settings. This study aims to assess feasibility and acceptability of multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care via telemedicine within the same metropolitan area in terms of information technology, coordination, patient care, and clinical outcomes. All project notes and communications were reviewed to extract key lessons from implementation. Patient and Provider Satisfaction Questionnaires were conducted to assess overall satisfaction; baseline and follow-up information were collected from chart reviews to evaluate clinical outcomes. Based on the questionnaires, 93% of responding patients (n = 28) and 88.3% of referring providers (n = 17) felt satisfied with the appointment. Chart review indicated a trend for decreased or stabilized body mass index and blood pressure (n = 32). Implementation of telemedicine for tertiary multidisciplinary pediatric obesity care in urban settings is both feasible and acceptable to patients and health care providers. © The Author(s) 2015.
Li, Jennifer S; Eisenstein, Eric L; Grabowski, Henry G; Reid, Elizabeth D; Mangum, Barry; Schulman, Kevin A; Goldsmith, John V; Murphy, M Dianne; Califf, Robert M; Benjamin, Daniel K
In 1997, Congress authorized the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to grant 6-month extensions of marketing rights through the Pediatric Exclusivity Program if industry sponsors complete FDA-requested pediatric trials. The program has been praised for creating incentives for studies in children and has been criticized as a "windfall" to the innovator drug industry. This critique has been a substantial part of congressional debate on the program, which is due to expire in 2007. To quantify the economic return to industry for completing pediatric exclusivity trials. A cohort study of programs conducted for pediatric exclusivity. Nine drugs that were granted pediatric exclusivity were selected. From the final study reports submitted to the FDA (2002-2004), key elements of the clinical trial design and study operations were obtained, and the cost of performing each study was estimated and converted into estimates of after-tax cash outflows. Three-year market sales were obtained and converted into estimates of after-tax cash inflows based on 6 months of additional market protection. Net economic return (cash inflows minus outflows) and net return-to-costs ratio (net economic return divided by cash outflows) for each product were then calculated. Net economic return and net return-to-cost ratio. The indications studied reflect a broad representation of the program: asthma, tumors, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, hypertension, depression/generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux, bacterial infection, and bone mineralization. The distribution of net economic return for 6 months of exclusivity varied substantially among products (net economic return ranged from -$8.9 million to $507.9 million and net return-to-cost ratio ranged from -0.68 to 73.63). The economic return for pediatric exclusivity is variable. As an incentive to complete much-needed clinical trials in children, pediatric exclusivity can generate lucrative returns or
Li, Jennifer S.; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Grabowski, Henry G.; Reid, Elizabeth D.; Mangum, Barry; Schulman, Kevin A.; Goldsmith, John V.; Murphy, M. Dianne; Califf, Robert M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.
Context In 1997, Congress authorized the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to grant 6 month extensions of marketing rights through the Pediatric Exclusivity program if industry sponsors complete FDA-requested pediatric trials. The program has been praised for creating incentives for studies in children; it has been criticized as a “windfall” to the innovator drug industry. This critique has been a substantial part of Congressional debate on the program, which is due to sunset in 2007. Objective To quantify the economic return to industry for completing Pediatric Exclusivity. Design Cohort study of programs conducted for Pediatric Exclusivity. We selected 9 drugs that were granted Pediatric Exclusivity. From the final study reports submitted to FDA, we obtained key elements of the clinical trial design and study operations. We estimated the cost of performing each study and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash outflows. We obtained 3-year market sales and converted these into estimates of after-tax cash inflows based upon 6 months of additional market protection. We then calculated the net economic return (cash inflows less outflows) and ratio net return to costs (net economic return divided by cash outflows) for each product. Main Outcome Measures Net economic return and ratio of net return to cost. Results The indications studied reflected a broad representation of the program: asthma, tumors, attention deficit disorder, hypertension, depression/generalized anxiety disorder, diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux, bacterial infection, and bone mineralization. The distribution of net economic return for 6 months of exclusivity varied substantially among products [net return ranged from (−)$8.9 million to (+)$507.9 million; ratio of return to cost ranged from −0.68 to 73.6] Conclusions The economic return for pediatric exclusivity is highly variable. Pediatric Exclusivity, as an incentive to complete much-needed clinical trials in children, can
Phillips, Dawn; Leiro, Beth
Pediatric rare diseases present unique challenges in clinical trial design and in selection of clinical outcome assessments (COAs) used to support claims in medical product labeling. COAs that discriminate level of function relative to a normative sample are particularly important in the pediatric rare disease setting because the literature is often void of natural history data. Pediatric rare disease clinical trials will often include a wide age distribution. Gross and fine motor skills, communication, cognition, and independence in activities of daily living vary by age, and it may be difficult to distinguish between treatment effect and change due to developmental maturation. Asfotase alfa was granted breakthrough therapy designation and subsequently approved for the treatment of hypophosphatasia (HPP; a genetic metabolic musculoskeletal disorder) and is used in this discussion to illustrate COA selection in a pediatric rare disease. Multiple COAs with normative data in HPP clinical trials for asfotase alfa are presented. The assessment instruments included the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, handheld dynamometry, the 6-minute walk test, and the Modified Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment-Gait scale. Multiple end points were required to adequately capture the impact of asfotase alfa treatment on the multiple systems affected in HPP. These data illustrate the importance of using multiple COAs that provide normative data and to use COAs early in the drug development process for rare pediatric disease. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We hypothesized that there has been an increase in the number of successful litigation claims in pediatric surgery in England. Our aim was to report the incidence, causes, and costs of clinical negligence claims against the National Health Service (NHS) in relation to pediatric surgery. We queried the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) on litigation claims among children undergoing pediatric surgery in England (2004-2012). We decided a priori to only examine closed cases (decision and payment made). Data included year of claim, year of payment of claim, payment per claim, paid-to-closed ratio, and severity of outcome of clinical incident. Out of 112 clinical negligence claims in pediatric surgery, 93 (83%) were finalized-73 (65%) were settled and damages paid to the claimant and 20 (18%) were closed with no payment, and 19 (17%) remain open. The median payment was £13,537 (600-500,000) and median total cost borne by NHSLA was £31,445 (600-730,202). Claims were lodged at a median interval of 2 (0-13) years from time of occurrence with 55 (75%) cases being settled within the 3 years of being received. The commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications (n=20, 28%), delayed treatment (n=16, 22%), and/or diagnosis (n=14, 19%). Out of 73, 17 (23%) closed claims resulted in case fatality. Conclusion: Two-thirds of all claims in pediatric surgery resulted in payment to claimant, and the commonest reasons for claims were postoperative complications, delayed treatment, and/or diagnosis. Nearly a quarter of successful claims were in cases where negligence resulted in case fatality. Pediatric surgeons should be aware of common diagnostic and treatment shortfalls as high-risk areas of increased susceptibility to clinical negligence claims. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mavromati, Maria; Philippe, Jacques
The European Society of Endocrinology has published this year a series of guidelines for hypoparathyroidism, the management of adrenal incidentalomas as well as for the long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL). For hypoparathyroidism, guidelines insist on screening for chronic complications and monitoring treatment with calcium and vitamin D; the use of recombinant PTH may provide new opportunities for the future. Concerning adrenal incidentalomas, the panel of the guidelines primarily recommends non contrast CT for the evaluation of the risk of malignancy. Patients operated on for a PPGL, should be offered an individualized follow-up plan based on assessment of their risk of tumor recurrence.
Ledesma-Montes, C; Salcido-García, J F; Hernández-Flores, F; Garcés-Ortíz, M
The findings of a clinical-radiological review of 467 children attending the Oral Diagnosis Clinic of the Facultad de Odontología, UNAM, Mexico, are presented. All patients were clinically reviewed, clinical history was taken, and an orthopantomogram obtained by last year dentistry students. Patients and radiographs were then reviewed by the panel and all alterations in teeth, soft tissues and bone were recorded. Clinical and/or radiographic alterations were found in 132 (28.26%) children. The main alterations were developmental (75%) and inflammatory/infectious and traumatic (6.06% each). The most common entities were: supernumeraries (30.77%); hypodontia (29.7%); osteosclerotic lesions and microdontia (4.4% each). The data on the frequency of alterations in the pediatric population attending at our institution reinforce the importance of this kind of study in efforts to improve the quality of stomatologic services in the pediatric population.
Yang, Hye Ran; Yi, Dae Yong; Choi, Hyoung Soo
This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of health check-ups in children in detecting metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by comparing the pediatric health promotion center with the pediatric obesity clinic. Children who visited a pediatric health promotion center (n=218) or a pediatric obesity clinic (n=178) were included. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography were evaluated. Two different criteria were applied to diagnose metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the 2 units was 3.2%-3.7% in a pediatric health promotion center and 23%-33.2% in a pediatric obesity clinic. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of each component of metabolic syndrome between the 2 units including abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose (P<0.05). The prevalence of NAFLD was 8.7% and 71.9% in the 2 units according to liver enzymes and 5.9% and 61.8% according to ultrasonography (P<0.05). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD was higher among patients visiting the obesity clinic targeting obese children than that among patients visiting the health promotion center offering routine check-ups. An obesity-oriented approach is required to prevent obesity-related health problems in children.
Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jaimes-García, Yanet; López-Martínez, Briceida
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct type of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the retinoid acid receptor α (RARA) gene on chromosome 17. APL is a relatively rare blood disease that is highly curable with current treatment strategies; however, patient outcomes are heterogeneous in countries with limited resources. Promyelocytic leukemia accounts for 20-25% of all AML cases in Latin American countries. We conducted a study from July 2007 to July 2012 and applied the IC-APL2006 protocol. This case study reports the results from eleven patients with AML M3 (five males and six females). In all cases, the diagnoses were made by aspirating bone marrow and evaluating the t(15:17) or t(11:17) transcript. In eight cases, the molecular biology-based diagnostics for the PLM-RARa transcript were positive, and they were negative in two cases. One patient was positive for the PLZF-RARa transcript. The mean WBC at the time of diagnosis was 10.1 x 10(9)/L, and the mean platelet count was 17.1 x 10(9)/L. The mean percentage of abnormal promyelocytes in the bone marrow aspirates was 68%. Of the eleven patients, four presented with disseminated intravascular coagulation. All of the patients began treatment with transretinoic acid (ATRA) (45 mg/m(2)/day), which led to 4 cases of ATRA syndrome. There were 2 relapses, and the patient died in one case. The remaining ten patients were alive after the median follow-up period of 33.6 months (range from 11 to 60 months). The authors report on a series of cases involving pediatric patients with AML M3 seen at a single institution; the patients were stratified and treated with a standard protocol to obtain satisfactory results. Although the number of patients is limited, the health outcomes are relevant. To our knowledge, this is the first series of pediatric APL patients in Mexico who were treated with the IC-APL2006 protocol.
Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R
Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.
Kelly, Aaron S.; Fox, Claudia K.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Gross, Amy C.; Ryder, Justin R.
Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices in regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to: 1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine; 2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials; and 3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial endpoint selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy, and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity. PMID:27113643
The goal of our research is to establish how nutritional support, enteral versus parenteral, affects gut function and susceptibility to disease in early development. We and others have used the neonatal pig to establish unique models of clinically relevant problems in pediatric gastroenterology, esp...
Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.
This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…
A clinical trial for pediatric patients will test the safety and efficacy of enoblituzumab in solid tumors that express a specific protein, including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, Wilms tumor, or desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Read more...
Shaikh, Ulfat; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Romano, Patrick
Objective: To determine health care provider needs related to pediatric obesity management in rural California and to explore strategies to improve care through telehealth. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of health care providers who treated children and adolescents at 41 rural clinics with existing telehealth connectivity. Results: Most of the…
Leu, Hsin-I; Chang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chou, Li-Fang; Jeng, Mei-Jy
The shortage and maldistribution of pediatricians affected after-hours pediatric services, especially in rural areas. Our study aimed to examine the urban-rural disparity in geographical and temporal availability of the pediatrician workforce in Taiwan by analyzing opening time schedules of all pediatric clinics throughout the country. The opening time schedules of nonhospital pediatric clinics were downloaded from the website of the National Health Insurance Administration in Taiwan for analysis. The geographical and temporal availability of pediatric clinics was calculated and stratified by urbanization level and opening time, which was divided into daytime and evening sessions over 1 week. Each of 368 towns in Taiwan was also regarded as a unit of measurement to estimate the local availability of at least one pediatric clinic open in after-hours sessions. Among 1483 nonhospital pediatric clinics in Taiwan, the overwhelming majority were situated in urban (65.8%) and suburban (30.6%) areas. On average, a pediatric clinic provided 16.3 (standard deviation=3.04) sessions of services per week. One-third (34.7%, n=50) of 144 suburban towns and over three-fourths (77.4%, n=120) of 155 rural towns had no pediatric clinic. Most pediatric clinics remained open on weekday evenings (91.1%) and during Saturday daytime (91.8%). The percentage of open clinics gradually decreased over the weekend: Saturday evening (58.1%), Sunday daytime (33.4%), and Sunday evening (19.4%). Rural pediatric clinics remained closed mostly on weekends. On Sunday evenings, pediatric clinics were open only in 5.2% of rural towns, with a decline of 77.1%, whereas they were open in 78.3% of urban towns, with a decline of 18.2%. Pediatric clinics in Taiwan were unevenly distributed between urban and rural areas. The disparity of pediatric services became more obvious at weekends. The consequences of undersupplied rural pediatric care deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by
Hsu, Eric Y; Schwend, Richard M; Julia, Leamon
Many primary care physicians believe that there are too few pediatric orthopaedic specialists available to meet their patients' needs. However, a recent survey by the Practice Management Committee of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America found that new referrals were often for cases that could have been managed by primary care practitioners. We wished to determine how many new referral cases seen by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons are in fact conditions that can be readily managed by a primary care physician should he/she chose to do so. We prospectively studied all new referrals to our hospital-based orthopaedic clinic during August 2010. Each new referral was evaluated for whether it met the American Board of Pediatrics criteria for being a condition that could be managed by a primary care pediatrician. Each referral was also evaluated for whether it met the American Academy of Pediatrics Surgery Advisory Panel guidelines recommending referral to an orthopaedic specialist, regardless of whether it is for general orthopaedics or pediatric orthopaedics. On the basis of these criteria, we classified conditions as either a condition manageable by primary care physicians or a condition that should be referred to an orthopaedic surgeon or a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon. We used these guidelines not to identify diagnosis that primary care physicians should treat but, rather, to compare the guideline-delineated referrals with the actual referrals our specialty pediatric orthopaedic clinic received over a period of 1 month. A total of 529 new patient referrals were seen during August 2010. A total of 246 (47%) were considered primary care conditions and 283 (53%) orthopaedic specialty conditions. The most common primary care condition was a nondisplaced phalanx fracture (25/246, 10.1%) and the most common specialty condition was a displaced single-bone upper extremity fracture needing reduction (36/283, 13%). Only 77 (14.6%) of the total cases met the strict
Singer, Kanakadurga; Subbaiah, Perla; Hutchinson, Raymond; Odetola, Folafoluwa; Shanley, Thomas P
To describe the clinical course, resource use, and mortality of patients with leukemia admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with sepsis and nonsepsis diagnoses over a 10-yr period. Retrospective analysis. Tertiary medical-surgical pediatric intensive care unit at C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, University of Michigan. All patients with leukemia admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008. None; chart review. Clinical course was characterized by demographics, leukemia diagnosis, phase of therapy, leukocyte count on admission, presence of sepsis, steroid administration, intensity of care, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score on admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. The primary outcome was survival to pediatric intensive care unit discharge. Among 68 single admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit with leukemia during the study period, 33 (48.5%) were admitted with sepsis. Admission to the pediatric intensive care unit for sepsis was associated with greater compromise of hemodynamic and renal function and use of stress dose steroids (p = .016), inotropic and/or vasopressor drugs (p = .01), and renal replacement therapy (p = .028) than nonsepsis admission. There was higher mortality among children with sepsis than other diagnoses (52% vs. 17%, p = .004). Also, mortality among children with sepsis was higher among those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (60% vs. 44%) compared with acute myelogenous leukemia. Administration of stress dose steroids was associated with higher mortality (50% vs. 17%, p = .005) and neutropenia. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and sepsis showed the greatest mortality and resource use. Patients with acute leukemia and sepsis had a much higher mortality rate compared with previously described sepsis mortality rates for the general pediatric intensive care unit patient populations. Patients who received steroids had an increased mortality rate, but given the
Kazis, Lewis E; Sheridan, Robert L; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Lee, Austin F; Liang, Matthew H; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Lydon, Martha; Soley-Bori, Marina; Sonis, Lily A; Dore, Emily C; Palmieri, Tina; Herndon, David; Meyer, Walter; Warner, Petra; Kagan, Richard; Stoddard, Frederick J; Murphy, Michael; Tompkins, Ronald G
There has been little systematic examination of variation in pediatric burn care clinical practices and its effect on outcomes. As a first step, current clinical care processes need to be operationally defined. The highly specialized burn care units of the Shriners Hospitals for Children system present an opportunity to describe the processes of care. The aim of this study was to develop a set of process-based measures for pediatric burn care and examine adherence to them by providers in a cohort of pediatric burn patients. We conducted a systematic literature review to compile a set of process-based indicators. These measures were refined by an expert panel of burn care providers, yielding 36 process-based indicators in four clinical areas: initial evaluation and resuscitation, acute excisional surgery and critical care, psychosocial and pain control, and reconstruction and aftercare. We assessed variability in adherence to the indicators in a cohort of 1,076 children with burns at four regional pediatric burn programs in the Shriners Hospital system. The percentages of the cohort at each of the four sites were as follows: Boston, 20.8%; Cincinnati, 21.1%; Galveston, 36.0%; and Sacramento, 22.1%. The cohort included children who received care between 2006 and 2010. Adherence to the process indicators varied both across sites and by clinical area. Adherence was lowest for the clinical areas of acute excisional surgery and critical care, with a range of 35% to 48% across sites, followed by initial evaluation and resuscitation (range, 34%-60%). In contrast, the clinical areas of psychosocial and pain control and reconstruction and aftercare had relatively high adherence across sites, with ranges of 62% to 93% and 71% to 87%, respectively. Of the 36 process indicators, 89% differed significantly in adherence between clinical sites (p < 0.05). Acute excisional surgery and critical care exhibited the most variability. The development of this set of process
Maithani, Tripti; Pandey, Apporva; Dey, Debraj; Bhardwaj, Aparna; Singh, V P
First branchial cleft anomalies (FBCA) represent a small subset of congenital malformations in neck. Prime objective of this study is to share our experience with FBCA, emphasize its relevance in otolaryngology and deal with its pediatric perspective. Embryology, pathologic anatomy and varied spectra of clinical presentations of FBCA are discussed. Along with this we have illustrated three different cases; all of them were of pediatric age group and were misdiagnosed by their treating specialists elsewhere. In this article we have also laid special emphasis on its pediatric considerations. FBCA are mostly misdiagnosed due to their unfamiliar clinical signs and symptoms. Swellings may masquerade as other neck masses. Majority of patients give a history of previous incision and drainage. While dealing with pediatric patients the important factors to be kept in mind are the age of child, superficial course of facial nerve, any associated agenesis of parotid gland. Alteration in surgical technique may be required in children. A thorough medical examination with high index of clinical suspicion should be kept in mind while dealing with such anomalies. Owing to their complex presentation and close relation with facial nerve they are challenging lesions for surgeons.
Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Bo; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Min; Tang, Xue-Yang; Huang, Lu-Gang; Li, Yuan; Peng, Ming-Xing; Xin, Wen-Qiong
To get a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in earthquake and to summarize the experience of medical rescue. The clinical information was collected from the pediatric victims who were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University following the Lushan earthquake in 2013 and Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. The clinical data were compared between the pediatric victims in the two earthquakes. Thirty-four children under 14 years of age, who were injured in the Lushan earthquake, were admitted to the West China Hospital before April 30, 2013. Compared with the data in the Wenchuan earthquake, the mean age of the pediatric victims in the Lushan earthquake was significantly lower (P<0.01), and the mean time from earthquake to hospitalization was significantly shorter (P<0.01). In the Lushan earthquake, 67.6% of the injured children had variable limb fractures; traumatic brain injury was found in 29.4% of hospitalized children, versus 9.5% in the Wenchuan earthquake (P<0.05). Among the 34 children, no amputation and death occurred, and all the 13 severe cases started to recover. There were higher proportions of severely injured children and children with traumatic brain injury in the Lushan earthquake than in the Wenchuan earthquake. But these cases recovered well, which was possibly due to timely on-site rescue and transfer and multi-sector, multi-institution, and multidisciplinary cooperation.
Langille, Megan M; Islam, Talat; Burnett, Margaret; Amezcua, Lilyana
Multiple sclerosis can affect pediatric patients. Our aim was to compare characteristics between pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanic Americans. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 363 Hispanic American multiple scleroses cases; demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed. A total of 110 Hispanic patients presented with multiple sclerosis before age 18 and 253 as adult multiple sclerosis. The most common presenting symptoms for both was optic neuritis. Polyfocal symptoms, seizures, and cognitive symptoms at presentation were more prevalent in pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Transverse myelitis was more frequent in adult-onset multiple sclerosis (P ≤ .001). Using multivariable analysis, pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.3OR 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.71, P = .004) and being US born (adjusted odds ratio, 0.553, 95% confidence interval 0.3-1.03, P = .006) were less likely to have severe ambulatory disability. Results suggest that pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis and adult-onset multiple sclerosis in Hispanics have differences that could be important for treatment and prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kramer, Robert E; Walsh, Catharine M; Lerner, Diana G; Fishman, Douglas S
The current era of healthcare reform emphasizes the provision of effective, safe, equitable, high-quality, and cost-effective care. Within the realm of gastrointestinal endoscopy in adults, renewed efforts are in place to accurately define and measure quality indicators across the spectrum of endoscopic care. In pediatrics, however, this movement has been less-defined and lacks much of the evidence-base that supports these initiatives in adult care. A need, therefore, exists to help define quality metrics tailored to pediatric practice and provide a toolbox for the development of robust quality improvement (QI) programs within pediatric endoscopy units. Use of uniform standards of quality reporting across centers will ensure that data can be compared and compiled on an international level to help guide QI initiatives and inform patients and their caregivers of the true risks and benefits of endoscopy. This report is intended to provide pediatric gastroenterologists with a framework for the development and implementation of endoscopy QI programs within their own centers, based on available evidence and expert opinion from the members of the NASPGHAN Endoscopy Committee. This clinical report will require expansion as further research pertaining to endoscopic quality in pediatrics is published.
Guven, Selcuk; Basiri, Abbas; Varshney, Anil Kumar; Aridogan, Ibrahim Atilla; Miura, Hiroyasu; White, Mark; Kilinc, Mehmet; de la Rosette, Jean
To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of ureteroscopy (URS) in children treated in several hospitals participating in the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) Study, and to present the overall results of pediatric URS compared with adults. The CROES Study collected data on consecutive patients treated with URS for urolithiasis at each participating center over a 1-year period. The collected prospective global database includes data for 11,885 patients who received URS at 114 centers in 32 countries. Of these URS-treated patients, 192 were ≤18 years old. Of the 114 centers participating in the study, 42% had conducted pediatric URS. Among the pediatric cases, 7 were infants, 53 were small children, 59 were school-aged children, and 73 were adolescents. A considerable number (37%) of the pediatric cases had previously undergone URS treatment. No differences in the surgical outcomes of the adults and children were reported. The URS-treated children had a greater number of positive preoperative urine cultures when compared with adult cases treated. A semirigid scope was used in the vast majority of pediatric cases (85%). According to the present data, within the group of URS-treated children, the younger the child, the more readmissions occurred. URS is as efficient and safe in children as it is in adults. The data suggest that readmissions among URS-treated children are associated with age, with the likelihood of readmissions greater among younger age groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gnauck, Katherine A; Nufer, Kevin E; LaValley, Jonathon M; Crandall, Cameron S; Craig, Frances W; Wilson-Ramirez, Gina B
The differences between pediatric (< or = 17 years of age) and adult clinical field encounters were analyzed from four deployments of Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs). A retrospective cohort review of all patients who presented to DMAT field clinics during two hurricanes, one earthquake, and one flood was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze: (1) age; (2) gender; (3) severity category level; (4) chief complaint; (5) treatments provided; (6) discharge diagnosis; and (7) disposition. Five subsets of pediatric patients were analyzed further. Of the 2,196 patient encounters reviewed, 643 (29.5%) encounters were pediatric patients. Pediatric patients had a greater number of blank severity category levels than adults. Pediatric patients also were: (1) more likely to present with chief complaints of upper respiratory infections or wounds; (2) less likely to present with musculoskeletal pain or abdominal pain; and (3) equally likely to present with rashes. Pediatric patients were more likely to receive antibiotics, pain medication, and antihistamines, but were equally likely to need treatment for wounds. Dispositions to the hospital were less frequent for pediatric patients than for adults. Pediatric patients represent a substantial proportion of disaster victims at DMAT field clinics. They often necessitate special care requirements different from their adult counterparts. Pediatric-specific severity category criteria, treatment guidelines, equipment/medication stocks, and provider training are warranted for future DMAT response preparations.
Weiss, Scott L; Parker, Brandon; Bullock, Maria E; Swartz, Sheila; Price, Carolynn; Wainwright, Mark S; Goodman, Denise M
Pediatric patients with sepsis are identified using related but distinct criteria for clinical, research, and administrative purposes. The overlap between these criteria will affect the validity of extrapolating data across settings. We sought to quantify the extent of agreement among different criteria for pediatric severe sepsis/septic shock and to detect systematic differences between these cohorts. Observational cohort study. Forty-two bed pediatric intensive care unit at an academic medical center. A total of 1,729 patients ≤ 18 yrs-old. None. All patients were screened for severe sepsis or septic shock using consensus guidelines (research criteria), diagnosis by healthcare professionals (clinical criteria), and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes (administrative criteria). Cohen's κ determined the level of agreement among criteria, and patient characteristics were compared between cohorts. Ninety (5.2%) patients were identified by research, 96 (5.6%) by clinical, and 103 (6.0%) by administrative criteria. The κ ± standard error for pair-wise comparisons was 0.67 ± 0.04 for research-clinical, 0.52 ± 0.05 for research-administrative, and 0.55 ± 0.04 for clinical-administrative. Of the patients in the clinical cohort, 67% met research and 58% met administrative criteria. The research cohort exhibited a higher Pediatric Index of Mortality-2 score (median, interquartile range 5.2, 1.6-13.3) than the clinical (3.6, 1.1-6.2) and administrative (3.9, 1.0-6.0) cohorts (p = .005), an increased requirement for vasoactive infusions (74%, 57%, and 45%, p < .001), and a potential bias toward an increased proportion with respiratory dysfunction compared with clinical practice. Although research, clinical, and administrative criteria yielded a similar incidence (5%-6%) for pediatric severe sepsis/septic shock, there was only a moderate level of agreement in the patients identified by different criteria. One third of
Garber, Alan J; Abrahamson, Martin J; Barzilay, Joshua I; Blonde, Lawrence; Bloomgarden, Zachary T; Bush, Michael A; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Einhorn, Daniel; Fonseca, Vivian A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; Grunberger, George; Handelsman, Yehuda; Hirsch, Irl B; Jellinger, Paul S; McGill, Janet B; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Rosenblit, Paul D; Umpierrez, Guillermo E
A1C = hemoglobin A1C AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACCORD = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes ACCORD BP = Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure ACEI = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ADVANCE = Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation AGI = alpha-glucosidase inhibitor apo B = apolipoprotein B ASCVD = atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease BAS = bile acid sequestrant BMI = body mass index BP = blood pressure CHD = coronary heart disease CKD = chronic kidney disease CVD = cardiovascular disease DASH = Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate FDA = Food and Drug Administration GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide 1 HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol IMPROVE-IT = Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-P = low-density lipoprotein particle Look AHEAD = Look Action for Health in Diabetes NPH = neutral protamine Hagedorn OSA = obstructive sleep apnea SFU = sulfonylurea SGLT-2 = sodium glucose cotransporter-2 SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose T2D = type 2 diabetes TZD = thiazolidinedione VADT = Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial.
Kenyon, Lisa K; Dole, Robin L; Kelly, Stephanie P
To prepare students for pediatric practice, the professional (entry-level) curriculum must reflect the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) required for pediatric physical therapist practice. The aim of this study was to develop consensus concerning the pediatric-specific KSA that should be expected of doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students at various points in the curriculum: prior to a pediatric clinical education experience, after a pediatric clinical education experience, and at the end of a DPT program. The study was conducted using the Delphi method. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit pediatric academic faculty and pediatric clinical instructors. Three Web-based survey rounds were used to achieve consensus, defined as agreement among ≥70% of informants. The first round identified pediatric-specific KSA that were essential for DPT students to demonstrate at the identified points in the curriculum. In the second round, informants indicated their level of agreement with each item identified in the first round. Items that achieved consensus were included in the third round, in which informants rated the level of proficiency that DPT students should demonstrate related to pediatric-specific KSA. Consensus revealed the informants' perspectives concerning pediatric-specific KSA that a DPT student should be able to demonstrate at the identified curricular points. Consensus was reached on items in the curricular categories of basic science and foundations for practice; common pediatric diagnoses/pathologies, examination, interventions/plan of care/documentation; and general skills and abilities. Limitations included the small sample size and the potential for informants to feel uncomfortable prioritizing KSA. This study is an initial step toward identifying pediatric-specific KSA that should be demonstrated by DPT students.
Kuber, W; Treu, T; Kratzik, C; Girsch, E; Zeillinger, R; Spona, J
79 patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic prostate cancer were treated by means of a biodegradeable depot formulation of the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue Goserelin (Zoladex). All patients received 3.6 mg depot Goserelin (Zoladex 3.6 mg implantate) subcutaneously into the anterior abdominal wall at 4 weekly intervals. The average time of observation was 24.2 months. The best objective response rate was found in 62%. Serum testosterone levels initially increased after the first depot injection and then decreased ultimately to castrate range (less than 0.6 ng/ml) between day 15 and day 27 (median 21) in the majority of patients. Castrate testosterone levels were still found 48 months after the start of treatment with depot Goserelin. 6 months after institution of treatment in 66.7% of cases evident signs of histological regression were found in the primary tumour tissue. Adenocarcinoma presented with a highly significantly better response pattern than anaplastic carcinoma. In animal experiments a single dose of 1 mg depot Goserelin was administered to adult male rats and the effect on serum testosterone levels and target organs (testes and ventral prostate) were investigated. Mean testosterone levels (mean = 0.31 ng/ml) decreased to castrate range (less than 0.3 ng/ml). 4 weeks after depot injection weight of the testes and prostate weight were significantly reduced. However 8 weeks after administration of 1 mg depot Goserelin there was no significant between the control group and the treated group. We conclude that the depot formulation of Goserelin (Zoladex) is effective, simple, practicable and safe in the treatment of advanced prostatic cancer. Current clinical studies are confirming the importance of reversible medical castration by LHRH agonists before radical prostatectomy.
Pelley, Elaine; Danoff, Ann; Cooper, David S; Becker, Carolyn
Given that approximately 70% of current endocrinology fellows are women, female physicians will compose the majority of the future endocrinology workforce. This gender shift partly reflects an apparent waning of interest in endocrinology among male trainees. It also coincides with a projected shortage of endocrinologists overall. Female physicians face unique challenges in the workplace. To continue to attract trainees to the specialty and support their success, it is imperative that these challenges be recognized, understood, and addressed. A PubMed search using the terms "female physician" and "physician gender" covering the years 2000-2015 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The following topics were identified as key to understanding the impact of this gender shift: professional satisfaction, work-life balance, income, parenthood, academic success, and patient satisfaction. Several changes can be predicted to occur as endocrinology becomes a female-predominant specialty. Although professional satisfaction should remain stable, increased burnout rates are likely. Work-life balance challenges will likely be magnified. The combined effects of occupational gender segregation and a gender pay gap are predicted to negatively impact salaries of endocrinologists of both genders. The underrepresentation of women in academic leadership may mean a lesser voice for endocrinology in this arena. Finally, gender biases evident in patient satisfaction measures--commonly used as proxies for quality of care--may disproportionately impact endocrinology. Endocrinology is predicted to become the most female-predominant subspecialty of internal medicine. The specialty of endocrinology should take a lead role in advocating for changes that support the success of female physicians. Strengthening and supporting the physician workforce can only serve to attract talented physicians of both genders to the
Hampl, Sarah; Paves, Heather; Laubscher, Katie; Eneli, Ihuoma
Pediatric tertiary care institutions are well positioned to provide multidisciplinary, intensive interventions for pediatric obesity known as stage 3 treatment. One contributor to the difficulty in administering this treatment is the high rate of patient attrition. Little is known about the practices used by pediatric weight-management clinics and group-based programs to minimize attrition. Hospital members and nonmembers of FOCUS on a Fitter Future were surveyed on the methods used to engage and retain obese children in their clinics and programs. Shortly thereafter, a benchmarking activity that centered on rates of patient nonattendance at initial and follow-up clinic visits was initiated among FOCUS-group-participating hospitals. Clinic- and group-based program results were contrasted. Staff from group-based programs reported that the majority of patients did not complete even 50% of program follow-up visits. Multiple patient/family- and clinic/program-level barriers to retention were identified. Attention to successful techniques should be paid during planning for new programs and improvement of established ones.
Crowther, David M.; Buck, Marcia L.; McCarthy, Michelle W.; Barton, Virginia W.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to summarize adverse drug event (ADE) reporting and to characterize the type of healthcare practitioners involved in reporting over a 10-year period at a 120-bed university-affiliated children's hospital. METHODS The University of Virginia Children's Hospital ADE database was analyzed for records involving pediatric patients. Data from patients <18 years of age who were admitted to the University of Virginia Children's Hospital between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009, were analyzed. Data collected included drug name and therapeutic class of the suspected causative agent, description of the event, severity, causality, outcome, and the type of healthcare practitioner reporting the event. RESULTS A total of 863 ADEs were reported over the 10-year period. The 5 most common types reported were extravasation injury (10%), rash (8%), hypotension (5%), pruritus (5%), and renal failure (3%). A total of 196 (21%) cases were categorized as mild, 436 (47%) cases as moderate, and 296 (32%) cases as severe. Further characterization of extravasations was performed to identify trends relating to potential causes. In 45 (57%) reports, parenteral nutrition was identified as the causative agent. Full recovery was documented in 21 (47%) extravasations. Of the total events reported, 83% were reported by pharmacists, 16% by nurses, and <1% by other healthcare practitioners. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study are consistent with those of previous studies involving ADE reporting in children's hospitals. This consistency is due in part to system design and use of unit-based pharmacists as the primary reporters. PMID:22768013
Gong, Liang; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing
Pneumonia is an infectious disease of the lung causing mortality. Mycoplasma pneumonia (MP) is an atypical bacterial pneumonia that damages several organs. Lung computed tomography (CT) has been utilized in its identification. The aim of the present study was to examine the value of computed tomography diagnosis for pediatric MP. The present study prospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging data of 1,280 cases of pediatric MP in the out- and inpatient departments from March, 2010 to March, 2014; analyzed the morphology and distribution of the pneumonic lesion in the lungs; and summarized the value of CT diagnosis for pediatric MP. In the included children, there were 688 cases of lesions in the unilateral lobe, 592 cases of lesions in the bilateral lobes, 1,101 cases of extensive patchy opacity, 496 cases of mottled opacity, 432 cases of increased lung marking, 256 cases of streak opacity, 192 cases of ground-glass opacity, 992 cases of thickened bronchial wall in the lesions, 128 cases of lymphadenopathy in the hilar lymph nodes and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung CT showed 32 cases of pulmonary cavity and 144 cases of pleural effusion. In conclusion, the CT signals of pediatric MP had several types with some children exhibiting complicated changes. The child's clinical manifestation and symptoms should thus be considered in the diagnosis to improve the diagnostic rate.
Ishiguro, Akira; Sasaki, Hatoko; Yahagi, Naohisa; Kato, Hitoshi; Kure, Shigeo; Mori, Rintaro
A collaborative network for pediatric research has not been fully established in Japan. To identify the network infrastructure, we conducted a survey on the support and education for clinical research currently available in children's hospitals. In November 2014, a 27-question survey was distributed to 31 hospitals belonging to the Japanese Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions (JACHRI) to assess clinical research support, research education, research achievements, and their expectations. All the hospitals responded to the survey. Overall, 74.2% of hospitals had clinical research support divisions. Although all hospitals had ethics committees, <30% of the hospitals had a data manager, intellectual property management unit, biostatistician, and English-language editor. Seven hospitals had education programs for clinical research. The number of seminars and workshops for clinical research had significant correlations with the number of physicians (r = 0.927), pediatricians (r = 0.922), and clinical trial management physicians (r = 0.962). There was a significant difference in the number of clinical trials initiated by physicians between hospitals with research education programs and those without (P < 0.01). The number of education programs was significantly correlated with the number of original articles and case reports in English (r = 0.788), and the number of publications in Japanese (r = 0.648). All hospitals recognized the need for a leader to establish a collaborative network for clinical research. Important factors for creating a collaborative system for pediatric research in Japan were identified. Human resources to support clinical research are a key factor to improve clinical research education and research achievements. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Baker-Smith, Carissa M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Grabowski, Henry G.; Reid, Elizabeth D.; Mangum, Barry; Goldsmith, John V.; Murphy, M. Dianne; Edwards, Rex; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Sun, Jessica; Califf, Robert M.; Li, Jennifer S.
Background Congress has authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to provide industry sponsors with a 6-month extension of drug marketing rights under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision if FDA-requested pediatric drug trials are conducted. The cost and economic return of pediatric exclusivity to industry sponsors has been shown to be highly variable. We sought to determine the cost of performing pediatric exclusivity trials within a single therapeutic area and the subsequent economic return to industry sponsors. Methods We evaluated 9 orally administered anti-hypertensive drugs submitted to the FDA under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision from 1997–2004 and obtained key elements of the clinical trial designs and operations. Estimates of the costs of performing the studies were generated and converted into after-tax cash outflow. Market sales were obtained and converted into after-tax inflows based on 6 months of additional patent protection. Net economic return and net return-to-cost ratios were determined for each drug. Results Of the 9 anti-hypertensive agents studied, an average of 2 studies per drug was performed, including at least 1 pharmacokinetic study and a safety and efficacy study. The median cost of completing a pharmacokinetic trial was $862,000 (range: $556,000–1.8 million). The median cost of performing safety and efficacy trials for these agents was $4.3 million (range: $2.1 million–12.9 million). The ratio of net economic return to cost was 17 (range: 4–64.7). Conclusion We found that, within a cohort of anti-hypertensive drugs, the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision has generated highly variable, yet lucrative returns to industry sponsors. PMID:18926149
Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta
Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value
Welke, Karl F; Diggs, Brian S; Karamlou, Tara; Ungerleider, Ross M
Despite the superior coding and risk adjustment of clinical data, the ready availability, national scope, and perceived unbiased nature of administrative data make it the choice of governmental agencies and insurance companies for evaluating quality and outcomes. We calculated pediatric cardiac surgery mortality rates from administrative data and compared them with widely quoted standards from clinical databases. Pediatric cardiac surgical operations were retrospectively identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) 1988-2005 and the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) 2003. Cases were grouped into Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery, version 1 (RACHS-1) categories. In-hospital mortality rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 55,164 operations from the NIS and 10,945 operations from the KID were placed into RACHS-1 categories. During the 18-year period, the overall NIS mortality rate for pediatric cardiac surgery decreased from 8.7% (95% confidence interval, 8.0% to 9.3%) to 4.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.3% to 5.0%). Mortality rates by RACHS-1 category decreased significantly as well. The KID and NIS mortality rates from comparable years were similar. Overall mortality rates derived from administrative data were higher than those from contemporary national clinical data, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database, or published data from pediatric cardiac specialty centers. Although category-specific mortality rates were higher in administrative data than in clinical data, a minority of the relationships reached statistical significance. Despite substantial improvement, mortality rates from administrative data remain higher than those from clinical data. The discrepancy may be attributable to several factors: differences in database design and composition, differences in data collection and reporting structures, and variation in data quality.
Minamitani, M; Hachimori, K
Clinical study of PC-904 was performed in 8 children with infectious diseases and the following results were obtained. 1) The patients treated with PC-904 were each one case of acute pharyngitis, lacunar tonsillitis, scarlet fever, phlegmone, acute bronchitis and lung abscess, and 2 cases of bronchopneumonia. 2) The administration methods were drip infusion, one-shot intravenous injection and the combined use of these administrations. The daily dosage varied from 30 to 49 mg/kg in 3 cases and from 50 to 70 mg/kg in 3 cases, and was 227 mg/kg in 1 case. 3) Clinical evaluation was examined in 7 cases and 57.1% of effectiveness was obtained. Out of 2 cases of pneumonia, one case with the causative organism of My. pneumoniae was excluded from the clinical evaluation. 4) No side effects were observed in all 8 cases treated with PC-904.
Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P
To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort.
Jauregui, Joshua; Nelson, Daniel; Choo, Esther; Stearns, Branden; Levine, Adam C.; Liebmann, Otto; Shah, Sachita P.
Objective To prospectively validate three popular clinical dehydration scales and overall physician gestalt in children with vomiting or diarrhea relative to the criterion standard of percent weight change with rehydration. Methods We prospectively enrolled a non-consecutive cohort of children ≤ 18 years of age with an acute episode of diarrhea or vomiting. Patient weight, clinical scale variables and physician clinical impression, or gestalt, were recorded before and after fluid resuscitation in the emergency department and upon hospital discharge. The percent weight change from presentation to discharge was used to calculate the degree of dehydration, with a weight change of ≥ 5% considered significant dehydration. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed for each of the three clinical scales and physician gestalt. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated based on the best cut-points of the ROC curve. Results We approached 209 patients, and of those, 148 were enrolled and 113 patients had complete data for analysis. Of these, 10.6% had significant dehydration based on our criterion standard. The Clinical Dehydration Scale (CDS) and Gorelick scales both had an area under the ROC curve (AUC) statistically different from the reference line with AUCs of 0.72 (95% CI 0.60, 0.84) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.57, 0.85) respectively. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale and physician gestalt had AUCs of 0.61 (95% CI 0.45, 0.77) and 0.61 (0.44, 0.78) respectively, which were not statistically significant. Conclusion The Gorelick scale and Clinical Dehydration Scale were fair predictors of dehydration in children with diarrhea or vomiting. The World Health Organization scale and physician gestalt were not helpful predictors of dehydration in our cohort. PMID:24788134
Hori, M; Kono, S; Hashimoto, F
A clinical study of PC-904 was performed in children. The results were as follows; 1) Serum levels of PC-904 after single administration of 20 mg/kg were studied in patients by one-shot intravenous injection or drip infusion for 1 hour or 2 hours. The results obtained in this fundamental study led to the suggestion that the proper dosage in bacterial infections would be 50 approximately 100 mg/kg intravenously in 3 approximately 4 divided doses daily. 2) A clinical study of PC-904 was performed in 16 patients including acute pharyngitis and bronchitis (3 cases), acute bronchopneumonia (3 cases), pertussis pneumonia (1 case), lymphadenitis purulenta (2 cases), acute bronchopneumonia (3 cases), pertussis pneumonia (1 case), lymphadenitis purulenta (2 cases), abscess with chronic granuloma (2 cases) and urinary tract infection (5 cases). About 50 approximately 100 mg/kg of PC-904 were administered in 3 approximately 4 divided doses daily by one-shot intravenous injection. The clinical effects of 2 cases out of 16 were impossible to be evaluated, and thses cases were excluded from the clinical evaluation. Ten cases out of 14 showed excellent or good responses (efficacy rate: 71.4%). 3) The bacteriological examinations were performed and the causative or isolated organisms were determined in 11 cases. The responses were "disappeared" in 6 cases, "decreased" in 2 cases and "not disappeared" in 3 cases. 4) No side effects were observed. Abnormalities of laboratory findings were not also noticed.
Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Rainis, Ruslan; Noor, Syed Hatim; Syed Mohamad, Sharifah Mastura
The main aim of this study is to utilize the geographical information system (GIS) software and perform the spatial analysis in relation to clinical data for road traffic injury (RTI) pediatric cases attending the emergency department. The study sample included pediatric patients (age less than 18 years) with road-related injuries within a district in Malaysia who attended emergency departments of two tertiary hospitals within the district. In addition to injury, pre-hospital care and outcome data, the coordinate of the locations were obtained by the ambulance paramedics by using portable handheld GPS unit brand Garmin(®) model GPS 72 H. The data was transferred into the excel format which in turn underwent GIS analysis by using ARCGIS(®) (by ESRI) software version 10.1 licensed to the study institution. A total of 102 (24.8%) of all motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims involved the pediatric age group (age 18 years and below). The mean (SD) age of the pediatric victims was 14.30 years (SD 3.830). Male comprised of 68 (66.7%) of the cases. Motorcyclists [88 (88.0%)] were the most common type of victims involved. Interestingly, the majority of the severely injured victims [75 (73%)] sustained the RTI on roads with maximum speed limit of 60 km/hour. The mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 7.83 days (5.59). The pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia causes significant health and social burden in the country. This study showed both important clinical and geographical factors that need to be taken into consideration for future preventive action.
Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin; Rainis, Ruslan; Noor, Syed Hatim; Syed Mohamad, Sharifah Mastura
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study is to utilize the geographical information system (GIS) software and perform the spatial analysis in relation to clinical data for road traffic injury (RTI) pediatric cases attending the emergency department. METHODS: The study sample included pediatric patients (age less than 18 years) with road-related injuries within a district in Malaysia who attended emergency departments of two tertiary hospitals within the district. In addition to injury, pre-hospital care and outcome data, the coordinate of the locations were obtained by the ambulance paramedics by using portable handheld GPS unit brand Garmin® model GPS 72 H. The data was transferred into the excel format which in turn underwent GIS analysis by using ARCGIS® (by ESRI) software version 10.1 licensed to the study institution. RESULTS: A total of 102 (24.8%) of all motor vehicle crash (MVC) victims involved the pediatric age group (age 18 years and below). The mean (SD) age of the pediatric victims was 14.30 years (SD 3.830). Male comprised of 68 (66.7%) of the cases. Motorcyclists [88 (88.0%)] were the most common type of victims involved. Interestingly, the majority of the severely injured victims [75 (73%)] sustained the RTI on roads with maximum speed limit of 60 km/hour. The mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 7.83 days (5.59). CONCLUSION: The pediatric related road traffic injury in Malaysia causes significant health and social burden in the country. This study showed both important clinical and geographical factors that need to be taken into consideration for future preventive action. PMID:27547282
Prusakowski, Melanie K; Chen, Audrey P
Pediatric sepsis is distinct from adult sepsis in its definitions, clinical presentations, and management. Recognition of pediatric sepsis is complicated by the various pediatric-specific comorbidities that contribute to its mortality and the age- and development-specific vital sign and clinical parameters that obscure its recognition. This article outlines the clinical presentation and management of sepsis in neonates, infants, and children, and highlights some key populations who require specialized care. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Connelly, Christopher R; Laird, Amy; Barton, Jeffrey S; Fischer, Peter E; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Schreiber, Martin A; Zonies, David H; Watters, Jennifer M
Although rare, the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pediatric trauma patients is increasing, and the consequences of VTE in children are significant. Studies have demonstrated increasing VTE risk in older pediatric trauma patients and improved VTE rates with institutional interventions. While national evidence-based guidelines for VTE screening and prevention are in place for adults, none exist for pediatric patients, to our knowledge. To develop a risk prediction calculator for VTE in children admitted to the hospital after traumatic injury to assist efforts in developing screening and prophylaxis guidelines for this population. Retrospective review of 536,423 pediatric patients 0 to 17 years old using the National Trauma Data Bank from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2012. Five mixed-effects logistic regression models of varying complexity were fit on a training data set. Model validity was determined by comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for the training and validation data sets from the original model fit. A clinical tool to predict the risk of VTE based on individual patient clinical characteristics was developed from the optimal model. Diagnosis of VTE during hospital admission. Venous thromboembolism was diagnosed in 1141 of 536,423 children (overall rate, 0.2%). The AUROCs in the training data set were high (range, 0.873-0.946) for each model, with minimal AUROC attenuation in the validation data set. A prediction tool was developed from a model that achieved a balance of high performance (AUROCs, 0.945 and 0.932 in the training and validation data sets, respectively; P = .048) and parsimony. Points are assigned to each variable considered (Glasgow Coma Scale score, age, sex, intensive care unit admission, intubation, transfusion of blood products, central venous catheter placement, presence of pelvic or lower extremity fractures, and major surgery), and the points total is converted to a VTE
Fayad, Laura M; Johnson, Pamela; Fishman, Elliot K
Computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal disease in the pediatric patient. With the advent of high-performance 16-section multidetector CT, images can be produced with subsecond gantry rotation times and with submillimeter acquisition, which yields true isotropic high-resolution volume data sets; these features are not attainable with older spiral CT technology. Such capabilities are particularly helpful in the evaluation of pediatric patients by virtually eliminating the need for sedation and minimizing dependence on patient cooperation. The role of three-dimensional (3D) volume imaging in the evaluation of pediatric musculoskeletal disease continues to evolve, with this technique becoming increasingly important in detection and characterization of lesions as well as in decisions about patient care. Specific designs and protocols for multidetector CT studies can be selected to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Principal clinical applications of 3D CT in evaluation of the pediatric musculoskeletal system include developmental abnormalities, trauma, neoplasms, and postoperative imaging.
Background To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS): 1) decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2) decreased medication errors; 3) improved clinical decision making; 4) improved quality of documentation; and/or 5) improved shift to shift nursing continuity. Methods Before and after implementation of CDS, a time study involving nursing care, medication delivery, and normalization of serum calcium and potassium values was performed. In addition, an evaluation of completeness of documentation and a clinician survey of shift to shift reporting were also completed. This was a modified one group, pretest-posttest design. Results With the CDS there was: improved legibility and completeness of documentation, data with better accessibility and accuracy, no change in time spent in direct patient care or charting by nursing staff. Incidental observations from the study included improved management functions of our nurse manager; improved JCAHO documentation compliance; timely access to clinical data (labs, vitals, etc); a decrease in time and resource use for audits; improved reimbursement because of the ability to reconstruct lost charts; limited human data entry by automatic data logging; eliminated costs of printing forms. CDS cost was reasonable. Conclusions When compared to a paper chart, the CDS provided a more legible, compete, and accessible patient record without affecting time spent in direct patient care. The availability of the CDS improved shift to shift reporting. Other observations showed that the CDS improved management capabilities; helped physicians deliver care; improved reimbursement; limited data entry errors; and reduced costs. PMID:11604105
Pecchioli, Yael; Jamieson, Mary Anne
To create a family tree to chronicle the proliferation of our specialty through fellowships (formal and informal) within the pediatric and adolescent gynecology practice and among the membership of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG). This historical project was undertaken as a way to demonstrate NASPAG's rich sense of heritage and community. The tree is meant to be a dynamic project, a living document, changing and expanding as this field of medicine grows, and offers a form of institutional memory for NASPAG. Questionnaires were sent out to all current NASPAG members via e-mail (and the list-serve) and were available at the 2014 NASPAG Annual Clinical and Research Meeting. Data from the questionnaires were recorded within GRAMPS 3.4.8, software used to create a family tree. The result of the project was an elegant and intricate tree, containing 379 "family members" including physicians who specialize in pediatric and adolescent gynecology, adolescent medicine, reproductive endocrinology and infertility, and pediatric endocrinology. The family tree, which shows how one mentor might train multiple trainees and how past trainees later become mentors, highlights the value of physicians who take on supervisory and educational roles and the existence of comprehensive and inspirational training programs. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Bin; Ke, Fa-yong; Chen, Zhi-min; Qi, Guo-qing; Li, Hai-min; Liu, Wen-jie; Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Qing; Yang, Ke-hu
There is no systematic assessment whether the quality of reporting has been improved since the CONSORT Statement was introduced into China in 1997. The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of the CONSORT Statement is associated with improved quality of reporting of RCTs published in Chinese pediatrics journals. Six core Chinese pediatrics journals that included Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, Chinese Journal of Practical Pediatrics, Chinese Journal of Evidence-based Pediatrics, Chinese Journal of Pediatrics, and Chinese Journal of Pediatric Surgery were searched from inception through Dec. 2010. The CONSORT checklists were used to assess the quality of reporting. Data was collected using a standardized form. Analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 software. A total of 619 RCTs were included. The quality of reporting has improved significantly in aspects such as introduction, recruitment, baseline data, and ancillary analyses (p<0.05), but not in several important methodological components, including sample size calculation (0.63% vs.1.08%), randomization sequence generation (3.18% vs. 7.58%), allocation concealment (0% vs. 1.08%), and blinding (0% vs. 0.87%). The quality of reporting of RCTs has not significantly improved since the CONSORT Statement was introduced into China. The reporting remains poor, and often inadequate for assessment of the rigor of studies. Chinese pediatrics journals should reinforce the use of the CONSORT Statement in the reporting of trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guzek, Lindsay M; Gentry, Shelley D; Golomb, Meredith R
Missed appointments ("no-shows") represent an important source of lost revenue for academic medical centers. The goal of this study was to examine the costs of "no-shows" at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who missed appointments at an academic pediatric neurology outpatient clinic during 1 academic year. Revenue lost was estimated based on average reimbursement for different insurance types and visit types. The yearly "no-show" rate was 26%. Yearly revenue lost from missed appointments was $257,724.57, and monthly losses ranged from $15,652.33 in October 2013 to $27,042.44 in January 2014. The yearly revenue lost from missed appointments at the academic pediatric neurology clinic represents funds that could have been used to improve patient access and care. Further work is needed to develop strategies to decrease the no-show rate to decrease lost revenue and improve patient care and access. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neu, Alicia M; Frankenfield, Diane L
Although prospective randomized trials have provided important information and allowed the development of evidence-based guidelines in adult hemodialysis (HD) patients, with approximately 800 prevalent pediatric HD patients in the United States, such studies are difficult to perform in this population. Observational data obtained through the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS') End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Clinical Performance Measures (CPM) Project have allowed description of the clinical care provided to pediatric HD patients as well as identification of risk factors for failure to reach adult targets for clinical parameters such as hemoglobin, single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V) and serum albumin. In addition, studies linking data from the ESRD CPM Project and the United States Renal Data System have allowed evaluation of associations between achievement of those targets and the outcomes of hospitalization and death. The results of those studies, while unable to prove cause and effect, suggest that the adult ESRD CPM targets may assist in identifying pediatric HD patients at risk for poor outcomes.
Dube, Christine; Young, Vanessa; Anderson, Michelle; Barton, Brenda; Leahy, Izabela
This article describes the distinctive function of the pediatric clinical research nurse (CRN) in the anesthesia setting. The pediatric CRN in anesthesia acts as a liaison between families and the research team and is the major nexus between the principal investigator or anesthesiologist on a study, and the collaborating surgeons from many different departments. This is unique because the CRNs collaborate with physicians in specialties that can include plastics, urology, neurosurgery, orthopaedics, otolaryngology, cardiology, critical care, and many other departments. The profession requires a breath of knowledge ranging from clinical understanding of diseases, surgical procedures, and recovery to cognitive and developmental stages, to expertise in the research protocol process. Our objective was to describe these specialized activities of the pediatric anesthesia CRN, with focus on care coordination, communication, and continuity of care. Defining this role will enhance the quality of clinical research conducted by the CRN in anesthesia and may influence the development of novel medical treatments. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuno, K; Nakao, Y; Hayakawa, F; Miura, K; Miyajima, Y; Ishikawa, H; Kimura, H
Bacteriological and clinical studies with flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new oxacephem antibiotic, were carried out in the field of pediatrics and the results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The antimicrobial activity of FMOX against clinically isolated organisms was determined. FMOX had a good antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and especially against Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin resistant S. aureus). 2. Mean serum concentrations of FMOX following intravenous bolus injection of 20 and 40 mg/kg (in 7 and 4 cases, respectively) were 35.3 and 77.7 micrograms/ml at 15 minutes after administration with mean serum half-lives (T1/2) of 0.75 and 0.95 hours and mean urinary recovery rates up to 6 hours after administration were 71.9 and 65.1%, respectively. 3. Twenty-five pediatric patients (19 cases of pneumonia, 1 case of pyothorax and 5 cases of urinary tract infection) were treated with FMOX in doses ranging from 50 to 138 mg/kg divided into 3 or 4 times a day. The rate of clinical effectiveness was 100% and the bacterial elimination rate was 90.6%. 4. No adverse reactions were observed. Abnormal laboratory findings were eosinophilia in 1, thrombocytosis in 2 and slight elevations of GOT and GPT in 3 patients. These results indicate the usefulness and the safety of FMOX in the treatment of bacterial infections in the pediatric field.
Ito, S; Mayumi, M; Mikawa, H
Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a newly synthesized antibiotic which belongs to the oxacephem group, was clinically evaluated for its efficacy and safety in 17 patients with ages ranging from 1 month to 9 year-8-month who had bacterial infections. The results obtained were summarized as follows. 1. A pharmacokinetic study following 20 mg/kg FMOX administration by intravenous bolus injection showed that the half-life of FMOX (beta phase) was 39.8 minutes and the urinary excretion of FMOX in the first 6 hours was 76.5%. 2. FMOX was administered to 3 patients with pneumonia, 8 patients with bronchopneumonia, 2 patients with tonsillitis, 2 patients with pyelonephritis, one patient each with cervical lymphadenitis, and pustulosis associated with severe varicella at daily dosage levels of 61.9 approximately 87.2 mg/kg, divided into 3 or 4 administrations by intravenous bolus injection or by 30 minutes drip infusion. The clinical results of these 17 patients were as follows; excellent: 14 patients, good: 2 patients, poor: 1 patient. The efficacy rate was 94.1%. 3. No clinical adverse reaction was observed in any of the 17 patients. Neutropenia, eosinophilia, a slight elevation of GPT and slight elevations of GOT & GPT were observed in 1, 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. No abnormality in coagulation system was observed in any of 10 evaluable patients. 4. MICs of FMOX against 13 strains isolated from patients were as follows. MIC against 2 out of 3 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae was 0.20 micrograms/ml and that of the remaining 1 strain was 0.39 micrograms/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The efficacy of the direct clinical intervention for infectious diseases by a pediatric infectious disease specialist in the pediatric ward of a tertiary medical facility without a pediatric antimicrobial stewardship program.
Hoshina, T; Yamamoto, N; Ogawa, M; Nakamoto, T; Kusuhara, K
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have been introduced in most hospital complexes; however, they are not always useful for pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of direct clinical intervention for infectious diseases by a pediatric infectious disease specialist in a tertiary medical facility without pediatric ASP. This retrospective study included 1,821 patients who were hospitalized in the pediatric ward of a large metropolitan hospital from 2010 to 2015. The clinical course, the use of intravenous antimicrobial agents and the results of a microbiological analysis were compared between the period after the beginning of direct intervention by the specialist (post-intervention period) and the previous period (pre-intervention period). In the post-intervention period, the proportion of the patients who received intravenous antimicrobial agents, the number of antimicrobial agents used for each episode, and the proportion of episodes in which an antimicrobial agent was re-administrated were significantly lower (P = 0.006, P = 0.004, P = 0.036, respectively), and the duration of antimicrobial treatment was significantly shorter (P < 0.001). In addition, narrower spectrum antimicrobial agents were used, and the incidence of meropenem-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa significantly increased (P = 0.037) in the post-intervention period. There was no change of mortality between the two periods. Direct clinical intervention by a pediatric infectious diseases specialist is useful for the treatment of infectious diseases in the pediatric ward of a tertiary medical facility without a pediatric ASP. The creation of a pediatric ASP is recommended in hospital complexes.
Glista, Danielle; Scollie, Susan; Moodie, Sheila; Easwar, Vijayalakshmi
The Ling 6(HL) test offers a calibrated version of naturally produced speech sounds in dB HL for evaluation of detection thresholds. Aided performance has been previously characterized in adults. The purpose of this work was to evaluate and refine the Ling 6(HL) test for use in pediatric hearing aid outcome measurement. This work is presented across two studies incorporating an integrated knowledge translation approach in the characterization of normative and typical performance, and in the evaluation of clinical feasibility, utility, acceptability, and implementation. A total of 57 children, 28 normally hearing and 29 with binaural sensorineural hearing loss, were included in Study 1. Children wore their own hearing aids fitted using Desired Sensation Level v5.0. Nine clinicians from The Network of Pediatric Audiologists participated in Study 2. A CD-based test format was used in the collection of unaided and aided detection thresholds in laboratory and clinical settings; thresholds were measured clinically as part of routine clinical care. Confidence intervals were derived to characterize normal performance and typical aided performance according to hearing loss severity. Unaided-aided performance was analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. The audiologists completed an online questionnaire evaluating the quality, feasibility/executability, utility/comparative value/relative advantage, acceptability/applicability, and interpretability, in addition to recommendation and general comments sections. Ling 6(HL) thresholds were reliably measured with children 3-18 yr old. Normative and typical performance ranges were translated into a scoring tool for use in pediatric outcome measurement. In general, questionnaire respondents generally agreed that the Ling 6(HL) test was a high-quality outcome evaluation tool that can be implemented successfully in clinical settings. By actively collaborating with pediatric audiologists and using an integrated
Higashino, H; Kobayashi, T; Shuto, K; Matsui, T; Hasui, M; Nogi, S; Adachi, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Araki, A; Sonoda, N
Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new parenteral oxacephem antibiotic was investigated for its clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics. The results obtained are summarized below. 1. Twenty-eight patients were treated with 39-152 mg/kg per day of FMOX by intravenous administration. Diagnosis of patients were pneumonia in 15 patients, acute upper respiratory tract infection in 5, acute enterocolitis in 3, urinary tract infection in 2 and cholangitis, suppurative lymphadenitis and suspicious sepsis in 1 patient each. Clinical effect was excellent in 7 cases, good in 8, fair in 5, poor in 2 and 6 cases were excluded because therapy periods were too short and other antibiotics were used together. Efficacy rate was 68% and the rate of bacterial disappearance was 83%. 2. Rash was found in 5 cases and thrombocytosis was found in 1 out of 28 cases. However, no severe adverse reaction was encountered. 3. The peak serum level of FMOX was 51.0 micrograms/ml after 20 mg/kg of drip infusion for 30 minutes and the half-life was 17.2 minutes in alpha-phase and 58.2 minutes in beta-phase.
Monteiro Grendene, Gabriela; Szczecinski Rodrigues, Átila; Katz, Natan; Harzheim, Erno
This paper presents results of an assessment of the quality research of endocrinology referrals in the public health system in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. From the analysis of 4,458 requests for endocrinology referrals, it was found that 15% of referrals had insufficient information for evaluation and 71% showed no clinical justification for authorization of referencing. The partial results of the study indicated that the lack of information makes it impossible to clinically regulate these requests. The use of referencing protocols associated with telemedicine tools can assist doctors in primary health care in the clinical management and make access to specialized services more equitable and timely.
Eom, Soyong; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang Ook; Kim, Sun Jun; Chung, Hee Jung; Kwon, Soon Hak; Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Wook; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Heung Dong
The aim of this study was to identify the different influencing patterns of demographic and epilepsy-related variables on various aspects of psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with pediatric epilepsy between the ages of 4 and 18 years (boys=360, 60% and girls=238, 40%) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the Social Maturity Scale (SMS), the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and the Korean version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (K-QOLCE) to assess daily living function, behavior, and quality of life. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was completed by clinicians to assess general adaptive function. Demographic variables, such as age and sex of child, and epilepsy-related clinical variables, including seizure type, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, and number of medications, were obtained from medical records. Demographic and epilepsy-related clinical variables had a strong influence (22-32%) on the cognition-related domain such as general adaptive function, school/total competence, and quality of life for cognitive function while a comparatively smaller effect (2-16%) on the more psychological domain including behavioral, emotional, and social variables. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, and smaller number of medications showed a strong positive impact on psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy, particularly for adaptive function, competence, and quality-of-life aspects. Given the wide range of impact of demographic and clinical variables on various facets of psychosocial functions, more specific understanding of the various aspects of factors and their particular pattern of influence may enable more effective therapeutic approaches that address both the medical and psychological needs in pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Narayana, Shalini; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; McGregor, Amy; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W
Noninvasive brain stimulation is now an accepted technique that is used as a diagnostic aid and in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults, and is being increasingly used in children. In this review, we will discuss the basic principles and safety of one noninvasive brain stimulation method, transcranial magnetic stimulation. Improvements in the spatial accuracy of transcranial magnetic stimulation are described in the context of image-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation. The article describes and provides examples of the current clinical applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in children as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and discusses future potential applications. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive tool that is safe for use in children and adolescents for functional mapping and treatment, and for many children it aids in the preoperative evaluation and the risk-benefit decision making. © The Author(s) 2014.
Esparham, Anna; Herbert, Anne; Pierzchalski, Emily; Tran, Catherine; Dilts, Jennifer; Boorigie, Madeline; Wingert, Tammie; Connelly, Mark; Bickel, Jennifer
The demand for integrative medicine has risen in recent years as research has demonstrated the efficacy of such treatments. The public has also become more conscientious of the potential limitations of conventional treatment alone. Because primary headache syndromes are often the culmination of genetics, lifestyle, stress, trauma, and environmental factors, they are best treated with therapies that are equally multifaceted. The Children’s Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri Headache Clinic has successfully incorporated integrative therapies including nutraceuticals, acupuncture, aromatherapy, biofeedback, relaxation training, hypnosis, psychology services, and lifestyle recommendations for headache management. This paper provides a detailed review of the implementation of integrative therapies for headache treatment and discusses examples through case studies. It can serve as a model for other specialty settings intending to incorporate all evidenced-based practices, whether complementary or conventional.
Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Marra, Alexandre R.; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos; Sukiennik, Teresa; Behar, Paulo Renato Petersen; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Ribeiro, Julival; Girão, Evelyne; Correa, Luci; Guerra, Carla; Carneiro, Irna; Brites, Carlos; Reis, Marise; de Souza, Marta Antunes; Tranchesi, Regina; Barata, Cristina U.; Edmond, Michael B.
Background Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and are the most frequent type of nosocomial infection in pediatric patients. Methods We identified the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nosocomial bloodstream isolates in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age) in the Brazilian Prospective Surveillance for nBSIs at 16 hospitals from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010 (Br SCOPE project). Results In our study a total of 2,563 cases of nBSI were reported by hospitals participating in the Br SCOPE project. Among these, 342 clinically significant episodes of BSI were identified in pediatric patients (≤16 years of age). Ninety-six percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 49.0% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 42.6%, and fungi caused 8.4%. The most common pathogens were Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (21.3%), Klebsiella spp. (15.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (10.6%), and Acinetobacter spp. (9.2%). The crude mortality was 21.6% (74 of 342). Forty-five percent of nBSIs occurred in a pediatric or neonatal intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 95 patients (27.8%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (66.4%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 37 S. aureus isolates (27.1%). Of the Klebsiella spp. isolates, 43.2% were resistant to ceftriaxone. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 42.9% and 21.4%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem. Conclusions In our multicenter study, we found a high mortality and a large proportion of gram-negative bacilli with elevated levels of resistance in pediatric patients. PMID:23861860
Background Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that can develop from a variety of causes. The aim of the work is to analyze the clinical spectrum and to evaluate the prevalence of various etiologies in children, who present to the emergency department (ED) with rhabdomyolysis. Methods During a 6-year study period, we retrospectively analyzed the medical charts of patients, aged 18 years or younger, with a definite diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis and serum creatinine phosphokinase (CK) levels greater than 1000IU/L. We analyzed the clinical spectrum and evaluated the potential risk factors of acute renal failure (ARF). Results Thirty-seven patients (mean age = 10.2 ± 5.5 years), including 26 males and 11 females, were enrolled in the study. Two of the most common presented symptoms in these 37 patients were muscle pain and muscle weakness (83.8% and 73%, respectively). Dark urine was reported in only 5.4% of the patients. The leading cause of rhabdomyolysis in the 0- to 9-year age group was presumed infection, and the leading cause in the 10- to 18-year age group was trauma and exercise. The incidence of ARF associated with rhabdomyolysis was 8.1 % and no child needed for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We did not identify any reliable predictors of ARF or need for RRT. Conclusions The classic triad of symptoms of rhabdomyolysis includes myalgia, weakness and dark urine are not always presented in children. The cause of rhabdomyolysis in younger age is different from that of teenager group. However, the prognosis of rhabdomyolysis was good with appropriate management. PMID:24004920
Stevens, Evelyn M.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Li, Yimei B.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Barakat, Lamia P.
Introduction Sickle cell disease (SCD) research is hampered by disparities in participation due in part to mistrust of research among racial/ethnic minorities. Beyond the historic context of research misconduct, little is known about the associations of social ecologic factors with mistrust and of mistrust with SCD clinical trials enrollment. This study evaluated proximal (age, gender, disease severity, perceived stress, SES) and distal (religious beliefs, social support, instrumental support) factors related to mistrust of research among caregivers of children with SCD and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with SCD. Methods Over an 18-month period (2009–2010), participants completed questionnaires of perceived barriers and benefits to clinical trials enrollment, perceived stress, and self-reported demographic and disease-related information. Analyses (January–June 2015) used multivariable linear regressions to evaluate predictors of mistrust. Results Data were analyzed for 154 caregivers (mean age, 38.75 years; SD=9.56 years; 90.30% female) and 88 AYAs (mean age, 24.76 years; SD=7.25 years; 46.40% female). Among caregivers (full model, R2=0.14, p≤0.001), greater mistrust was explained by higher perceived stress (β=0.04, p=0.052), religious beliefs (β=0.61, p≤0.001), and greater instrumental support (β=0.07, p=0.044). Among AYAs (full model, R2=0.18, p≤0.001), higher mistrust was explained by being male and lower instrumental support (β= −0.56, p≤0.001; β= −0.11, p=0.016, respectively). Mistrust was significantly greater among caregivers that reported no prior involvement in medical research (p=0.003). Conclusions By understanding the complexity through which social ecologic factors contribute to mistrust, researchers may create targeted strategies to address mistrust and increase engagement in SCD research for caregivers and AYAs. PMID:27320470
Bowdin, S C; Hayeems, R Z; Monfared, N; Cohn, R D; Meyn, M S
Our increasing knowledge of how genomic variants affect human health and the falling costs of whole-genome sequencing are driving the development of individualized genomic medicine. This new clinical paradigm uses knowledge of an individual's genomic variants to anticipate, diagnose and manage disease. While individualized genetic medicine offers the promise of transformative change in health care, it forces us to reconsider existing ethical, scientific and clinical paradigms. The potential benefits of pre-symptomatic identification of at-risk individuals, improved diagnostics, individualized therapy, accurate prognosis and avoidance of adverse drug reactions coexist with the potential risks of uninterpretable results, psychological harm, outmoded counseling models and increased health care costs. Here we review the challenges, opportunities and limits of integrating genomic analysis into pediatric clinical practice and describe a model for implementing individualized genomic medicine. Our multidisciplinary team of bioinformaticians, health economists, health services and policy researchers, ethicists, geneticists, genetic counselors and clinicians has designed a 'Genome Clinic' research project that addresses multiple challenges in pediatric genomic medicine--ranging from development of bioinformatics tools for the clinical assessment of genomic variants and the discovery of disease genes to health policy inquiries, assessment of clinical care models, patient preference and the ethics of consent. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry
Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…
Braslavsky, D; Keselman, A; Chiesa, A; Bergadá, I
The association of prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia may be secondary to an endocrinological disease. Pituitary insufficiency and primary adrenal insufficiency are the most likely endocrine diseases that need to be ruled out. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of thirteen patients referred to the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez between years 2003 and 2008 due to prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia secondary to pituitary insufficiency in twelve patients, and in one secondary to primary adrenal insufficiency. All patients had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Ten patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and six also had elevated transaminases. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency was observed in the twelve hypopituitarism patients. Hormonal replacement normalised liver function and resolved the prolonged jaundice in all the patients. None of them underwent liver biopsy. Hypoglycaemia also remitted after hormonal therapy. Prolonged or cholestatic jaundice associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia is highly likely to be due to pituitary hormone deficiency or primary adrenal insufficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment of these children reverts the prolonged jaundice and prevents morbidity and mortality due to recurrent hypoglycaemia and hormone deficiencies. Copyright Â© 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Ryan, Jamie L; Mellon, Michael W; Junger, Katherine W F; Hente, Elizabeth A; Denson, Lee A; Saeed, Shehzad A; Hommel, Kevin A
Adjusting to symptom flares, treatment regimens, and side effects places youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems and adverse disease outcomes. Implementation of psychosocial screening into clinical practice remains a challenge. This study examines the clinical utility of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) screening in predicting disease outcome and healthcare utilization. One hundred twelve youth of 7 to 18 years diagnosed with IBD and their parents. Youth completed standardized measures of HRQOL and depression. Parents completed a proxy report of HRQOL. Pediatric gastroenterologists provided the Physician Global Assessment. Families were recruited from a pediatric gastroenterology clinic. Retrospective chart reviews examined disease outcome and healthcare utilization for 12 months after baseline measurement. Linear regressions, controlling for demographic and disease parameters, revealed that baseline measurement of youth and parent proxy-reported HRQOL predicted the number of IBD-related hospital admissions, gastroenterology clinic visits, emergency department visits, psychology clinic visits, telephone contacts, and pain management referrals over the next 12 months. Disease outcome was not significant. Lower HRQOL was predictive of increased healthcare utilization among youth with IBD. Regular HRQOL screening may be the impetus to providing better case management and allocating resources based on ongoing care needs and costs. Proactive interventions focused on patients with poor HRQOL may be an efficient approach to saving on healthcare costs and resource utilization.
Toyonaga, Y; Kurosu, Y; Sugita, M; Kita, A; Yoshino, N; Kouda, N; Kumagai, K; Horiuchi, K; Hori, M; Takahashi, T
Preclinical and clinical studies were carried out on cefotetan (CTT), a new synthetic cephamycin antibacterial agent. The results are described below. Antibacterial activity The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CTT, CEZ, CTM and CMZ were determined against clinical isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis. To CTT S. aureus, showed its sensitivity peak (in the graphic plot of the MIC distribution) at a concentration range of 3.13-6.25 micrograms/ml when a 100-fold dilution of the pathological specimen was employed as the inoculum. These results were inferior to those with CEZ and CTM by 2-4 concentration tubes. The CTT results were also about 2 tubes inferior to the results with CMZ, which is a cephamycin antibiotic. On the other hand, CTT was found to show very strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative rods. For example, the sensitivity peak of E. coli, occurred at an antibiotic concentration of less than or equal to 0.1-0.2 microgram/ml, regardless of whether the inoculum was the undiluted pathological specimen or the 100-fold dilution thereof. Similar results were obtained in relation to the K. pneumoniae strains: at a CTT concentration of less than or equal to 0.1 microgram/ml, suppression of growth was achieved in 74% of the strains when the inocula were the undiluted specimens, and 86% when the inocula were the 100-fold dilutions thereof. In addition, against P. mirabilis, when the inoculum consisted of the undiluted pathological specimen the MIC peak for CTT occurred at a concentration range of 0.39-0.78 microgram/ml, whereas the peak occurred at 0.2-0.39 microgram/ml when the bacterial inoculum was the 100-fold dilution of the collected specimen. In contrast, CTM showed slightly stronger antibacterial activity than CTT in relation to P. mirabilis; that is, its MIC peak occurred at less than or equal to 0.1-0.2 microgram/ml when the inoculum was the undiluted pathological specimen, and at less than or equal to 0
Cordingley, Dean; Girardin, Richard; Reimer, Karen; Ritchie, Lesley; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly; Ellis, Michael J
OBJECTIVE The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and clinical use of graded aerobic treadmill testing in pediatric patients with sports-related concussion (SRC), and 2) to evaluate the clinical outcomes of treatment with a submaximal aerobic exercise program in patients with physiological post-concussion disorder (PCD). METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of pediatric patients (age < 20 years) with SRC who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and underwent graded aerobic treadmill testing between October 9, 2014, and February 11, 2016. Clinical assessments were carried out by a single neurosurgeon and included clinical history taking, physical examination, and recording specific patient-reported concussion-related symptoms using the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Graded aerobic treadmill testing using a modified Balke protocol for incremental increases in intensity was used as a diagnostic tool to assess physiological recovery, classify post-concussion syndrome (PCS) subtype, and reassess patients following treatment. Patients with a symptom-limited threshold on treadmill testing (physiological PCD) were treated with an individually tailored submaximal exercise prescription and multidisciplinary targeted therapies. RESULTS One hundred six patients (mean age 15.1 years, range 11-19 years) with SRC underwent a total of 141 treadmill tests. There were no serious complications related to treadmill testing in this study. Overall, 138 (97.9%) of 141 tests were well tolerated and contributed valuable clinical information. Treadmill testing confirmed physiological recovery in 63 (96.9%) of 65 patients tested, allowing successful return to play in 61 (93.8%). Treadmill testing was used to diagnose physiological PCD in 58 patients and cervicogenic PCD in 1 patient. Of the 41 patients with physiological PCD who had complete follow-up and were treated with tailored submaximal
Carpenter, L Rand; Kainer, Marion; Woron, Amy; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F
Ambulatory care visits for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing dramatically. We investigated a pediatric clinic worker's death caused by MRSA. Among 45 clinic personnel, 16 reported recent skin infections, and 4% were colonized with MRSA. Among 262 patients, 3.4% were colonized with MRSA. Standard precautions were inconsistently applied when treating skin infections. Eight (11%) of 71 environmental swipes contained S aureus. Health care workers in outpatient settings are increasingly exposed to substantial numbers of persons with MRSA, and infection control practices in the ambulatory care setting deserve reemphasis.
Brooks, Garrett A; Park, Jun T
Pediatric cardiac arrest is a significant cause of death and neurologic disability; however, there is a paucity of literature specifically evaluating the utility of prognostic factors in the pediatric population. This retrospective chart review examines clinical, laboratory, and electroencephalographic (EEG) data in children following cardiopulmonary arrest to better characterize findings that may inform prognosis. Pre-arrest clinical characteristics, resuscitation details, and post-arrest hospital course variables were analyzed and neurologic outcome was determined using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scale. Forty-one patients were identified who had cardiac arrest from March, 2011 to January, 2015. Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( p = 0.013), out-of-hospital arrest ( p = 0.005), arterial pH (0.014), arterial lactate (0.004), lack of pupil reactivity to light ( p < 0.001), absent motor response to noxious stimuli ( p < 0.001), and absent brainstem reflexes ( p < 0.001) were all predictors of poor neurologic outcome. EEG background suppression ( p = 0.005) was associated with poor outcome. Nine patients had electrographically recorded seizures, which began up to 1 week following cardiac arrest. Two patients (4.9%) experienced post-anoxic myoclonic status epilepticus and both had a poor outcome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Giudici, Valentina; Spanaki, Adriani; Hendry, Jennifer; Mead-Regan, Sarah; Field, Ella; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Abrams, Dominic; Lowe, Martin; Kaski, Juan Pablo
Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is most often caused by heritable cardiac diseases. Studies in adults have identified evidence of inherited cardiovascular diseases in up to 53% of families, but data on the prevalence of familial disease in children are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of clinical screening in pediatric first-degree relatives of victims of SADS using a systematic and comprehensive protocol. Patients referred for family screening after sudden cardiac death (SCD) of a family member were, retrospectively, enrolled into the study. Systematic evaluation of the children included clinical examination, family history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, 24-hour tape, and signal-averaged ECG. Older patients also underwent exercise testing, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and ajmaline provocation testing. A total of 90 children from 52 consecutive families were included in the study. An inherited cardiac disease was identified in seven first-degree children from seven (13.5%) families (five children were diagnosed with Brugada syndrome, one with long QT syndrome, and one with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). Two further children had late potentials on signal-averaged ECGs with no other abnormalities. These data show a high prevalence of inherited heart disease in pediatric first-degree relatives of SADS victims. The results highlight the importance of a systematic, comprehensive approach and ongoing screening of pediatric family members. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Govender, Meveshni; Bowen, Randy C.; German, Massiell L.; Bulaj, Grzegorz
Abstract Pediatric oncology patients often experience fatigue and physical and mental deconditioning during and following chemotherapy treatments, contributing to diminished quality of life. Patient empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care and reflects one's ability to positively affect his or her own health behavior and health status. Empowerment interventions may enhance patients' internal locus of control, resilience, coping skills, and self-management of symptoms related to disease and therapy. Clinical and technological advancements in therapeutic videogames and mobile medical applications (mobile health) can facilitate delivery of the empowerment interventions for medical purposes. This review summarizes clinical strategies for empowering pediatric cancer patients, as well as their relationship with developing a “fighting spirit” in physical and mental health. To better understand physiological aspects of empowerment and to elucidate videogame-based intervention strategies, brain neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters during stress, fear, and resilience are also discussed. Neuroimaging studies point to the role of the reward system pathways in resilience and empowerment in patients. Taken together, videogames and mobile health applications open translational research opportunities to develop and deliver empowerment interventions to pediatric cancer patients and also to those with other chronic diseases. PMID:26287927
Govender, Meveshni; Bowen, Randy C; German, Massiell L; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Bruggers, Carol S
Pediatric oncology patients often experience fatigue and physical and mental deconditioning during and following chemotherapy treatments, contributing to diminished quality of life. Patient empowerment is a core principle of patient-centered care and reflects one's ability to positively affect his or her own health behavior and health status. Empowerment interventions may enhance patients' internal locus of control, resilience, coping skills, and self-management of symptoms related to disease and therapy. Clinical and technological advancements in therapeutic videogames and mobile medical applications (mobile health) can facilitate delivery of the empowerment interventions for medical purposes. This review summarizes clinical strategies for empowering pediatric cancer patients, as well as their relationship with developing a "fighting spirit" in physical and mental health. To better understand physiological aspects of empowerment and to elucidate videogame-based intervention strategies, brain neuronal circuits and neurotransmitters during stress, fear, and resilience are also discussed. Neuroimaging studies point to the role of the reward system pathways in resilience and empowerment in patients. Taken together, videogames and mobile health applications open translational research opportunities to develop and deliver empowerment interventions to pediatric cancer patients and also to those with other chronic diseases.
Hemperly, Amy; Sandborn, William J; Vande Casteele, Niels
This review describes the clinical pharmacology of the major drugs used for the treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety profile are discussed. Some small molecules were developed to act systemically (eg, ozanimod) or locally (eg, aminosalicylates) and thus have disparate pharmacokinetic properties. In addition, locally acting compounds have been optimized to mitigate systemic exposure-eg, budesonide, which undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism-thereby reducing systemic bioavailability and side effects. Other small molecules such as thiopurines are precursors of their active metabolites and differences in genotype or phenotype of metabolizing enzymes may affect efficacy and safety, requiring therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Monoclonal antibodies (MAs) are large molecules administered parenterally, and their pharmacokinetics may be influenced not only by the general immunoglobulin (Ig) G metabolism and recycling pathways but also by antigen properties such as antigen distribution and antigen concentration. In addition, antibody structure, host factors, concurrent medications, and immunogenicity may contribute to the substantial inter- and intrapatient variability in drug exposure and response observed for MAs. Current guidelines recommend reactive TDM of tumor necrosis factor antagonists at the time of loss of response. Evidence for proactive TDM and for the role of TDM for biologics with a different mechanism of action is emerging. Although small molecules offer potential benefits over biologics with oral administration and lack of immunogenicity, there may be risk for more systemic side effects due to off-target binding. Understanding drug metabolism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and mechanism of action are important in selecting the right drug at the right time at the right dose for patients with IBD.10.1093/ibd/izy189_video1izy189.video15786062223001.
Ridefelt, Peter; Hilsted, Linda; Juul, Anders; Hellberg, Dan; Rustad, Pål
Reference intervals are crucial tools aiding clinicians when making medical decisions. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. The present study combines data from separate pediatric reference interval studies of Denmark and Sweden in order to increase sample size and to include also pre-school children who were lacking in the Danish study. Results from two separate studies including 1988 healthy children and adolescents aged 6 months to 18 years of age were merged and recalculated. Eighteen general clinical chemistry components were measured on Abbott and Roche platforms. To facilitate commutability, the NFKK Reference Serum X was used. Age- and gender-specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The data generated are primarily applicable to a Nordic population, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.
Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc
During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee’s work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested. PMID:27618021
Mlakar, Vid; Huezo-Diaz Curtis, Patricia; Satyanarayana Uppugunduri, Chakradhara Rao; Krajinovic, Maja; Ansari, Marc
During the 3rd congress of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy (ESPT) in Budapest in 2015, a preliminary meeting was held aimed at establishing a pediatric individualized treatment in oncology and hematology committees. The main purpose was to facilitate the transfer and harmonization of pharmacogenetic testing from research into clinics, to bring together basic and translational research and to educate health professionals throughout Europe. The objective of this review was to provide the attendees of the meeting as well as the larger scientific community an insight into the compiled evidence regarding current pharmacogenomics knowledge in pediatric oncology. This preliminary evaluation will help steer the committee's work and should give the reader an idea at which stage researchers and clinicians are, in terms of personalizing medicine for children with cancer. From the evidence presented here, future recommendations to achieve this goal will also be suggested.
Pisani, Anthony R; leRoux, Pieter; Siegel, David M
Pediatric residency practices face the challenge of providing both behavioral health (BH) training for pediatricians and psychosocial care for children. The University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry and Rochester General Hospital developed a joint training program and continuity clinic infrastructure in which pediatric residents and postdoctoral psychology fellows train and practice together. The integrated program provides children access to BH care in a primary care setting and gives trainees the opportunity to integrate collaborative BH care into their regular practice routines. During 1998-2008, 48 pediatric residents and 8 psychology fellows trained in this integrated clinical environment. The program's accomplishments include longevity, faculty and fiscal stability, sustained support from pediatric leadership and community payers, the development in residents and faculty of greater comfort in addressing BH problems and collaborating with BH specialists, and replication of the model in two other primary care settings. In addition to quantitative program outcomes data, the authors present a case example that illustrates how the integrated program works and achieves its goals. They propose that educating residents and psychology trainees side by side in collaborative BH care is clinically and educationally valuable and potentially applicable to other settings. A companion report published in this issue provides results from a study comparing the perceptions of pediatric residents whose primary care continuity clinic took place in this integrated setting with those of residents from the same pediatric residency who had their continuity clinic training in a nonintegrated setting.
Nagpal, Poonam; Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Tomiyama, Tatsunari; Cousins, Tasheka; Tai, Betty; Carroll, Nicole; Nyrenda, Themba; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Harris, Michael B; Goy, Andre; Pecora, Andrew; Suh, K Stephen
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a lymphoid malignancy that is typically derived from germinal-center B cells. EBV infection, mutations in NF-κB pathway genes, and genetic susceptibility are known risk factors for developing HL. CD30 and NF-κB have been identified as potential biomarkers in pediatric HL patients, and these molecules may represent therapeutic targets. Although current risk adapted and response based treatment approaches yield overall survival rates of >95%, treatment of relapse or refractory patients remains challenging. Targeted HL therapy with the antibody-drug conjugate Brentuximab vedotin (Bv) has proven to be superior to conventional salvage chemotherapy and clinical trials are being conducted to incorporate Bv into frontline therapy that substitutes Bv for alkylating agents to minimize secondary malignancies. The appearance of secondary malignancies has been a concern in pediatric HL, as these patients are at highest risk among all childhood cancer survivors. The risk of developing secondary leukemia following childhood HL treatment is 10.4 to 174.8 times greater than the risk in the general pediatric population and the prognosis is significantly poorer than the other hematological malignancies with a mortality rate of nearly 100%. Therefore, identifying clinically valuable biomarkers is of utmost importance to stratify and select patients who may or may not need intensive regimens to maintain optimal balance between maximal survival rates and averting late effects. Here we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, staging, molecular and genetic prognostic biomarkers, treatment for low and high-risk patients, and the late occurrence of secondary malignancies in pediatric HL.
Stern, Mark J; Guiles, Robert A F; Gevirtz, Richard
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Functional Abdominal Pain (FAP) are among the most commonly reported Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Both have been associated with varying autonomic dysregulation. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback (HRVB) has recently begun to show efficacy in the treatment of both IBS and FAP. The purpose of this multiple clinical replication series was to analyze the clinical outcomes of utilizing HRVB in a clinical setting. Archival data of twenty-seven consecutive pediatric outpatients diagnosed with IBS or FAP who received HRVB were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were self-report and categorized as full or remission with patient satisfaction, or no improvement. Qualitative reports of patient experiences were also noted. Full remission was achieved by 69.2 % and partial remission was achieved by 30.8 % of IBS patients. Full remission was achieved by 63.6 % and partial remission was achieved by 36.4 % of FAP patients. No patients in either group did not improve to a level of patient satisfaction or >50 %. Patient's commonly reported feeling validated in their discomfort as a result of psychophysiological education. Results suggest that HRVB is a promising intervention for pediatric outpatients with IBS or FAP. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to accurately determine clinical efficacy of HRVB in the treatment of IBS and FAP.
Motohiro, T; Oda, K; Aramaki, M; Kawakami, A; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Tomita, S; Sakata, Y; Fujimoto, T
Flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S), a new intravenous cephem antibiotics, was administered to a total of 11 cases with their ages ranging from 7 years and 4 months to 10 years and 10 months. Among them, two were administered with (FMOX at) a dose level of 10 mg/kg, three each with 20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg using one shot intravenous injection, and the remaining 3 with 40 mg/kg by intravenous drip infusion over 30 minutes. Plasma concentrations, urine concentrations and urinary recovery rates were determined. The clinical efficacy of FMOX was evaluated in 2 cases with tonsillitis, 45 with acute pneumonia, 10 with urinary tract infections, 2 with purulent lymphadenitis, and 2 with abscess, a total of 61 cases. Of these cases, one case of pneumonia in which a side effect occurred was excluded from the evaluation because the treatment was interrupted short of the required period. In the remaining 60 cases, the mean daily dose was 79.3 mg/kg in 3 or 4 divided doses and, except one case treated by 30-minute intravenous drip infusion, all cases were treated by one shot intravenous injection for a mean period of 6 days. Bacteriological effects of FMOX, its side effects and influences on laboratory test values were also investigated. 1. Maximum plasma concentrations after one shot intravenous injections of FMOX occurred at 5 minutes after administration regardless of dose levels (10 mg/kg in 2 cases, 20 mg/kg in 3 and 40 mg/kg in 3). Mean peak values obtained upon the 3 different dose levels were 62.5, 103.1 and 244.7 micrograms/ml, respectively. Mean plasma half-lives were 0.670, 0.915 and 0.595 hour, and mean AUCs were 33.0, 65.2 and 133.1 micrograms.hr/ml, respectively. Thus, a positive dose-response relationship was found among the 3 doses. 2. Plasma concentrations after 30-minute intravenous drip infusions of FMOX at 40 mg/kg always reached a peak at 30 minutes after the initiation of infusion, i.e. at the completion of infusion, and the mean value for 3 administrations was 151
Huang, Jian-Huang; Mei, Wen-Zhong; Chen, Yao; Chen, Jian-Wu; Lin, Zhi-Xiong
To summarize the clinical characteristics of intracranial arachnoid cysts (IACs) in pediatric cases. A retrospective analysis was carried out on clinical characteristics of IACs in 488 pediatric cases who were treated at our hospital from January 2003 to September 2013. There were 342 males and 146 females (male-to-female ratio, 2.34:1), aged 5.61±3.25 years on average. 221 cases (45.29%) were diagnosed accidentally, 267 cases had clinical complaints (54.71%), among which relationships between clinical complaints and IACs were identified in 123 (46.07%). Simple IACs occurred in 364 cases (4.59%), and concurrent congenital abnormalities occurred in 124 cases (4.59%). In terms of location, 355 had IACs in middle cranial fossa (72.75%), 82 cases in posterior cranial fossa (16.80%), 20 cases in anterior cranial fossa (4.10%), 12 cases in dorsolateral surface (2.46%), 7 cases in suprasellar cistern (1.43%), 5 cases in cerebral ventricle (1.02%), 5 cases in quadrigeminal cistern (1.02%), and 2 cases in interhemispheric region (0.41%). There were 449 cases with single IAC (92.01%) and 39 cases with multiple IACs (7.99%). On MRI, the cysts produced tension in 127 cases (26.02%), but not in the remaining 361 cases (73.98%). Surgery was performed on 76 of 488 cases (15.57%), while conservative observation was accepted in 412 cases (84.43%). For the former, the symptoms and the cyst volume were improved to varying extent; for the latter, the follow-up lasting for 3-72 months (average 32.43±8.92 months) showed that the cyst volume remained stable in 407 cases (98.78%), enlarged with aggravated symptoms in 3 cases (0.73%), and shrank in 2 cases (0.49%). Clinical complaints of IACs varied in pediatric cases, and the relationships between clinical complaints and IACs were established only partially. Some pediatric cases were combined with other congenital abnormalities. The cyst volume largely remained stable during the disease course, and surgery was required for only a few
Background Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. Methods We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Results Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1) selecting candidate variables; 2) specifying measurement parameters; 3) defining data format; 4) defining time window duration and resolution; 5) calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6) calculating time series features as latent variables; 7) creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8) reducing the number of
Kennedy, Curtis E; Turley, James P
Thousands of children experience cardiac arrest events every year in pediatric intensive care units. Most of these children die. Cardiac arrest prediction tools are used as part of medical emergency team evaluations to identify patients in standard hospital beds that are at high risk for cardiac arrest. There are no models to predict cardiac arrest in pediatric intensive care units though, where the risk of an arrest is 10 times higher than for standard hospital beds. Current tools are based on a multivariable approach that does not characterize deterioration, which often precedes cardiac arrests. Characterizing deterioration requires a time series approach. The purpose of this study is to propose a method that will allow for time series data to be used in clinical prediction models. Successful implementation of these methods has the potential to bring arrest prediction to the pediatric intensive care environment, possibly allowing for interventions that can save lives and prevent disabilities. We reviewed prediction models from nonclinical domains that employ time series data, and identified the steps that are necessary for building predictive models using time series clinical data. We illustrate the method by applying it to the specific case of building a predictive model for cardiac arrest in a pediatric intensive care unit. Time course analysis studies from genomic analysis provided a modeling template that was compatible with the steps required to develop a model from clinical time series data. The steps include: 1) selecting candidate variables; 2) specifying measurement parameters; 3) defining data format; 4) defining time window duration and resolution; 5) calculating latent variables for candidate variables not directly measured; 6) calculating time series features as latent variables; 7) creating data subsets to measure model performance effects attributable to various classes of candidate variables; 8) reducing the number of candidate features; 9
de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R
Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Larson-Nath, Catherine M; Goday, Praveen S
We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, diagnostic work-up, interventions, and outcomes of children referred to a pediatric gastroenterology clinic with the diagnosis of failure to thrive (FTT). We prospectively enrolled 110 children seen for the first time in our pediatric gastroenterology clinic for FTT. Standard demographic information, history, and anthropometric data were collected at initial and follow-up visits. We also obtained data about diagnostic workup, therapeutic interventions, and growth outcomes. Seventy patients (63.6%) were boys with a median age of 0.79 years (interquartile range 0.36-1.98). Of the 91 children with follow-up data, 81 (89%) were found to have nonorganic etiologies of their FTT. The majority of children (56.4%) underwent laboratory evaluation. Imaging and endoscopic evaluations were performed in fewer patients (29.6 and 10.2%, respectively). Endoscopic intervention yielded a diagnosis in 16.7% of patients while the positive result rates for laboratory testing and imaging were 3.2% and 3.1%, respectively. The most common therapeutic interventions included increasing calories (71.8%), avoiding grazing (71.8%), and structuring meals and snacks (67.3%). Compared with nonadherent children, children who were adherent with standard behavioral and nutritional interventions showed a higher positive change in z scores for weight (0.36 vs -0.01, P = 0.001) and body mass index (0.58 vs -0.18, P = 0.031). The majority of children in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic with FTT have nonorganic etiologies of their failure to thrive. Laboratory, imaging, and endoscopic evaluation are rarely positive and should be judiciously performed. Adherence to standardized interventions leads to improved growth.
Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a “capstone experience”; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the “business of science.” Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists. PMID:22286345
McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Spirito, Anthony
Existing literature highlights a critical gap between science and practice in clinical psychology. The internship year is a "capstone experience"; training in methods of scientific evaluation should be integrated with the development of advanced clinical competencies. We provide a rationale for continued exposure to research during the clinical internship year, including, (a) critical examination and integration of the literature regarding evidence-based treatment and assessment, (b) participation in faculty-based and independent research, and (c) orientation to the science and strategy of grantsmanship. Participation in research provides exposure to new empirical models and can foster the development of applied research questions. Orientation to grantsmanship can yield an initial sense of the "business of science." Internship provides an important opportunity to examine the challenges to integrating the clinical evidence base into professional practice; for that reason, providing research exposure on internship is an important strategy in training the next generation of pediatric psychologists.
Frazier, Johnnie P; Land, Megan; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Barratt, Michelle S
To document the prevalence of junk foods seen at clinic visits. A cross-sectional 23-item survey of observed food items were completed by medical staff using a convenience sample of families from June 2, 2011 to March 2, 2012. The study was conducted in pediatric clinics affiliated with the University of Texas Medical School at Houston. A convenience sample consisting of 738 families with children from 4 months to 16 years old presenting for visits were included in the study. Children exclusively breast and formula fed was excluded. Junk food was observed 20.9% at the clinic visits. Junk food was often seen at clinic visits. There was a trend toward higher body mass index in patients whose families had junk food at the visit.
Kolko, David J; Campo, John V; Kilbourne, Amy M; Kelleher, Kelly
To evaluate the feasibility and clinical benefits of an integrated mental health intervention (doctor-office collaborative care [DOCC]) vs enhanced usual care (EUC) for children with behavioral problems. Cases were assigned to DOCC and EUC using a 2:1 randomization schedule that resulted in 55 DOCC and 23 EUC cases. Preassessment was conducted in 4 pediatric primary care practices. Postassessment was conducted in the pediatric or research office. Doctor-office collaborative care was provided in the practice; EUC was initiated in the office but involved a facilitated referral to a local mental health specialist. Of 125 referrals (age range, 5-12 years), 78 children participated. Children and their parents were assigned to receive DOCC or EUC. Preassessment diagnostic status was evaluated using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-aged Children. Preassessment and 6-month postassessment ratings of behavioral and emotional problems were collected from parents using the Vanderbilt Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, as well as individualized goal achievement ratings forms. At discharge, care managers and a diagnostic evaluator completed the Clinical Global Impression Scale, and pediatricians and parents completed satisfaction and study feedback measures. Group comparisons found significant improvements for DOCC over EUC in service use and completion, behavioral and emotional problems, individualized behavioral goals, and overall clinical response. Pediatricians and parents were highly satisfied with DOCC. The feasibility and clinical benefits of DOCC for behavioral problems support the integration of collaborative mental health services for common mental disorders in primary care.
Groner, Abraham; Laing-Grayman, Deborah; Silverberg, Nanette B
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) presents numerous diagnostic and therapeutic problems for the outpatient physician, including the appropriate use of antibiotics and proper counseling of families on ways to prevent household spread. Most cases of CAMRSA in children involve soft tissue and skin infection, which is precisely the type of infection most likely to be diagnosed in a dermatology practice. We reviewed 8 pediatric cases of cutaneous CAMRSA that presented over 8 months. The 8 pediatric patients presented with one or more of the following: folliculitis (n=4), abscesses of the groin (n=3), impetiginized atopic dermatitis (AD)(n=2), pustules (n=2), bullous impetigo (n= 1), and nonbullous impetigo (n=1). Three caregivers of these children developed abscesses in exposed areas such as the forearm (n=3) and calf (n=1). The folliculitis cases involved the abdomen, groin and diaper region, buttocks, and inner thighs; the impetiginized AD did not differ from the distribution of the AD. The variety of clinical presentations and the spread in households represent a few of the many facets of CAMRSA in the pediatric dermatology outpatient setting.
Rahman, Sara H; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Keil, Margaret F; Faucz, Fabio R; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A
To investigate the prevalence of kidney stones in a population of children with Cushing disease (CD) and to compare it with the prevalence of kidney stones in healthy children. Clinical and biochemical data from 139 pediatric patients with CD (68 females, 71 males) were analyzed retrospectively. Computed tomography scans were reviewed for kidney stones. Among 139 patients, 27 with CD (19.4%) had either radiographic evidence and/or a history of kidney stones. Those with kidney stones had higher urine free cortisol (P = .008) and transsphenoidal surgery at an older age (P = .007). The average urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was elevated in patients with CD (0.22 ± 0.11). The prevalence of kidney stones was higher in children with CD than in normal children (19.42% vs 1.0%; P < .001). Our results illustrate that kidney stones are an underestimated complication of pediatric CD, especially when compared with the prevalence of nephrolithiasis in the general pediatric population. Long-term consequences for kidney function are not known and need to be studied. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S
In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.
Lin, Kenneth M; James, Evan W; Spitzer, Elad; Fabricant, Peter D
The purpose of this review is to discuss the epidemiology, pathoanatomy, diagnosis, and clinical management of pediatric and adolescent patients following a first-time shoulder dislocation. Shoulder instability is becoming increasingly common as pediatric and adolescent patients engage in earlier organized sports competition. Recommended treatment following a first-time glenohumeral dislocation event in adolescents depends on several factors, but surgical stabilization is becoming more frequently performed. Surgical indications include bony Bankart lesion, ALPSA lesion, bipolar injury (e.g. Hill-Sachs humeral head depression fracture) or off-season injury in an overhead or throwing athlete. Complications following surgical treatment are rare but most commonly are associated with recurrent instability. Young children (eg. open proximal humerus growth plate), individuals averse to surgery, or in-season athletes who accept the risk of redislocation may complete an accelerated rehabilitation program for expedited return to play in the absence of the structural abnormalities listed above. Following a first-time dislocation event in pediatric and adolescent patients, a detailed discussion of the risks and benefits of nonoperative versus operative management is critical to match the recommended treatment with the patient's injury pattern, risk factors, and activity goals.
Benvenuti, Michael A; An, Thomas J; Mignemi, Megan E; Martus, Jeffrey E; Mencio, Gregory A; Lovejoy, Stephen A; Thomsen, Isaac P; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; Williams, Derek J
Objective There are currently no algorithms for early stratification of pediatric musculoskeletal infection (MSKI) severity that are applicable to all types of tissue involvement. In this study, the authors sought to develop a clinical prediction algorithm that accurately stratifies infection severity based on clinical and laboratory data at presentation to the emergency department. Methods An IRB-approved retrospective review was conducted to identify patients aged 0–18 who presented to the pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children’s hospital with concern for acute MSKI over a five-year period (2008–2013). Qualifying records were reviewed to obtain clinical and laboratory data and to classify in-hospital outcomes using a three-tiered severity stratification system. Ordinal regression was used to estimate risk for each outcome. Candidate predictors included age, temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, C-reactive protein, and peripheral white blood cell count. We fit fully specified (all predictors) and reduced models (retaining predictors with a p-value ≤ 0.2). Discriminatory power of the models was assessed using the concordance (c)-index. Results Of the 273 identified children, 191 (70%) met inclusion criteria. Median age was 5.8 years. Outcomes included 47 (25%) children with inflammation only, 41 (21%) with local infection, and 103 (54%) with disseminated infection. Both the full and reduced models accurately demonstrated excellent performance (full model c-index 0.83, 95% CI [0.79–0.88]; reduced model 0.83, 95% CI [0.78–0.87]). Model fit was also similar, indicating preference for the reduced model. Variables in this model included C-reactive protein, pulse, temperature, and an interaction term for pulse and temperature. The odds of a more severe outcome increased by 30% for every 10-unit increase in C-reactive protein. Conclusions Clinical and laboratory data obtained in the emergency department may be used to accurately
Koppen, I J N; Saps, M; Lavigne, J V; Nurko, S; Taminiau, J A J M; Di Lorenzo, C; Benninga, M A
Evidence for the efficacy of commonly used drugs in the treatment of childhood functional constipation (FC) is scarce, studies are often of low quality and study designs are heterogeneous. Thus, recommendations for the design of clinical trials in childhood FC are needed. Members of the Rome Foundation and a member of the Pediatric Committee of the European Medicines Agency formed a committee to create recommendations for the design of clinical trials in children with FC. This committee recommends conducting randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trials to assess the efficacy of new drugs for the treatment of childhood FC. Pediatric study participants should be included based on fulfilling the Rome IV criteria for FC. A treatment free run-in period for baseline assessment is recommended. The trial duration should be at least 8 weeks. Treatment success is defined as no longer meeting the Rome IV criteria for FC. Stool consistency should be reported based on the Bristol Stool Scale. Endpoints of drug efficacy need to be tailored to the developmental age of the patient population. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher; McMenamy, Jannette M; Henson, Brandi S; Carter, Alice S
Disruptive behavior disorders, such as attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, are common and stable throughout childhood. These disorders cause long-term morbidity but benefit from early intervention. While symptoms are often evident before preschool, few children receive appropriate treatment during this period. Group parent training, such as the Incredible Years program, has been shown to be effective in improving parenting strategies and reducing children's disruptive behaviors. Because they already monitor young children's behavior and development, primary care pediatricians are in a good position to intervene early when indicated. To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of parent-training groups delivered to parents of toddlers in pediatric primary care settings. This randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 diverse pediatric practices in the Greater Boston area. A total of 273 parents of children between 2 and 4 years old who acknowledged disruptive behaviors on a 20-item checklist were included. A 10-week Incredible Years parent-training group co-led by a research clinician and a pediatric staff member. Self-reports and structured videotaped observations of parent and child behaviors conducted prior to, immediately after, and 12 months after the intervention. A total of 150 parents were randomly assigned to the intervention or the waiting-list group. An additional 123 parents were assigned to receive intervention without a randomly selected comparison group. Compared with the waiting-list group, greater improvement was observed in both intervention groups (P < .05). No differences were observed between the randomized and the nonrandomized intervention groups. Self-reports and structured observations provided evidence of improvements in parenting practices and child disruptive behaviors that were attributable to participation in the Incredible Years groups. This study demonstrated the feasibility and
Joseph, Pathma D; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison; Caldwell, Patrina H Y
The last decade has seen dramatic changes in the regulatory landscape to support more trials involving children, but child-specific challenges and inequitable conduct across income regions persist. The goal of this study was to describe the attitudes and opinions of stakeholders toward trials in children, to inform additional strategies to promote more high-quality, relevant pediatric trials across the globe. Key informant semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (researchers, regulators, and sponsors) who were purposively sampled from low- to middle-income countries and high-income countries. The transcripts were thematically analyzed. Thirty-five stakeholders from 10 countries were interviewed. Five major themes were identified: addressing pervasive inequities (paucity of safety and efficacy data, knowledge disparities, volatile environment, double standards, contextual relevance, market-driven forces, industry sponsorship bias and prohibitive costs); contending with infrastructural barriers (resource constraints, dearth of pediatric trial expertise, and logistical complexities); navigating complex ethical and regulatory frameworks ("draconian" oversight, ambiguous requirements, exploitation, excessive paternalism and precariousness of coercion versus volunteerism); respecting uniqueness of children (pediatric research paradigms, child-appropriate approaches, and family-centered empowerment); and driving evidence-based child health (advocacy, opportunities, treatment access, best practices, and research prioritization). Stakeholders acknowledge that changes in the regulatory environment have encouraged more trials in children, but they contend that inequities and political, regulatory, and resource barriers continue to exist. Embedding trials as part of routine clinical care, addressing the unique needs of children, and streamlining regulatory approvals were suggested. Stakeholders recommended increasing international collaboration
Can, Emrah; Kılınç Yaprak, Zubeyde; Hamilçıkan, Şahin; Erol, Meltem; Bostan Gayret Y Özgül Yiğit, Özlem
To determine the frequency of the MEFV gene mutations in pediatric patients diagnosed with HSP and to assess the effect of the MEFV gene mutations on their prognosis. Material and Methods. Ccross-sectional study; pediatric patients between 2-11 years diagnosed with HSP were included. These cases were investigated for 6 MEFV gene mutations (M694V, M680I, A744S, R202Q, K695R, E148Q). Eighty cases were included in the study of which 55% were male (n= 44). The mean age was 6.44 ± 2.52 years. Disease recurrence occurred in 9 patients, invagination in 5 patients and convulsion in 1 patient during follow-up. Approximately half of the patients received steroids. The MEFV gene mutations was not detected in 44 (55%) of the patients. There was a heterozygous mutation in 19 (22%). E148Q was found in 8 patients, M694V in 5 patients, A744S in 4 patients, and the R202Q heterozygous mutation in 2 patients. The M608I homozygous mutation was detected in 1 patient and the M694V homozygous mutation in 1 patient. The compound heterozygous MEFV gene mutations was found in 15 patients. The presence of the MEFV gene mutations was not correlated with the frequency of renal and gastrointestinal involvement and prognosis, the development of complications and the use of steroids. The presence of the MEFV gene mutations does not correlate with the clinical course and complication in Turkish pediatric patients with HSP. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Endocrinology. 493.843 Section 493.843 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High Complexity, Or Any Combination of...
Bravo, P W
The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.
Pediatric Clinical Trials Conducted in South Korea from 2006 to 2015: An Analysis of the South Korean Clinical Research Information Service, US ClinicalTrials.gov and European Clinical Trials Registries.
Choi, Sheung-Nyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, In-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Hee-Soo
The status of pediatric clinical trials performed in South Korea in the last decade, including clinical trials of drugs with unapproved indications for children, has not been previously examined. The aim was to provide information regarding the current state of pediatric clinical trials and create a basis for future trials performed in South Korea by reviewing three databases of clinical trials registrations. We searched for pediatric clinical studies (participants <18 years old) conducted in South Korea between 2006 and 2015 registered on the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuCTR). Additionally, we reviewed whether unapproved indications were involved in each trial by comparing the trials with a list of authorized trials provided by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The primary and secondary outcomes were to determine the change in number of pediatric clinical trials with unapproved indications over time and to assess the status of unauthorized pediatric clinical trials from the MFDS and the publication of articles after these clinical trials, respectively. We identified 342 clinical studies registered in the CRIS (n = 81), ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 225), and EuCTR (n = 36), of which 306 were reviewed after excluding duplicate registrations. Among them, 181 studies were interventional trials dealing with drugs and biological agents, of which 129 (71.3%) involved unapproved drugs. Of these 129 trials, 107 (82.9%) were authorized by the MFDS. Pediatric clinical trials in South Korea aiming to establish the safety and efficacy of drugs in children are increasing; however, non-MFDS-authorized studies remain an issue.
Grace, Rachael F; Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A; Neufeld, Ellis J
Since pediatric immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is relatively infrequent, comparisons among clinical studies are critical but have previously been limited by differences in terminology. In 2009, an international working group (IWG) developed consensus criteria to enhance comparability in future studies in adults and children. We performed a retrospective medical record review of all pediatric ITP patients seen at a single children's hospital with a first visit between 2003 and 2010 and applied both historical (criteria(Hist) ) and IWG (criteria(IWG) ) ITP criteria to available clinical data. Among the 505 patients seen for ITP over 7 years, 98% could be classified as "acute" or "chronic" ITP using the criteria(Hist) , while only 90.7% could be classified as "newly diagnosed," "persistent," or "chronic" ITP using the criteria(IWG) (P < 0.01). Only 33.7% met criteria(IWG) for severe ITP, whereas 77.4% met criteria(Hist) for severe ITP. A striking difference was that overall response to therapies was lower if the criteria(IWG) were used rather than the criteria(Hist) , particularly for IVIG (55.4% vs. 70%, P = 0.02) and rituximab (35.3% vs. 83.3% P = 0.05). Only 2 subjects (0.4%) met the criteria(IWG) for refractory ITP. Most ITP patients could easily be classified using the 2009 criteria(IWG) . Limitations to applying the criteria(IWG) included absence of treatment response durations, incomplete definition of pediatric "refractory ITP," and exclusion of secondary ITP. Nevertheless, the criteria(IWG) were more clinically relevant given the reliance on definitions based on bleeding and their ability to be applied prospectively. The utility of using the criteria(IWG) within prospective trials remains to be determined. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Almardini, Reham I; Alfarah, Mahdi G; Salaita, Ghazi M
Hyperoxaluria is a metabolic disorder that can lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD). It can be either inherited or acquired. Primary hyperoxaluria (PHO) is more common and characterized by an excessive production of oxalate leading to recurrent urolithiasis and progressive nephrocalcinosis. Due to the high rate of consanguineous marriage in Jordan this disease is commonly diagnosed in pediatric nephrology clinics. We aimed to demonstrate the clinical pattern and progression to ESRD in pediatric patients with hyperoxaluria at Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital. Medical records of all patients followed up in the pediatric nephrology clinic with the diagnosis of PHO during the period between September 2007 and March 2013 were reviewed. There were 70 patients with the diagnosis of PHO, 52.9% were males. The median age at presentation was 3 years ± 3 months with the youngest child being two months old. Diagnosis was made in the first year of life in 15.7% of patients. The most common presenting symptom was hematuria, while 14% of patients were asymptomatic and detected by family screening after the diagnosis of an index case. At the time of initial presentation, 15.7% of patients had ESRD and 25% had impaired renal function. Kidney stones were found in 57% of cases and nephrocalcinosis was found in 37%. High index of suspicion is needed to diagnose PHO in children presenting with kidney stone or unexplained hematuria. Twenty-four hour urine collection for oxalate are required to make the proper diagnosis. Family screening, when appropriate, is indicated for early detection of PHO.
Richmond, Anna; Priyanka, Sweta; Mahmood, Tahir; MacDougall, Jane; Wood, Paul
To identify current clinical services and training available across Europe within pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) and establish the extent to which PAG services meet current European Board and College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (EBCOG) standards. Quantitative and qualitative questionnaire. European countries that are members of the EBCOG and the European Association of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Thirty-six countries that were approached beginning in September 2013; data were obtained from 27 countries. Questionnaires with 28 stems were sent to clinical leaders in 36 European countries. National society, national standards, legislation for female genital mutilation, protocols for transition to adult services, human papilloma virus vaccination programs, sex and contraception education, safeguarding, clinical leads for PAG, delivery of PAG services, and training available for PAG. Of 36 countries, 27 responded. Seventy-seven percent had a national PAG society but only 44% had national standards in PAG. There was agreement that PAG cases should be multidisciplinary but not all have clinical networks in place to facilitate this. Human papilloma virus programs are available in some European countries and not all have legislation against female genital mutilation. A significant proportion of cases continue to be seen in adult gynecology clinics as opposed to designated PAG clinics with only 41% with processes to transfer patients into adult care. In this article we provide a framework to explore areas for improvement within PAG services and training across Europe. The EBCOG standards of care are not being adhered to in many countries because processes and clinical networks are not in place to facilitate them. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Warrick, Stephen; Morehous, John; Samaan, Zeina M; Mansour, Mona; Huentelman, Tracy; Schoettker, Pamela J; Iyer, Srikant
Since the Institute of Medicine's 2001 charge to reform health care, there has been a focus on the role of the medical home. Access to care in the proper setting and at the proper time is central to health care reform. We aimed to increase the volume of patients receiving care for acute illnesses within the medical home rather than the emergency department or urgent care center from 41% to 60%. We used quality improvement methods to create a separate nonemergency care stream in a large academic primary care clinic serving 19,000 patients (90% Medicaid). The pediatric primary care (PPC) walk-in clinic opened in July 2013 with service 4 hours per day and expanded to an all-day clinic in October 2013. Statistical process control methods were used to measure the change over time in the volume of ill patients and visits seen in the PPC walk-in clinic. Average weekly walk-in nonemergent ill-care visits increased from 61 to 158 after opening the PPC walk-in clinic. The percentage of nonemergent ill-care visits in the medical home increased from 41% to 45%. Visits during regular clinic hours increased from 55% to 60%. Clinic cycle time remained unchanged. Implementation of a walk-in care stream for acute illness within the medical home has allowed us to provide ill care to a higher proportion of patients, although we have not yet achieved our predicted volume. Matching access to demand is key to successfully meeting patient needs. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellis, Michael J; Cordingley, Dean M; Vis, Sara; Reimer, Karen M; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly
OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015. Acute SRS was defined as presenting < 30 days postinjury, and PCS was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision criteria and included being symptomatic 30 days or longer postinjury. The initial assessment included clinical history and physical examination performed by 1 neurosurgeon. Patients were assessed for VOD, defined as the presence of more than 1 subjective vestibular and oculomotor complaint (dizziness, diplopia, blurred vision, etc.) and more than 1 objective physical examination finding (abnormal near point of convergence, smooth pursuits, saccades, or vestibulo-ocular reflex testing). Poisson regression analysis was used to identify factors that increased the risk of VOD at initial presentation and the development of PCS. RESULTS Three hundred ninety-nine children, including 306 patients with acute SRC and 93 with PCS, were included. Of these patients, 30.1% of those with acute SRC (65.0% male, mean age 13.9 years) and 43.0% of those with PCS (41.9% male, mean age 15.4 years) met the criteria for VOD at initial consultation. Independent predictors of VOD at initial consultation included female sex, preinjury history of depression, posttraumatic amnesia, and presence of dizziness, blurred vision, or difficulty focusing at the time of injury. Independent predictors of PCS among
Hand, Meredith; Kemertzis, Matthew A; Peate, Michelle; Gillam, Lynn; McCarthy, Maria; Orme, Lisa; Heloury, Yves; Sullivan, Michael; Zacharin, Margaret; Jayasinghe, Yasmin
Fertility preservation discussions with pediatric and adolescent cancer patients can be difficult for clinicians. This study describes the acceptability of a fertility clinician decision support system (CDSS). A cross-sectional study of clinicians at The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. Participants were trained on CDSS purpose, contents, and use. A survey captured the perceived benefits and weaknesses of the CDSS. Thirty-nine clinicians participated. Over 90% felt the CDSS aims and format were clear, and understood the components. Over 80% felt it would enable adherence to clinical pathways, policy, and standards of care. The CDSS provided significant perceived benefits to oncofertility care.
Langenau, Erik E; Lee, Robert; Fults, Marci
Traditional medical education is shifting to incorporate learning technologies and online educational activities with traditional face-to-face clinical instruction to engage students, especially at remote clinical training sites. To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of the blended learning format (combining online and face-to-face instruction) for third-year osteopathic medical students during their pediatric rotation. Third-year medical students who completed the 4-week clerkship in pediatrics during the 2014-2015 academic year were divided into a standard learning group and a blended learning group with online activities (discussion boards, blogs, virtual patient encounters, narrated video presentations, and online training modules). Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test scores and final course grades were compared between the standard learning and blended learning groups. Students in the blended learning group completed a postsurvey regarding their experiences. Of 264 third-year students who completed the 4-week clerkship in pediatrics during the 2014-2015 academic year, 78 (29.5%) participated in the blended learning supplement with online activities. Of 53 students who completed the postsurvey in the blended learning group, 44 (83.0%) agreed or strongly agreed that "The integration of e-learning and face-to-face learning helped me learn pediatrics." Open-ended comments supported this overall satisfaction with the course format; however, 26 of 100 comments reflected a desire to increase the amount of clinical exposure and face-to-face time with patients. No statistical differences were seen between the standard learning (n=186) and blended learning (n=78) groups with regard to Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Achievement Test scores (P=.321). Compared with the standard learning group, more students in the blended learning group received a final course grade of honors (P=.015). Results of this study support the use of blended learning in a
Nolan, Danielle; Carlson, Martha
Genetic heterogeneity in neurologic disorders has been an obstacle to phenotype-based diagnostic testing. The authors hypothesized that information compiled via whole exome sequencing will improve clinical diagnosis and management of pediatric neurology patients. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in the University of Michigan Pediatric Neurology clinic between 6/2011 and 6/2015. The authors recorded previous diagnostic testing, indications for whole exome sequencing, and whole exome sequencing results. Whole exome sequencing was recommended for 135 patients and obtained in 53 patients. Insurance barriers often precluded whole exome sequencing. The most common indication for whole exome sequencing was neurodevelopmental disorders. Whole exome sequencing improved the presumptive diagnostic rate in the patient cohort from 25% to 48%. Clinical implications included family planning, medication selection, and systemic investigation. Compared to current second tier testing, whole exome sequencing can result in lower long-term charges and more timely diagnosis. Overcoming barriers related to whole exome sequencing insurance authorization could allow for more efficient and fruitful diagnostic neurological evaluations. © The Author(s) 2016.
Wang, Ting; Dong, Fang; Li, Qin-Jing; Yin, Qing-Qin; Song, Wen-Qi; Mokrousov, Igor; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Shen, A-Dong
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of drug resistance in newly diagnosed pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients in northern China. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from September 2010 to October 2016 at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups (resistant to at least one drug and pan-susceptible) according to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. A total of 132 new cases, mainly from northern China (87.9%), were included in the study. The median age was 1.9 years (1 month-15 years). Resistance to at least one drug was detected in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from 33 (25%) cases. Eight cases of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) (6.1%) were detected. The two groups did not differ in clinical presentations (disease site, fever >2 weeks, and cough >2 weeks) or in chest imaging (lesion location, lymphadenitis [mediastinal], and pleural effusion). The rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance in new pediatric TB cases was as high as in the new adult patients surveyed in the national drug resistance survey conducted in 2007. No significant difference was observed in clinical features between patients infected with drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. Routine DST is important for prescribing effective antituberculosis treatment regimens.
Carroll, Aaron E; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Rivara, Frederick P; Ebel, Beth E; Christakis, Dimitri A
A digital divide with respect to computer and Internet access has been noted in numerous studies and reports. Equally important to ownership is comfort with computers and Internet technology, and concerns about privacy of personal data. To measure how households in a pediatric clinic vary in their attitudes toward computers, concerns about Internet confidentiality, and comfort using the Internet and whether these views are associated with household income or education. A phone survey was administered to a population-based sample of parents with children aged 0 to 11 years. All children received medical care from a community-based clinic network serving patients in King County, Wash. Eighty-eight percent of respondents used a computer once a week or more, and 83% of respondents reported favorable feelings toward computers. Although 97% of respondents were willing to share personal information over the Internet, many respondents considered data security important. While household income and parental education were associated with comfort and familiarity with computers, the effect is small. Respondents who already owned a computer and had Internet access did not differ in their perceptions according to socioeconomic or educational attainment. Most families like using computers and feel comfortable using the Internet regardless of socioeconomic status. Fears about the digital divide's impact on the attitudes of parents toward computers or their comfort using the Internet should not be seen as a barrier to developing Internet-based health interventions for a pediatric clinic population.
Greenhouse, Joel B.; Kaizar, Eloise E.; Kelleher, Kelly; Seltman, Howard; Gardner, William
Summary For the results of randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and related meta-analyses to be useful in practice, they must be relevant to a definable group of patients in a particular clinical setting. To the extent this is so, we say that the trial is generalizable or externally valid. Although concern about the generalizability of the results of RCTs is often discussed, there are few examples of methods for assessing the generalizability of clinical trial data. In this paper, we describe and illustrate an approach for making what we call generalizability judgments and illustrate the approach in the context of a case study of the risk of suicidality among pediatric antidepressant users. PMID:18381709
Livingston, Mylynda; Lawell, Miranda; McAllister, Nancy
Numerous reports describe the successful use of nitrous oxide for analgesia in children undergoing painful procedures. Although shown to be safe, effective, and economical, nitrous oxide use is not yet common in pediatric oncology clinics and few reports detail its effectiveness for children undergoing repeated lumbar punctures. We developed a nitrous oxide clinic, and undertook a review of pediatric oncology lumbar puncture records for those patients receiving nitrous oxide in 2011. No major complications were noted. Minor complications were noted in 2% of the procedures. We offer guidelines for establishing such a clinic. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mulugeta, Lily Yeruk; Yao, Lynne; Mould, Diane; Jacobs, Brian; Florian, Jeffrey; Smith, Brian; Sinha, Vikram; Barrett, Jeffrey S
This article discusses the use of big data in pediatric drug development. The article covers key topics discussed at the ACCP annual meeting symposium in 2016 including the extent to which big data or real-world data can inform clinical trial design and substitute for efficacy and safety data typically obtained in clinical trials. The current states of use, opportunities, and challenges with the use of big data in future pediatric drug development are discussed. © 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Rose, Klaus; Kummer, Hans
Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA)'s Pediatric Committee (PDCO) may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs)/ethics committees (ECs) and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA's PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients.
Rose, Klaus; Kummer, Hans
Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA)’s Pediatric Committee (PDCO) may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs)/ethics committees (ECs) and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA’s PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients. PMID:27417359
Bator, Eli X; Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J; Kanaroglou, Niki; Farhat, Walid A; Bägli, Darius J; Koyle, Martin A
Indirect expenses for accessing health care may place significant fiscal strain on Canadian families. Telemedicine alternatives, using email, telephone, and video conferencing, can mitigate such financial burdens by reducing travel and related costs. Our objectives were to assess costs that families incur visiting an outpatient pediatric surgical clinic, and family attitudes toward telemedicine alternatives. A survey was offered pre-consult to all families who attended pediatric urology and general surgery outpatient clinics over a three-month period. A total of 1032 of 1574 families screened participated (66.0%). Less than half (18.5%) of participants traveled over 200 km, and 32.9% spent over 4 hours in transit, round-trip. The proportion of participants who spent over $50 on travel and ancillary expenses was 33.0%. In 74.0% of families, 1 or more adults missed work. The proportion of families who perceived costs as somewhat high or high was 29.1%. Perceived cost was positively correlated to distance traveled, money spent, and missed work (p<0.01). Most were comfortable with medical communication using technology; and 34.3%-42.7% would avoid an in-person clinic visit utilizing email, telephone, and video conferencing. Higher perceived cost (p<0.001) and distance traveled (p<0.01) were only weakly associated with greater willingness to substitute a clinic visit with video conferencing. Many families face high costs related to routine outpatient clinical visits, and there is a substantial willingness by them to access telemedicine alternatives, rather than the traditional face-to-face clinical visit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Donald J; Coxe, Kathryn; Li, Hongmei; Pommering, Thomas L; Young, Julie A; Smith, Gary A; Yang, Jingzhen
We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. A retrospective, cohort design. Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury. Length of recovery by week. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to model the effect of patient and injury characteristics on length of recovery by week. Median length of recovery was 17 days. Only 16.3% (299/1840) of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than four weeks to recover. By 2 months postinjury, 6.7% of patients were still experiencing symptoms. Higher symptom scores at injury and initial visit were significantly associated with prolonged symptoms by week. Patients who presented to the clinic more than 2 weeks postinjury or who had 2 or more previous concussions showed increased risk for prolonged recovery. Females were at greater risk for prolonged recovery than males (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.89). Age was not significantly associated with recovery length. High symptom scores at injury and initial visit, time to initial clinical presentation, presence of 2 or more previous concussions, and female sex are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. Further research should aim to establish objective measures of recovery, accounting for treatment received during the recovery. The median length of recovery is 17 days among pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics. Only 16.3% of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than 4 weeks to recover.
Weersing, V Robin; Brent, David A; Rozenman, Michelle S; Gonzalez, Araceli; Jeffreys, Megan; Dickerson, John F; Lynch, Frances L; Porta, Giovanna; Iyengar, Satish
Anxiety and depression affect 30% of youth but are markedly undertreated compared with other mental disorders, especially in Hispanic populations. To examine whether a pediatrics-based behavioral intervention targeting anxiety and depression improves clinical outcome compared with referral to outpatient community mental health care. This 2-center randomized clinical trial with masked outcome assessment conducted between brief behavioral therapy (BBT) and assisted referral to care (ARC) studied 185 youths (aged 8.0-16.9 years) from 9 pediatric clinics in San Diego, California, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, recruited from October 6, 2010, through December 5, 2014. Youths who met DSM-IV criteria for full or probable diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, major depression, dysthymic disorder, and/or minor depression; lived with a consenting legal guardian for at least 6 months; and spoke English were included in the study. Exclusions included receipt of alternate treatment for anxiety or depression, presence of a suicidal plan, bipolar disorder, psychosis, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance dependence, current abuse, intellectual disability, or unstable serious physical illness. The BBT consisted of 8 to 12 weekly 45-minute sessions of behavioral therapy delivered in pediatric clinics by master's-level clinicians. The ARC families received personalized referrals to mental health care and check-in calls to support accessing care from master's-level coordinators. The primary outcome was clinically significant improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale (score ≤2). Secondary outcomes included the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised, and functioning. A total of 185 patients were enrolled in the study (mean [SD] age, 11.3 [2.6] years; 107 [57.8%] female; 144 [77.8%] white; and 38 [20.7%] Hispanic). Youths in the BBT group (n = 95), compared with those in
Kieffer, Veronica; Davies, Kate; Gibson, Christine; Middleton, Morag; Munday, Jean; Shalet, Shashana; Shepherd, Lisa; Yeoh, Phillip
This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.
Frankovich, Jennifer; Cooperstock, Michael; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Murphy, Tanya K.; Pasternack, Mark; Thienemann, Margo; Williams, Kyle; Walter, Jolan; Swedo, Susan E.
Abstract On May 23 and 24, 2013, the First PANS Consensus Conference was convened at Stanford University, calling together a geographically diverse group of clinicians and researchers from complementary fields of pediatrics: General and developmental pediatrics, infectious diseases, immunology, rheumatology, neurology, and child psychiatry. Participants were academicians with clinical and research interests in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS) in youth, and the larger category of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). The goals were to clarify the diagnostic boundaries of PANS, to develop systematic strategies for evaluation of suspected PANS cases, and to set forth the most urgently needed studies in this field. Presented here is a consensus statement proposing recommendations for the diagnostic evaluation of youth presenting with PANS. PMID:25325534
Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Dattilo, Maurizio; Macut, Djuro; Duntas, Leonidas; Gonos, Efstathios S; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Gantenbein, Christina Kanaka; Kapetanou, Marianna; Koukkou, Eftychia; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Michalaki, Marina; Eftekhari-Nader, Shahla; Pasquali, Renato; Peppa, Melpomeni; Tzanela, Marinella; Vassilatou, Evangeline; Vryonidou, Andromachi
Aging and its underlying pathophysiological background has always attracted the attention of the scientific society. Defined as the gradual, time-dependent, heterogeneous decline of physiological functions, aging is orchestrated by a plethora of molecular mechanisms, which vividly interact to alter body homeostasis. The ability of an organism to adjust to these alterations, in conjunction with the dynamic effect of various environmental stimuli across lifespan, promotes longevity, frailty or disease. Endocrine function undergoes major changes during aging, as well. Specifically, alterations in hormonal networks and concomitant hormonal deficits/excess, augmented by poor sensitivity of tissues to their action, take place. As hypothalamic-pituitary unit is the central regulator of crucial body functions, these alterations can be translated in significant clinical sequelae that can impair the quality of life and promote frailty and disease. Delineating the hormonal signaling alterations that occur across lifespan and exploring possible remedial interventions could possibly help us improve the quality of life of the elderly and promote longevity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Nobori, T; Katoh, Y; Ochiai, H; Ochiai, H; Kawai, K; Kamiya, H; Sakurai, M
Fundamental and clinical studies were performed with aspoxicillin (ASPC), a new developed injectable broad penicillin, in pediatric infectious diseases, and the following results were obtained. Pharmacokinetics ASPC was administered to 2 cases at a dose of 20 mg/kg by one shot intravenous injection. The mean half-life (T 1/2) was 1.17 hours. The mean urinary excretion rate was 58.4% during 6 hours after ASPC treatment. In 3 cases of intravenous drip infusion with a period of 1 hour at a dose of 10 mg/kg (2 cases) and 20 mg/kg (1 case), the half-lives (T 1/2) were 1.7 hours, 3.5 hours and 1.0 hour, respectively. The urinary recovery rate during 6 hours after administration was 57.7%, 32.6% and 42.7%, respectively. At only one case treated with 10 mg/kg intravenous drip infusion, the half-life was prolonged and urinary excretion rate was lower than other 2 cases. Clinical study ASPC was administered 50-80 mg/kg/day for 4-8 days to 22 children comprising 6 tonsillitis, 2 bronchitis, 6 pneumonia and 8 urinary tract infections. Clinical efficacy was excellent in 13 cases, good in 8 cases and fair in 1 case, the total cure rate was 95%. As for the clinical response classified by diagnosis, the each efficacy rate of tonsillitis, bronchitis and pneumonia was 100%, and that of urinary tract infection was 87.5%. Clinical side effect and abnormal laboratory findings were not observed in any cases. From the above results, it was concluded that ASPC was one of the useful secure drug for treatment of infections in pediatric field.
Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; van Nimwegen, Kirsten J.M.; Schieving, Jolanda H.; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Yntema, Helger G.; Pfundt, Rolph; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Brunner, Han G.; van der Burg, Simone; Grutters, Janneke; Veltman, Joris A.; Willemsen, Michèl A.A.P.
Purpose: Implementation of novel genetic diagnostic tests is generally driven by technological advances because they promise shorter turnaround times and/or higher diagnostic yields. Other aspects, including impact on clinical management or cost-effectiveness, are often not assessed in detail prior to implementation. Methods: We studied the clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in complex pediatric neurology in terms of diagnostic yield and costs. We analyzed 150 patients (and their parents) presenting with complex neurological disorders of suspected genetic origin. In a parallel study, all patients received both the standard diagnostic workup (e.g., cerebral imaging, muscle biopsies or lumbar punctures, and sequential gene-by-gene–based testing) and WES simultaneously. Results: Our unique study design allowed direct comparison of diagnostic yield of both trajectories and provided insight into the economic implications of implementing WES in this diagnostic trajectory. We showed that WES identified significantly more conclusive diagnoses (29.3%) than the standard care pathway (7.3%) without incurring higher costs. Exploratory analysis of WES as a first-tier diagnostic test indicates that WES may even be cost-saving, depending on the extent of other tests being omitted. Conclusion: Our data support such a use of WES in pediatric neurology for disorders of presumed genetic origin. Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017 PMID:28333917
Shin, Bisol; Yoo, Seunghoon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Seungoh
Background In South Korea, the number of cases of dental treatment for the disabled is gradually increasing, primarily at regional dental clinics for the disabled. This study investigated pediatric patients at a treatment clinic for the disabled within a university hospital who received dental treatment under general anesthesia. This data could assist those that provide dental treatment for the disabled and guide future treatment directions and new policies. Methods This study was a retrospective analysis of 263 cases in which patients received dental treatment under general anesthesia from January 2011 to May 2016. The variables examined were gender, age, reason for anesthesia, type of disability, time under anesthesia, duration of treatment, type of procedure, treatment details, and annual trends in the use of general anesthesia. Results Among pediatric patients with disabilities who received dental treatment under general anesthesia, the most prevalent age group was 5–8 years old (124 patients, 47.1%), and the primary reason for administering anesthesia was dental anxiety or phobia. The mean time under anesthesia was 132.7 ± 77.6 min, and the mean duration of treatment was 101.9 ± 71.2 min. The most common type of treatment was restoration, accounting for 158 of the 380 treatments performed. Conclusions Due to increasing demand, the number of cases of dental treatment performed under general anesthesia is expected to continue increasing, and it can be a useful method of treatment in patients with dental anxiety or phobia. PMID:28884154
Shin, Bisol; Yoo, Seunghoon; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Jongbin
In South Korea, the number of cases of dental treatment for the disabled is gradually increasing, primarily at regional dental clinics for the disabled. This study investigated pediatric patients at a treatment clinic for the disabled within a university hospital who received dental treatment under general anesthesia. This data could assist those that provide dental treatment for the disabled and guide future treatment directions and new policies. This study was a retrospective analysis of 263 cases in which patients received dental treatment under general anesthesia from January 2011 to May 2016. The variables examined were gender, age, reason for anesthesia, type of disability, time under anesthesia, duration of treatment, type of procedure, treatment details, and annual trends in the use of general anesthesia. Among pediatric patients with disabilities who received dental treatment under general anesthesia, the most prevalent age group was 5-8 years old (124 patients, 47.1%), and the primary reason for administering anesthesia was dental anxiety or phobia. The mean time under anesthesia was 132.7 ± 77.6 min, and the mean duration of treatment was 101.9 ± 71.2 min. The most common type of treatment was restoration, accounting for 158 of the 380 treatments performed. Due to increasing demand, the number of cases of dental treatment performed under general anesthesia is expected to continue increasing, and it can be a useful method of treatment in patients with dental anxiety or phobia.
Loutfy, Samah Aly; Abo-Shadi, Maha A; Fawzy, Mohamed; El-Wakil, Mohamed; Metwally, Shimaa A; Moneer, Manar M; Fattah, Nasra F Abdel; Kassem, Sara; Elgebaly, Ahmed
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are environmental risk factors affecting the outcome of cancer due to an impairment in the cell-mediated immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the frequency of EBV and CMV DNA and their association with clinical characteristics and outcome of pediatric leukemic patients. Samples of 50 immunocompromised pediatric leukemic patients and 30 apparently healthy children were subjected to the amplification of EBV DNA by one version of PCR targeting the Bam H1 W region of the genomic region of EBV, and the amplification of CMV DNA by targeting the CMV UL97 genomic region by a second round PCR. All investigations were performed on WBCs and sera. Results were correlated with the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the disease, and with overall survival. EBV and CMV DNA were detected in 20 and 54% of leukemic patients, respectively. Nine out of ten patients with EBV DNA (90%) were positive for CMV DNA in their sera. The presence of EBV DNA or CMV DNA was associated with neutropenia and a low total leukocyte count (TLC) (p = 0.02, 0.03, respectively). The presence of severe CMV disease, longer duration of febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and the presence of EBV DNA in patients' sera were significantly associated with worse overall survival. The detection of CMV disease and EBV DNA is relatively common in leukemic children and is significantly associated with a decline in the overall survival.
Rouhani, R; Cronenberger, H; Stein, L; Hannum, W; Reed, A M; Wilhelm, C; Hsiao, H
This paper describes the design, authoring, and development of interactive, computerized, multimedia clinical simulations in pediatric rheumatology/immunology and related musculoskeletal diseases, the development and implementation of a high speed information management system for their centralized storage and distribution, and analytical methods for evaluating the total system's educational impact on medical students and pediatric residents. An FDDI fiber optic network with client/server/host architecture is the core. The server houses digitized audio, still-image video clips and text files. A host station houses the DB2/2 database containing case-associated labels and information. Cases can be accessed from any workstation via a customized interface in AVA/2 written specifically for this application. OS/2 Presentation Manager controls, written in C, are incorporated into the interface. This interface allows SQL searches and retrievals of cases and case materials. In addition to providing user-directed clinical experiences, this centralized information management system provides designated faculty with the ability to add audio notes and visual pointers to image files. Users may browse through case materials, mark selected ones and download them for utilization in lectures or for editing and converting into 35mm slides.
Regan, Paul A; Fogel, Benjamin S; Hicks, Steven D
Children commonly use mobile devices at pediatric office visits. This practice may affect patient-provider interaction and undermine accuracy of developmental surveillance. A randomized, provider-blinded, controlled trial examined whether a policy prohibiting mobile device use in a pediatric clinic improved accuracy of pediatricians' developmental surveillance. Children, aged 18 to 36 months, were randomized to device-prohibited (intervention; n = 58) or device-allowed (control; n = 54) groups. After a 30-minute well-visit, development was evaluated as "normal," "borderline," or "delayed" in 5 categories using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). ASQ-3 results were compared with providers' clinical assessment in each category. Provider-ASQ discrepancies were more common for intervention participants ( P = .025). Providers "missed" more ASQ-3 "delayed" scores ( P = .005) in the intervention group, particularly in the fine motor domain ( P = .018). Prohibiting mobile device use at well-visits did not improve accuracy of providers' developmental surveillance. Mobile devices may entertain children at well-visits, allowing opportunities for parent-provider discussion, or observation of fine motor skills.
DeLario, Melissa R; Sheehan, Andrea M; Ataya, Ramona; Bertuch, Alison A; Vega, Carlos; Webb, C Renee; Lopez-Terrada, Dolores; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi
Primary myelofibrosis is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by cytopenias, leukoerythroblastosis, extramedullary hematopoiesis, hepatosplenomegaly and bone marrow fibrosis. Primary myelofibrosis is a rare disorder in adults; children are even less commonly affected by this entity, with the largest pediatric case series reporting on three patients. Most literature suggests spontaneous resolution of myelofibrosis without long term complications in the majority of affected children. We describe the clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics and outcomes of nineteen children with primary myelofibrosis treated in our center from 1984 to 2011. Most patients had cytopenia significant enough to require supportive therapy. No child developed malignant transformation and only five of the 19 children (26%) had spontaneous resolution of disease. Sequence analyses for JAK2V617F and MPLW515L mutations were performed on bone marrow samples from 17 and six patients, respectively, and the results were negative. In conclusion, analysis of this large series of pediatric patients with primary myelofibrosis demonstrates distinct clinical, hematologic, bone marrow, and molecular features from adult patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Grace J; Kappelman, Michael D; Boyle, Brendan; Colletti, Richard B; King, Eileen; Pratt, Jesse M; Crandall, Wallace V
To examine sex differences in medical therapy and clinical outcomes in pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of children with Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) using data from the ImproveCareNow Network collected between May 2007 and May 2010. Clinical remission, disease severity, body mass index (BMI) z scores, normal height velocity, and medication use were analyzed by sex and age. One thousand four hundred nine patients were included (993 had CD and 416 had UC). No significant sex differences were found in disease severity, BMI, height velocity, or use of medications. Further analysis of combination therapy with infliximab + 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine and infliximab + methotrexate also did not reveal any differences. No sex differences were found after mediation use was stratified by age (those younger than 13 years and those 13 years old or older). In this sample of CD and UC pediatric patients, no significant sex differences were found in disease severity, BMI, height velocity, or medication use. Our data do not support the use of sex as a major factor in patient risk stratification for children with IBD. In addition, despite concerns for sex-specific complications of some medications, our analysis did not suggest any sex differences in medication use.
Al-Tamimi, Elham R; Shakeel, Ayisha; Yassin, Sanaa A; Ali, Syed I; Khan, Umar A
The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the distribution and patterns of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in children seen at a pediatric eye care. The study was conducted in a Private Hospital in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from March to July 2013. During this period, a total of 1350 children, aged 1-15 years were seen at this Center's Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit. All the children underwent complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction. Refractive errors accounted for 44.4% of the cases, the predominant refractive error being hypermetropia which represented 83%. Strabismus and amblyopia were present in 38% and 9.1% of children, respectively. In this clinic-based study, the focus was on the frequency of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia which were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant refractive error in contrast to other studies in which myopia was more common. This could be attributed to the criteria for sample selection since it was clinic-based rather than a population-based study. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of refractive errors, and have periodic screening in schools.
Randolph, Adrienne G.; Lacroix, Jacques
OBJECTIVE: To review the benefits and challenges of using the randomized, controlled trial (RCT) study design to evaluate preventive and therapeutic interventions in pediatric critical care medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The RCT design is able to control for many sources of potential bias that other types of study designs cannot. The findings of RCTs often contradict the findings of less rigorous study designs. Before performing an RCT, there must exist a state of clinical equipoise, a sufficient number of eligible patients must be available, and the epidemiology of the disorder in question must be well studied. There are many challenges to performing high-quality RCTs. Studying multiple element support strategies in the critically ill patient population is more complex than studying a single drug therapy. High patient and practice variability and hazy diagnostic definitions can dilute the signal-to-noise ratio. Most interventions in critical care are expected to have a modest or small effect. This markedly increases the requisite sample size. There is a paucity of accepted clinically important measurements of the outcome of critical care, making mortality a common outcome to evaluate with a not-so-common incidence. Developmental issues, the inability to give informed consent, and the failure to perform the appropriate pharmacokinetic and safety studies are additional challenges facing pediatric investigators. Despite these limitations, a good RCT remains the best way to prove that an intervention is working or not. Indeed, RCTs are and will remain the "gold standard" method to estimate the efficacy of a therapeutic or prophylactic intervention.
Brazil, Kevin; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Cloutier, Michelle M; Tennen, Howard; Hall, Charles B
In recent years, there has been a growing understanding that organizational culture is related to an organization's performance. However, few studies have examined organizational culture in medical group practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of organizational culture on provider job satisfaction and perceived clinical effectiveness in primary care pediatric practices. This cross-sectional study included 36 primary care pediatric practices located in Connecticut. There were 374 participants in this study, which included 127 clinicians and 247 nonclinicians. Office managers completed a questionnaire that recorded staff and practice characteristics; all participants completed the Organizational Culture Scale, a questionnaire that assessed the practice on four cultural domains (i.e., group, developmental, rational, and hierarchical), and the Primary Care Organizational Questionnaire that evaluated perceived effectiveness and job satisfaction. Hierarchical linear models using a restricted maximum likelihood estimation method were used to evaluate whether the practice culture types predicted job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. Group culture was positively associated with both satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. In contrast, hierarchical and rational culture were negatively associated with both job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness. These relationships were true for clinicians, nonclinicians, and the practice as a whole. Our study demonstrates that practice culture is associated with job satisfaction and perceived clinical effectiveness and that a group culture was associated with high job satisfaction and perceived effectiveness.
Vissers, Lisenka E L M; van Nimwegen, Kirsten J M; Schieving, Jolanda H; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Yntema, Helger G; Pfundt, Rolph; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Brunner, Han G; van der Burg, Simone; Grutters, Janneke; Veltman, Joris A; Willemsen, Michèl A A P
Implementation of novel genetic diagnostic tests is generally driven by technological advances because they promise shorter turnaround times and/or higher diagnostic yields. Other aspects, including impact on clinical management or cost-effectiveness, are often not assessed in detail prior to implementation. We studied the clinical utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in complex pediatric neurology in terms of diagnostic yield and costs. We analyzed 150 patients (and their parents) presenting with complex neurological disorders of suspected genetic origin. In a parallel study, all patients received both the standard diagnostic workup (e.g., cerebral imaging, muscle biopsies or lumbar punctures, and sequential gene-by-gene-based testing) and WES simultaneously. Our unique study design allowed direct comparison of diagnostic yield of both trajectories and provided insight into the economic implications of implementing WES in this diagnostic trajectory. We showed that WES identified significantly more conclusive diagnoses (29.3%) than the standard care pathway (7.3%) without incurring higher costs. Exploratory analysis of WES as a first-tier diagnostic test indicates that WES may even be cost-saving, depending on the extent of other tests being omitted. Our data support such a use of WES in pediatric neurology for disorders of presumed genetic origin.Genet Med advance online publication 23 March 2017.
Al-Jurayyan N, Nasir A; Mohamed, Sarar H; Al Otaibi, Hessah M; Al Issa, Sharifah T; Omer, Hala G
Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of short stature among patients referred to an endocrine pediatric clinic, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to ascertain the aetiological profile of short stature. This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a pediatric endocrine clinic with short stature during the period January 1990 and December 2009. After a proper detailed medical history, growth analysis and physical examination, followed by a radiological (bone age) and laboratory screening (complete blood count and thyroid function). Growth hormone stimulation tests were performed when indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary was performed when necessary. As well, celiac screening and small bowel biopsy were performed when appropriate. During the period under review, hundred and ten patients were evaluated for short stature. Their age ranged from 2 years and six months to 4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest etiology was genetic short stature found in 57 (51.8%) patients, while in the other 53 (48.2%) patients, variable endocrine and nutritional causes were noted. Short stature was a common referral. A wide variety of etiological diagnosis was noticed with genetic short stature being the commonest. A wide variety of endocrine causes were evident, with growth hormone deficiency, as a results of different etiologies, being the commonest.
Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330
Chiou, C C; Groll, A H; Gonzalez, C E; Callender, D; Venzon, D; Pizzo, P A; Wood, L; Walsh, T J
Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical features of esophageal candidiasis (EC) in pediatric AIDS. We therefore investigated the clinical presentation and risk factors of EC in a large prospectively monitored population of HIV-infected children at the National Cancer Institute. We reviewed the records of all HIV-infected children (N = 448) followed between 1987 and 1995 for a history of esophageal candidiasis to characterize the epidemiology, clinical features, therapeutic interventions and outcome of esophageal candidiasis. To understand further the risk factors for EC in pediatric AIDS, we then performed a matched case-control analysis of 25 patients for whom control cases were available. There were 51 episodes of EC documented in 36 patients with 23 male and 13 female patients (0.2 to 17 years; median CD4, count 11/microl), representing a frequency of EC of 8.0%. Concurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) was the most common clinical presentation of EC (94%); other signs and symptoms included odynophagia (80%), retrosternal pain (57%), fever (29%), nausea/vomiting (24%), drooling (12%), dehydration (12%), hoarseness (6%) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (6%). The causative organism documented in 36 episodes (18 from OPC, 17 from endoscopic biopsy and 1 from autopsy) was Candida albicans in all cases. Patients received treatment for EC with amphotericin B (63%), fluconazole (29%), ketoconazole (4%) or itraconazole (1%). A clinical response was documented in all 45 evaluable episodes. In 6 other cases, EC was a final event without contributing to the cause of death. By a conditional logistic regression model for matched data, the best predictor of EC was the presence of prior OPC (P<0.0001), followed by CD4 count and CD4 percentage (P = 0.0002) and use of antibacterial antibiotics (P = 0.0013). The risks associated with low CD4 count were independent of that of prior OPC. EC in pediatric AIDS is a debilitating infection, which develops in the
Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; Lewin, Adam B; Edge, Paula J; Goodman, Wayne K
To explore associated clinical factors in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Children with tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or both (n=109) were examined with personal and family history, diagnostic interview, physical examination, medical record review, and measurement of baseline levels of streptococcal antibodies. Significant group differences were found on several variables, such that children in whom PANDAS (versus without PANDAS) were more likely to have had dramatic onset, definite remissions, remission of neuropsychiatric symptoms during antibiotic therapy, a history of tonsillectomies/adenoidectomies, evidence of group A streptococcal infection, and clumsiness. The identification of clinical features associated with PANDAS should assist in delineating risks for this subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder/tics. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Margot; Fothergill-Bourbonnais, Frances
Making accurate and timely judgments based on multiple ways of knowing is an essential skill in critical care nursing practice. Studies have proposed that positive patient outcomes are linked to expert judgments in a variety of critical care situations; however, little is known about clinical judgments related to specific critical care nursing interventions. This article presents a qualitative nursing research study which examined the cues that expert pediatric critical care nurses used in making clinical judgments about suctioning intubated and ventilated, critically ill children. The participants' words and actions attest that the 'sensing' and 'thinking' of the process of cue use, are interwoven with, and integral to, the 'doing,' which is the process of skilled performance.
Kopyta, Ilona; Jamroz, Ewa; Kluczewska, Ewa; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata
Schizencephaly is a rare and severe congenital brain defect. Its etiology is not unequivocal and its clinical course differs with every case. The aim of the study was to analyze correlations between clinical and radiologic features of schizencephaly in Polish patients. The study group consisted of 25 children. Epileptic seizures were observed in 60% of cases and in 32% epilepsy was drug resistant. Generalized hypotonia was found in 24%, spastic diparesis in 48%, and spastic hemiparesis in 28% of cases. Seizures were more frequent in the bilateral than unilateral schizencephaly subgroup (72% vs 29%, P = .045). There was a correlation between the presence of the bilateral type II schizencephaly and the occurrence of seizures (P = .002, r = 0.578). There is a correlation between the type of schizencephaly and the presence of seizures in Polish pediatric patients. In most of the patients, schizencephaly leads to developmental retardation and epileptic seizures.
Wang, Chengjun; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Shuo; Jiang, Zhongli; Zhao, Jizong
The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical manifestations, surgical treatment, and neurologic outcomes of frontal lobe cavernous malformations in children. A retrospective analysis of 23 pediatric frontal lobe cavernous malformation patients who underwent surgical treatment in Beijing Tiantan Hospital was performed. The case series included 16 boys and 7 girls. Gross total removal without surgical mortality was achieved in all patients. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 33.1 months. Two patients who left hospital with motor deficits gradually recovered after rehabilitative treatment, and other patients were considered to be in excellent clinical condition. For symptomatic frontal lobe cavernous malformations, neurosurgical management should be the treatment of choice. Conservative treatment may be warranted in asymptomatic frontal lobe cavernous malformations, especially the deep-seated or eloquently located cases.
Swedo, Susan E; Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul
The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described >15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). RESULTS were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86-92%), school issues (75-81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60-65%), urinary symptoms (42-81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association between GAS infection and symptom onset/exacerbations may
Gonzalez, Cesar D; Okunseri, Christopher
The study objective was to assess predoctoral dental students' experience with a caries risk assessment computer program in the pediatric dentistry clinic at Marquette University School of Dentistry. In 2005, spring semester sophomore dental students (class of 2008) were introduced to the caries risk assessment computer program "Cariogram." The students received a fifty-minute lecture on caries risk assessment and a demonstration on how to use Cariogram in the clinic. After two years of clinical exposure to Cariogram, sixty-six out of eighty senior dental students completed an anonymous eleven-item questionnaire on their experience with the tool. Each item on the questionnaire was scored on a five-point Likert scale with the exception of two questions. Full- and part-time faculty members in the pediatric dentistry clinic were involved in teaching and supervising students in the use of Cariogram for caries risk assessment after their training and calibration. Forty-five percent of the students who participated in the study agreed that Cariogram was easy to understand, and 18 percent disagreed. Thirty-six percent felt that it was easy to apply, and 25 percent reported that it was useful in determining caries preventive procedures. The students reported that 60 percent of full-time and 33 percent of part-time faculty were knowledgeable about Cariogram use. A majority of the students felt that Cariogram was not easy to understand, and eighty-two percent of them reported that they would not be using Cariogram in their private offices. Future studies should explore reasons why students do not feel inclined to use Cariogram as a caries risk assessment tool in their private practices even after being exposed to the tool in dental school.
Dix, David; Aplenc, Richard; Bowes, Lynette; Cellot, Sonia; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Feusner, Jim; Gillmeister, Biljana; Johnston, Donna L; Lewis, Victor; Michon, Bruno; Mitchell, David; Portwine, Carol; Price, Victoria; Silva, Mariana; Stobart, Kent; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Zelcer, Shayna; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian
Little is known about the impact of enrollment on therapeutic clinical trials on adverse event rates. Primary objective was to describe the impact of clinical trial registration on sterile site microbiologically documented infection for children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We conducted a multicenter cohort study that included children aged ≤18 years with de novo AML. Primary outcome was microbiologically documented sterile site infection. Infection rates were compared between those registered and not registered on clinical trials. Five hundred seventy-four children with AML were included of which 198 (34.5%) were registered on a therapeutic clinical trial. Overall, 400 (69.7%) had at least one sterile site microbiologically documented infection. In multiple regression, registration on clinical trials was independently associated with a higher risk of microbiologically documented sterile site infection [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.53; p = 0.040] and viridans group streptococcal infection (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08-1.98; p = 0.015). Registration on trials was not associated with Gram-negative or invasive fungal infections. Children with newly diagnosed AML enrolled on clinical trials have a higher risk of microbiologically documented sterile site infection. This information may impact on supportive care practices in pediatric AML. © 2015 UICC.
Swaminathan, Rajeswari; Huang, Yungui; Miller, Katherine; Pastore, Matthew; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Jacobson, Theodora; Mouhlas, Danielle; Lin, Simon
The adoption rate of genome sequencing for clinical diagnostics has been steadily increasing leading to the possibility of improvement in diagnostic yields. Although laboratories generate a summary clinical report, sharing raw genomic data with healthcare providers is equally important, both for secondary research studies as well as for a deeper analysis of the data itself, as seen by the efforts from organizations such as American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Here, we aim to describe the existing protocol of genomic data sharing between a certified clinical laboratory and a healthcare provider and highlight some of the lessons learned. This study tracked and subsequently evaluated the data transfer workflow for 19 patients, all of whom consented to be part of this research study and visited the genetics clinic at a tertiary pediatric hospital between April 2016 to December 2016. Two of the most noticeable elements observed through this study are the manual validation steps and the discrepancies in patient identifiers used by a clinical lab vs. healthcare provider. Both of these add complexity to the transfer process as well as make it more susceptible to errors. The results from this study highlight some of the critical changes that need to be made in order to improve genomic data sharing workflows between healthcare providers and clinical sequencing laboratories. PMID:29515625
Dunkel, Leo; Quinton, Richard
flag' clinical features. These 'red flags' comprise findings indicating lack of prior 'mini-puberty' (such as cryptorchidism or micropenis), or the presence of non-reproductive congenital defects known to be associated with specific hypogonadal syndromes, e.g. anosmia, deafness, mirror movements, renal agenesis, dental/digital anomalies, clefting or coloboma would be compatible with Kallmann (or perhaps CHARGE) syndrome. In children, interventions (whether in the form or treatment or simple reassurance) have been historically directed at maximising height potential and minimising psychosocial morbidity, though issues of future fertility and bone density potential are now increasingly 'in the mix'. Apubertal adults almost invariably harbour organic hypogonadism, requiring sensitive acknowledgement of underlying personal issues and the timely introduction of sex hormone replacement therapy at more physiological doses. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.
Crulli, Benjamin; Khebir, Mariam; Toledano, Baruch; Vobecky, Suzanne; Poirier, Nancy; Emeriaud, Guillaume
After pediatric cardiac surgery, ventilation with high airway pressures can be detrimental to right ventricular function and pulmonary blood flow. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) improves patient-ventilator interactions, helping maintain spontaneous ventilation. This study reports our experience with the use of NAVA in children after a cardiac surgery. We hypothesize that using NAVA in this population is feasible and allows for lower ventilation pressures. We retrospectively studied all children ventilated with NAVA (invasively or noninvasively) after undergoing cardiac surgery between January 2013 and May 2015 in our pediatric intensive care unit. The number and duration of NAVA episodes were described. For the first period of invasive NAVA in each subject, detailed clinical and ventilator data in the 4 h before and after the start of NAVA were extracted. 33 postoperative courses were included in 28 subjects with a median age of 3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1-12] months. NAVA was used invasively in 27 courses for a total duration of 87 (IQR 15-334) h per course. Peak inspiratory pressures and mean airway pressures decreased significantly after the start of NAVA (mean differences of 5.8 cm H 2 O (95% CI 4.1-7.5) and 2.0 cm H 2 O (95% CI 1.2-2.8), respectively, P < .001 for both). There was no significant difference in vital signs or blood gas values. NAVA was used noninvasively in 14 subjects, over 79 (IQR 25-137) h. NAVA could be used in pediatric subjects after cardiac surgery. The significant decrease in airway pressures observed after transition to NAVA could have a beneficial impact in this specific population, which should be investigated in future interventional studies. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Demartini, Tori L; Beck, Andrew F; Klein, Melissa D; Kahn, Robert S
Digital technologies offer new platforms for health promotion and disease management. Few studies have evaluated the use of digital technology among families receiving care in an urban pediatric primary care setting. A self-administered survey was given to a convenience sample of caregivers bringing their children to 2 urban pediatric primary care centers in spring 2012. The survey assessed access to home Internet, e-mail, smartphone, and social media (Facebook and Twitter). A "digital technology" scale (0-4) quantified the number of available digital technologies and connections. Frequency of daily use and interest in receiving medical information digitally were also assessed. The survey was completed by 257 caregivers. The sample was drawn from a clinical population that was 73% African American and 92% Medicaid insured with a median patient age of 2.9 years (interquartile range 0.8-7.4). Eighty percent of respondents reported having Internet at home, and 71% had a smartphone. Ninety-one percent reported using e-mail, 78% Facebook, and 27% Twitter. Ninety-seven percent scored ≥1 on the digital technology scale; 49% had a digital technology score of 4. The digital technology score was associated with daily use of digital media in a graded fashion (P < .0001). More than 70% of respondents reported that they would use health care information supplied digitally if approved by their child's medical provider. Caregivers in an urban pediatric primary care setting have access to and frequently use digital technologies. Digital connections may help reach a traditionally hard-to-reach population.
Grayson, Stephanie A; Griffiths, Pamela S; Perez, Miriam K; Piedimonte, Giovanni
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of respiratory illness in infants and young children, but this virus is also capable of re-infecting adults throughout life. Universal precautions to prevent its transmission consist of gown and glove use, but masks and goggles are not routinely required because it is believed that RSV is unlikely to be transmitted by the airborne route. Our hypothesis was that RSV is present in respirable-size particles aerosolized by patients seen in a pediatric acute care setting. RSV-laden particles were captured using stationary 2-stage bioaerosol cyclone samplers. Aerosol particles were separated into three size fractions (<1, 1-4.1, and ≥4.1 μm) and were tested for the presence of RSV RNA by real-time PCR. Samplers were set 152 cm ("upper") and 102 cm ("lower") above the floor in each of two examination rooms. Of the total, 554 samples collected over 48 days, only 13 (or 2.3%) were positive for RSV. More than 90% of the RSV-laden aerosol particles were in the ≥4.1 μm size range, which typically settle to the ground within minutes, whereas only one sample (or 8%) was positive for particles in the 1-4.1 μm respirable size range. Our data indicate that airborne RSV-laden particles can be detected in pediatric outpatient clinics during the epidemic peak. However, RSV airborne transmission is highly inefficient. Thus, the logistical and financial implications of mandating the use of masks and goggles to prevent RSV spread seem unwarranted in this setting. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:684-688. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barnidge, Ellen; LaBarge, Gene; Krupsky, Kathryn; Arthur, Joshua
Food insecurity is a serious health concern among children in the United States with 15.3 million children living in food insecure households. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians screen for food insecurity at health maintenance visits as identifying children at risk is a crucial step in the amelioration of food insecurity. Two surveys were administered in a Midwest pediatric clinic. A cross-sectional survey was electronically distributed to pediatric providers to assess perceptions of food insecurity among patients, provider readiness to conduct food security screenings, and barriers to conducting those screenings. A cross-sectional caregiver survey was administered to assess demographics, household food security status, participation in nutrition assistance programs, and barriers to getting enough food to eat. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios were calculated. Eighty-eight percent of physicians believe that food insecurity is a challenge for some of their patients. Only 15 % of providers reported screening for food insecurity, while 80 % were willing to screen. Physicians were most concerned with knowing how to handle a positive screen. Among caregivers, 57 % screened positive for food insecurity. Those experiencing food insecurity were more likely to be non-white, participate in SNAP and to feel discomfort towards the idea of talking to a doctor or nurse about food needs. Caregivers reporting food insecurity were significantly less likely to have a personal vehicle. Effective food insecurity screening requires addressing caregiver and health provider barriers in order to increase the likelihood of identifying households most at risk.
Buljina, A; Zubcević, S; Hadziselimović, E; Zecević, E; Dzumhur, Z
Computer were first introduced at Pediatric hospital in Sarajevo in 1989 and since 1990 first programs for managing data have been started. They were used for administration of patients and history taking, as well as for collecting clinical data of them. In the beginning, introduction was slow because lot of doctors and nurses were reluctant in using new techniques. But, in a year most of them realized all the advantages PC offers. At that time all the PCs were separated, that has limited their full facilitated data gathering especially in the periods when we lacked all other office materials (paper, typing machines ... even pencils). Thanks to them we have preserved all medical data about patients in 4 years war period. After the end of the War we started project of making clinical network and program that should run most of the work that is performed at Pediatric Hospital in Sarajevo. Everything that is done at hospital and could be helped by the use of the computers was recorded and algorithms were made. The network consists of 15 PC units. Program was developed through several phases from the admittance of the patients and administration regarding it to the discharge letter. Outpatient work was incorporated, as well as gathering all the medical findings of the patients at one place. First experiences are extremely positive. We have speeded up "paper work" and freed much time that medical stuff can spend with patients. The main problems that we encounter are need for permanent education in working with system, lack of more powerful server that can handle more data and introducing of the pictures in the medical records. We conclude that clinical network with the use of good program for managing all the data gathered in the hospital is essential for today's work.
Chamberlain, James M; Okada, Pamela; Holsti, Maija; Mahajan, Prashant; Brown, Kathleen M; Vance, Cheryl; Gonzalez, Victor; Lichenstein, Richard; Stanley, Rachel; Brousseau, David C; Grubenhoff, Joseph; Zemek, Roger; Johnson, David W; Clemons, Traci E; Baren, Jill
Benzodiazepines are considered first-line therapy for pediatric status epilepticus. Some studies suggest that lorazepam may be more effective or safer than diazepam, but lorazepam is not Food and Drug Administration approved for this indication. To test the hypothesis that lorazepam has better efficacy and safety than diazepam for treating pediatric status epilepticus. This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 1, 2008, to March 14, 2012. Patients aged 3 months to younger than 18 years with convulsive status epilepticus presenting to 1 of 11 US academic pediatric emergency departments were eligible. There were 273 patients; 140 randomized to diazepam and 133 to lorazepam. Patients received either 0.2 mg/kg of diazepam or 0.1 mg/kg of lorazepam intravenously, with half this dose repeated at 5 minutes if necessary. If status epilepticus continued at 12 minutes, fosphenytoin was administered. The primary efficacy outcome was cessation of status epilepticus by 10 minutes without recurrence within 30 minutes. The primary safety outcome was the performance of assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included rates of seizure recurrence and sedation and times to cessation of status epilepticus and return to baseline mental status. Outcomes were measured 4 hours after study medication administration. Cessation of status epilepticus for 10 minutes without recurrence within 30 minutes occurred in 101 of 140 (72.1%) in the diazepam group and 97 of 133 (72.9%) in the lorazepam group, with an absolute efficacy difference of 0.8% (95% CI, -11.4% to 9.8%). Twenty-six patients in each group required assisted ventilation (16.0% given diazepam and 17.6% given lorazepam; absolute risk difference, 1.6%; 95% CI, -9.9% to 6.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes except that lorazepam patients were more likely to be sedated (66.9% vs 50%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 16.9%; 95% CI, 6.1% to 27.7%). Among
To investigate the incidence, mortality, causes and risk factors of sepsis in children in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) in Beijing through large sample prospective clinical research. From 1st November 2008 to 31st December 2009, all patients aged from 29 days to 18 years admitted to PICU of the two children's hospitals in Beijing were surveyed. Patients who met the conditions of Chinese pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) < 90 or American guidelines for PICU admission were defined as critically ill cases. According to the definitions of sepsis of 2005 international pediatric sepsis consensus conference and 2006 Chinese Medical Association meeting, sepsis, sever sepsis, and septic shock cases were selected from these critically ill patients. The qualified subjects were surveyed by questionnaire until discharge or death the data were analyzed by SPSS. A total of 1531 of PICU admissions were enrolled within a 14-month period, of whom 1250 met the criteria of critically ill case; 486 developed sepsis, of whom 55 died. The morbidity of sepsis for all in critically ill patients in PICU was 38.9% (486/1250) and the mortality was 11.3% (55/486). The morbidity of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock in these PICU was 25.5% (319/1250), 10.3% (129/1250), 3.0% (38/1250) and the mortality was 2.2% (7/319), 23.3% (30/129), and 47.4% (18/38), respectively. The proportion of less than 3 years old was 75.5% (367/486). Respiratory system diseases (71.8%), such as pneumonia (63.6%), were the underlying primary infectious diseases of sepsis. Bacterial etiology accounted for 64.1% of the cases with sepsis with definite etiological test results. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria were 46.1% and 53.9%, respectively. PCIS and disease severity were negatively correlated (r = -0.583, P < 0.01). Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that depressed PCIS and use of mechanical ventilation were the risk factors for death. Average
Murphy, Tanya; Leckman, James; Shaw, Richard; Williams, Kyle; Kapphahn, Cynthia; Frankovich, Jennifer; Geller, Daniel; Bernstein, Gail; Chang, Kiki; Elia, Josephine; Swedo, Susan
Abstract Objective: This article outlines the consensus guidelines for symptomatic treatment for children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS). Methods: Extant literature on behavioral, psychotherapeutic, and psychopharmacologic treatments for PANS and PANDAS was reviewed. Members of the PANS Research Consortium pooled their clinical experiences to find agreement on treatment of PANS and PANDAS symptoms. Results: Current guidelines result from consensus among the Consortium members. Conclusion: While underlying infectious and inflammatory processes in PANS and PANDAS patients are treated, psychiatric and behavioral symptoms need simultaneous treatment to decrease suffering and improve adherence to therapeutic intervention. Psychological, behavioral, and psychopharmacologic interventions tailored to each child's presentation can provide symptom improvement and improve functioning during both the acute and chronic stages of illness. In general, typical evidence-based interventions are appropriate for the varied symptoms of PANS and PANDAS. Individual differences in expected response to psychotropic medication may require marked reduction of initial treatment dose. Antimicrobials and immunomodulatory therapies may be indicated, as discussed in Parts 2 and 3 of this guideline series. PMID:28722481
West, Nathan G; Ilief-Ala, Melina A; Douglass, Joanna M; Hagadorn, James I
This study's purpose was to determine whether one-time sealants placed by pediatric dental residents vs dental students have different outcomes. The effect of isolation technique, behavior, duration of follow-up, and caries history was also examined. Records from 2 inner-city pediatric dental clinics were audited for 6- to 10-year-old patients with a permanent first molar sealant with at least 2 years of follow-up. A successful sealant was a one-time sealant that received no further treatment and was sealed or unsealed but not carious or restored at the final audit. Charts from 203 children with 481 sealants were audited. Of these, 281 sealants were failures. Univariate analysis revealed longer follow-up and younger age were associated with sealant failure. Operator type, child behavior, and isolation technique were not associated with sealant failure. After adjusting for follow-up duration, increased age at treatment reduced the odds of sealant failure while a history of caries reduced the protective effect of increased age. After adjusting for these factors, practitioner type, behavior, and type of isolation were not associated with sealant outcome in multivariate analysis. Age at sealant placement, history of caries prior to placement, and longer duration of follow-up are associated with sealant failure.
AlKharafi, Najla N A H; Alsaeid, Khaled; AlSumait, Anwar; Al-Sabah, Humoud; Al-Ajmi, Hejab; Rahim, Jasim Abdul; Al-Enezi, Hamid; Nanda, Arti
The manifestations of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and their relevance to systemic disease are well characterized in adults, but data are limited in children. The objective of the current study was to examine the spectrum of CLE and its relationship to systemic disease in children from a tertiary care pediatric dermatology clinic. An analysis of 26 children with CLE registered consecutively over 14 years was performed. Ninety-six percent of the patients were of Arab ethnicity. They included seven (27%) cases with neonatal lupus erythematosus (LE) (71% females and 29% males). Of the other 19 children with CLE, 95% were female. The mean and median age at diagnosis was 11 years. Eighty-nine percent of the patients fulfilled the criteria for systemic LE. All patients had LE-specific lesions and 83% had LE-nonspecific manifestations. Atypical initial presentations were recorded in 28% of the patients, and 22% of the patients had the rare LE variants. Of the LE-specific manifestations, acute CLE was seen in 83%, subacute in 44%, and chronic in 22%. Autoimmune associations were recorded in 44% and a positive family history of autoimmune diseases in 61%. This study highlights a striking female predominance, higher risk of systemic disease in children presenting with CLE, higher prevalence of atypical presentation and rare CLE variants, and underrepresentation of discoid LE in children and signifies the need for more surveys to delineate the spectrum of pediatric CLE in different parts of the world. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Jonathan; Korczak, Daphne
Little is known about parental satisfaction with pediatric crisis clinics (PCCs) that provide a single consultation to families in need of urgent psychiatric care. Parental satisfaction may improve long-term adherence to physician recommendations. To explore parental satisfaction with a PCC. Parental satisfaction was ascertained by a structured telephone interview following crisis consultation at the PCC of an academic, tertiary care centre. Parents of 71% (n = 124) of 174 pediatric patients seen in the PCC from 2007-2008 participated in the post-consultation interview. The majority of parents stated they were either somewhat satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) or very satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) with the PCC. Parental satisfaction correlated with time between referral and consultation (p<0.05), the degree to which parents felt listened to by the consultant (p<0.01), the amount of psychoeducation parents felt they received (p<0.01), and appointment length (p<0.001). Parents were satisfied overall with an urgent care service model. Satisfaction was correlated with the time between referral and consultation, degree to which they felt their consultant had listened to them, and the amount of information they received at the consultation's conclusion.
Lee, Jonathan; Korczak, Daphne
Introduction: Little is known about parental satisfaction with pediatric crisis clinics (PCCs) that provide a single consultation to families in need of urgent psychiatric care. Parental satisfaction may improve long-term adherence to physician recommendations. Objective: To explore parental satisfaction with a PCC. Methods: Parental satisfaction was ascertained by a structured telephone interview following crisis consultation at the PCC of an academic, tertiary care centre. Methods: Parents of 71% (n = 124) of 174 pediatric patients seen in the PCC from 2007–2008 participated in the post-consultation interview. Results: The majority of parents stated they were either somewhat satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) or very satisfied (49/122, 40.2%) with the PCC. Parental satisfaction correlated with time between referral and consultation (p<0.05), the degree to which parents felt listened to by the consultant (p<0.01), the amount of psychoeducation parents felt they received (p<0.01), and appointment length (p<0.001). Conclusions: Parents were satisfied overall with an urgent care service model. Satisfaction was correlated with the time between referral and consultation, degree to which they felt their consultant had listened to them, and the amount of information they received at the consultation’s conclusion. PMID:24872827
Mitchual, Serena; da Fonseca, Marcio A; Raja, Sheela; Weatherspoon, Darien; Koerber, Anne
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of potentially traumatic events (PTE) and a child's behavior during dental treatment. Parents of healthy children, age four years and older and attending their initial dental appointment at a university pediatric dental clinic, were asked to complete the Traumatic Events Screening Inventory-Parent Report Revised and a demographic survey. Following the dental appointment, a pediatric dental resident reported the child's behavior using the Frankl scale. A total of 170 parent-child pairs participated; 53 percent of parents indicated their child had experienced at least one PTE; 44 percent reported their child had a prior negative experience at the dentist. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between PTE history and poor dental behavior (P=0.994), but a significant association was observed between a previous negative dental experience and poor dental behavior (P=0.000) as well as between age (younger than five years old) and poor behavior (P=0.006). Children with a history of potentially traumatic events did not exhibit uncooperative behavior more often than those who did not. A previous negative dental experience and the child's young age were significantly associated with uncooperative behavior.
Van Batavia, Jason P; Tasian, Gregory E
The incidence of pediatric nephrolithiasis has risen over the past few decades leading to a growing public health burden. Children and adolescents represent a unique patient population secondary to their higher risks from radiation exposure as compared to adults, high risk of recurrence, and longer follow up time given their longer life expectancies. Ultrasound imaging is the first-line modality for diagnosing suspected nephrolithiasis in children. Although data is limited, the best evidence based medicine supports the use of alpha-blockers as first-line MET in children, especially when stones are small and in a more distal ureteral location. Surgical management of pediatric nephrolithiasis is similar to that in adults with ESWL and URS first-line for smaller stones and PCNL reserved for larger renal stone burden. Clinical effectiveness in minimizing risks in children and adolescents with nephrolithiasis centers around ED pathways that limit CT imaging, strict guidance to ALARA principles or use of US during surgical procedures, and education of both patients and families on the risks of repeat ionizing radiation exposures during follow up and acute colic events. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaikh, Ulfat; Berrong, Jeanette; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Byrd, Robert S
Clinicians vary significantly in their adherence to clinical guidelines for overweight/obesity. This study assessed the impact of electronic health record-based clinical decision support in improving the diagnosis and management of pediatric obesity. The study team programmed a point-of-care alert linked to a checklist and standardized documentation templates to appear during health maintenance visits for overweight/obese children in an outpatient teaching clinic and compared outcomes through medical record reviews of 574 (287 control and 287 intervention) visits. The results demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the diagnosis of overweight/obesity, scheduling of follow-up appointments, frequency of ordering recommended laboratory investigations, and assessment and counseling for nutrition and physical activity. Although clinical guideline adherence increased significantly, it was far from universal. It is unknown if modest improvements in adherence to clinical guidelines translate to improvements in children's health. However, this intervention was relatively easy to implement and produced measurable improvements in health care delivery. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.
Adams, Denise; Schiffgen, Miriam; Kundu, Anjana; Dagenais, Simon; Clifford, Tammy; Baydala, Lola; King, W James; Vohra, Sunita
The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among pediatric patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders at academic clinics in Canada. The survey was carried out at 2 hospital-based gastroenterology clinics: the Stollery Children's Hospital in Edmonton and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) in Ottawa. CAM use at the Stollery was 83% compared with 36% at CHEO (P < 0.001). The most common reason for not using CAM was lack of knowledge about it. Most respondents felt comfortable discussing CAM in their clinic and wanted more information on CAM. The most common CAM products being taken were multivitamins (91%), calcium (35%), vitamin C (32%), probiotics (14%), and fish oil/omega-3 fatty acids (13%). The most common CAM practices being used were massage (43%), chiropractic (27%), faith healing (25%), and relaxation (18%). Most respondents believed that CAM was helpful, and most of the 23 reported adverse effects were minor. Seven were reported as moderate, and 3 were reported as severe. Many (42%) patients used CAM at the same time as prescription medicines, and of these patients, concurrent use was discussed with their physician (76%) or pharmacist (52%). CAM use is high among pediatric patients with GI disorders and is much greater among those in Edmonton than in Ottawa. Most respondents reported their CAM use as helpful, with little or no associated harm. Many patients fail to disclose their concurrent use of CAM and conventional medicines to their doctors, increasing the likelihood of interactions.
Nagamatsu, I; Horiguchi, S; Hatae, T
BRL 25000 granules, a formulation of amoxicillin (AMPC) and the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid (CVA) in a ratio of 2 to 1, was studied clinically and bacteriologically in pediatric infections. The in vitro antibacterial activity of BRL 25000 was superior to AMPC against beta-lactamase producing strains. The pharmacokinetics of the BRL 25000 granule were studied following oral administration to a 6 years old female and 9 years old male in the fasting state at dose levels of 10 mg/kg and 16.1 mg/kg, respectively. In the case of the female dosed at 10 mg/kg, the peak serum concentrations were found to be 6.38 micrograms/ml for AMPC and 1.83 micrograms/ml for CVA at 1 hour following administration. The elimination half-life of AMPC was 0.86 hour and that of CVA was 0.67 hour. The 4-hour urinary recovery was 61.89% for AMPC and 17.92% for CVA. In the male receiving 16.1 mg/kg, the peak concentrations were 2.55 micrograms/ml for AMPC at 3 hours following administration and 1.46 micrograms/ml for CVA at 1.5 hours following administration. The elimination half-life of AMPC was 1.59 hours and that of CVA was 1.19 hours. The 6-hour urinary recovery was 44.19% for AMPC and 30.05% for CVA. In clinical studies, the BRL 25000 granule was administered to 36 infants with upper respiratory tract infections, mainly tonsillitis, urinary tract infections etc. Good clinical efficacy was obtained in 33/36 cases (91.7%). Diarrhea and rash were occasionally noted side effects but were not severe. From the above results, it can be concluded that the BRL 25000 granule is a suitable and effective drug for use in the treatment of pediatric infections.
Hall, Jeanine E; Huynh, Pauline P; Mody, Ameer P; Wang, Vincent J
Clinicians rely on any combination of signs and symptoms, clinical scores, or invasive procedures to assess the hydration status in children. Noninvasive tests to evaluate for dehydration in the pediatric population are appealing. The objective of our study is to assess the utility of measuring specific gravity of tears compared to specific gravity of urine and the clinical assessment of dehydration. We conducted a prospective cohort convenience sample study, in a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital. We approached parents/guardians of children aged 6 months to 4 years undergoing transurethral catheterization for evaluation of urinary tract infection for enrollment. We collected tears and urine for measurement of tear specific gravity (TSG) and urine specific gravity (USG), respectively. Treating physicians completed dehydration assessment forms to assess for hydration status. Among the 60 participants included, the mean TSG was 1.0183 (SD = 0.007); the mean USG was 1.0186 (SD = 0.0083). TSG and USG were positively correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation = 0.423, p = 0.001). Clinical dehydration scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 87% assigned a score of 0, by physician assessment. Mean number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea in a 24-hour period were 2.2 (SD = 3.9) and 1.5 (SD = 3.2), respectively. Sixty-two percent of parents reported decreased oral intake. TSG measurements yielded similar results compared with USG. Further studies are needed to determine if TSG can be used as a noninvasive method of dehydration assessment in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chang, Ann; Kicis, Jennifer; Sangha, Gurjit
High patient acuity, heavy workload, and patient deaths can all contribute to work-related stress for pediatric oncology nurses. A new leadership role, the clinical support nurse (CSN), was recently initiated on the oncology unit of a large Canadian pediatric hospital to support frontline staff and reduce some of the stresses related to clinical activity. The CSN assists nurses with complex patient care procedures, provides hands-on education at the bedside, and supports staff in managing challenging family situations. This study explores the effect of the CSN role on the nurses' work-related stress using the Stressor Scale for Pediatric Oncology Nurses. A total of 58 nurses participated in this study for a response rate of 86%. The results show that the intensity of work-related stress experienced by nurses in this study is significantly less (P < .001) on shifts staffed with a CSN compared with shifts without a CSN.
Seidel, Natan E; Arlen, Angela M; Smith, Edwin A; Kirsch, Andrew J
To review the clinical manifestations and operative management of a large contemporary pediatric cohort of patients with prune-belly syndrome (PBS). PBS patients aged <21 years followed up in our pediatric urology clinic were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code (756.71). Demographics, concomitant diagnoses, surgical history, imaging studies, and renal or bladder function were evaluated. Data were available for 46 pediatric patients (44 boys and 2 girls). Mean age was 7.6 ± 4.7 years (range, 0.9-20 years). Average length of clinical follow-up was 6.8 ± 5 years. Forty-five children (97.8%) had hydroureteronephrosis, and 36 of them (78.3%) had vesicoureteral reflux. Five patients (10.9%) had significant pulmonary insufficiency, and 2 patients (4.3%) were oxygen dependent. Eighteen children (39.1%) had other congenital malformations, including cardiac in 4 patients (8.7%) and musculoskeletal anomalies in 10 patients (21.7%). Orchidopexy was the most common surgery, with all boys aged ≥3 years having undergone the procedure. Twenty-two patients (47.8%) had a history of ureteral surgery, 22 (47.8%) had bladder surgery, 11 (23.9%) had renal surgery, and 6 (13%) had urethral procedures. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent abdominoplasty. Eighteen children (39.1%) had documented chronic kidney disease, and 8 children (17.4%) underwent renal transplantation. Average age at transplantation was 5.1 ± 2.9 years. The mean nadir creatinine level for patients with end-stage renal disease was 1.4 mg/dL compared with 0.4 mg/dL for those not requiring transplantation (P <.001). Children with PBS have significant comorbidities and require frequent operative intervention, with disease heterogeneity necessitating an individualized management approach. Early end-stage renal disease is prevalent, with approximately 15% of children requiring kidney transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mahan, Susan T; Kalish, Leslie A; Connell, Patricia L; Harris, Marie; Abdul-Rahim, Zainab; Waters, Peter
Quality-of-life (QOL) measures can be a valuable tool to assess the general welfare across a spectrum of patients in a pediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic and can be a simple way to assess patient-based outcomes particularly for quality initiatives. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is validated for many orthopaedic conditions but typically takes around 20 minutes to complete (86 questions). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) takes <4 minutes to complete (23 questions) but has not been assessed in an orthopaedic setting. We initiated this study to find the best method for assessing QOL in our outpatient clinic. A short pediatric QOL measure that is correlated to an established orthopaedic-specific QOL measure is needed; therefore, we compared the PedsQL to the PODCI in the outpatient orthopaedic clinic. This was a quality initiative project and as such did not require a priori IRB approval. Families of patients 2 to 18 years old who presented for follow-up after upper or lower extremity fractures or brachial plexus injuries in the orthopaedic clinic from October 2010 through August 2011 were asked to fill out both the PODCI and the PedsQL. Patients aged 5 years and older filled out a patient-report PedsQL; patients aged 11 years and older filled out the patient-report PODCI. Parents/guardians completed questionnaires for children of all ages. Most fracture patients (and/or their parent/guardian) repeated the questionnaires after 6 to 12 weeks. Data were then assessed for correlation between the PODCI and PedsQL. A total of 428 parent/guardian reports for 283 patients and 172 self-reports for 104 patients were included. The correlation between the PODCI Global score and the PedsQL Total score for the parent/guardian-reported questionnaires for all injuries was 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.82). When categorized within domains and injuries, parent/guardian-reported correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.79. In patients
Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud
Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.
Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud
Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577
Singh, Surjit; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit
Rapidly evolving advances in the field of immunology over the last few decades have impacted the practice of clinical medicine in many ways. In fact, understanding the immunological basis of disease has been pivotal in deciphering the pathogenesis of several disease processes, infective or otherwise. As of today, there is hardly any specialty of medicine which is not influenced by immunology. Pediatric rheumatological disorders, vasculitides, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PIDs) and autoimmune disorders fall under the domain of clinical immunology. This specialty is poised to emerge as a major clinical specialty in our country. The gulf between bench and bedside is narrowing down as our understanding of the complex immunological mechanisms gets better. However, a lot still needs to be done in this field as the morbidity and mortality of some of these conditions is unacceptably high in the Indian setup. A number of medical schools and institutes in the country now have the resources and the wherewithal to develop into specialized centres of clinical immunology. We need to concentrate on training more physicians and pediatricians in this field. The future is bright and the prospects exciting.
Storch, Eric A; Milsom, Vanessa A; Merlo, Lisa J; Larson, Michael; Geffken, Gary R; Jacob, Marni L; Murphy, Tanya K; Goodman, Wayne K
Insight has emerged as a significant treatment outcome predictor in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with some suggesting that OCD with poor insight represents a distinct clinical subtype. Despite its clinical relevance, limited data exist on insight in pediatric OCD patients. The present study investigated the relation between poor insight and clinical characteristics among children and adolescents with OCD (N=78, ages 6-20 years). Forty-five percent of the sample (n=35) was considered to have low levels of insight into their symptoms, as determined by clinician rating on item 11 of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Pearson product-moment correlations showed a significant, inverse relation between insight and OCD severity. Relative to the high insight group, parents of patients with low insight reported higher levels of OCD-related impairment and family accommodation. These findings suggest that OCD with poor insight may represent a distinct clinical feature that may require more intensive and multimodal treatment approaches.
Leggieri, E; De Biase, R V; Savi, D; Zullo, S; Halili, I; Quattrucci, S
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients present an altered fatty acid (FA) metabolism characterized by imbalance in the arachidonic/docosohexasenoic acid (AA/DHA) ratio in favour of the former which can contribute to the increase in pulmonary inflammation. The present study aims to assess respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters, and inflammatory markers after six months of DHA supplementation in paediatric patients suffering from CF. A dose of 1 g/10 kg/die was administered to ten CF patients of paediatric age for the first month and 250 mg/10 kg/die for the remaining 5 months. We carried out follow-ups at T0 (baseline), T6 (after six months of the diet) and T12 (six months after supplementation was interrupted) during which respiratory, nutritional, clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. After six months of DHA supplementation inflammatory marker levels had diminished: interleukin 8 (IL-8) and Tumour Necrosis Factor Alfa (TNF-α) in serum, and calprotectin in stools. In addition, auxometric parameters were improved as was the clinical condition of patients, who tolerated DHA well. Dietetic integration with DHA seems to improve clinical condition and the inflammatory pulmonary and intestinal state of pediatric patients suffering from CF.
Butsch Kovacic, Melinda; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Lindsey, Mark; Patterson, Tia; Sauter, Sharon; Ericksen, Mark B.; Ryan, Patrick; Assa'ad, Amal; Lierl, Michelle; Fischer, Thomas; Kercsmar, Carolyn; McDowell, Karen; Lucky, Anne W.; Sheth, Anita P.; Hershey, Andrew D.; Ruddy, Richard M.; Rothenberg, Marc E.
Background Allergic disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and food allergy, are a major global health burden. The study and management of allergic disorders is complicated by the considerable heterogeneity in both the presentation and natural history of these disorders. Biorepositories serve as an excellent source of data and biospecimens for delineating subphenotypes of allergic disorders, but such resources are lacking. Methods In order to define subphenotypes of allergic disease accurately, we established an infrastructure to link and efficiently utilize clinical and epidemiologic data with biospecimens into a single biorepository called the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository (GCPCR). Children with allergic disorders as well as healthy controls are followed longitudinally at hospital clinic, emergency department, and inpatient visits. Subjects' asthma, allergy, and skin symptoms; past medical, family, social, diet, and environmental histories; physical activity; medication adherence; perceived quality of life; and demographics are ascertained. DNA is collected from all participants, and other biospecimens such as blood, hair, and nasal epithelial cells are collected on a subset. Results To date, the GCPCR has 6,317 predominantly Caucasian and African American participants, and 93% have banked DNA. This large sample size supports adequately powered genetic, epidemiologic, environmental, and health disparities studies of childhood allergic diseases. Conclusions The GCPCR is a unique biorepository that is continuously evaluated and refined to achieve and maintain rigorous clinical phenotype and biological data. Development of similar disease-specific repositories using common data elements is necessary to enable studies across multiple populations of comprehensively phenotyped patients. PMID:22768387
Caufield, Maura; Tom, Wynnis L.
Background Azathioprine is prescribed as a corticosteroid-sparing agent for many inflammatory conditions, including refractory atopic dermatitis (AD). There is limited prospective data on its appropriate use and monitoring for children with AD. Objectives This study was designed to assess clinical response to azathioprine, determine the necessity for repeat measurement of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity during treatment, and test the utility of measuring levels of the metabolites 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Methods Twelve children with severe, recalcitrant AD were treated with oral azathioprine and followed prospectively. Disease severity was determined by the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis Index. Baseline TPMT activity was measured and this was repeated along with 6-TGN and 6-MMP measurement at times of stable improvement, inadequate response, or change in response. Results Azathioprine therapy was associated with clinical improvement in all but one subject. There were few adverse effects. Three subjects showed a significant change in TPMT activity during treatment: two had a mild decrease and one demonstrated enzyme inducibility with an increase from the intermediate to the normal activity range. These changes, but not 6-TGN or 6-MMP levels, inversely correlated with the clinical response to therapy. Limitations Small sample size Conclusions Azathioprine can be of benefit in the treatment of recalcitrant pediatric AD. Repeat assessment of TPMT activity may be helpful for evaluation of non–response or change in response and warrants further study. In contrast, measurement of thiopurine metabolites during treatment was not clinically useful. PMID:22892285
Josephson, Cassandra D.; Mondoro, Traci Heath; Ambruso, Daniel R.; Sanchez, Rosa; Sloan, Steven R.; Luban, Naomi L.C.; Widness, John A.
There is concern at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and among transfusion medicine specialists regarding the small number of investigators and studies in the field of pediatric transfusion medicine (PTM). Accordingly, the objective of this article is to provide a snapshot of the clinical and translational PTM research considered to be of high priority by pediatricians, neonatologists, and transfusion medicine specialists. Included is a targeted review of three research areas of importance: 1) transfusion strategies, 2) short- and long-term clinical consequences, and 3) transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases. The recommendations by PTM and transfusion medicine specialists represent opportunities and innovative strategies to execute translational research, observational studies, and clinical trials of high relevance to PTM. With the explosion of new biomedical knowledge and increasingly sophisticated methodologies over the past decade, this is an exciting time to consider transfusion medicine as a paradigm for addressing questions related to fields such as cell biology, immunology, neurodevelopment, outcomes research and many others. Increased awareness of PTM as an, important, fertile field and the promotion of accompanying opportunities will help establish PTM as a viable career option and advance basic and clinical investigation to improve the health and wellbeing of children. PMID:25119336
Varnell, Charles D; Rich, Kristin L; Nichols, Melissa; Dahale, Devesh; Goebel, Jens W; Pai, Ahna L H; Hooper, David K; Modi, Avani C
Patient-identified barriers to immunosuppressive medications are associated with poor adherence and negative clinical outcomes in transplant patients. Assessment of adherence barriers is not part of routine post-transplant care, and studies regarding implementing such a process in a reliable way are lacking. Using the Model for Improvement and PDSA cycles, we implemented a system to identify adherence barriers, including patient-centered design of a barriers assessment tool, identification of eligible patients, clear roles for clinic staff, and creating a culture of non-judgmental discussion around adherence. We performed time-series analysis of our process measure. Secondary analyses examined the endorsement and concordance of adherence barriers between patient-caregiver dyads. After three methods of testing, the most reliable delivery system was an EHR-integrated tablet that alerted staff of patient eligibility for assessment. Barriers were endorsed by 35% of caregivers (n=85) and 43% of patients (n=60). The most frequently patient-endorsed barriers were forgetting, poor taste, and side effects. Caregivers endorsed forgetting and side effects. Concordance between patient-caregiver dyads was fair (k=0.299). Standardized adherence barriers assessment is feasible in the clinical care of pediatric kidney transplant patients. Features necessary for success included automation, redundant systems with designated staff to identify and mitigate failures, aligned reporting structures, and reliable measurement approaches. Future studies will examine whether barriers predict clinical outcomes (eg, organ rejection, graft loss). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
King, Gillian; Shepherd, Tracy A; Servais, Michelle; Willoughby, Colleen; Bolack, Linda; Strachan, Deborah; Moodie, Sheila; Baldwin, Patricia; Knickle, Kerry; Parker, Kathryn; Savage, Diane; McNaughton, Nancy
To describe the creation and validation of six simulations concerned with effective listening and interpersonal communication in pediatric rehabilitation. The simulations involved clinicians from various disciplines, were based on clinical scenarios related to client issues, and reflected core aspects of listening/communication. Each simulation had a key learning objective, thus focusing clinicians on specific listening skills. The article outlines the process used to turn written scenarios into digital video simulations, including steps taken to establish content validity and authenticity, and to establish a series of videos based on the complexity of their learning objectives, given contextual factors and associated macrocognitive processes that influence the ability to listen. A complexity rating scale was developed and used to establish a gradient of easy/simple, intermediate, and hard/complex simulations. The development process exemplifies an evidence-based, integrated knowledge translation approach to the teaching and learning of listening and communication skills.
Tietjen, Andrea L; Orsini, Jenoveva; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant; Morgan, Debbie
To develop and implement a billing process that fully integrates all activities of a pediatric nephrology and transplant program, by facilitating and coordinating data from patients, physicians, hospitals, and third-party billing services to maximize revenues. Financial operations were analyzed via a randomized audit of patient charts that focused on office procedures and revenue collection. Results based on monthly reports documenting revenue received and outstanding, procedures billed, and patient registration accuracy. The combination of improvements in patient registration, chart documentation, new billing sheets with procedure and diagnosis codes, physician in-service education, upgraded charges, and the recredentialing of all practice physicians realized an increase in revenue collections from 18% in 2000 to 89% in 2001. The need to integrate and coordinate information is vital for both billing accuracy and revenue collections. Integration of clinical services and billing procedures has maximized performance, profitability, and accuracy while decreasing administrative time and costs.
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The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) works with NCI Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to provide standardized terminology for coding pediatric clinical trials and other research activities.
Taveras, Elsie M; Marshall, Richard; Kleinman, Ken P; Gillman, Matthew W; Hacker, Karen; Horan, Christine M; Smith, Renata L; Price, Sarah; Sharifi, Mona; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Simon, Steven R
Evidence of effective treatment of childhood obesity in primary care settings is limited. To examine the extent to which computerized clinical decision support (CDS) delivered to pediatric clinicians at the point of care of obese children, with or without individualized family coaching, improved body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and quality of care. We conducted a cluster-randomized, 3-arm clinical trial. We enrolled 549 children aged 6 to 12 years with a BMI at the 95% percentile or higher from 14 primary care practices in Massachusetts from October 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. Patients were followed up for 1 year (last follow-up, August 30, 2013). In intent-to-treat analyses, we used linear mixed-effects models to account for clustering by practice and within each person. In 5 practices randomized to CDS, pediatric clinicians received decision support on obesity management, and patients and their families received an intervention for self-guided behavior change. In 5 practices randomized to CDS + coaching, decision support was augmented by individualized family coaching. The remaining 4 practices were randomized to usual care. Smaller age-associated change in BMI and the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) performance measures for obesity during the 1-year follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) patient age and BMI were 9.8 (1.9) years and 25.8 (4.3), respectively. At 1 year, we obtained BMI from 518 children (94.4%) and HEDIS measures from 491 visits (89.4%). The 3 randomization arms had different effects on BMI over time (P = .04). Compared with the usual care arm, BMI increased less in children in the CDS arm during 1 year (-0.51 [95% CI, -0.91 to -0.11]). The CDS + coaching arm had a smaller magnitude of effect (-0.34 [95% CI, -0.75 to 0.07]). We found substantially greater achievement of childhood obesity HEDIS measures in the CDS arm (adjusted odds ratio, 2.28 [95% CI, 1
McMillan, Jefferson E; Meier, Emily R; Winer, Jeffrey C; Coco, Megan; Daymont, Mary; Long, Sierra; Jacobs, Brian R
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a blood disorder affecting many US children that is often associated with hospital readmission. Although previous studies have reported on the clinical factors that influence readmission risk, potential geographic factors have not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of geographic risk factors and to confirm previously derived clinical risk factors that influence readmissions for SCD pain crises. Retrospective analyses were performed on pediatric inpatients with sickle cell crises at a single center. Readmission rates and risk factors were assessed. Geospatial analysis was conducted on point variables that represented health service access, and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed. The study identified 373 patients experiencing sickle cell crises, with 125 (33.5%) having at least one 30-day readmission. Age (mean difference: 2.2 years; P<0.001), length of stay (median difference: 1 day; P<.001), admission pain score>7 of 10 (odds ratio [OR]: 2.21; P<0.01), discharge pain score>4 of 10 (OR: 2.098; P<.01), living within 5 miles of the center's main hospital (OR: 0.573; P=.04), and >3 hospital utilizations in the previous 12 months (OR: 5.103; P<.001) were identified as potential indicators of 30-day readmission risk. Logistic regression models for 30-day readmissions yielded similar results. Increased age, high admission and discharge pain scores, decreased length of stay, and increased hospital utilizations were found to be associated with an increased risk of readmission for sickle cell crisis. Patient's residence was also found to be a significant risk indicator, supporting the utility of geospatial analysis in assessing readmission risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Gorelick, Marc H; Knight, Stacey; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Stanley, Rachel M; Chamberlain, James M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Alpern, Elizabeth R
Diagnosis information from existing data sources is used commonly for epidemiologic, administrative, and research purposes. The quality of such data for emergency department (ED) visits is unknown. To determine the agreement on final diagnoses between two sources, electronic administrative sources and manually abstracted medical records, for pediatric ED visits, in a multicenter network. This was a cross sectional study at 19 EDs nationwide. The authors obtained data from two sources at each ED during a three-month period in 2003: administrative sources for all visits and abstracted records for randomly selected visits during ten days over the study period. Records were matched using unique identifiers and probabilistic linkage. The authors recorded up to three diagnoses from each abstracted medical record and up to ten for the administrative data source. Diagnoses were grouped into 104 groups using a modification of the Clinical Classification System. A total of 8,860 abstracted records had at least one valid diagnosis code (with a total of 12,895 diagnoses) and were successfully matched to records in the administrative source. Overall, 67% (95% confidence interval = 66% to 68%) of diagnoses from the administrative and abstracted sources were within the same diagnosis group. Agreement varied by site, ranging from 54% to 77%. Agreement varied substantially by diagnosis group; there was no difference by method of linkage. Clustering clinically similar diagnosis groups improved agreement between administrative and abstracted data sources. ED diagnoses retrieved from electronic administrative sources and manual chart review frequently disagree, even if similar diagnosis codes are grouped. Agreement varies by institution and by diagnosis. Further work is needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis coding; development of a grouping system specific to pediatric emergency care may be beneficial.
Stein, Jill M.; Walkup, Laura L.; Brody, Alan S.; Fleck, Robert J.
Background The use of quantitative CT analysis in children is limited by lack of normal values of lung parenchymal attenuation. These characteristics are important because normal lung development yields significant parenchymal attenuation changes as children age. Objective To perform quantitative characterization of normal pediatric lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation under routine clinical conditions in order to establish a baseline comparison to that seen in pathological lung conditions. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective query of normal CT chest examinations in children ages 0–7 years from 2004 to 2014 using standard clinical protocol. During these examinations semi-automated lung parenchymal segmentation was performed to measure lung volume and mean lung attenuation. Results We analyzed 42 CT examinations in 39 children, ages 3 days to 83 months (mean ± standard deviation [SD] = 42±27 months). Lung volume ranged 0.10–1.72 liters (L). Mean lung attenuation was much higher in children younger than 12 months, with values as high as −380 Hounsfield units (HU) in neonates (lung volume 0.10 L). Lung volume decreased to approximately −650 HU by age 2 years (lung volume 0.47 L), with subsequently slower exponential decrease toward a relatively constant value of −860 HU as age and lung volume increased. Conclusion Normal lung parenchymal X-ray CT attenuation decreases with increasing lung volume and age; lung attenuation decreases rapidly in the first 2 years of age and more slowly thereafter. This change in normal lung attenuation should be taken into account as quantitative CT methods are translated to pediatric pulmonary imaging. PMID:27576458
Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan
to evaluate the accuracy of the version of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score translated and adapted for the Brazilian context, in the recognition of clinical deterioration. a diagnostic test study to measure the accuracy of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, in relation to a reference standard. The sample consisted of 271 children, aged 0 to 10 years, blindly evaluated by a nurse and a physician, specialists in pediatrics, with interval of 5 to 10 minutes between the evaluations, for the application of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context and of the reference standard. The data were processed and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and VassarStats.net programs. The performance of the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context was evaluated through the indicators of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, area under the ROC curve, likelihood ratios and post-test probability. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context showed sensitivity of 73.9%, specificity of 95.5%, positive predictive value of 73.3%, negative predictive value of 94.7%, area under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve of 91.9% and the positive post-test probability was 80%. the Brighton Pediatric Early Warning Score for the Brazilian context, presented good performance, considered valid for the recognition of clinical deterioration warning signs of the children studied. avaliar a acurácia da versão traduzida e adaptada do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro, no reconhecimento da deterioração clínica. estudo de teste diagnóstico para medir a acurácia do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, em relação a um padrão de referência. A amostra foi composta por 271 crianças de 0 a 10 anos, avaliadas de forma cega por uma enfermeira e um médico, especialistas em pediatria, com
Saps, M; van Tilburg, M A L; Lavigne, J V; Miranda, A; Benninga, M A; Taminiau, J A; Di Lorenzo, C
There is little published evidence of efficacy for the most commonly used treatments. Thus, there is an urgent need to conduct clinical trials on existing and novel therapies. In order to address these issues the Rome Foundation and members of the Pediatric Committee of the European Medicines Agency formed a subcommittee on clinical trials to develop guidelines for the design of clinical trials in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The following recommendations are based on evidence from published data when available and expert opinion. The subcommittee recommends randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trials to assess the efficacy of new drugs. The combined endpoints for abdominal pain are a decrease in intensity of at least 30% compared with baseline and to meet or exceed the Reliable Change Index (RCI) for the sample. Stool consistency is measured with the Bristol Stool Scale Form (BSFS). The subcommittee recommends as entry criteria for abdominal pain a weekly average of worst abdominal pain in past 24 h of at least 3.0 on a 0-10 point scale or at least 30 mm in 100 mm Visual Analog Scale. For stool endpoints the committee recommends an average stool consistency lower than 3 in the BSFS during the run-in period for clinical trials on IBS-C and an average stool consistency greater than 5 in the BSFS during the run-in period for clinical trials on IBS-D. Changes in stool consistency are the primary endpoints for both IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) and IBS with constipation (IBS-C). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Balmer, Dorene; Ruzek, Sheryl; Ludwig, Stephen; Giardino, Angelo P
Pediatric residents learn about systems-based practice (SBP) explicitly in the formal curriculum and implicitly in the informal curriculum as they engage in practice alongside physician faculty. Recent studies describe innovative ways to address SBP in the formal curriculum for SBP, but the informal curriculum has not been explored. We examined what, and how, third-year pediatric residents learn about SBP in the informal curriculum at one continuity clinic, and to consider how this learning aligns with the formal curriculum. A case study involving 10 third-year pediatric residents and 10 continuity preceptors was conducted at one continuity clinic, housed in a community-based, pediatric primary care center. Data were derived from 5 months (100 hours) of direct observation in the precepting room at the case clinic, semistructured interviews with residents (before and after observation) and with preceptors (after observation). Interview transcripts and notes from observation were inductively coded and analyzed for major themes. Two themes emerged in the informal curriculum. Residents perceived "our system," the academic health system in which they trained and practiced as separate and distinct from the "real system," the larger, societal context of health care. Residents also understood SBP as a commitment to helping individual patients and families navigate the complexities of "our system," dealing with issues that concerned them. Residents learn important lessons about SBP in the informal curriculum in continuity clinic. These lessons may reinforce some elements of the competency-based formal curriculum for SBP, but challenge others.
Sanford, Stacy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Snyder, Mallory A; Reichek, Jennifer; Salsman, John M
Minimal clinical trial participation among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer limits scientific progress and ultimately their clinical care and outcomes. These analyses examine the current state of AYA clinical research participation at a Midwestern comprehensive cancer center and affiliated pediatric hospital to advise program development and increase availability of trials and AYA participation. Enrollment is examined across all diagnoses, the entire AYA age spectrum (15-39), and both cancer therapeutic and supportive care protocols. his study was a retrospective review of electronic medical records via existing databases and registries for all AYAs. Data were collected for AYAs seen by an oncologist at the adult outpatient cancer center or at the pediatric hospital between the years 2010 and 2014. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted to characterize this sample. In the pediatric setting, 42.3% of AYAs were enrolled in a study compared to 11.2% in the adult setting. Regression analyses in the pediatric setting revealed that AYAs with private insurance or Caucasian race were more likely to participate. Within the adult setting, ethnicity, race, insurance, and diagnosis were associated with study participation; 54.8% of study enrollments were for cancer therapeutic and 43.4% for supportive care studies. These results are comparable to previously published data and support the need for new local and national AYA initiatives to increase the availability of and enrollment in therapeutic clinical trials. The same is true for supportive care studies which play a crucial role in improving quality of life.
Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B
The article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military endocrinology demonstrated on the examples of the endocrinology services of armed forces of Serbia, Poland, France, and USA. It is shown that this branch of military healthcare receives much attention abroad. The prospectives of military endocrinology are demonstrated in the context of two nosological forms which dominate in this section of military medicine, namely, primary hypothyroidism an diabetes mellitus.
Ortiz-Fullana, Jose; Valentín, Pablo; Ramírez, Norman
Background: Gender disparities in pediatric fracture events has been well-documented however, less is known about racial disparities. The aim of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of pediatric bone fractures in a Hispanic population. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of patient’s records from a Pediatric Orthopeadic outpatient clinic in the Southwest region of Puerto Rico during a 1-year span (August 2014 – August 2015). Differences in sex, BMI, health insurance coverage, parental educational level and employment status, mechanism of fracture, fracture site, and seasonality were investigated among three age classes (pre-school children, school children and adolescents). The sample consited of 243 subjects (0-21 y/o) sustaining a fracture of any extremity within the study period. Boys were at a higher risk of having a fracture event and as age increased, the male/female ratio also increased. The mean BMI was 18.0 kg/m2, with the highest in the school children age group (20.3 kg/m2). Slighlty more than half of the subjects (55.7%) benefitted from public health insurance coverage. The typical father was a laborer with a high school diploma, while the mother had a high school diploma but was unemployed There was a tendency for the children to suffer a bone fracture while at school (49.4%), followed by fractures at home (34.6%). In both the pre-school and school children groups, the upper extremity was more frequently involved (66.7% and 63.9%, respectively) in fracture events. Finally, there was very little variation in the seasonality of fracture events. This study provided valuable epidemiological information about pediatric bone fractures within a Hispanic population. It may contribute to the development and implementation of educational and preventive strategies appropriate to age and sex-differences.
Kikuyama, Sakae; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi
This article describing a brief history of development of comparative endocrinology in Japan is contributed to the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology, in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of its publication. It covers significant works in the field of comparative endocrinology that have been done by Japanese endocrinologists, focusing those achieved during the past 70 years. The contents were arranged according to the taxonomical order of the experimental animals with which individual researchers or research groups have contributed to the acquisition of important knowledge in comparative endocrinology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Moodie, Sheila; Rall, Eileen; Eiten, Leisha; Lindley, George; Gordey, Dave; Davidson, Lisa; Bagatto, Marlene; Scollie, Susan
There is broad consensus that screening and diagnosis of permanent hearing loss in children must be embedded within a comprehensive, evidence-based, family-centered intervention program. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for pediatric hearing assessment and hearing aid verification aim to reduce variability in practice and increase the use of effective evidence-based diagnostic and treatment options so that optimal outcomes may be achieved. To be of value, guidelines must be translated and implemented into practice and ongoing monitoring of their use in practice should occur. This paper provides the results of two studies that aim to examine current pediatric audiology and amplification practice in North America. A concurrent embedded mixed methods design was used. An electronic survey was distributed to North American audiologists who delivered pediatric audiology services with 350 audiologists participating in study 1 and 63 audiologists participating in study 2. A quantitative approach was the predominant method of data collection. Respondents were prompted to provide additional qualitative text and detail regarding their quantitative response choice. This qualitative text was used during the analysis phase and combined with quantitative results to assist understanding of respondents' knowledge, skills, and barriers/facilitators to implement best practice in pediatric amplification. Approximately 70% of audiologists reported using best-practice protocols for pediatric hearing aid fitting. Despite widespread knowledge and increased use of CPGs over the last 18 yrs, results of these studies show that variation in practice patterns continue to exist. Several examples of implementation challenges are discussed with recommendations provided. In order for audiologists working with children who are deaf or hard of hearing and their families to achieve the principles of family-centered early intervention, practice guidelines must continue to be developed, disseminated
Leclerc, Francis; Duhamel, Alain; Deken, Valérie; Grandbastien, Bruno; Leteurtre, Stéphane
A recent task force has proposed the use of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment in clinical criteria for sepsis in adults. We sought to evaluate the predictive validity for PICU mortality of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 and of the "quick" Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 scores on day 1 in children with suspected infection. Secondary analysis of the database used for the development and validation of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2. Nine university-affiliated PICUs in Europe. Only children with hypotension-low systolic blood pressure or low mean blood pressure using age-adapted cutoffs-and lactatemia greater than 2 mmol/L were considered in shock. We developed the quick Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 including tachycardia, hypotension, and altered mentation (Glasgow < 11): one point for each variable (range, 0-3). Outcome was mortality at PICU discharge. Discrimination (Area under receiver operating characteristic curve-95% CI) and calibration (goodness of fit test) of the scores were studied. This study included 862 children with suspected infection (median age: 12.3 mo; mortality: n = 60 [7.0%]). Area under the curve of the Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 was 0.91 (0.86-0.96) in children with suspected infection, 0.88 (0.79-0.96) in those with low systolic blood pressure and hyperlactatemia, and 0.91 (0.85-0.97) in those with low mean blood pressure and hyperlactatemia; calibration p value was 0.03, 0.36, and 0.49, respectively. A Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 greater than or equal to 8 reflected an overall risk of mortality greater than or equal to 9.3% in children with suspected infection. Area under the curve of the quick Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 score on day 1 was 0.82 (0.76-0.87) with systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure; calibration p value was 0.89 and 0.72, respectively. A score greater than or equal to 2 reflected a mortality risk
Ream, Margie A; Mikati, Mohamad A
The utility of genetic testing in pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy (PDRE), its yield in "real life" clinical practice, and the practical implications of such testing are yet to be determined. To start to address the above gaps in our knowledge as they apply to a patient population seen in a tertiary care center. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with the use of clinically available genetic tests in the diagnosis and management of PDRE in one clinic over one year. Genetic testing included, depending on clinical judgment, one or more of the following: karyotype, chromosomal microarray, single gene sequencing, gene sequencing panels, and/or whole exome sequencing (WES). We were more likely to perform genetic testing in patients with developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and generalized epilepsy. In our unique population, the yield of specific genetic diagnosis was relatively high: karyotype 14.3%, microarray 16.7%, targeted single gene sequencing 15.4%, gene panels 46.2%, and WES 16.7%. Overall yield of diagnosis from at least one of the above tests was 34.5%. Disease-causing mutations that were not clinically suspected based on the patients' phenotypes and representing novel phenotypes were found in 6.9% (2/29), with an additional 17.2% (5/29) demonstrating pharmacologic variants. Three patients were incidentally found to be carriers of recessive neurologic diseases (10.3%). Variants of unknown significance (VUSs) were identified in 34.5% (10/29). We conclude that genetic testing had at least some utility in our patient population of PDRE, that future similar larger studies in various populations are warranted, and that clinics offering such tests must be prepared to address the complicated questions raised by the results of such testing. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Ryan, Kathleen A; Srinivas, Ganga L; Fillipps, Donald J; Young, Christopher M; Tuli, Sonal S
To evaluate the impact of advanced access scheduling in a pediatric residency clinic on resident and patient satisfaction, medical education, practice quality, and efficiency. Residents were assigned to either the advanced access template (10 appointments available to patients and 2 physician overbooks) or the prior template (5 available and 8 overbooks). Outcomes included resident and patient satisfaction, appointment availability, and continuity of care and clinic costs. Patient satisfaction improved in 7 areas (P < .001). Residents in either template did not report an impact on medical education experiences. Significant increases were realized with appointment availability and the number of patients seen. Continuity also increased as the overflow/acute visits decreased (P < .001). Overall costs per visit decreased 22%. Because of the significant improvements in access, continuity, and efficiency, all residents were switched to the advanced access template after completion of the study. Improvement in access to the primary physician has a significant impact on patient satisfaction with health care delivery. This model optimizes the limited time that residents have in continuity clinic, and it has implications for health care delivery quality improvement.
Robertson, Eden G; Wakefield, Claire E; Signorelli, Christina; Cohn, Richard J; Patenaude, Andrea; Foster, Claire; Pettit, Tristan; Fardell, Joanna E
We conducted a systematic review to identify the strategies that have been recommended in the literature to facilitate shared decision-making regarding enrolment in pediatric oncology clinical trials. We searched seven databases for peer-reviewed literature, published 1990-2017. Of 924 articles identified, 17 studies were eligible for the review. We assessed study quality using the 'Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool'. We coded the results and discussions of papers line-by-line using nVivo software. We categorized strategies thematically. Five main themes emerged: 1) decision-making as a process, 2) individuality of the process; 3) information provision, 4) the role of communication, or 5) decision and psychosocial support. Families should have adequate time to make a decision. HCPs should elicit parents' and patients' preferences for level of information and decision involvement. Information should be clear and provided in multiple modalities. Articles also recommended providing training for healthcare professionals and access to psychosocial support for families. High quality, individually-tailored information, open communication and psychosocial support appear vital in supporting decision-making regarding enrollment in clinical trials. These data will usefully inform future decision-making interventions/tools to support families making clinical trial decisions. A solid evidence-base for effective strategies which facilitate shared decision-making is needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bari, Attia; Khan, Rehan Ahmed; Jabeen, Uzma; Rathore, Ahsan Waheed
Objective: To analyze communication skills of pediatric postgraduate residents in clinical encounter by using video recordings. Methods: This qualitative exploratory research was conducted through video recording at The Children’s Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Residents who had attended the mandatory communication skills workshop offered by CPSP were included. The video recording of clinical encounter was done by a trained audiovisual person while the resident was interacting with the patient in the clinical encounter. Data was analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Initially on open coding 36 codes emerged and then through axial and selective coding these were condensed to 17 subthemes. Out of these four main themes emerged: (1) Courteous and polite attitude, (2) Marginal nonverbal communication skills, (3) Power game/Ignoring child participation and (4) Patient as medical object/Instrumental behaviour. All residents treated the patient as a medical object to reach a right diagnosis and ignored them as a human being. There was dominant role of doctors and marginal nonverbal communication skills were displayed by the residents in the form of lack of social touch, and appropriate eye contact due to documenting notes. A brief non-medical interaction for rapport building at the beginning of interaction was missing and there was lack of child involvement. Conclusion: Paediatric postgraduate residents were polite while communicating with parents and child but lacking in good nonverbal communication skills. Communication pattern in our study was mostly one-way showing doctor’s instrumental behaviour and ignoring the child participation. PMID:29492050
Muzik, Otto; Pai, Darshan; Juhasz, Csaba; Hua, Jing
In the past, multimodality integrative analysis of image data has been used to obtain a better understanding of underlying mechanisms of seizure generation and propagation in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. However, despite important advances in the combined analysis of PET, MRI, DTI and EEG data, successful surgical outcome is only achieved in about 2/3 of patients undergoing resective surgery. The advent of simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition promises an important advance in neuroimaging through clinical quantification, which will finally translate the strength of PET (which is the ability to absolutely quantify physiological parameters such as metabolic rates and receptor densities) into clinical work. Taking advantage of recently developed integrated PET/MR devices, absolute physiological values will be available in clinical routine, replacing currently used visual assessment of relative tissue tracer uptake. This will allow assessment of global increases/decreases of brain function during critical phases of development and is likely to have a significant impact on patient management in pediatric epilepsy.
Wu, Xiujuan; Shen, Donghui; Li, Ting; Zhang, Bing; Li, Chunrong; Mao, Mei; Zhao, Jixue; Liu, Kangding; Zhang, Hong-Liang
Objective Clinical characteristics of pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been extensively studied whereas scarcely been compared with those of adult GBS. Herein we compared the clinical features of GBS between pediatric and adult patients. Methods We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 750 patients with GBS (541 adults and 209 children), and compared the clinical characteristics between children and adults. Results Pain was a more frequent complaint in children (17.2% vs 9.6%, p < 0.01), who were also found with shorter interval from disease onset to nadir (6.3d vs 7.3d, p < 0.01) and higher incidence of bulbar dysfunction (22.0% vs 14.8%, p < 0.05). The disease severity in children was comparable with adults. In addition, a higher incidence of pediatric GBS was found in summer, especially in July and August (both p < 0.01). However, the incidence of antecedent infections of different seasons in adult and pediatric patients was comparable (p > 0.05). The clinical features of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) in children were overall comparable with adult ones (p > 0.05). Similar to adults, bulbar dysfunction (odds ratio [OR]: 4.621, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.240–17.218, p < 0.05) and lower nadir Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.855–0.941, p < 0.01) were also risk factors for mechanical ventilation in children. However, distinct from adult ones, autonomic dysfunction was significantly higher in mechanically ventilated childhood GBS (39.1% vs 8.8%, p < 0.01), which also served as a predictor for mechanical ventilation in pediatric GBS (OR: 70.415, 95% CI: 9.265–535.158, p < 0.01). As to the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin, insignificant difference was identified between children and adults. Conclusion The clinical features of pediatric GBS differ from those of adults. Autonomic dysfunction is an independent risk factor for mechanical
Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Ospina, Naykky Singh; Maraka, Spyridoula; Tamhane, Shrikant; Montori, Victor M; Brito, Juan P
In medicine and endocrinology, there are few clinical circumstances in which clinicians can accurately predict what is best for their patients. As a result, patients and clinicians frequently have to make decisions about which there is uncertainty. Uncertainty results from limitations in the research evidence, unclear patient preferences, or an inability to predict how treatments will fit into patients' daily lives. The work that patients and clinicians do together to address the patient's situation and engage in a deliberative dialogue about reasonable treatment options is often called shared decision making. Decision aids are evidence-based tools that facilitate this process. Shared decision making is a patient-centred approach in which clinicians share information about the benefits, harms, and burden of different reasonable diagnostic and treatment options, and patients explain what matters to them in view of their particular values, preferences, and personal context. Beyond the ethical argument in support of this approach, decision aids have been shown to improve patients' knowledge about the available options, accuracy of risk estimates, and decisional comfort. Decision aids also promote patient participation in the decision-making process. Despite accumulating evidence from clinical trials, policy support, and expert recommendations in endocrinology practice guidelines, shared decision making is still not routinely implemented in endocrine practice. Additional work is needed to enrich the number of available tools and to implement them in practice workflows. Also, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials favours the use of this shared decision making in other settings, populations, and illnesses, the effect of this approach has been studied in a few endocrine disorders. Future pragmatic trials are needed to explore the effect and feasibility of shared decision making implementation into routine endocrinology and primary care practice. With the
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME - PART 2.
Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies have shown that both obese and lean women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is implicated in the ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS by disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Given the association with insulin resistance, all women with PCOS require evaluation for the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the possible risk of clinical events, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Obese women with PCOS are at increased risk for MetS with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 31 to 35%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 7.5 to 10%). Rates of progression from normal glucose tolerance to IGT, and in turn to T2DM, may be as high as 5 to 15% within 3 years. Data suggest the need for baseline oral glucose tolerance test every 1 to 2 years based on family history of T2DM as well as body mass index (BMI) and yearly in women with IGT. Compared with BMI- and age-matched controls, young, lean PCOS women have lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size, higher very-low-density lipoprotein particle number, higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, and borderline lower LDL size. Statins have been shown to lower testosterone levels either alone or in combination with oral
Seidlitz, Jakob; Kovacevic, Miro; Latimer, M. Elizabeth; Hommer, Rebecca; Lougee, Lorraine; Grant, Paul
Abstract Background: The first cases of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) were described>15 years ago. Since that time, the literature has been divided between studies that successfully demonstrate an etiologic relationship between Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and those that fail to find an association. One possible explanation for the conflicting reports is that the diagnostic criteria proposed for PANDAS are not specific enough to describe a unique and homogeneous cohort of patients. To evaluate the validity of the PANDAS criteria, we compared clinical characteristics of PANDAS patients identified in two community practices with a sample of children meeting full research criteria for PANDAS. Methods: A systematic review of clinical records was used to identify the presence or absence of selected symptoms in children evaluated for PANDAS by physicians in Hinsdale, Illinois (n=52) and Bethesda, Maryland (n=40). Results were compared against data from participants in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) research investigations of PANDAS (n=48). Results: As described in the original PANDAS cohort, males outnumbered females (95:45) by ∼ 2:1, and symptoms began in early childhood (7.3±2.7 years). Clinical presentations were remarkably similar across sites, with all children reporting acute onset of OCD symptoms and multiple comorbidities, including separation anxiety (86–92%), school issues (75–81%), sleep disruptions (71%), tics (60–65%), urinary symptoms (42–81%), and others. Twenty of the community cases (22%) failed to meet PANDAS criteria because of an absence of documentation of GAS infections. Conclusions: The diagnostic criteria for PANDAS can be used by clinicians to accurately identify patients with common clinical features and shared etiology of symptoms. Although difficulties in documenting an association
Omurtag, Kenan; Lebovic, Dan I
To take inventory of the past and present and project the future direction of our field to help train the next generation of providers. Review the history of the subspecialty and factors contributing to its evolution. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility's in-vitro fertilization future is shaping the intellectual priorities and surgical skill requirements of the next generation.
Gilfoyle, Elaine; Koot, Deanna A; Annear, John C; Bhanji, Farhan; Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan P; Grant, Vincent J; St George-Hyslop, Cecilia E; Delaloye, Nicole J; Kotsakis, Afrothite; McCoy, Carolyn D; Ramsay, Christa E; Weiss, Matthew J; Gottesman, Ronald D
To measure the effect of a 1-day team training course for pediatric interprofessional resuscitation team members on adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, team efficiency, and teamwork in a simulated clinical environment. Multicenter prospective interventional study. Four tertiary-care children's hospitals in Canada from June 2011 to January 2015. Interprofessional pediatric resuscitation teams including resident physicians, ICU nurse practitioners, registered nurses, and registered respiratory therapists (n = 300; 51 teams). A 1-day simulation-based team training course was delivered, involving an interactive lecture, group discussions, and four simulated resuscitation scenarios, each followed by a debriefing. The first scenario of the day (PRE) was conducted prior to any team training. The final scenario of the day (POST) was the same scenario, with a slightly modified patient history. All scenarios included standardized distractors designed to elicit and challenge specific teamwork behaviors. Primary outcome measure was change (before and after training) in adherence to Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines, as measured by the Clinical Performance Tool. Secondary outcome measures were as follows: 1) change in times to initiation of chest compressions and defibrillation and 2) teamwork performance, as measured by the Clinical Teamwork Scale. Correlation between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores was also analyzed. Teams significantly improved Clinical Performance Tool scores (67.3-79.6%; p < 0.0001), time to initiation of chest compressions (60.8-27.1 s; p < 0.0001), time to defibrillation (164.8-122.0 s; p < 0.0001), and Clinical Teamwork Scale scores (56.0-71.8%; p < 0.0001). A positive correlation was found between Clinical Performance Tool and Clinical Teamwork Scale (R = 0.281; p < 0.0001). Participation in a simulation-based team training educational intervention significantly improved surrogate measures
Soriano, Rachelle A; Ramos-Soriano, Asuncion G
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that is particularly troublesome for pediatric patients, as current therapeutic options consist of biologic agents and steroids which alter the immune response and have the harmful side effect of leaving the patient more susceptible to opportunistic infections and eventual surgery. Another option for therapy exists in the form of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), the key ingredient in a medical food, EnteraGam®. The FDA has reviewed the safety of SBI and issued a no challenge letter to the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) findings for this medical food. The product also has no known food or drug interactions, no significant adverse effects, and no contraindications, save for beef allergy. SBI has been shown to induce clinical remission in adult populations and to decrease markers of inflammation in pediatric patients. Here, we present a detailed case of pediatric UC, including documentation of mucosal healing and decrease in pediatric UC activity index in a difficult to treat pediatric patient, after the addition of SBI to this patient's treatment regimen.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS, AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND ANDROGEN EXCESS AND PCOS SOCIETY DISEASE STATE CLINICAL REVIEW: GUIDE TO THE BEST PRACTICES IN THE EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME--PART 1.
Goodman, Neil F; Cobin, Rhoda H; Futterweit, Walter; Glueck, Jennifer S; Legro, Richard S; Carmina, Enrico
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the Androgen Excess and PCOS Society (AES) aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2015. PCOS has been defined using various criteria, including menstrual irregularity, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovary morphology (PCOM). General agreement exists among specialty society guidelines that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological) and polycystic ovaries. There is need for careful clinical assessment of women's history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, emphasizing the accuracy and validity of the methodology used for both biochemical measurements and ovarian imaging. Free testosterone (T) levels are more sensitive than the measurement of total T for establishing the existence of androgen excess and should be ideally determined through equilibrium dialysis techniques. Value of measuring levels of androgens other than T in patients with PCOS is relatively low. New ultrasound machines allow diagnosis of PCOM in patients having at least 25 small follicles (2 to 9 mm) in the whole ovary. Ovarian size at 10 mL remains the threshold between normal and increased ovary size. Serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and anti-Müllerian hormone are useful for determining a diagnosis of PCOS. Correct diagnosis of PCOS impacts on the likeli